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  • 51.
    Sotres, Javier
    et al.
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Health and Society (HS).
    Lindh, Liselott
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Odontology (OD).
    Arnebrant, Thomas
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Health and Society (HS).
    Friction Force Spectroscopy as a Tool to Study the Strength and Structure of Salivary Films2011In: Langmuir, ISSN 0743-7463, E-ISSN 1520-5827, Vol. 27, no 22, p. 13692-13700Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this work, we employ atomic force microscopy based friction force spectroscopy to study the strength and structure of salivary films. Specifically, films formed on model hydrophobic (methylated silica) and hydrophilic (clean silica) substrata have been studied in water at pHs in the range 3.3–7. Results reveal that films formed on both types of substrata can be described in terms of two different fractions, with only one of them being able to diffuse along the underlying substrata. We also show how the protective function of the films is reduced when the pH of the surrounding medium is lowered. Specifically, lowering of pH causes desorption of some components of the films formed on hydrophobic methylated surfaces, leading to weaker layers. In contrast, at low pHs, saliva no longer forms a layer on hydrophilic silica surfaces. Instead, an inhomogeneous distribution of amorphous aggregates is observed. Our data also suggest that hydrophobic materials in the oral cavity might be more easily cleaned from adsorbed salivary films. Finally, reproducible differences are observed in results from experiments on films from different individuals, validating the technique as a tool for clinical diagnosis of the resistance to erosion of salivary films.

  • 52.
    Sotres, Javier
    et al.
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Biomedical Science (BMV).
    Lindh, Liselott
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Odontology (OD).
    Svensson, Olof
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Biomedical Science (BMV).
    Barrantes, Alejandro
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Biomedical Science (BMV).
    Arnebrant, Thomas
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Biomedical Science (BMV).
    AFM-based friction force spectroscopy: a novel methodology for the study of the strength and lateral diffusion of proteinaceous films2012In: Proteins at Interfaces III State of the Art / [ed] Thomas Horbett, John Brash, Willem Norde, American Chemical Society (ACS), 2012, p. 129-151Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    We present a novel methodology for the study of proteinaceous films based on the friction force spectroscopy operation mode of the atomic force microscope. It provides information both on the strength at the nanoscale level and on the lateral diffusion properties of these systems. The usefulness of the data generated by this methodology are shown through its application to the study of different types of monolayers of model proteins, as well as to the study of the more complex and heterogeneous salivary films.

  • 53.
    Sotres, Javier
    et al.
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Biomedical Science (BMV).
    Pettersson, Torbjörn
    Lindh, Liselott
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Odontology (OD).
    Arnebrant, Thomas
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Biomedical Science (BMV).
    NanoWear of Salivary Films vs. Substratum Wettability2012In: Journal of Dental Research, ISSN 0022-0345, E-ISSN 1544-0591, Vol. 91, no 10, p. 973-978Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The pellicle serves as a multifunctional protective layer, providing, e.g., lubrication and remineralization and also acting as a diffusion barrier. In addition, since the formation of the pellicle precedes the adhesion of micro-organisms, it is also important as a conditioning film. We present a novel approach to study the influence of the water wettability of solid surfaces on the strength of adsorbed salivary films. It is based on studying the wear resistance of the films with an atomic force microscope operated in the friction force spectroscopy mode. This methodology provides the strength of the films in terms of the forces needed for breaking and removing them. Our results indicate that these forces are highly dependent on the water wettability of the underlying substrata, decreasing with increasing hydrophobicity. Thus, this study provides valuable information for the design of materials exposed in the oral cavity, i.e., materials that will minimize plaque formation and be easy to clean.

  • 54. Strietzel, Frank P
    et al.
    Lafaurie, Gloria I
    Bautista Mendoza, Gloria R
    Alajbeg, Ivan
    Pejda, Slavica
    Vuleti?, Lea
    Mantilla, Rubén
    Falcão, Denise P
    Leal, Soraya C
    Barreto Bezerra, Ana C
    Tran, Simon D
    Ménard, Henri A
    Kimoto, Suguru
    Pan, Shaoxia
    Martín-Granizo, Rafael A
    Maniegas Lozano, M Lourdes
    Zunt, Susan L
    Krushinski, Cheryl A
    Melilli, Dario
    Campisi, Giuseppina
    Paderni, Carlo
    Dolce, Sonia
    Yepes, Juan F
    Lindh, Liselott
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Odontology (OD).
    Koray, Meltem
    Mumcu, Gonca
    Elad, Sharon
    Zeevi, Itai
    Aldape Barrios, Beatriz C
    López Sánchez, Rodrigo M
    Beiski, Ben Z
    Wolff, Andy
    Konttinen, Yrjö T
    Efficacy and safety of an intraoral electrostimulation device for xerostomia relief: A multicenter randomized trial2011In: Arthritis and Rheumatism, ISSN 0004-3591, E-ISSN 1529-0131, Vol. 63, no 1, p. 180-190Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: The objective of the study was to evaluate the efficacy in treating xerostomia and the safety of an intraoral electrostimulation device, containing stimulating electrodes, an electronic circuit and a power source. The device delivers electrostimulation through the oral mucosa to the lingual nerve, in order to enhance the salivary reflex. Methods: The device was tested on a sample of patients with xerostomia due to Sjögren’s syndrome and other sicca conditions in a prospective randomized multi-center trial consisting of two stages: (I) a double blind, cross-over designed stage to compare the effects of the electrically “active” device with the “sham” device, both used for one month, and (II) a 3- month open label stage to assess the long-term influence of the “active” device. Improvement of xerostomia severity from baseline was the primary outcome. Results: A total of 114 subjects were randomized. In Stage I, “active” device performed better than “sham” for patient-reported xerostomia severity (p<0.002), xerostomia frequency (p<0.05), quality of life impairment (p<0.01) and swallowing difficulty (p<0.02). At the end of Stage II, statistically significant improvements were verified for patient-reported xerostomia severity (p<0.0001), xerostomia frequency (p<0.0001), oral discomfort (p<0.001), speech difficulty (p<0.02) and sleeping difficulty (p<0.001), and for resting salivary flow-rate (p<0.01). Conclusion: Daily use of the device alleviated oral dryness, discomfort and some complications of xerostomia, such as speech and sleeping difficulties, and increased salivary output. The results show a cumulative positive effect of the device over the period of the study, from baseline to the trial’s end.

  • 55.
    Svendsen, Ida
    et al.
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Health and Society (HS).
    Arnebrant, Thomas
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Health and Society (HS).
    Lindh, Liselott
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Odontology (OD).
    Adsorption from human palatal saliva at solid/liquid interfaces2003In: Journal of Dental Research, no 82, p. B217-B217Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: The aim of the present study was to obtain information on film forming properties by investigating adsorption of selected pellicle components and human whole saliva to different types of model surfaces, and their elutability by buffer and sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS). Methods: Time resolved in situ ellipsometry was used to determine the adsorbed amounts of purified PRP-1, MUC5B and human whole saliva, individually and in sequence, onto pure (hydrophilic, negatively charged) and methylated (hydrophobized) silica surfaces. Results: As a general observation, the measurements show that on hydrophobic surfaces higher amounts were adsorbed than on hydrophilic ones. For the individual components, rinsing with PBS resulted in a decrease in adsorbed amounts on both model substrates. After SDS exposure a minor fraction remained adsorbed on hydrophilic surfaces, while a larger fraction was left on hydrophobic ones. Addition of HWS or MUC5B in sequence after previously adsorbed PRP-1 resulted in an increase of adsorbed amounts on both types of surfaces. Rinsing with PBS and SDS elution resulted in a decrease in the adsorbed amount of protein, although, the remaining layer may be significantly different from that of the individual, indicating interactions between adsorbed protein components. Conclusion: The different desorbability upon buffer rinsing and addition of SDS indicate that the adsorbed proteins have varying binding strengths to the two types of surfaces. The results show that salivary components from HWS as well as MUC5B adsorb after pre-adsorption of PRP-1. Interactions affecting buffer and SDS elutability may take place between sequentially adsorbed proteins.

  • 56.
    Svendsen, Ida
    et al.
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Health and Society (HS).
    Arnebrant, Thomas
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Health and Society (HS).
    Lindh, Liselott
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Odontology (OD).
    Human palatal saliva: Adsorption behaviour and the role of low-molecular weight proteins2004In: Biofouling (Print), ISSN 0892-7014, E-ISSN 1029-2454, Vol. 20, no 6, p. 269-277Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In situ ellipsometry was employed to study adsorption from human palatal saliva (HPalS) in terms of dependence on surface wettability and saliva concentration (<or=1%). Adsorbed amounts, kinetics, and elutability with buffer and sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) were determined. The low-molecular weight protein content of bulk HPalS was also investigated using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, and this revealed the presence of a large group of proteins

  • 57.
    Svendsen, Ida
    et al.
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Health and Society (HS). Malmö högskola, Faculty of Odontology (OD).
    Arnebrant, Thomas
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Health and Society (HS).
    Lindh, Liselott
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Odontology (OD).
    Validation of mechanically-assisted sodium dodecyl-sulphate elution as a technique to remove pellicle protein components from human enamel2008In: Biofouling (Print), ISSN 0892-7014, E-ISSN 1029-2454, Vol. 24, p. 227-233Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The salivary film, denoted the pellicle, formed on oral surfaces is of great importance for oral health and comfort. The present study describes mechanically-assisted sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) elution of the in vivo pellicle formed on human enamel and visualisation of the desorbed pellicle proteins using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE). To verify this removal of the pellicle, a combined mechanical and surfactant procedure was additionally performed on an in vitro pellicle formed on human enamel, and the effectiveness was validated by mechanical removal in combination with HCl. As indicated by protein quantitation and one dimensional gel electrophoresis, rubbing with polyamide fibre pellets soaked in a 0.5% SDS solution was optimal for completely removing the adsorbed proteins from the enamel surface, and yet provided separation of the proteins by 2-DE to enable identification in future studies.

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  • 58.
    Svendsen, Ida
    et al.
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Health and Society (HS). Malmö högskola, Faculty of Odontology (OD).
    Lindh, Liselott
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Health and Society (HS). Malmö högskola, Faculty of Odontology (OD).
    The composition of enamel salivary films is different from the ones formed on dental materials2009In: Biofouling (Print), ISSN 0892-7014, E-ISSN 1029-2454, Vol. 25, no 2, p. 255-261Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study utilized two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) to illustrate compositional differences between in vitro salivary conditioning films (denoted pellicles) formed on human enamel as well as on the dental materials titanium and poly methyl methacrylate (PMMA). The salivary pellicles were formed by immersing each surface in individual tubes containing small volumes of freshly collected whole saliva. Saliva remaining in the tubes after 2 hours of pellicle formation was visualized by means of 2-DE and silver staining. The results showed that the protein patterns in 2-DE of the liquid phase of saliva left after exposure to the respective surfaces, regarding proteins below 100 kDa in size, were different depending on the surface used. Several protein groups and/or individual proteins were shown to be distinct for each surface used.

  • 59.
    Svendsen, Ida
    et al.
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Odontology (OD). Malmö högskola, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Biomedical Science (BMV).
    Lindh, Liselott
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Odontology (OD). Malmö högskola, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Biomedical Science (BMV).
    Arnebrant, Thomas
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Odontology (OD). Malmö högskola, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Biomedical Science (BMV).
    Adsorption behaviour and surfactant elution of cationic salivary proteins at solid/liquid interfaces, studied by in situ ellipsometry2006In: Colloids and Surfaces B: Biointerfaces, ISSN 0927-7765, E-ISSN 1873-4367, Vol. 53, no 2, p. 157-166Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Adsorption of the cationic salivary proteins lactoferrin, lactoperoxidase, lysozyme and histatin 5 to pure (hydrophilic) and methylated (hydrophobized) silica surfaces was investigated by in situ ellipsometry. Effects of concentration (≤10 μg ml−1, for lysozyme ≤200 μg ml−1) and dependence of surface wettability, as well as adsorption kinetics and elutability of adsorbed films by buffer and sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) solutions were investigated. Results showed that the amounts adsorbed decreased in the order lactoferrin ≥ lactoperoxidase > lysozyme ≥ histatin 5. On hydrophilic silica, the adsorption was most likely driven by electrostatic interactions, which resulted in adsorbed amounts of lactoferrin that indicated the formation of a monolayer with both side-on and end-on adsorbed molecules. For lactoperoxidase the adsorbed amounts were somewhat higher than an end-on monolayer, lysozyme adsorption showed amounts corresponding to a side-on monolayer, and histatin 5 displayed adsorbed amounts in the range of a side-on monolayer. On hydrophobized substrata, the adsorption was also mediated by hydrophobic interactions, which resulted in lower adsorbed amounts of lactoferrin and lactoperoxidase; closer to side-on monolayer coverage. For both lysozyme and histatin 5 the adsorbed amounts were the same as on the hydrophilic silica. The investigated proteins exhibited fast adsorption kinetics, and the initial kinetics indicated mass transport controlled behaviour at low concentrations on both types of substrates. Buffer rinsing and SDS elution indicated that the proteins in general were more tightly bound to the hydrophobized surface compared to hydrophilic silica. Overall, the surface activity of the investigated proteins implicates their importance in the salivary film formation.

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  • 60.
    Svendsen, Ida
    et al.
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Health and Society (HS). Malmö högskola, Faculty of Odontology (OD).
    Lindh, Liselott
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Health and Society (HS). Malmö högskola, Faculty of Odontology (OD).
    Arnebrant, Thomas
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Health and Society (HS). Malmö högskola, Faculty of Odontology (OD).
    Lactoperoxidase and Histatin 5: their Adsorption Behaviour on Silica and Hydrophobized Silica Surfaces, and Implications on their Role in the Initial Salivary Film Formation2007In: Zeitschrift fur physikalische Chemie (Munchen. 1991), ISSN 0942-9352, Vol. 221, p. 65-73Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The acquired pellicle is the thin salivary film that covers all oral surfaces, formed by selective adsorption of primarily salivary proteins. Several cationic proteins, such as lactoferrin, lactoperoxidase, lysozyme and histatin 5 have been identified in the pellicle. This study focused on the adsorption of lactoperoxidase and histatin 5, to investigate their possible importance in the initial salivary film formation. The adsorption was investigated by means of in situ ellipsometry, to both pure (hydrophilic) and methylated (hydrophobized) silica substrates, at concentrations relevant in saliva. The adsorption was investigated in terms of surface area per molecule and influence of surface wettability. Mass transport controlled adsorption in relation to the initial adsorption from human whole saliva and glandular saliva was also investigated. Results showed that lactoperoxidase adsorbed in larger amounts on pure silica compared to methylated surfaces. Histatin 5 adsorbed to the same extent to the two types of surfaces, but to a lesser extent compared to lactoperoxidase. The mass transport calculated adsorption rates of lactoperoxidase and histatin 5 showed that histatin 5 might potentially have a significant role in the initial adsorption from saliva, whereas lactoperoxidase may also adsorb but is not a dominating component.

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  • 61.
    Svendsen, Ida
    et al.
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Health and Society (HS). Malmö högskola, Faculty of Odontology (OD).
    Lindh, Liselott
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Health and Society (HS). Malmö högskola, Faculty of Odontology (OD).
    Elofsson, Ulla
    Arnebrant, Thomas
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Health and Society (HS). Malmö högskola, Faculty of Odontology (OD).
    Studies on the exchange of early pellicle proteins by mucin and whole2008In: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science, ISSN 0021-9797, E-ISSN 1095-7103, Vol. 321, no 1, p. 52-59Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Adsorption of small pellicle proteins statherin or proline-rich protein 1 (PRP1) respectively, and subsequent adsorption of human whole saliva (HWS) or salivary mucin MUC5B respectively, was studied using ellipsometry and total internal reflectance fluorescence. Differences in elution (using sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) solutions) between mixed and single protein films were also investigated. On both hydrophilic and hydrophobized surfaces HWS and MUC5B were found to adsorb to pre-adsorbed layers of statherin and PRP1 respectively. Statherin adsorption on both substrate types showed no or minor exchange by HWS or MUC5B and no change in SDS elution between mixed and single protein films. Small amounts of PRP1 were exchanged by HWS on both surface types and the SDS elutable fractions were similar or larger for mixed films compared to single protein films. PRP1 and MUC5B in sequence showed minor exchange of PRP1 on hydrophilic surfaces, while no exchange could be established on hydrophobized substrates. SDS elutable fractions decreased for PRP1 and MUC5B mixed films compared to single protein films. In conclusion, minor amounts of statherin and PRP1 are exchanged during the time course of the experiments, which indicates that these proteins may to a large extent remain incorporated in the pellicle.

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  • 62.
    Svendsen, Ida
    et al.
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Odontology (OD).
    Santos, Olga
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Biomedical Science (BMV).
    Sotres, Javier
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Biomedical Science (BMV).
    Wennerberg, Ann
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Odontology (OD).
    Breding, Karin
    Arnebrant, Thomas
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Biomedical Science (BMV).
    Lindh, Liselott
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Odontology (OD).
    Adsorption of HSA, IgG and laminin-1 on model hydroxyapatite surfaces - effects of surface characteristics2012In: Biofouling (Print), ISSN 0892-7014, E-ISSN 1029-2454, Vol. 28, no 1, p. 87-97Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ellipsometry and mechanically assisted sodium dodecyl sulphate elution was utilized to study the adsorption of human serum albumin (HSA), human immunoglobulin G (IgG), and laminin-1, as well as competitive adsorption from a mixture of these proteins on spin-coated and sintered hydroxyapatite (HA) surfaces, respectively. The HA surfaces were characterized with respect to wettability and roughness by means of water contact angles and atomic force microscopy, respectively. Both surface types were hydrophilic, and the average roughness (Sa) and surface enlargement (Sdr) were lower for the sintered compared to the spin-coated HA surfaces. The adsorbed amounts on the sintered HA increased as follows: HSA < laminin-1 < IgG < the protein mixture. For the competitive adsorption experiments, the adsorbed fractions increased accordingly: HSA < laminin-1 < IgG on both types of HA substratum. However, a higher relative amount of HSA and laminin-1 and a lower relative amount of IgG was found on the spin-coated surfaces compared to the sintered surfaces. The effects observed could be ascribed to differences in surface roughness and chemical composition between the two types of HA substratum, and could have an influence on selection of future implant surface coatings.

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  • 63.
    Svensson, Olof
    et al.
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Health and Society (HS).
    Lindh, Liselott
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Odontology (OD).
    Cárdenas, Marité
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Health and Society (HS).
    Arnebrant, Thomas
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Health and Society (HS).
    Layer-by-layer assembly of mucin and chitosan - Influence of surface properties, concentration and type of mucin2006In: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science, ISSN 0021-9797, E-ISSN 1095-7103, Vol. 299, no 2, p. 608-616Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Bovine submaxillary mucin (BSM) and chitosan were used to build layer-by-layer structures on solid substrates. The build-up was monitored using in situ ellipsometry to obtain time resolved values of the thickness and adsorbed amount. Additionally surface morphology during build-up was studied by atomic force microscopy (AFM). It was found that the adsorbed amount of the film increases approximately linearly with each deposition cycle on hydrophobized silica whereas construction on silica was found not to be possible at the experimental conditions used. We conclude that sufficient amount of the first mucin layer is crucial for the subsequent multilayer formation. The complex build-up kinetics on hydrophobized silica is characterized by adsorption and redissolution processes and the overall growth is the sum of both processes. AFM imaging on hydrophobized silica also confirmed the presence of redissolution processes and chitosan addition led to a reduction both in the number of surface aggregates and in the roughness of the surface. The present work also shows that by adjusting the relative concentrations of the polyelectrolytes it is possible to change the growth rate considerably. The final structures after deposition of 8 bilayers were found to have a high content of water and film stability test revealed that a substantial amount dissolves when increasing electrolyte concentration or pH of the ambient solution. Human mucin from saliva (MUC5B) was also used to create multilayers with chitosan on hydrophobized silica and it was revealed that no redissolution appears to be present in this system.

  • 64. Valentijn-Benz, Marianne
    et al.
    van 't Hof, Wim
    Bikker, Floris J
    Nazmi, Kamran
    Brand, Henk S
    Sotres, Javier
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Biomedical Science (BMV).
    Lindh, Liselott
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Odontology (OD).
    Arnebrant, Thomas
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Biomedical Science (BMV).
    Veerman, Enno C I
    Sphingoid Bases Inhibit Acid-Induced Demineralization of Hydroxyapatite2015In: Caries Research, ISSN 0008-6568, E-ISSN 1421-976X, Vol. 49, no 1, p. 9-17Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Calcium hydroxyapatite (HAp), the main constituent of dental enamel, is inherently susceptible to the etching and dissolving action of acids, resulting in tooth decay such as dental caries and dental erosion. Since the prevalence of erosive wear is gradually increasing, there is urgent need for agents that protect the enamel against erosive attacks. In the present study we studied in vitro the anti-erosive effects of a number of sphingolipids and sphingoid bases, which form the backbone of sphingolipids. Pretreatment of HAp discs with sphingosine, phytosphingosine (PHS), PHS phosphate and sphinganine significantly protected these against acid-induced demineralization by 80 ± 17%, 78 ± 17%, 78 ± 7% and 81 ± 8%, respectively (p < 0.001). On the other hand, sphingomyelin, acetyl PHS, octanoyl PHS and stearoyl PHS had no anti-erosive effects. Atomic force measurement revealed that HAp discs treated with PHS were almost completely and homogeneously covered by patches of PHS. This suggests that PHS and other sphingoid bases form layers on the surface of HAp, which act as diffusion barriers against H+ ions. In principle, these anti-erosive properties make PHS and related sphingosines promising and attractive candidates as ingredients in oral care products.

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