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  • 1.
    Alvarez, Alberto
    Malmö universitet, Fakulteten för teknik och samhälle (TS), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DVMT).
    ChatGPT as a Narrative Structure Interpreter2023Inngår i: Interactive Storytelling: 16th International Conference on Interactive Digital Storytelling, ICIDS 2023, Kobe, Japan, November 11–15, 2023, Proceedings, Part II / [ed] Lissa Holloway-Attaway, John T. Murray, Springer, 2023, s. 113-121Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Narrative structures define the skeleton of narratives and help at identifying common structures in stories, that then can be used to compare structures, define variations, and understand prototypical [structural] components. However, narrative structures are just one piece of the puzzle, their interpretation is what gives room to the stories seen in transmedia storytelling. In principle, a structure can be interpreted and developed with a myriad of stories, but requires some type of corpus to develop it further. Large language models such as ChatGPT could be employed for this task, if we are able to define a good narrative structure and give the tools to the algorithm to develop them further. For this paper, we use a narrative structure system called TropeTwist, which employs interconnected tropes as narrative structures, defining characters, conflicts, and plot devices in a relational graph, which gives raise to a set of trope micro- and meso-patterns. Using ChatGPT and through the web interface, we communicate all the possible elements to be used from TropeTwist and tasked ChatGPT to interpret them and generate stories. We describe our process and methodology to reach these interpretations, and present some of the generated stories based on a constructed narrative structure. Our results show the possibilities and limitations of using these systems and elaborate on future work to combine large language models for other tasks within narrative interpretation and generation.

  • 2.
    Alvarez, Alberto
    Malmö universitet, Fakulteten för teknik och samhälle (TS), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DVMT).
    Exploring Game Design through Human-AI Collaboration2022Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Game design is a hard and multi-faceted task that intertwines different gameplay mechanics, audio, level, graphic, and narrative facets. Games' facets are developed in conjunction with others with a common goal that makes games coherent and interesting. These combinations result in plenty of games in diverse genres, which usually require a collaboration of a diverse group of designers. Collaborators can take different roles and support each other with their strengths resulting in games with unique characteristics. The multi-faceted nature of games and their collaborative properties and requirements make it an exciting task to use Artificial Intelligence (AI). The generation of these facets together requires a holistic approach, which is one of the most challenging tasks within computational creativity. Given the collaborative aspect of games, this thesis approaches their generation through Human-AI collaboration, specifically using a mixed-initiative co-creative (MI-CC) paradigm. This paradigm creates an interactive and collaborative scenario that leverages AI and human strengths with an alternating and proactive initiative to approach a task. However, this paradigm introduces several challenges, such as Human and AI goal alignment or competing properties.

    In this thesis, game design and the generation of game facets by themselves and intertwined are explored through Human-AI collaboration. The AI takes a colleague's role with the designer, arising multiple dynamics, challenges, and opportunities. The main hypothesis is that AI can be incorporated into systems as a collaborator, enhancing design tools, fostering human creativity, and reducing workload. The challenges and opportunities that arise from this are explored, discussed, and approached throughout the thesis. As a result, multiple approaches and methods such as quality-diversity algorithms and designer modeling are proposed to generate game facets in tandem with humans, create a better workflow, enhance the interaction, and establish adaptive experiences.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
    Download (jpg)
    presentationsbild
  • 3.
    Alvarez, Alberto
    Malmö universitet, Fakulteten för teknik och samhälle (TS), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DVMT).
    Exploring the Dynamic Properties of Interaction in Mixed-Initiative Procedural Content Generation2020Licentiatavhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    As AI develops, grows, and expands, the more benefits we can have from it. AI is used in multiple fields to assist humans, such as object recognition, self-driving cars, or design tools. However, AI could be used for more than assisting humans in their tasks. It could be employed to collaborate with humans as colleagues in shared tasks, which is usually described as Mixed-Initiative (MI) paradigm. This paradigm creates an interactive scenario that leverage on AI and human strengths with an alternating and proactive initiative to approach a task. However, this paradigm introduces several challenges. For instance, there must be an understanding between humans and AI, where autonomy and initiative become negotiation tokens. In addition, control and expressiveness need to be taken into account to reach some goals. Moreover, although this paradigm has a broader application, it is especially interesting for creative tasks such as games, which are mainly created in collaboration. Creating games and their content is a hard and complex task, since games are content-intensive, multi-faceted, and interacted by external users. 

    Therefore, this thesis explores MI collaboration between human game designers and AI for the co-creation of games, where the AI's role is that of a colleague with the designer. The main hypothesis is that AI can be incorporated in systems as a collaborator, enhancing design tools, fostering human creativity, reducing their workload, and creating adaptive experiences. Furthermore, This collaboration arises several dynamic properties such as control, expressiveness, and initiative, which are all central to this thesis. Quality-Diversity algorithms combined with control mechanisms and interactions for the designer are proposed to investigate this collaboration and properties. Designer and Player modeling is also explored, and several approaches are proposed to create a better workflow, establish adaptive experiences, and enhance the interaction. Through this, it is demonstrated the potential and benefits of these algorithms and models in the MI paradigm.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
    Download (jpg)
    presentationsbild
  • 4.
    Alvarez, Alberto
    et al.
    Malmö universitet, Fakulteten för teknik och samhälle (TS), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DVMT).
    Dahlskog, Steve
    Malmö universitet, Fakulteten för teknik och samhälle (TS), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DVMT).
    Font, Jose
    Malmö universitet, Fakulteten för teknik och samhälle (TS), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DVMT).
    Holmberg, Johan
    Malmö universitet, Fakulteten för teknik och samhälle (TS), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DVMT).
    Johansson, Simon
    Malmö universitet, Fakulteten för teknik och samhälle (TS), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DVMT).
    Assessing Aesthetic Criteria in the Evolutionary dungeon Designer2018Inngår i: Proceedings of the 13th International Conference on the Foundations of Digital Games, ACM Digital Library, 2018, artikkel-id 44Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The Evolutionary Dungeon Designer (EDD) [1] is as a mixed-initiative tool for creating dungeons for adventure games. Results from a user study with game developers positively evaluated EDD as a suitable framework for collaboration between human designers and PCG suggestions, highlighting these as time-saving and inspiring for creating dungeons [2]. Previous work on EDD identified the need of assessing aesthetic criteria as a key area for improvement in its PCG Engine. By upgrading the individual encoding system and the fitness evaluation in EDD's evolutionary algorithm, we present three techniques to preserve and account the designer's aesthetic criteria during the dungeon generation process: the capability of locking sections for preserving custom aesthetic structures, as well as the measurement of symmetry and similarity in the provided suggestions.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 5.
    Alvarez, Alberto
    et al.
    Malmö universitet, Fakulteten för teknik och samhälle (TS), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DVMT).
    Dahlskog, Steve
    Malmö universitet, Fakulteten för teknik och samhälle (TS), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DVMT).
    Font, Jose
    Malmö universitet, Fakulteten för teknik och samhälle (TS), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DVMT).
    Togelius, Julian
    Empowering Quality Diversity in Dungeon Design with Interactive Constrained MAP-Elites2019Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We propose the use of quality-diversity algorithms for mixed-initiative game content generation. This idea is implemented as a new feature of the Evolutionary Dungeon Designer, a system for mixed-initiative design of the type of levels you typically find in computer role playing games. The feature uses the MAP-Elites algorithm, an illumination algorithm which divides the population into a number of cells depending on their values along several behavioral dimensions. Users can flexibly and dynamically choose relevant dimensions of variation, and incorporate suggestions produced by the algorithm in their map designs. At the same time, any modifications performed by the human feed back into MAP-Elites, and are used to generate further suggestions.

  • 6.
    Alvarez, Alberto
    et al.
    Malmö universitet, Fakulteten för teknik och samhälle (TS), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DVMT).
    Dahlskog, Steve
    Malmö universitet, Fakulteten för teknik och samhälle (TS), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DVMT).
    Font, José
    Malmö universitet, Fakulteten för teknik och samhälle (TS), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DVMT).
    Holmberg, Johan
    Malmö universitet, Fakulteten för teknik och samhälle (TS), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DVMT).
    Nolasco, Chelsi
    Malmö universitet, Fakulteten för teknik och samhälle (TS), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DVMT).
    Österman, Axel
    Malmö universitet, Fakulteten för teknik och samhälle (TS), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DVMT).
    Fostering Creativity in the Mixed-Initiative Evolutionary Dungeon Designer2018Inngår i: Proceedings of the 13th International Conference on the Foundations of Digital Games, ACM Digital Library, 2018, artikkel-id 50Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Mixed-initiative systems highlight the collaboration between humans and computers in fostering the generation of more interesting content in game design. In light of the ever-increasing cost of game development, providing mixed-initiative tools can not only significantly reduce the cost but also encourage more creativity amongst game designers. The Evolutionary Dungeon Designer (EDD) [3] is a mixed-initiative tool with a focus on using evolutionary computation to procedurally generate content that adhere to game design patterns. As part of an ongoing project, feedback from a user study on EDD's capabilities as a mixed-initiative design tool pointed out the need for improvement on the tool's functionalities [4]. In this paper we present a review of the principles of the mixed-initiative model, as well as the existing approaches that implement it. The outcome of this analysis allows us to address the appointed needs for improvement by shaping a new version of EDD that we describe here. Finally, we also present the results from a user study carried out with professional game developers, in order to assess EDD's new functionalities. Results show an overall positive evaluation of the tool's intuitiveness and capabilities for empowering game developers' creative skills during the design process of dungeons for adventure games. They also allow us to identify upcoming challenges pattern-based mixed-initiative tools could benefit from.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 7.
    Alvarez, Alberto
    et al.
    Malmö universitet, Fakulteten för teknik och samhälle (TS), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DVMT).
    Font Fernandez, Jose Maria Maria
    Malmö universitet, Fakulteten för teknik och samhälle (TS), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DVMT).
    Dahlskog, Steve
    Malmö universitet, Fakulteten för teknik och samhälle (TS), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DVMT).
    Togelius, Julian
    Computer Science and Engineering, New York University, New York, New York, United States.
    Interactive Constrained MAP-Elites: Analysis and Evaluation of the Expressiveness of the Feature Dimensions2022Inngår i: IEEE Transactions on Games, ISSN 2475-1502, Vol. 14, nr 2, s. 202-211Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We propose the Interactive Constrained MAP-Elites, a quality-diversity solution for game content generation, implemented as a new feature of the Evolutionary Dungeon Designer (EDD): a mixed-initiative co-creativity tool for designing dungeons. The feature uses the MAP-Elites algorithm, an illumination algorithm that segregates the population among several cells depending on their scores with respect to different behavioral dimensions. Users can flexibly and dynamically alternate between these dimensions anytime, thus guiding the evolutionary process in an intuitive way, and then incorporate suggestions produced by the algorithm in their room designs. At the same time, any modifications performed by the human user will feed back into MAP-Elites, closing a circular workflow of constant mutual inspiration. This paper presents the algorithm followed by an in-depth evaluation of the expressive range of all possible dimension combinations in several scenarios, and discusses their influence in the fitness landscape and in the overall performance of the procedural content generation in EDD.

  • 8.
    Alvarez, Alberto
    et al.
    Malmö universitet, Fakulteten för teknik och samhälle (TS), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DVMT).
    Font, Jose
    Malmö universitet, Fakulteten för teknik och samhälle (TS), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DVMT).
    Learning the Designer’s Preferences to Drive Evolution2020Inngår i: EvoApplications 2020: Applications of Evolutionary Computation, Springer, 2020, s. 431-445Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents the Designer Preference Model, a data-driven solution that pursues to learn from user generated data in a Quality-Diversity Mixed-Initiative Co-Creativity (QD MI-CC) tool, with the aims of modelling the user’s design style to better assess the tool’s procedurally generated content with respect to that user’s preferences. Through this approach, we aim for increasing the user’s agency over the generated content in a way that neither stalls the user-tool reciprocal stimuli loop nor fatigues the user with periodical suggestion handpicking. We describe the details of this novel solution, as well as its implementation in the MI-CC tool the Evolutionary Dungeon Designer. We present and discuss our findings out of the initial tests carried out, spotting the open challenges for this combined line of research that integrates MI-CC with Procedural Content Generation through Machine Learning.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    alvarez2020-miccPreferences
  • 9.
    Alvarez, Alberto
    et al.
    Malmö universitet, Fakulteten för teknik och samhälle (TS), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DVMT).
    Font, Jose
    Malmö universitet, Fakulteten för teknik och samhälle (TS), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DVMT).
    TropeTwist: Trope-based Narrative Structure Generation2022Inngår i: FDG '22: Proceedings of the 17th International Conference on the Foundations of Digital Games, ACM Digital Library, 2022, artikkel-id 69Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Games are complex, multi-faceted systems that share common elements and underlying narratives, such as the conflict between a hero and a big bad enemy or pursuing a goal that requires overcoming challenges. However, identifying and describing these elements together is non-trivial as they might differ in certain properties and how players might encounter the narratives. Likewise, generating narratives also pose difficulties when encoding, interpreting, and evaluating them. To address this, we present TropeTwist, a trope-based system that can describe narrative structures in games in a more abstract and generic level, allowing the definition of games’ narrative structures and their generation using interconnected tropes, called narrative graphs. To demonstrate the system, we represent the narrative structure of three different games. We use MAP-Elites to generate and evaluate novel quality-diverse narrative graphs encoded as graph grammars, using these three hand-made narrative structures as targets. Both hand-made and generated narrative graphs are evaluated based on their coherence and interestingness, which are improved through evolution.  

     

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 10.
    Alvarez, Alberto
    et al.
    Malmö universitet, Fakulteten för teknik och samhälle (TS), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DVMT).
    Font, Jose
    Malmö universitet, Fakulteten för teknik och samhälle (TS), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DVMT).
    TropeTwist:Trope-based Narrative Structure Generation2022Inngår i: Proceedings of the 13th Workshop on Procedural Content Generation, FDG, Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), 2022Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Games are complex, multi-faceted systems that share common elements and underlying narratives, such as the conflict between a hero and a big bad enemy or pursuing a goal that requires overcoming challenges. However, identifying and describing these elements together is non-trivial as they might differ in certain properties and how players might encounter the narratives. Likewise, generating narratives also pose difficulties when encoding, interpreting, and evaluating them. To address this, we present TropeTwist, a trope-based system that can describe narrative structures in games in a more abstract and generic level, allowing the definition of games' narrative structures and their generation using interconnected tropes, called narrative graphs. To demonstrate the system, we represent the narrative structure of three different games. We use MAP-Elites to generate and evaluate novel quality-diverse narrative graphs encoded as graph grammars, using these three hand-made narrative structures as targets. Both hand-made and generated narrative graphs are evaluated based on their coherence and interestingness, which are improved through evolution.

  • 11.
    Alvarez, Alberto
    et al.
    Malmö universitet, Fakulteten för teknik och samhälle (TS), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DVMT).
    Font, Jose
    Malmö universitet, Fakulteten för teknik och samhälle (TS), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DVMT).
    Dahlskog, Steve
    Malmö universitet, Fakulteten för teknik och samhälle (TS), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DVMT).
    Togelius, Julian
    New York University.
    Assessing the Effects of Interacting with MAP-Elites2021Inngår i: Proceedings of the seventeenth {AAAI} Conference on Artificial Intelligence and Interactive Digital Entertainment, Association for the Advancement of Artificial Intelligence , 2021, Vol. 17, s. 124-131Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    MAP-Elites has been successfully applied to the generation of game content and robot behaviors. However, its behavior and performance when interacted with in co-creative systems is underexplored. This paper analyzes the implications of synthetic interaction for the stability and adaptability of MAP-Elites in such scenarios. We use pre-recorded human-made level design sessions with the Interactive Constrained MAP-Elites (IC MAP-Elites). To analyze the effect of each edition step in the search space over time using different feature dimensions, we introduce Temporal Expressive Range Analysis (TERA). With TERAs, MAP-Elites is assessed in terms of its adaptability and stability to generate diverse and high-performing individuals. Our results show that interactivity, in the form of design edits and MAP-Elites adapting towards them, directs the search process to previously unexplored areas of the fitness landscape and points towards how this could improve and enrich the co-creative process with quality-diverse individuals.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 12.
    Alvarez, Alberto
    et al.
    Malmö universitet, Fakulteten för teknik och samhälle (TS), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DVMT).
    Font, Jose
    Malmö universitet, Fakulteten för teknik och samhälle (TS), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DVMT).
    Togelius, Julian
    Game Innovation Lab, New York University, United States.
    Story Designer: Towards a Mixed-Initiative Tool to Create Narrative Structures2022Inngår i: FDG '22: Proceedings of the 17th International Conference on the Foundations of Digital Games, ACM Digital Library, 2022, artikkel-id 42Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Narratives are a predominant part of games, and their design poses challenges when identifying, encoding, interpreting, evaluating, and generating them. One way to address this would be to approach narrative design in a more abstract layer, such as narrative structures. This paper presents Story Designer, a mixed-initiative co-creative narrative structure tool built on top of the Evolutionary Dungeon Designer (EDD) that uses tropes, narrative conventions found across many media types, to design these structures. Story Designer uses tropes as building blocks for narrative designers to compose complete narrative structures by interconnecting them in graph structures called narrative graphs. Our mixed-initiative approach lets designers manually create their narrative graphs and feeds an underlying evolutionary algorithm with those, creating quality-diverse suggestions using MAP-Elites. Suggestions are visually represented for designers to compare and evaluate and can then be incorporated into the design for further manual editions. At the same time, we use the levels designed within EDD as constraints for the narrative structure, intertwining both level design and narrative. We evaluate the impact of these constraints and the system’s adaptability and expressiveness, resulting in a potential tool to create narrative structures combining level design aspects with narrative.  

     

     

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 13.
    Alvarez, Alberto
    et al.
    Malmö universitet, Fakulteten för teknik och samhälle (TS), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DVMT).
    Font, Jose
    Malmö universitet, Fakulteten för teknik och samhälle (TS), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DVMT).
    Togelius, Julian
    Computer Science and Engineering, New York University, New York, New York, United States.
    Toward Designer Modeling Through Design Style Clustering2022Inngår i: IEEE Transactions on Games, ISSN 2475-1502, Vol. 14, nr 4, s. 676-686Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We propose modeling designer style in mixed-initiative game content creation tools as archetypical design traces. These design traces are formulated as transitions between design styles; these design styles are in turn found through clustering all intermediate designs along the way to making a complete design. This method is implemented in the Evolutionary Dungeon Designer, a research platform for mixed-initiative systems to create adventure and dungeon crawler games. We present results both in the form of design styles for rooms, which can be analyzed to better understand the kind of rooms designed by users, and in the form of archetypical sequences between these rooms, i.e., Designer Personas.

  • 14.
    Alvarez, Alberto
    et al.
    Malmö universitet, Fakulteten för teknik och samhälle (TS), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DVMT).
    Grevillius, Eric
    Malmö universitet, Fakulteten för teknik och samhälle (TS), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DVMT).
    Olsson, Elin
    Malmö universitet, Fakulteten för teknik och samhälle (TS), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DVMT).
    Font, Jose
    Malmö universitet, Fakulteten för teknik och samhälle (TS), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DVMT).
    Questgram [Qg]: Toward a Mixed-Initiative Quest Generation Tool2021Inngår i: Proceedings of the 16th International Conference on the Foundations of Digital Games, Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), 2021, s. 1-10, artikkel-id 6Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Quests are a core element in many games, especially role-playing and adventure games, where quests drive the gameplay and story, engage the player in the game’s narrative, and in most cases, act as a bridge between different game elements. The automatic generation of quests and objectives is an interesting challenge since this can extend the lifetime of games such as in Skyrim, or can help create unique experiences such as in AI Dungeon. This work presents Questgram [Qg], a mixed-initiative prototype tool for creating quests using grammars combined in a mixed-initiative level design tool. We evaluated our tool quantitatively by assessing the generated quests and qualitatively through a small user study. Human designers evaluated the system by creating quests manually, automatically, and through mixed-initiative. Our results show the Questgram’s potential, which creates diverse, valid, and interesting quests using quest patterns. Likewise, it helps engage designers in the quest design process, fosters their creativity by inspiring them, and enhance the level generation facet of the Evolutionary Dungeon Designer with steps towards intertwining both level and quest design.

  • 15.
    Alvarez, Alberto
    et al.
    Malmö universitet, Fakulteten för teknik och samhälle (TS), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DVMT).
    Vozaru, Miruna
    IT University of Copenhagen.
    Perceived Behaviors of Personality-Driven Agents2019Inngår i: Violence - Perception - Video Games: New Directions in Game Research / [ed] Federico Alvarez Igarzábal, Michael S. Debus, Curtis L. Maughan, Transcript Verlag, 2019, s. 171-184Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
    Fulltekst (pdf)
    alvVoz2019-personalitydriven
  • 16.
    Andersson, Johan
    et al.
    Malmö universitet, Fakulteten för teknik och samhälle (TS), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DVMT).
    Trojanowski, Mikolaj
    Malmö universitet, Fakulteten för teknik och samhälle (TS), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DVMT).
    Alvarez, Alberto
    Malmö universitet, Fakulteten för teknik och samhälle (TS), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DVMT).
    Are You Lucky or Skilled? An Analysis of Elements of Randomness in Slay the Spire2023Inngår i: 2023 IEEE Conference on Games (CoG), IEEE, 2023Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Elements of randomness are a very common factor in modern digital games, from simple rolls of a die to complex AI systems. These elements have an impact on how the player experiences a game. We believe that exploring the field of luck analysis can benefit designers through a developed understanding of how such elements affect players. In this study, we explore how elements of randomness affect players in the roguelike deckbuilding game, Slay the Spire using data clustering. Three player skill groups were identified with the use of clustering: Winners, Low skill losers and High skill losers. Our results indicate that people who succeeded in beating the game, had an increased amount of randomness in the form of cards by a factor of 1.82. Showing that more skilled players do not shy away from randomness but instead embrace it more than lower skilled players.

  • 17.
    Embring Klang, Carl-Magnus
    et al.
    Malmö universitet, Fakulteten för teknik och samhälle (TS), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DVMT).
    Enhörning, Victor
    Malmö universitet, Fakulteten för teknik och samhälle (TS), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DVMT).
    Alvarez, Alberto
    Malmö universitet, Fakulteten för teknik och samhälle (TS), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DVMT).
    Font, Jose
    Malmö universitet, Fakulteten för teknik och samhälle (TS), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DVMT).
    Assessing Simultaneous Action Selection and Complete Information in TAG with Sushi Go!2021Inngår i: Proceedings of the 3rd Conference on Games, IEEE, 2021Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Digitalizing tabletop games for general game playing(GGP) AI research is a continuously growing field. TabletopGames Framework (TAG) is a framework developed to simplifythe process of implementing tabletop board games to digital form.Sushi Go! is a game that combines simultaneous action selectionand complete information. This creates a unique combination ofmechanics, which presents a new challenge for GGP agents. Byimplementing Sushi Go! into TAG, we can test different agent’sperformance using these mechanics and compare them to theirexisting performances in the other games of TAG. Results ofthis testing are presented, which display that the framework iscapable of implementing Sushi Go! and that the agents performwith mixed results. Further developing heuristics for the agentsshould prove to increase their performance when faced with thesetypes of games.

  • 18.
    Holmberg, Lars
    et al.
    Malmö universitet, Fakulteten för teknik och samhälle (TS), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DVMT). Malmö universitet, Internet of Things and People (IOTAP).
    Alvarez, Alberto
    Malmö universitet, Fakulteten för teknik och samhälle (TS), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DVMT).
    Deep Learning, generalisation and conceptsManuskript (preprint) (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Central to deep learning is an ability to generalise within a target domain consistent with human beliefs within the same domain. A label inferred by the neural network then maps to a human mental representation of a, to the label, corresponding concept. If an explanation concerning why a specific decision is promoted it is important that we move from average case performance metrics towards interpretable explanations that build on human understandable concepts connected to the promoted label. In this work, we use Explainable Artificial Intelligence (XAI) methods to investigate if internal knowledge representations in trained neural networks are aligned and generalise in correspondence to human mental representations. Our findings indicate an, in neural networks, epistemic misalignment between machine and human knowledge representations. Consequently, if the goal is classifications explainable for en users we can question the usefulness of neural networks trained without considering concept alignment. 

  • 19.
    Larsson, Andreas
    et al.
    Malmö universitet, Fakulteten för teknik och samhälle (TS), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DVMT).
    Ekblad, Jonas
    Malmö universitet, Fakulteten för teknik och samhälle (TS), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DVMT).
    Alvarez, Alberto
    Malmö universitet, Fakulteten för teknik och samhälle (TS), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DVMT).
    Font, Jose
    Malmö universitet, Fakulteten för teknik och samhälle (TS), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DVMT).
    A Comparative UX Analysis between Tabletop Games and their Digital Counterparts2020Inngår i: Extended Abstracts of the 2020 Annual Symposium on Computer-Human Interaction in Play, Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), 2020, s. 301-305Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    As tabletop games are ported to digital versions to increase their accessibility, the expected User Experience (UX) might be degraded in the transition. This paper aims to understand how and why playing tabletop games differentiates depending on the platform. Seven tabletop games have been chosen from different genres with an official digital adaptation. Our approach has been to do a comparative analysis of both versions followed by a user study to analyze and measure the UX differences, measuring five key factors, Usability, Engagement, Social Connectivity, Aesthetics, and Enjoyment. Our results indicate that games that rely on imperfect information offer a much higher social connectivity and engagement when played around a table. Meanwhile, games relying on tile-placement offers higher usability and engagement when played digitally due to the assistance provided by the game. However, the physical versions got, in general, a higher rating than the digital versions in all key factors except slightly in the usability. Physical versions are the preferred options, but the digital versions' benefits, such as accessibility and in-game assistance, makes them relevant for further analysis.  

  • 20.
    Larsson, Tinea
    et al.
    Malmö universitet, Fakulteten för teknik och samhälle (TS), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DVMT).
    Font, Jose
    Malmö universitet, Fakulteten för teknik och samhälle (TS), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DVMT).
    Alvarez, Alberto
    Malmö universitet, Fakulteten för teknik och samhälle (TS), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DVMT).
    Towards AI as a Creative Colleague in Game Level Design2022Inngår i: Proceedings of the 18th AAAI Conference on Artificial Intelligence and Interactive Digital Entertainment, AAAI Press, 2022, Vol. 18, s. 137-145Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In Mixed-Initiative Co-Creative tools, the human is mostly in control of what will and can be created, delegating the AI to a more suggestive role instead of a colleague in the co-creative process. Allowing more control and agency for the AI might be an interesting path in co-creative scenarios where AI could direct and take more initiative within the co-creative task. However, the relationship between AI and human designers in creative processes is delicate, as adjusting the initiative or agency of the AI can negatively affect the user experience. In this paper, different degrees of agency for the AI are explored within the Evolutionary Dungeon Designer (EDD) to further understand MI-CC tools. A user study was performed using EDD with three varying degrees of AI agency. The study highlighted elements of frustration that the human designer experiences when using the tool and the behavior in the AI that led to possible strains on the relationship. The paper concludes with the identified issues and possible solutions and suggested further research.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 21.
    Ovesdotter Alm, Cecilia
    et al.
    Rochester Institute of Technology, United States.
    Alvarez, Alberto
    Malmö universitet, Fakulteten för teknik och samhälle (TS), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DVMT).
    Font, José
    Malmö universitet, Fakulteten för teknik och samhälle (TS), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DVMT).
    Liapis, Antonios
    Institute of Digital Games University of Malta, Malta.
    Pederson, Thomas
    Malmö universitet, Fakulteten för teknik och samhälle (TS), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DVMT).
    Salo, Johan
    Malmö universitet, Fakulteten för teknik och samhälle (TS), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DVMT).
    Workshop on Invisible AI-driven HCI Systems: When, Why and How2020Inngår i: NordiCHI '20: Proceedings of the 11th Nordic Conference on Human-Computer Interaction, Extended Abstract: Shaping Experiences, Shaping Society / [ed] Ilja Šmorgun, Gerd Berget, ACM Digital Library, 2020Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The InvisibleAI (InvAI’20) workshop aims to systematically discuss a growing class of interactive systems that invisibly remove some decision-making tasks away from humans to machines, based on recent advances in artificial intelligence (AI), data science, and sensor or actuation technology. While the interest in the affordances as well as the risks of hidden pervasive AI are high on the agenda in public debate, discussion on the topic is needed within the human-computer interaction (HCI) community. In particular, we want to gather insights, ideas, and models for approaching the use of barely noticeable AI decision-making in systems design from a human-centered perspective, so as to make the most out of the automated systems and algorithms that support human activity both as designers and users. Concurrently, these systems should safeguard that humans remain in charge when it counts (high stakes decisions, privacy, monitoring lack of explainability and fairness, etc.). What to automate and what not to automate is often a system designer’s choice [8]. By taking the established concept of explicit interaction between a system and its user as a point of departure, and inviting authors to provide examples from their own research, we aim to stimulate dynamic discussion while keeping the workshop concrete and system design-focused. The workshop especially directs itself to participants from the interaction design, AI, and HCI communities. The targeted scientific outcome of the workshop is an up-to-date ontology of invisible AI-HCI systems and hybrid human-AI collaboration mechanisms, and approaches. Additionally, we expect that the workgroups and the roundtables will provide starting points shaping continued discussions, new collaborations, and innovative scientific contributions that springboard from the workgroups’ findings. The focus of the proposed workshop involves the bridging of two spaces of computational research that impact user experiences and societal domains (HCI and AI). Thus, the proposed workshop topic aligns well with the theme of this year’s NordiCHI conference which is Shaping Experiences, Shaping Society.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 22.
    Robinson, Raquel B
    et al.
    UXR Lab, Ontario Tech University, Canada and Social Emotional Technology Lab, University of California, Santa Cruz, USA.
    Mirza-Babaei, Pejman
    University of Ontario Institute of Technology, Canada.
    Alvarez, Alberto
    Malmö universitet, Fakulteten för teknik och samhälle (TS), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DVMT).
    Garreta Domingo, Muriel
    King, Spain.
    Mandryk, Regan L
    Department of Computer Science, University of Saskatchewan, Canada.
    Isbister, Katherine
    Social Emotional Technology Lab, University of California Santa Cruz, United States.
    Games and Play SIG: Connecting Through Social and Playful Technologies2023Inngår i: CHI EA '23: Extended Abstracts of the 2023 CHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), 2023, artikkel-id 513Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Games have always been popular for connecting people, from local single-player and couch co-op, to massively multiplayer online. Throughout the COVID-19 pandemic, remote games that involved and fostered social interactions and connections were a highlight among strategies for staying connected. For this year’s games and play SIG, we come together to discuss the relevant and timely topic of social and playful technologies, and how they can be designed to best foster meaningful social connections over a distance. We bring together attendees from not only the games community, but also those in the broader field of CHI focusing on social and playful technologies.  

     

  • 23.
    Tolinsson, Simon
    et al.
    Malmö universitet, Fakulteten för teknik och samhälle (TS), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DVMT).
    Flodhag, Alexander
    Malmö universitet, Fakulteten för teknik och samhälle (TS), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DVMT).
    Alvarez, Alberto
    Malmö universitet, Fakulteten för teknik och samhälle (TS), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DVMT).
    Font, Jose
    Malmö universitet, Fakulteten för teknik och samhälle (TS), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DVMT). Malmö University, Malmö, Sweden.
    To Make Sense of Procedurally Generated Dungeons2020Inngår i: Extended Abstracts of the 2020 Annual Symposium on Computer-Human Interaction in Play, Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), 2020, s. 384-387Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    With the growth of procedural content generation in game development, there is a need for a viable generative method to give context and make sense of the content within game space. We propose procedural narrative as context through objectives, as a useful means to structure content in games. In this paper, we present and describe an artifact developed as a sub-system to the Evolutionary Dungeon Designer (EDD) that procedurally generates objectives for the dungeons created with the tool. The quality of the content within rooms is used to generate objectives, and together with the distributions and design of the dungeon, main and side objectives are formed to maximize the usage of game space and create a proper context.  

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