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  • 1.
    Alawadi, Sadi
    et al.
    Malmö University, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS), Department of Computer Science and Media Technology (DVMT). Malmö University, Internet of Things and People (IOTAP).
    Mera, David
    Centro Singular de Investigación en Tecnoloxías da Información (CiTIUS), Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, Santiago de Compostela, Spain.
    Fernandez-Delgado, Manuel
    Centro Singular de Investigación en Tecnoloxías da Información (CiTIUS), Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, Santiago de Compostela, Spain.
    Alkhabbas, Fahed
    Malmö University, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS), Department of Computer Science and Media Technology (DVMT). Malmö University, Internet of Things and People (IOTAP).
    Olsson, Carl Magnus
    Malmö University, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS), Department of Computer Science and Media Technology (DVMT). Malmö University, Internet of Things and People (IOTAP).
    Davidsson, Paul
    Malmö University, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS), Department of Computer Science and Media Technology (DVMT). Malmö University, Internet of Things and People (IOTAP).
    A comparison of machine learning algorithms for forecasting indoor temperature in smart buildings2020In: Energy Systems, Springer Verlag, ISSN 1868-3967, E-ISSN 1868-3975, Vol. 13, p. 689-705Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The international community has largely recognized that the Earth's climate is changing. Mitigating its global effects requires international actions. The European Union (EU) is leading several initiatives focused on reducing the problems. Specifically, the Climate Action tries to both decrease EU greenhouse gas emissions and improve energy efficiency by reducing the amount of primary energy consumed, and it has pointed to the development of efficient building energy management systems as key. In traditional buildings, households are responsible for continuously monitoring and controlling the installed Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning (HVAC) system. Unnecessary energy consumption might occur due to, for example, forgetting devices turned on, which overwhelms users due to the need to tune the devices manually. Nowadays, smart buildings are automating this process by automatically tuning HVAC systems according to user preferences in order to improve user satisfaction and optimize energy consumption. Towards achieving this goal, in this paper, we compare 36 Machine Learning algorithms that could be used to forecast indoor temperature in a smart building. More specifically, we run experiments using real data to compare their accuracy in terms of R-coefficient and Root Mean Squared Error and their performance in terms of Friedman rank. The results reveal that the ExtraTrees regressor has obtained the highest average accuracy (0.97%) and performance (0,058%) over all horizons.

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  • 2.
    Alkhabbas, Fahed
    et al.
    Malmö University, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS), Department of Computer Science and Media Technology (DVMT). Malmö University, Internet of Things and People (IOTAP).
    Alawadi, Sadi
    School of Information Technology, Halmstad University,Halmstad,Sweden.
    Ayyad, Majed
    Birzeit University,Department of Computer Science,Palestine.
    Spalazzese, Romina
    Malmö University, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS), Department of Computer Science and Media Technology (DVMT). Malmö University, Internet of Things and People (IOTAP).
    Davidsson, Paul
    Malmö University, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS), Department of Computer Science and Media Technology (DVMT). Malmö University, Internet of Things and People (IOTAP).
    ART4FL: An Agent-Based Architectural Approach for Trustworthy Federated Learning in the IoT2023In: 2023 Eighth International Conference on Fog and Mobile Edge Computing (FMEC), Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2023Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The integration of the Internet of Things (IoT) and Machine Learning (ML) technologies has opened up for the development of novel types of systems and services. Federated Learning (FL) has enabled the systems to collaboratively train their ML models while preserving the privacy of the data collected by their IoT devices and objects. Several FL frameworks have been developed, however, they do not enable FL in open, distributed, and heterogeneous IoT environments. Specifically, they do not support systems that collect similar data to dynamically discover each other, communicate, and negotiate about the training terms (e.g., accuracy, communication latency, and cost). Towards bridging this gap, we propose ART4FL, an end-to-end framework that enables FL in open IoT settings. The framework enables systems' users to configure agents that participate in FL on their behalf. Those agents negotiate and make commitments (i.e., contractual agreements) to dynamically form federations. To perform FL, the framework deploys the needed services dynamically, monitors the training rounds, and calculates agents' trust scores based on the established commitments. ART4FL exploits a blockchain network to maintain the trust scores, and it provides those scores to negotiating agents' during the federations' formation phase.

  • 3.
    Alkhabbas, Fahed
    et al.
    Malmö University, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS), Department of Computer Science and Media Technology (DVMT). Malmö University, Internet of Things and People (IOTAP).
    Alawadi, Sadi
    Malmö University, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS), Department of Computer Science and Media Technology (DVMT). Malmö University, Internet of Things and People (IOTAP).
    Spalazzese, Romina
    Malmö University, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS), Department of Computer Science and Media Technology (DVMT). Malmö University, Internet of Things and People (IOTAP).
    Davidsson, Paul
    Malmö University, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS), Department of Computer Science and Media Technology (DVMT). Malmö University, Internet of Things and People (IOTAP).
    Activity Recognition and User Preference Learning for Automated Configuration of IoT Environments2020In: IoT '20: Proceedings of the 10th International Conference on the Internet of Things, New York, United States: ACM Digital Library, 2020, p. 1-8, article id 3Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Internet of Things (IoT) environments encompass different types of devices and objects that offer a wide range of services. The dynamicity and uncertainty of those environments, including the mobility of users and devices, make it hard to foresee at design time available devices, objects, and services. For the users to benefit from such environments, they should be proposed services that are relevant to the specific context and can be provided by available things. Moreover, environments should be configured automatically based on users' preferences. To address these challenges, we propose an approach that leverages Artificial Intelligence techniques to recognize users' activities and provides relevant services to support users to perform their activities. Moreover, our approach learns users' preferences and configures their environments accordingly by dynamically forming, enacting, and adapting goal-driven IoT systems. In this paper, we present a conceptual model, a multi-tier architecture, and processes of our approach. Moreover, we report about how we validated the feasibility and evaluated the scalability of the approach through a prototype that we developed and used.

  • 4.
    Alkhabbas, Fahed
    et al.
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS). Malmö högskola, Internet of Things and People (IOTAP).
    Ayyad, Majed
    Mihailescu, Radu-Casian
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS). Malmö högskola, Internet of Things and People (IOTAP).
    Davidsson, Paul
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS). Malmö högskola, Internet of Things and People (IOTAP).
    A Commitment-Based Approach to Realize Emergent Configurations in the Internet of Things2017In: Software Architecture Workshops (ICSAW), 2017 IEEE International Conference on, IEEE, 2017, p. 88-91Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Internet of Things (IoT) involves intelligent, heterogeneous, autonomous and often distributed things which interact and collaborate to achieve common goals. A useful concept for supporting this effort is Emergent Configuration (EC), which consists of a dynamic set of things, with their functionalities and services, that cooperate temporarily to achieve a goal. In this paper we introduce a commitment-based approach that exploits the concept of commitments to realize ECs. More specifically, (i) we present a conceptual model for commitment-based ECs, (ii) we use the smart meeting room scenario to illustrate how ECs are realized via commitments.

  • 5.
    Alkhabbas, Fahed
    et al.
    Malmö University, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS), Department of Computer Science and Media Technology (DVMT). Malmö University, Internet of Things and People (IOTAP).
    De Sanctis, Martina
    Gran Sasso Sci Inst, Comp Sci Dept, Laquila, Italy..
    Bucchiarone, Antonio
    Fdn Bruno Kessler, Trento, Italy..
    Cicchetti, Antonio
    Mälardalen Univ, IDT Dept, Västerås, Sweden..
    Spalazzese, Romina
    Malmö University, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS), Department of Computer Science and Media Technology (DVMT). Malmö University, Internet of Things and People (IOTAP).
    Davidsson, Paul
    Malmö University, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS), Department of Computer Science and Media Technology (DVMT). Malmö University, Internet of Things and People (IOTAP).
    Iovino, Ludovico
    Gran Sasso Sci Inst, Comp Sci Dept, Laquila, Italy..
    ROUTE: A Framework for Customizable Smart Mobility Planners2022In: IEEE 19TH INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON SOFTWARE ARCHITECTURE (ICSA 2022), Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2022, p. 169-179Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Multimodal journey planners are used worldwide to support travelers in planning and executing their journeys. Generated travel plans usually involve local mobility service providers, consider some travelers' preferences, and provide travelers information about the routes' current status and expected delays. However, those planners cannot fully consider the special situations of individual cities when providing travel planning services. Specifically, authorities of different cities might define customizable regulations or constraints of movements in the cities (e.g., due to construction works or pandemics). Moreover, with the transformation of traditional cities into smart cities, travel planners could leverage advanced monitoring features. Finally, most planners do not consider relevant information impacting travel plans, for instance, information that might be provided by travelers (e.g., a crowded square) or by mobility service providers (e.g., changing the timetable of a bus). To address the aforementioned shortcomings, in this paper, we propose ROUTE, a framework for customizable smart mobility planners that better serve the needs of travelers, local authorities, and mobility service providers in the dynamic ecosystem of smart cities. ROUTE is composed of an architecture, a process, and a prototype developed to validate the feasibility of the framework. Experiments' results show that the framework scales well in both centralized and distributed deployment settings.

  • 6.
    Alkhabbas, Fahed
    et al.
    Malmö University, Internet of Things and People (IOTAP). Malmö University, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS), Department of Computer Science and Media Technology (DVMT).
    Martina, De Sanctis
    Spalazzese, Romina
    Malmö University, Internet of Things and People (IOTAP). Malmö University, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS), Department of Computer Science and Media Technology (DVMT).
    Bucchiarone, Antonio
    Davidsson, Paul
    Malmö University, Internet of Things and People (IOTAP). Malmö University, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS), Department of Computer Science and Media Technology (DVMT).
    Marconi, Annapaola
    Enacting Emergent Configurations in the IoT Through Domain Objects2018In: Proceedings of ICSOC 2018: Service-Oriented Computing, Springer, 2018, p. 279-294Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Internet of Things (IoT) pervades more and more aspects of our lives and often involves many types of smart connected objects and devices. User’s IoT environment changes dynamically, e.g., due to the mobility of the user and devices. Users can fully benefit from the IoT only when they can effortlessly interact with it. To accomplish this in a dynamic and heterogenous environment, we make use of Emergent Configurations (ECs), which consist of a set of things that connect and cooperate temporarily through their functionalities, applications, and services, to achieve a user goal. In this paper, we: (i) present the IoT-FED architectural approach to enable the automated formation and enactment of ECs. IoT-FED exploits heterogeneous and independently developed things, IoT services, and applications which are modeled as Domain Objects (DOs), a service-based formalism. Additionally, we (ii) discuss the prototype we developed and the experiments run in our IoT lab, for validation purposes.

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  • 7.
    Alkhabbas, Fahed
    et al.
    Malmö University, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS), Department of Computer Science and Media Technology (DVMT). Malmö University, Internet of Things and People (IOTAP).
    Murturi, Ilir
    Spalazzese, Romina
    Malmö University, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS), Department of Computer Science and Media Technology (DVMT). Malmö University, Internet of Things and People (IOTAP).
    Davidsson, Paul
    Malmö University, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS), Department of Computer Science and Media Technology (DVMT). Malmö University, Internet of Things and People (IOTAP).
    Dustdar, Schahram
    A Goal driven Approach for Deploying Self-adaptive IoT Systems2020In: Proceedings: 2020 IEEE International Conference on Software Architecture (ICSA), Salvador, Brazil, 16-20 March 2020 / [ed] Lisa O’Conner, 2020, p. 146-156Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Engineering Internet of Things (IoT) systems is a challenging task partly due to the dynamicity and uncertainty of the environment including the involvement of the human in the loop. Users should be able to achieve their goals seamlessly in different environments, and IoT systems should be able to cope with dynamic changes. Several approaches have been proposed to enable the automated formation, enactment, and self-adaptation of goal-driven IoT systems. However, they do not address deployment issues. In this paper, we propose a goal-driven approach for deploying self-adaptive IoT systems in the Edge-Cloud continuum. Our approach supports the systems to cope with the dynamicity and uncertainty of the environment including changes in their deployment topologies, i.e., the deployment nodes and their interconnections. We describe the architecture and processes of the approach and the simulations that we conducted to validate its feasibility. The results of the simulations show that the approach scales well when generating and adapting the deployment topologies of goal-driven IoT systems in smart homes and smart buildings.

  • 8.
    Alkhabbas, Fahed
    et al.
    Malmö University, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS), Department of Computer Science and Media Technology (DVMT). Malmö University, Internet of Things and People (IOTAP).
    Spalazzese, Romina
    Malmö University, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS), Department of Computer Science and Media Technology (DVMT). Malmö University, Internet of Things and People (IOTAP).
    Davidsson, Paul
    Malmö University, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS), Department of Computer Science and Media Technology (DVMT). Malmö University, Internet of Things and People (IOTAP).
    An Agent-based Approach to Realize Emergent Configurationsin the Internet of Things2020In: Electronics, E-ISSN 2079-9292, Vol. 9, no 9, article id 1347Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Internet of Things (IoT) has enabled physical objects and devices, often referred to as things, to connect and communicate. This has opened up for the development of novel types of services that improve the quality of our daily lives. The dynamicity and uncertainty of IoT environments, including the mobility of users and devices, make it hard to foresee at design time available things and services. Further, users should be able to achieve their goals seamlessly in arbitrary environments. To address these challenges, we exploit Artificial Intelligence (AI) to engineer smart IoT systems that can achieve user goals and cope with the dynamicity and uncertainty of their environments. More specifically, the main contribution of this paper is an approach that leverages the notion of Belief-Desire-Intention agents and Machine Learning (ML) techniques to realize Emergent Configurations (ECs) in the IoT. An EC is an IoT system composed of a dynamic set of things that connect and cooperate temporarily to achieve a user goal. The approach enables the distributed formation, enactment, adaptation of ECs, and conflict resolution among them. We present a conceptual model of the entities of the approach, its underlying processes, and the guidelines for using it. Moreover, we report about the simulations conducted to validate the feasibility of the approach and evaluate its scalability. View Full-Text

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  • 9.
    Alkhabbas, Fahed
    et al.
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS). Malmö högskola, Internet of Things and People (IOTAP).
    Spalazzese, Romina
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS). Malmö högskola, Internet of Things and People (IOTAP).
    Davidsson, Paul
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS). Malmö högskola, Internet of Things and People (IOTAP).
    Architecting Emergent Configurations in the Internet of Things2017In: Proceedings: 2017 IEEE International Conference on Software Architecture (ICSA), IEEE, 2017, p. 221-224Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Internet of Things (IoT) has a great potential to change our lives. Billions of heterogeneous, distributed, intelligent, and sometimes mobile devices, will be connected and offer new types of applications and ways to interact. The dynamic environment of the IoT, the involvement of the human in the loop, and the runtime interactions among devices and applications, put additional requirements on the systems' architecture. In this paper, we use the Emergent Configurations (ECs) concept as a way to engineer IoT systems and propose an architecture for ECs. More specifically, we discuss (i) how connected devices and applications form ECs to achieve users' goals and (ii) how applications are run and adapted in response to runtime context changes including, e.g., the sudden unavailability of devices, by exploiting the Smart Meeting Room case.

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    FULLTEXT01
  • 10.
    Alkhabbas, Fahed
    et al.
    Malmö University, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS), Department of Computer Science and Media Technology (DVMT). Malmö University, Internet of Things and People (IOTAP).
    Spalazzese, Romina
    Malmö University, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS), Department of Computer Science and Media Technology (DVMT). Malmö University, Internet of Things and People (IOTAP).
    Davidsson, Paul
    Malmö University, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS), Department of Computer Science and Media Technology (DVMT). Malmö University, Internet of Things and People (IOTAP).
    Characterizing Internet of Things Systems through Taxonomies: A Systematic Mapping Study2019In: Internet of Things: Engineering Cyber Physical Human Systems, E-ISSN 2542-6605, Vol. 7, article id 100084Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    During the last decade, a large number of different definitions and taxonomies of Internet of Things (IoT) systems have been proposed. This has resulted in a fragmented picture and a lack of consensus about IoT systems and their constituents. To provide a better understanding of this issue and a way forward, we have conducted a Systematic Mapping Study (SMS) of existing IoT System taxonomies. In addition, we propose a characterization of IoT systems synthesized from the existing taxonomies, which provides a more holistic view of IoT systems than previous taxonomies. It includes seventeen characteristics, divided into two groups: elements and quality aspects. Finally, by analyzing the results of the SMS, we draw future research directions.

  • 11.
    Alkhabbas, Fahed
    et al.
    Malmö University, Internet of Things and People (IOTAP). Malmö University, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS), Department of Computer Science and Media Technology (DVMT).
    Spalazzese, Romina
    Malmö University, Internet of Things and People (IOTAP). Malmö University, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS), Department of Computer Science and Media Technology (DVMT).
    Davidsson, Paul
    Malmö University, Internet of Things and People (IOTAP). Malmö University, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS), Department of Computer Science and Media Technology (DVMT).
    ECo-IoT: An Architectural Approach for Realizing Emergent Configurations in the Internet of Things2018In: Software Architecture: Proceeding of 12th European Conference on Software Architecture, ECSA 2018, Springer, 2018, p. 86-102Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The rapid proliferation of the Internet of Things (IoT) is changing the way we live our everyday life and the society in general. New devices get connected to the Internet every day and, similarly, new IoT services and applications exploiting them are developed across a wide range of domains. The IoT environment typically is very dynamic, devices might suddenly become unavailable and new ones might appear. Similarly, users enter and/or leave the IoT environment while being interested in fulfilling their individual needs. These key aspects must be considered while designing and realizing IoT systems. In this paper we propose ECo-IoT, an architectural approach to enable the automated formation and adaptation of Emergent Configurations (ECs) in the IoT. An EC is formed by a set of things, with their services, functionalities, and applications, to realize a user goal. ECs are adapted in response to (un)foreseen context changes e.g., changes in available things or due to changing or evolving user goals. In the paper, we describe: (i) an architecture and a process for realizing ECs; and (ii) a prototype we implemented for (iii) the validation of ECo-IoT through an IoT scenario that we use throughout the paper.

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  • 12.
    Alkhabbas, Fahed
    et al.
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS). Malmö högskola, Internet of Things and People (IOTAP).
    Spalazzese, Romina
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS). Malmö högskola, Internet of Things and People (IOTAP).
    Davidsson, Paul
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS). Malmö högskola, Internet of Things and People (IOTAP).
    Emergent Configurations in the Internet of Things as System of Systems2017In: Proceedings: 2017 IEEE/ACM Joint 5th International Workshop on Software Engineering for Systems-of-Systems and 11th Workshop on Distributed Software Development, Software Ecosystems and Systems-of-Systems (JSOS), IEEE, 2017, p. 70-71Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Systems of Systems (SoS) and the Internet of Things (IoT) have many common characteristics. For example, their constituents are heterogeneous, often autonomous, and distributed. Moreover, both IoT systems and SoS achieve their intended goals by means of the dynamic collaboration and coordination among their constituents. In this paper, by using the notion of Emergent Configurations (ECs) as a means to engineer IoT systems, we show how ECs in the IoT can be regarded both as systems and SoS by exploiting two scenarios.

  • 13.
    Alkhabbas, Fahed
    et al.
    Malmö University, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS), Department of Computer Science and Media Technology (DVMT). Malmö University, Internet of Things and People (IOTAP).
    Spalazzese, Romina
    Malmö University, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS), Department of Computer Science and Media Technology (DVMT). Malmö University, Internet of Things and People (IOTAP).
    Davidsson, Paul
    Malmö University, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS), Department of Computer Science and Media Technology (DVMT). Malmö University, Internet of Things and People (IOTAP).
    Human-Centric Emergent Configurations: Supporting the User Through Self-configuring IoT Systems2021In: Advances in Neuroergonomics and Cognitive Engineering: Proceedings of the AHFE 2021 Virtual Conferences on Neuroergonomics and Cognitive Engineering, Industrial Cognitive Ergonomics and Engineering Psychology, and Cognitive Computing and Internet of Things, July 25-29, 2021, USA / [ed] Hasan Ayaz; Umer Asgher; Lucas Paletta, Springer, 2021, p. 411-418Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Internet of Things (IoT) is revolutionizing our environments with novel types of services and applications by exploiting the large number of diverse connected things. One of the main challenges in the IoT is to engineer systems to support human users to achieve their goals in dynamic and uncertain environments. For instance, the mobility of both users and devices makes it infeasible to always foresee the available things in the users’ current environments. Moreover, users’ activities and/or goals might change suddenly. To support users in such environments, we developed an initial approach that exploits the notion of Emergent Configurations (ECs) and mixed initiative techniques to engineer self-configuring IoT systems. An EC is a goal-driven IoT system composed of a dynamic set of temporarily connecting and cooperating things. ECs are more flexible and usable than IoT systems whose constituents and interfaces are fully specified at design time

  • 14.
    Alkhabbas, Fahed
    et al.
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS). Malmö högskola, Internet of Things and People (IOTAP).
    Spalazzese, Romina
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS). Malmö högskola, Internet of Things and People (IOTAP).
    Davidsson, Paul
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS). Malmö högskola, Internet of Things and People (IOTAP).
    IoT-based Systems of Systems2016In: Proceedings of the 2nd edition of Swedish Workshop on the Engineering of Systems of Systems (SWESOS 2016), Chalmers , 2016, p. 34-37Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Systems of Systems(SoS) and theInternet of Things(IoT)have many common characteristics. For example, their constituents are heterogeneous, autonomous and often distributed. Moreover, both IoT and SoS achieve intended goals by means of the highly dynamic cooperation among their constituents. In this paper we study the relation between IoT and SoS. We discuss the characteristics of both concepts and highlight common aspects. Furthermore, we introduce the conceptSystem of Emergent Configurations (SoECs) to describe IoT-based SoS.

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  • 15.
    Ashouri, Majid
    et al.
    Malmö University, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS), Department of Computer Science and Media Technology (DVMT).
    Davidsson, Paul
    Malmö University, Internet of Things and People (IOTAP). Malmö University, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS), Department of Computer Science and Media Technology (DVMT).
    Spalazzese, Romina
    Malmö University, Internet of Things and People (IOTAP). Malmö University, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS), Department of Computer Science and Media Technology (DVMT).
    Cloud, Edge, or Both? Towards Decision Support for Designing IoT Applications2018In: 2018 Fifth International Conference on Internet of Things: Systems, Management and Security, 2018Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The rapidly evolving Internet of Things (IoT) includes applications which might generate a huge amount of data, this requires appropriate platforms and support methods. Cloud computing offers attractive computational and storage solutions to cope with these issues. However, sending to centralized servers all the data generated at the edge of the network causes latency, energy consumption, and high bandwidth demand. Performing some computations at the edge of the network, known as Edge computing, and using a hybrid Edge-Cloud architecture can help addressing these challenges. While such architecture may provide new opportunities to distribute IoT applications, making optimal decisions regarding where to deploy the different application components is not an easy and straightforward task for designers. Supporting designers’ decisions by considering key quality attributes impacting them in an Edge-Cloud architecture has not been investigated yet. In this paper, we: explore the importance of decision support for the designers, discuss how different attributes impact the decisions, and describe the required steps toward a decision support framework for IoT application designers.

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  • 16.
    Ashouri, Majid
    et al.
    Malmö University, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS), Department of Computer Science and Media Technology (DVMT). Malmö University, Internet of Things and People (IOTAP).
    Davidsson, Paul
    Malmö University, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS), Department of Computer Science and Media Technology (DVMT). Malmö University, Internet of Things and People (IOTAP).
    Spalazzese, Romina
    Malmö University, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS), Department of Computer Science and Media Technology (DVMT). Malmö University, Internet of Things and People (IOTAP).
    Quality attributes in edge computing for the Internet of Things: A systematic mapping study2021In: Internet of Things: Engineering Cyber Physical Human Systems, E-ISSN 2542-6605, Vol. 13, article id 100346Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many Internet of Things (IoT) systems generate a massive amount of data needing to be processed and stored efficiently. Cloud computing solutions are often used to handle these tasks. However, the increasing availability of computational resources close to the edge has prompted the idea of using these for distributed computing and storage. Edge computing may help to improve IoT systems regarding important quality attributes like latency, energy consumption, privacy, and bandwidth utilization. However, deciding where to deploy the various application components is not a straightforward task. This is largely due to the trade-offs between the quality attributes relevant for the application. We have performed a systematic mapping study of 98 articles to investigate which quality attributes have been used in the literature for assessing IoT systems using edge computing. The analysis shows that time behavior and resource utilization are the most frequently used quality attributes; further, response time, turnaround time, and energy consumption are the most used metrics for quantifying these quality attributes. Moreover, simulation is the main tool used for the assessments, and the studied trade-offs are mainly between only two qualities. Finally, we identified a number of research gaps that need further study.

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  • 17.
    Ashouri, Majid
    et al.
    Malmö University, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS), Department of Computer Science and Media Technology (DVMT).
    Lorig, Fabian
    Malmö University, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS), Department of Computer Science and Media Technology (DVMT).
    Davidsson, Paul
    Malmö University, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS), Department of Computer Science and Media Technology (DVMT).
    Spalazzese, Romina
    Malmö University, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS), Department of Computer Science and Media Technology (DVMT).
    Edge Computing Simulators for IoT System Design: An Analysis of Qualities and Metrics2019In: Future Internet, E-ISSN 1999-5903, Vol. 11, no 11, p. 235-246Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The deployment of Internet of Things (IoT) applications is complex since many quality characteristics should be taken into account, for example, performance, reliability, and security. In this study, we investigate to what extent the current edge computing simulators support the analysis of qualities that are relevant to IoT architects who are designing an IoT system. We first identify the quality characteristics and metrics that can be evaluated through simulation. Then, we study the available simulators in order to assess which of the identified qualities they support. The results show that while several simulation tools for edge computing have been proposed, they focus on a few qualities, such as time behavior and resource utilization. Most of the identified qualities are not considered and we suggest future directions for further investigation to provide appropriate support for IoT architects.

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  • 18.
    Ashouri, Majid
    et al.
    Malmö University, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS), Department of Computer Science and Media Technology (DVMT). Malmö University, Internet of Things and People (IOTAP).
    Lorig, Fabian
    Malmö University, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS), Department of Computer Science and Media Technology (DVMT). Malmö University, Internet of Things and People (IOTAP).
    Davidsson, Paul
    Malmö University, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS), Department of Computer Science and Media Technology (DVMT). Malmö University, Internet of Things and People (IOTAP).
    Spalazzese, Romina
    Malmö University, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS), Department of Computer Science and Media Technology (DVMT). Malmö University, Internet of Things and People (IOTAP).
    Svorobej, Sergej
    Analyzing Distributed Deep Neural Network Deployment on Edge and Cloud Nodes in IoT Systems2020In: IEEE International Conference on Edge Computing (EDGE), Virtual conference, October 18–24, 2020., 2020, p. 59-66Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    For the efficient execution of Deep Neural Networks (DNN) in the Internet of Things, computation tasks can be distributed and deployed on edge nodes. In contrast to deploying all computation to the cloud, the use of Distributed DNN (DDNN) often results in a reduced amount of data that is sent through the network and thus might increase the overall performance of the system. However, finding an appropriate deployment scenario is often a complex task and requires considering several criteria. In this paper, we introduce a multi-criteria decision-making method based on the Analytical Hierarchy Process for the comparison and selection of deployment alternatives. We use the RECAP simulation framework to model and simulate DDNN deployments on different scales to provide a comprehensive assessment of deployments to system designers. In a case study, we apply the method to a smart city scenario where different distributions and deployments of a DNN are analyzed and compared.

  • 19.
    Belfrage, Michael
    et al.
    Malmö University, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS), Department of Computer Science and Media Technology (DVMT). Malmö University, Internet of Things and People (IOTAP).
    Lorig, Fabian
    Malmö University, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS), Department of Computer Science and Media Technology (DVMT). Malmö University, Internet of Things and People (IOTAP).
    Davidsson, Paul
    Malmö University, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS), Department of Computer Science and Media Technology (DVMT). Malmö University, Internet of Things and People (IOTAP).
    Making Sense of Collaborative Challenges inAgent-based Modelling for Policy-Making2022In: Proceedings of the 2nd Workshop on Agent-based Modeling and Policy-Making (AMPM 2022) / [ed] Giovanni Sileno; Christoph Becker; Nicola Lettieri, CEUR , 2022Conference paper (Refereed)
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  • 20.
    Bergkvist, Hannes
    et al.
    Malmö University, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS), Department of Computer Science and Media Technology (DVMT). Sony, R&D Center Europe, Lund, Sweden.
    Davidsson, Paul
    Malmö University, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS), Department of Computer Science and Media Technology (DVMT).
    Exner, Peter
    Sony, R&D Center Europe, Lund, Sweden.
    Positioning with Map Matching using Deep Neural Networks2020In: MobiQuitous '20: Proceedings of the 17th EAI International Conference on Mobile and Ubiquitous Systems: Computing, Networking and Services, Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), 2020Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Deep neural networks for positioning can improve accuracy by adapting to inhomogeneous environments. However, they are still susceptible to noisy data, often resulting in invalid positions. A related task, map matching, can be used for reducing geographical invalid positions by aligning observations to a model of the real world. In this paper, we propose an approach for positioning, enhanced with map matching, within a single deep neural network model. We introduce a novel way of reducing the number of invalid position estimates by adding map information to the input of the model and using a map-based loss function. Evaluating on real-world Received Signal Strength Indicator data from an asset tracking application, we show that our approach gives both increased position accuracy and a decrease of one order of magnitude in the number of invalid positions.

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  • 21.
    Bergkvist, Hannes
    et al.
    Malmö University, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS), Department of Computer Science and Media Technology (DVMT). Sony, R&D Center Europe, Lund, Sweden.
    Exner, Peter
    Sony, R&D Center Europe, Lund, Sweden.
    Davidsson, Paul
    Malmö University, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS), Department of Computer Science and Media Technology (DVMT).
    Constraining neural networks output by an interpolating loss function with region priors2020In: NeurIPS workshop on Interpretable Inductive Biases and Physically Structured Learning / [ed] Michael Lutter; Alexander Terenin; Shirley Ho; Lei Wang, 2020Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Deep neural networks have the ability to generalize beyond observed training data. However, for some applications they may produce output that apriori is known to be invalid. If prior knowledge of valid output regions is available, one way of imposing constraints on deep neural networks is by introducing these priors in a loss function. In this paper, we introduce a novel way of constraining neural network output by using encoded regions with a loss function based on gradient interpolation. We evaluate our method in a positioning task where a region map is used in order to reduce invalid position estimates. Results show that our approach is effective in decreasing invalid outputs for several geometrically complex environments.

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  • 22.
    Björgvinsson, Erling
    et al.
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), School of Arts and Communication (K3). Malmö högskola, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), Medea.
    Birt, Arlene
    Cuartielles, David
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), School of Arts and Communication (K3). Malmö högskola, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), Medea.
    Davidsson, Paul
    Malmö högskola, School of Technology (TS). Malmö högskola, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), Medea.
    Ehn, Pelle
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), School of Arts and Communication (K3). Malmö högskola, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), Medea.
    Ginslov, Jeannette
    Gustafsson Friberger, Marie
    Hillgren, Per-Anders
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), School of Arts and Communication (K3). Malmö högskola, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), Medea.
    Hobye, Mads
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), School of Arts and Communication (K3). Malmö högskola, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), Medea.
    Jacobson, Bob
    Jacobsson, Andreas
    Malmö högskola, School of Technology (TS). Malmö högskola, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), Medea.
    Kozel, Susan
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), School of Arts and Communication (K3). Malmö högskola, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), Medea.
    Linde, Per
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), School of Arts and Communication (K3). Malmö högskola, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), Medea.
    Löwgren, Jonas
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), School of Arts and Communication (K3). Malmö högskola, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), Medea.
    Nilsson, Elisabet M.
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), School of Arts and Communication (K3). Malmö högskola, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), Medea.
    Peterson, Bo
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), School of Arts and Communication (K3). Malmö högskola, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), Medea.
    Rosenqvist, Karolina
    Topgaard, Richard
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), Medea. Malmö högskola, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), School of Arts and Communication (K3).
    Prototyping Futures2012Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Prototyping Futures gives you a glimpse of what collaborating with academia might look like. Medea and its co-partners share their stories about activities happening at the research centre – projects, methods, tools, and approaches – what challenges lie ahead, and how these can be tackled. Examples of highlighted topics include: What is a living lab and how does it work? What are the visions behind the Connectivity Lab at Medea? And, how can prototyping-methods be used when sketching scenarios for sustainable futures? Other topics are: What is the role of the body when designing technology? What is collaborative media and how can this concept help us understand contemporary media practices? Prototyping Futures also discusses the open-hardware platform Arduino, and the concepts of open data and the Internet of Things, raising questions on how digital media and connected devices can contribute to more sustainable lifestyles, and a better world.

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  • 23.
    Boiko, Olha
    et al.
    Sumy State University,Department of Information Technologies,Sumy,Ukraine.
    Shepeliev, Dmytro
    Sumy State University,Department of Information Technologies,Sumy,Ukraine.
    Shendryk, Vira
    Sumy State University,Department of Information Technologies,Sumy,Ukraine.
    Malekian, Reza
    Malmö University, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS), Department of Computer Science and Media Technology (DVMT).
    Davidsson, Paul
    Malmö University, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS), Department of Computer Science and Media Technology (DVMT).
    A Comparison of Machine Learning Prediction Models to Estimate the Future Heat Demand2023In: 2023 IEEE 13th International Conference on Consumer Electronics - Berlin (ICCE-Berlin), Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2023Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper compares machine learning models for short-term heat demand forecasting in residential and multi-family buildings, evaluating model suitability, data impact on accuracy, computation time, and accuracy improvement methods. The findings are relevant for energy suppliers, researchers, and decision-makers in optimizing energy management and improving heat demand forecasting. The included models in the study are k-NN, Polynomial Regression, and LSTM with weather data, building type, and time index as input variables. Single-dimensional models (Autoregression, SARIMA, and Prophet) based on historical consumption are also studied. LSTM consistently outperforms other models in accuracy across different input variable combinations, measured using mean absolute percentage error (MAPE). The incorporation of historical consumption data improved the performance of k-NN and Polynomial Regression models. The paper also explores dataset volume impact on accuracy and compares training and prediction times. k-NN has the least prediction times, Polynomial Regression takes longer, and LSTM requires more time. All models exhibit acceptable prediction times for heat consumption. LSTM outperforms single-dimensional models in accuracy and has lower prediction times compared to AR, SARIMA, and Prophet models.

  • 24.
    Bugeja, Joseph
    et al.
    Malmö University, Internet of Things and People (IOTAP). Malmö University, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS), Department of Computer Science and Media Technology (DVMT).
    Davidsson, Paul
    Malmö University, Internet of Things and People (IOTAP). Malmö University, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS), Department of Computer Science and Media Technology (DVMT).
    Jacobsson, Andreas
    Malmö University, Internet of Things and People (IOTAP). Malmö University, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS), Department of Computer Science and Media Technology (DVMT).
    Functional Classification and Quantitative Analysis of Smart Connected Home Devices2018In: 2018 Global Internet of Things Summit (GIoTS), Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2018, p. 144-149Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The home environment is rapidly becoming more complex with the introduction of numerous and heterogeneous Internet of Things devices. This development into smart connected homes brings with it challenges when it comes to gaining a deeper understanding of the home environment as a socio-technical system. A better understanding of the home is essential to build robust, resilient, and secure smart home systems. In this regard, we developed a novel method for classifying smart home devices in a logical and coherent manner according to their functionality. Unlike other approaches, we build the categorization empirically by mining the technical specifications of 1,193 commercial devices. Moreover, we identify twelve capabilities that can be used to characterize home devices. Alongside the classification, we also quantitatively analyze the entire spectrum of commercial smart home devices in accordance to their functionality and capabilities. Overall, the categorization and analysis provide a foundation for identifying opportunities of generalizations and common solutions for the smart home.

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  • 25.
    Bugeja, Joseph
    et al.
    Malmö University, Internet of Things and People (IOTAP). Malmö University, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS), Department of Computer Science and Media Technology (DVMT).
    Jacobsson, Andreas
    Malmö University, Internet of Things and People (IOTAP). Malmö University, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS), Department of Computer Science and Media Technology (DVMT).
    Davidsson, Paul
    Malmö University, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS), Department of Computer Science and Media Technology (DVMT). Malmö University, Internet of Things and People (IOTAP).
    A Privacy-Centered System Model for Smart Connected Homes2020In: 2020 IEEE International Conference on Pervasive Computing and Communications Workshops: PerCom Workshops, IEEE, 2020Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Smart connected homes are integrated with heterogeneous Internet-connected devices interacting with the physical environment and human users. While they have become an established research area, there is no common understanding of what composes such a pervasive environment making it challenging to perform a scientific analysis of the domain. This is especially evident when it comes to discourse about privacy threats. Recognizing this, we aim to describe a generic smart connected home, including the data it deals with in a novel privacy-centered system model. Such is done using concepts borrowed from the theory of Contextual Integrity. Furthermore, we represent privacy threats formally using the proposed model. To illustrate the usage of the model, we apply it to the design of an ambient-assisted living use-case and demonstrate how it can be used for identifying and analyzing the privacy threats directed to smart connected homes.

  • 26.
    Bugeja, Joseph
    et al.
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS). Malmö högskola, Internet of Things and People (IOTAP).
    Jacobsson, Andreas
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS). Malmö högskola, Internet of Things and People (IOTAP).
    Davidsson, Paul
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS). Malmö högskola, Internet of Things and People (IOTAP).
    An Analysis of Malicious Threat Agents for the Smart Connected Home2017In: Proceeding of 2017 IEEE International Conference on Pervasive Computing and Communications Workshops (PerCom Workshops), IEEE, 2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Smart connected home systems aim to enhance the comfort, convenience, security, entertainment, and health of the householders and their guests. Despite their advantages, their interconnected characteristics make smart home devices and services prone to various cybersecurity and privacy threats. In this paper, we analyze six classes of malicious threat agents for smart connected homes. We also identify four different motives and three distinct capability levels that can be used to group the different intruders. Based on this, we propose a new threat model that can be used for threat profiling. Both hypothetical and real-life examples of attacks are used throughout the paper. In reflecting on this work, we also observe motivations and agents that are not covered in standard agent taxonomies.

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  • 27.
    Bugeja, Joseph
    et al.
    Malmö University, Internet of Things and People (IOTAP). Malmö University, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS), Department of Computer Science and Media Technology (DVMT).
    Jacobsson, Andreas
    Malmö University, Internet of Things and People (IOTAP). Malmö University, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS), Department of Computer Science and Media Technology (DVMT).
    Davidsson, Paul
    Malmö University, Internet of Things and People (IOTAP). Malmö University, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS), Department of Computer Science and Media Technology (DVMT).
    An Empirical Analysis of Smart Connected Home Data2018In: Internet of Things – ICIOT 2018, Springer, 2018, p. 134-149Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The increasing presence of heterogeneous Internet of Things devices inside the home brings with it added convenience and value to the householders. At the same time, these devices tend to be Internet-connected and continuously monitor and collect data about the residents and their daily lifestyle activities. Such data can be of a sensitive nature, given that the house is the place where privacy is naturally expected. To gain insight into this state of affairs, we empirically investigate the privacy policies of 87 different categories of commercial smart home devices in terms of data being collected. This is done using a combination of manual and data mining techniques. The overall contribution of this work is a model that identifies and categorizes smart connected home data in terms of its collection mode, collection method, and collection phase. Our findings bring up several implications for smart connected home privacy, which include the need for better security controls to safeguard the privacy of the householders.

  • 28.
    Bugeja, Joseph
    et al.
    Malmö University, Internet of Things and People (IOTAP). Malmö University, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS), Department of Computer Science and Media Technology (DVMT).
    Jacobsson, Andreas
    Malmö University, Internet of Things and People (IOTAP). Malmö University, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS), Department of Computer Science and Media Technology (DVMT).
    Davidsson, Paul
    Malmö University, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS), Department of Computer Science and Media Technology (DVMT). Malmö University, Internet of Things and People (IOTAP).
    Is Your Home Becoming a Spy?: A Data-Centered Analysis and Classification of Smart Connected Home Systems2020In: IoT '20: Proceedings of the 10th International Conference on the Internet of Things, New York, United States: ACM Digital Library, 2020, article id 17Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Smart connected home systems bring different privacy challenges to residents. The contribution of this paper is a novel privacy grounded classification of smart connected home systems that is focused on personal data exposure. This classification is built empirically through k-means cluster analysis from the technical specification of 81 commercial Internet of Things (IoT) systems as featured in PrivacyNotIncluded – an online database of consumer IoT systems. The attained classification helps us better understand the privacy implications and what is at stake with different smart connected home systems. Furthermore, we survey the entire spectrum of analyzed systems for their data collection capabilities. Systems were classified into four tiers: app-based accessors, watchers, location harvesters, and listeners, based on the sensing data the systems collect. Our findings indicate that being surveilled inside your home is a realistic threat, particularly, as the majority of the surveyed in-home IoT systems are installed with cameras, microphones, and location trackers. Finally, we identify research directions and suggest some best practices to mitigate the threat of in-house surveillance.

  • 29.
    Bugeja, Joseph
    et al.
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS).
    Jacobsson, Andreas
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS).
    Davidsson, Paul
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS).
    On Privacy and Security Challenges in Smart Connected Homes2016In: Proceedings: 2016 European Intelligence and Security Informatics Conference, IEEE, 2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Smart homes have become increasingly popular for IoT products and services with a lot of promises for improving the quality of life of individuals. Nevertheless, the heterogeneous, dynamic, and Internet-connected nature of this environment adds new concerns as private data becomes accessible, often without the householders’ awareness. This accessibility alongside with the rising risks of data security and privacy breaches, makes smart home security a critical topic that deserves scrutiny. In this paper, we present an overview of the privacy and security challenges directed towards the smart home domain. We also identify constraints, evaluate solutions, and discuss a number of challenges and research issues where further investigation is required.

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  • 30.
    Bugeja, Joseph
    et al.
    Malmö University, Internet of Things and People (IOTAP). Malmö University, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS), Department of Computer Science and Media Technology (DVMT).
    Jacobsson, Andreas
    Malmö University, Internet of Things and People (IOTAP). Malmö University, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS), Department of Computer Science and Media Technology (DVMT).
    Davidsson, Paul
    Malmö University, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS), Department of Computer Science and Media Technology (DVMT). Malmö University, Internet of Things and People (IOTAP).
    PRASH: A Framework for Privacy Risk Analysis of Smart Homes.2021In: Sensors, E-ISSN 1424-8220, Vol. 21, no 19, article id 6399Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Smart homes promise to improve the quality of life of residents. However, they collect vasts amounts of personal and sensitive data, making privacy protection critically important. We propose a framework, called PRASH, for modeling and analyzing the privacy risks of smart homes. It is composed of three modules: a system model, a threat model, and a set of privacy metrics, which together are used for calculating the privacy risk exposure of a smart home system. By representing a smart home through a formal specification, PRASH allows for early identification of threats, better planning for risk management scenarios, and mitigation of potential impacts caused by attacks before they compromise the lives of residents. To demonstrate the capabilities of PRASH, an executable version of the smart home system configuration was generated using the proposed formal specification, which was then analyzed to find potential attack paths while also mitigating the impacts of those attacks. Thereby, we add important contributions to the body of knowledge on the mitigations of threat agents violating the privacy of users in their homes. Overall, the use of PRASH will help residents to preserve their right to privacy in the face of the emerging challenges affecting smart homes.

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  • 31.
    Bugeja, Joseph
    et al.
    Malmö University, Internet of Things and People (IOTAP). Malmö University, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS), Department of Computer Science and Media Technology (DVMT).
    Jacobsson, Andreas
    Malmö University, Internet of Things and People (IOTAP). Malmö University, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS), Department of Computer Science and Media Technology (DVMT).
    Davidsson, Paul
    Malmö University, Internet of Things and People (IOTAP). Malmö University, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS), Department of Computer Science and Media Technology (DVMT).
    Smart Connected Homes2018In: Internet of Things A to Z: Technologies and Applications / [ed] Qusay F. Hassan, John Wiley & Sons, 2018, p. 359-384Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 32.
    Bugeja, Joseph
    et al.
    Malmö University, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS), Department of Computer Science and Media Technology (DVMT). Malmö University, Internet of Things and People (IOTAP).
    Jacobsson, Andreas
    Malmö University, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS), Department of Computer Science and Media Technology (DVMT). Malmö University, Internet of Things and People (IOTAP).
    Davidsson, Paul
    Malmö University, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS), Department of Computer Science and Media Technology (DVMT). Malmö University, Internet of Things and People (IOTAP).
    The Ethical Smart Home: Perspectives and Guidelines2022In: IEEE Security and Privacy, ISSN 1540-7993, E-ISSN 1558-4046, Vol. 20, no 1, p. 72-80Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 33. Cherif, Redha
    et al.
    Davidsson, Paul
    Malmö högskola, School of Technology (TS).
    Software Development Process Simulation: Multi Agent-Based Simulation versus System Dynamics2010In: Multi-Agent-Based Simulation X, Springer, 2010, p. 73-85Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present one of the first actual applications of Multi Agent-Based Simulation (MABS) to the field of software process simulation modelling (SPSM). Although there are some recent attempts to do this, we argue that these fail to take full advantage of the agency paradigm. Our model of the software development process integrates individual-level performance, cognition and artefact quality models in a common simulation framework. In addition, this framework allows the implementation of both MABS and System Dynamics (SD) simulators using the same basic models. As SD is the dominating approach within SPSM, we are able to make relevant and unique comparisons between it and MABS. This enabled us to uncover quite interesting properties of these approaches, e.g., that MABS reflects the problem domain more realistically than SD.

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  • 34.
    Davidsson, Paul
    Malmö högskola, School of Technology (TS).
    Intelligent Transport and Energy Systems Using Agent Technology2013In: Twelfth Scandinavian Conference on Artificial Intelligence, BIOS Scientific Publishers, 2013, p. 3-10Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Experiences from different applications of agent technology aiming to make transport and energy systems more efficient are presented. The examples will cover real-time applications on the operational level, as well as, support for long-term planning and decision-making on the strategic level. Some general reflections and insights from the work on these applications conclude the paper.

  • 35.
    Davidsson, Paul
    et al.
    Malmö University, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS), Department of Computer Science and Media Technology (DVMT). Malmö University, Internet of Things and People (IOTAP).
    Eklund, Ulrik
    Malmö University, Internet of Things and People (IOTAP). Malmö University, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS), Department of Computer Science and Media Technology (DVMT).
    Olsson, Carl Magnus
    Malmö University, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS), Department of Computer Science and Media Technology (DVMT). Malmö University, Internet of Things and People (IOTAP).
    Elis: An Open Platform for Mobile Energy Efficiency Services in Buildings2019In: Sustainability, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 11, no 3, article id 858Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The recent years have witnessed an enormous growth of mobile services for energy management in buildings. However, these solutions are often proprietary, non-interoperable, and handle only a limited function, such as lighting, ventilation, or heating. To address these issues, we have developed an open platform that is an integrated energy management solution for buildings. It includes an ecosystem of mobile services and open APIs as well as protocols for the development of new services and products. Moreover, it has an adapter layer that enables the platform to interoperate with any building management system (BMS) or individual device. Thus, the platform makes it possible for third-party developers to produce mobile energy efficiency applications that will work independently of which BMS and devices are used in the building. To validate the platform, a number of services have been implemented and evaluated in existing buildings. This has been done in cooperation with energy companies and property owners, together with the residents and other users of the buildings. The platform, which we call Elis, has been made available as open source software under an MIT license. View Full-Text

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  • 36.
    Davidsson, Paul
    et al.
    Malmö högskola, School of Technology (TS).
    Gustafsson Friberger, Marie
    Holmgren, Johan
    Malmö högskola, School of Technology (TS).
    Jacobsson, Andreas
    Malmö högskola, School of Technology (TS).
    Persson, Jan A.
    Malmö högskola, School of Technology (TS).
    Agreement technologies for supporting the planning and execution of transports2013In: Agreement Technologies / [ed] Sascha Ossowski, Springer, 2013, p. 533-547Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The use of agreement technologies in the planning and execution of goods transports is analyzed. We have previously suggested an approach called Plug and Play Transport Chain Management (PnP TCM) that provides agent-based support for key tasks, such as, finding the best sequence of transport services for a particular goods transport, monitoring the execution of the transport, and managing the interaction between the involved actors. In this paper we analyze five agreement technologies in the context of PnP TCM, i.e., semantics, norms, organizations, argumentation and negotiation, and trust. We conclude that all five technologies play a critical role in the realization of PnP TCM.

  • 37.
    Davidsson, Paul
    et al.
    Malmö högskola, School of Technology (TS).
    Gustafsson Friberger, Marie
    Lavesson, Niklas
    Persson, Jan A.
    Malmö högskola, School of Technology (TS).
    Towards a prediction model for people movements in urban areas2013In: First International Workshop on Multiagent-based Societal Systems, 2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this work is to develop a new type of service for predicting and communicating urban activity. This service provides short-term predictions (hours to days), which can be used as a basis for different types of resource allocation and planning, e.g. concerning public transport, personnel, or marketing. The core of the service consists of a forecasting engine that based on a prediction model processes data on different levels of detail and from various providers. This paper explores the requirements and features of the forecast engine. We conclude that agent-based modeling seems as the most promising approach to meet these requirements. Finally, some examples of potential applications are described along with analyses of scientific and engineering issues that need to be addressed.

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  • 38.
    Davidsson, Paul
    et al.
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS). Malmö högskola, Internet of Things and People (IOTAP).
    Hajinasab, Banafsheh
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS). Malmö högskola, Internet of Things and People (IOTAP).
    Holmgren, Johan
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS). Malmö högskola, Internet of Things and People (IOTAP).
    Jevinger, Åse
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS). Malmö högskola, Internet of Things and People (IOTAP).
    Persson, Jan A.
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS). Malmö högskola, Internet of Things and People (IOTAP).
    The Fourth Wave of Digitalization and Public Transport: Opportunities and Challenges2016In: Sustainability, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 8, no 12, article id 1248Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We investigate the opportunities and challenges of the forth wave of digitalization, also referred to as the Internet of Things (IoT), with respect to public transport and how it can support sustainable development of society. Environmental, economical, and social perspectives are considered through analysis of the existing literature and explorative studies. We conclude that there are great opportunities for both transport operators and planners, as well as for the travelers. We describe and analyze a number of concrete opportunities for each of these actors. However, in order to realize these opportunities, there are also a number of challenges that needs to be addressed. There are both technical challenges, such as data collection issues, interoperability, scalability and information security, and non-technical challenges such as business models, usability, privacy issues, and deployment.

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  • 39.
    Davidsson, Paul
    et al.
    Malmö högskola, School of Technology (TS).
    Holmgren, Johan
    Malmö högskola, School of Technology (TS).
    Persson, Jan A.
    Malmö högskola, School of Technology (TS).
    Jacobsson, Andreas
    Malmö högskola, School of Technology (TS).
    Plug and Play Transport Chain Management: Agent-Based Support to the Planning and Execution of Transports2011In: e-Business and Telecommunications, Springer, 2011, p. 139-155Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A novel approach to efficiently plan and execute effective transport solutions is presented. It provides agent-based support for key tasks, such as, finding the best sequence of transport services for a particular goods transport, monitoring the execution of the transport, as well as the interaction between the involved actors. The approach is based on the FREIGHTWISE framework in which a minimal set of information packages is defined. The purpose is to capture all the information that needs to be communicated between the actors involved in a transport, such as, transport users, transport providers, and infrastructure managers, during the complete process from planning to termination. The approach is inspired by the concepts of virtual enterprises and breeding environments. We analyse the requirements of such an approach and describe a multi-agent system architecture meeting these requirements.

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    FULLTEXT01
  • 40.
    Davidsson, Paul
    et al.
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS), Department of Computer Science and Media Technology (DVMT). Malmö högskola, Internet of Things and People (IOTAP).
    Klugl, Franziska
    Verhagen, Harko
    Simulation of Complex Systems2017In: Springer Handbook of Model-Based Science / [ed] L. Magnani, T. Bertolotti, Springer, 2017, p. 783-797Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Understanding and managing complex systems has become one of the biggest challenges for research, policy and industry. Modeling and simulation of complex systems promises to enable us to understand how a human nervous system and brain not just maintain the activities of a metabolism, but enable the production of intelligent behavior, how huge ecosystems adapt to changes, or what actually influences climatic changes. Also man-made systems are getting more complex and difficult, or even impossible, to grasp. Therefore we need methods and tools that can help us in, for example, estimating how different infrastructure investments will affect the transport system and understanding the behavior of large Internet-based systems in different situations. This type of system is becoming the focus of research and sustainable management as there are now techniques, tools and the computational resources available. This chapter discusses modeling and simulation of such complex systems. We will start by discussing what characterizes complex systems.

  • 41.
    Davidsson, Paul
    et al.
    Malmö University, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS), Department of Computer Science and Media Technology (DVMT). Malmö University, Internet of Things and People (IOTAP).
    Langheinrich, MarcUniversità della Svizzera italiana, Lugano, Switzerland.
    IoT '20: Proceedings of the 10th International Conference on the Internet of Things2020Conference proceedings (editor) (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Internet of Things has become a central and exciting research area encompassing many fields in information and communication technologies and adjacent domains. IoT systems involve interactions with heterogeneous, distributed, and intelligent things, both from the digital and physical worlds including the human in the loop. Thanks to the increasingly wide spectrum of applications and cheap availability of both network connectivity and devices, a number of different stakeholders from industry, academia, society and government are part of the IoT ecosystem.

  • 42.
    Davidsson, Paul
    et al.
    Malmö University, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS), Department of Computer Science and Media Technology (DVMT). Malmö University, Internet of Things and People (IOTAP).
    Langheinrich, MarcUniversità della Svizzera italiana, Lugano, Switzerland.Linde, PerMalmö University, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), School of Arts and Communication (K3). Malmö University, Internet of Things and People (IOTAP).Mayer, SimonUniversity of St. Gallen, Switzerland.Casado-Mansilla, DiegoUniversity of Deusto, Spain.Spikol, DanielMalmö University, Internet of Things and People (IOTAP). Malmö University, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS), Department of Computer Science and Media Technology (DVMT).Kraemer, Frank AlexanderNorwegian University of Science and Technology, Norway.Russo, Nancy LMalmö University, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS), Department of Computer Science and Media Technology (DVMT). Malmö University, Internet of Things and People (IOTAP).
    IoT '20 Companion: 10th International Conference on the Internet of Things Companion2020Conference proceedings (editor) (Refereed)
  • 43.
    Davidsson, Paul
    et al.
    Malmö University, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS), Department of Computer Science and Media Technology (DVMT). Malmö University, Internet of Things and People (IOTAP).
    Persson, Jan A.
    Malmö University, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS), Department of Computer Science and Media Technology (DVMT). Malmö University, Internet of Things and People (IOTAP).
    A Criteria-Based Approach to Evaluating Road User Charging Systems2018In: Procedia Computer Science, E-ISSN 1877-0509, Vol. 130, p. 142-149Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A set of important criteria to consider when evaluating potential road user charging system (RUCS) are identified. These criteria are grouped into five categories: charging precision, system costs & societal benefits, flexibility & modifiability, operational aspects, and security & privacy. The criteria are then used in a comparative analysis of five RUCS candidates for heavy goods vehicles. Two solutions are position-based systems and one is based on tachographs. The two remaining solutions are based on fuel taxes. For each of the solutions we estimate how well it fulfils each of the criteria. One way of making general comparisons of the approaches is to give each of the criteria a specific weight corresponding to how important it is. We show that these weights heavily influence the outcome of the comparison. We conclude by pointing out a number of important issues needing attention in the process of developing RUCS.

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  • 44.
    Davidsson, Paul
    et al.
    Malmö högskola, School of Technology (TS).
    Persson, Jan A.
    Malmö högskola, School of Technology (TS).
    Jacobsson, Andreas
    Malmö högskola, School of Technology (TS).
    An agent-based approach to transport chain management2009In: ICE-B 2009: Proceedings of the international conference on e-business; Milan, Italy July 7-10,2009, INSTICC Press, 2009, p. 175-182Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A novel application of agent-mediated electronic commerce is presented. It concerns developing and maintaining efficient and effective transport solutions. The suggested approach is inspired by the concepts of virtual enterprises and breeding environments, as well as peer-to-peer technology. We discuss the requirements of such an approach and outline a software architecture meeting these requirements.

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    FULLTEXT01
  • 45.
    Davidsson, Paul
    et al.
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS), Department of Computer Science and Media Technology (DVMT). Malmö högskola, Internet of Things and People (IOTAP).
    Vehagen, Harko
    Social Phenomena Simulation2017In: Encyclopedia of Complexity and Systems Science / [ed] Robert A Meyers, Springer, 2017Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Social phenomena simulation in the area of agent-based modeling and simulation concerns the emulation of the individual behavior of a group of social entities, typically including their cognition, actions, and interaction.

  • 46.
    Davidsson, Paul
    et al.
    Malmö högskola, School of Technology (TS).
    Verhagen, Harko
    Social phenomena simulation2012In: Computational complexity: theory, techniques, and applications / [ed] Robert Meyers, Springer, 2012, p. 2999-3003Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 47.
    Davidsson, Paul
    et al.
    Malmö University, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS), Department of Computer Science and Media Technology (DVMT). Malmö University, Internet of Things and People (IOTAP).
    Verhagen, Harko
    Stockholms universitet.
    Social phenomena simulation2020In: Complex Social and Behavioral Systems, New York, NY: Springer , 2020, p. 819-824Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 48.
    Davidsson, Paul
    et al.
    Malmö högskola, School of Technology (TS).
    Verhagen, Harko
    Types of simulation2013In: Simulating Social Complexity / [ed] Bruce Edmonds, Ruth Meyer, Springer, 2013, p. 23-36Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter describes the main purposes of computer simulation and gives an overview of the main issues that should be regarded when developing computer simulations. While there are two basic ways of representing a system in a simulation model – the equation-based or macroscopic approach and the individual-based or microscopic approach – this chapter (as the rest of the handbook) focuses on the latter. It discusses the various options a modeller faces when choosing how to represent individuals, their interactions and their environment in a simulation model.

  • 49.
    Demazeau, Yves
    et al.
    Centre National de la Rech. Scientifique, Grenoble, France.
    Davidsson, PaulMalmö högskola, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS), Department of Computer Science and Media Technology (DVMT). Malmö högskola, Internet of Things and People (IOTAP).Bajo, JavierUniversidad Politécnica de Madrid, Madrid, Spain.Vale, ZitaPolytechnic Institute of Porto, Porto, Portugal.
    Advances in Practical Applications of Cyber-Physical Multi-Agent Systems: 15th International Conference, PAAMS 2017, Porto, Portugal, June 21-23, 2017, Proceedings2017Conference proceedings (editor) (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the 15th International Conference on Practical Applications of Scalable Multi-Agent Systems, PAAMS 2017, held in Porto, Portugal, in June 2017.The 11 revised full papers, 11 short papers, and 17 Demo papers were carefully reviewed and selected from 63 submissions. The papers report on the application and validation of agent-based models, methods, and technologies in a number of key application areas, including day life and real world, energy and networks, human and trust, markets and bids, models and tools, negotiation and conversation, scalability and resources.  

  • 50.
    Dignum, Frank
    et al.
    Umea Univ, Umea, Sweden..
    Dignum, Virginia
    Umea Univ, Umea, Sweden..
    Davidsson, Paul
    Malmö University, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS), Department of Computer Science and Media Technology (DVMT).
    Ghorbani, Amineh
    Delft Univ Technol, Delft, Netherlands..
    van der Hurk, Mijke
    Univ Utrecht, Utrecht, Netherlands..
    Jensen, Maarten
    Umea Univ, Umea, Sweden..
    Kammler, Christian
    Umea Univ, Umea, Sweden..
    Lorig, Fabian
    Malmö University, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS), Department of Computer Science and Media Technology (DVMT).
    Ludescher, Luis Gustavo
    Umea Univ, Umea, Sweden..
    Melchior, Alexander
    Univ Utrecht, Utrecht, Netherlands..
    Mellema, Rene
    Umea Univ, Umea, Sweden..
    Pastrav, Cezara
    Umea Univ, Umea, Sweden..
    Vanhee, Lois
    Univ Caen, Caen, France..
    Verhagen, Harko
    Stockholm Univ, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Analysing the Combined Health, Social and Economic Impacts of the Corovanvirus Pandemic Using Agent-Based Social Simulation2020In: Minds and Machines, ISSN 0924-6495, E-ISSN 1572-8641, Vol. 30, no 2, p. 177-194Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    During the COVID-19 crisis there have been many difficult decisions governments and other decision makers had to make. E.g. do we go for a total lock down or keep schools open? How many people and which people should be tested? Although there are many good models from e.g. epidemiologists on the spread of the virus under certain conditions, these models do not directly translate into the interventions that can be taken by government. Neither can these models contribute to understand the economic and/or social consequences of the interventions. However, effective and sustainable solutions need to take into account this combination of factors. In this paper, we propose an agent-based social simulation tool, ASSOCC, that supports decision makers understand possible consequences of policy interventions, but exploring the combined social, health and economic consequences of these interventions.

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