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  • 51.
    Lundin, Johan A.
    Malmö högskola, School of Teacher Education (LUT), Children-Youth-Society (BUS).
    Rockmusik som folkminne2009Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med detta paper är att presentera ett material som studenter vid Malmö högskola skapar för att dokumentera rockkonserter i vår samtid. Tanken är att locka andra att använda materialet i sin forskning, samt inspirera till liknande dokumentationsprojekt. Jag tycker att det vore intressant om papret skulle kunna fungera som ett avstamp till en mer övergripande diskussion om dokumentation av populärmusiken som kulturarv och kanske till och med generera gemensamma projekt kring detta.

  • 52.
    Lundin, Johan A.
    et al.
    Malmö högskola, School of Teacher Education (LUT), Children-Youth-Society (BUS).
    Nilsson, Fredrik
    Malmö högskola, School of Teacher Education (LUT), Individual and Society (IS).
    När tiden och rummet (de)stabiliseras: Bill Haley och Rock Around the Clock – ett populärkulturellt gravitationscentrum2009Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
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  • 53.
    Lutz, Kristian
    Malmö högskola, School of Teacher Education (LUT), Children-Youth-Society (BUS).
    Identification of normality and deviance among children in the preschool age – visibility, knowledge and techniques2007Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 54.
    Lutz, Kristian
    Malmö högskola, School of Teacher Education (LUT), Children-Youth-Society (BUS).
    Kategoriseringar av barn i förskoleåldern - styrning och administrativa processer2009Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The present thesis investigates, analyses and critically discusses the manner in which children with special needs are categorised in the Swedish preschool. The emergence of the category and its construction depends on a number of "truths" concerning children, related to historical and cultural processes in society. A main focus of the thesis is to investigate how legitimacy is established for the practice of defining deviance among preschoolers, and analyse the knowledge and rationalities that prevail in discursive practice. As part of this, the ways of defining children with special needs as a group are clarified, as well as the administrative procedures for handling their cases throughout the organisation. The study combines two strands within discourse analysis: "classical" discourse analysis with origins in Foucaults' work and critical disourse analysis (CDA). The concept governmentality was used to make an analytical matrix, adapted to prescool practices. Data has been collected in a disadvantaged district belonging to the conurbation of a Swedish major city. Empirical material includes recording of an administrative meeting, application documents, interviews and national policy documents. The study shows that the categorisation have different effects and functions in different contexts. Implemental perspective: The practice of development evaluation of preschoolers has increased the written documentation, often based on techniques originating in compulsory school. These techniques are frequently ill adapted to the curriculum of the Swedish preschool, which emphasise the competent child and clearly encourages the child`s agency in preschool activities. Evaluation techniques also play the role of an incentive driving towards increasing individualisation. Educators tend to distance themselves from generalising concepts, and often assume a relational standpoint to defining deviance in children, but adapt to techniques that require a more individually based practice, which places the problems with the child. When parents consent to submit application documents, power is transformed to a range of professional actors, and a client-expert relationship is established. Administrative perspective: On the management level, the child primarily is subject to an economical rationality, and is expected to fit into existing preschool activities. The empirical material of this thesis does not display the inclusive perspective which occupies such a prominent position in special education discussions concerning compulsory school. The administrative conversation observed in the study was characterised by a quantitative approach, concerning resources for children who are considered deviant. Discussions at the meeting did not concern any aspect of the quality of the support offered, and the relationship between children and educators was reduced to a number of resouce hours per child. Societal (professional) perspectives: In an analysis of how resources for children with special needs are allocated in the city district, results will depend on which type of knowledge and rationalities are judged to be legitimate. Children who received a diagnosis delivered by a physician, or who are in the course of being investigated at the habilitation centre, obtain the largest support measures. A pattern supported by national policy documents, who constitute a steering mechanism towards implementation in educational establishments. Development evaluations in preschool can be seen as a step in Foucaults' term "psycomplex", where psychology is manifested in the institutions dealing with preschool children and their activities. The close historical link between pedagogy and developmental psychology, combined with a general development in society towards giving the individual perspective a central position, may contribute to the dominance of psychiatric assesments in explaining deviance among preschoolers.

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  • 55.
    Lutz, Kristian
    Malmö högskola, School of Teacher Education (LUT), Children-Youth-Society (BUS).
    Konstruktionen av det avvikande förskolebarnet - En kritisk fallstudie angående utvecklingsbedömningar av yngre barn2006Licentiate thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Konstruktionen av det avvikande förskolebarnet, är en avhandling som behandlar relationen mellan begrepp som utveckling, avvikelse och särskilt stöd i förskolan. Begreppet normalitet problematiseras i ett samhälleligt perspektiv och kopplas till olika aktörers utrymme att formulera "sanningar" rörande avvikelser. Undersökningen, som avhandlingen baseras på, är en fallstudie där vi får följa bedömningar av en begränsad grupp barn inom förskolan kategoriserade under begreppet "barn i behov av särskilt stöd". Studien belyser de olika aktörer som är inblandade i praktiken, samt maktförhållanden och tolkningsföreträde som finns mellan olika professioner. Bedömare (exempelvis psykiatriker och psykologer) utanför förskolans organisation påverkar bedömningspraktiken. Diagnoser och andra kategoriseringar där problemen knyts till barnet får därför en stor betydelse. Pedagogernas bedömningar av barnen präglas i större utsträckning av en relationell syn på barns avvikelser och är företrädesvis kopplad till specifika beteendemönster i barnens vardag.

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  • 56.
    Löf, Camilla
    Malmö högskola, School of Teacher Education (LUT), Children-Youth-Society (BUS).
    Being a good friend. Constructions of friendship in Life Competence Education2009In: Proceedings of the eleventh Conference of the Children's Identity and Citizenship in Europe Thematic Network, CiCe Thematic Network project, Institute for Policy studies in Education, London Metropolitan University , 2009, p. 462-468Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Great expectations lay upon school, not only as an institution for education but also as an arena for equity, health and democratic values (Löf, forthcoming). The aim of this paper is to explore how normality’s on ‘good friendship’ are constructed in the setting of a new school subject called Life Competence Education (Sw Livskunskap). The study draws upon ethnographic data and video recordings from two compulsory schools in Malmö. Tentative findings are: a ‘good friend’ can express feelings, opinions and needs. Also, forgiveness and the admitting of mistakes are central in a “good friendship”. The way children are trained in values and companionship promotes a new discourse on children as “becoming beings”, which will be further developed in this presentation.

  • 57.
    Löf, Camilla
    Malmö högskola, School of Teacher Education (LUT), Children-Youth-Society (BUS).
    Kunskap för livet? Livskunskap kamratkulturer och skolans uppdrag2007Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Life Competence Education (Sw. Livskunskap) has developed as a new school subject in the Swedish compulsory school, aiming to prevent a variety of societal problems, such as drugs, teen pregnancy, sexual transmitted infections and different forms of abuse. In this thesis ethnographic methods are used to explore discourses on Life Competence Education from different perspectives: • a political/societal perspective on education • interpretations of Life Competence Education within the local school practices • through the everyday life of children’s peer groups • within the classroom situation The aim of the study is to analyze how childhood, gender and sexuality interact and relate to other social categories (such as ethnicity, class etc) within Life Competence Education. A central theme is how children handle confl icts of loyalty when encountering norms and values from different practices (peers, family and school).

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  • 58.
    Löf, Camilla
    Malmö högskola, School of Teacher Education (LUT), Children-Youth-Society (BUS).
    Livskunskap – en gränsöverskridande praktik i skolan2009In: Educare, ISSN 1653-1868, E-ISSN 2004-5190, no 2-3Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Life Competence Education (Sw. livskunskap) is a new school subject that has developed in Swedish schools over the last decade. Life Competence Education is non-mandatory and lack national guidelines, due to which there are no unanimous definitions. Consequently, Life Competence Education can be just about anything: Some schools apply cognitive programs to train pupils’ social and emotional competences, whilst others use this new subject as a way of contextualizing sex and relationship education (a. a.). Despute the divergent interpretations of what Life Competence Education should consist of there are some common features in local curricula, such as prevention (and solving) of bullying and segregation, gender equity, relationships, ethics and values. These themes harmonize well with the concerns of childhood studies, where the marginalization of childhood is highlighted. Life Competence Education can be seen as an example of schools’ attempts to integrate children and childhood into society.

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  • 59.
    Löf, Camilla
    Malmö högskola, School of Teacher Education (LUT), Children-Youth-Society (BUS).
    Med fokus på individer istället för på kulturer2007In: Kritisk Utbildningstidskrift, ISSN 0347-5409, Vol. 125, no 1, p. 26-37Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 60.
    Löf, Camilla
    Malmö högskola, School of Teacher Education (LUT), Children-Youth-Society (BUS).
    Med livet på schemat: om skolämnet livskunskap och den riskfyllda barndomen2011Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this thesis is to understand and cast light over how the school subject Life Competence Education (Sw. Livskunskap) is developing in the Swedish school context. In focus of the study is how this school subject is defined and organized by actors (i.e. politicians, national governmental institutes, local governmental authorities, teachers and children in compulsory schools) in the different practices that together constitute the field of school. Of specific interest is how children and childhood is formulated within this specific subject, as well as what possibilities to contribute and participate in the process of defining and organizing Life Competence Education as a school subject. The study is conducted in Malmö, a community where Life Competence Education is part of the local public health strategy. The study draws upon a theoretical framework in which childhood sociology (James & Prout, 1997; Corsaro, 2005) is combined with critical discourse analysis (CDA, Fairclough, 2010). The empirical data has been collected by a variety of methods: such as policy documents at both a national and a local level; interviews with local key persons; as well as an ethnographic fieldwork and video recordings from classroom interaction. This methodological design offers the possibility to analyze Life Competence Education from different perspectives, with a special interest in how childhood is constituted within different formulations of this specific school subject. The analysis shows a national concern for children’s vulnerable positions in the society. At a national level politicians and governmental institutes formulate Life Competence Education as a way for schools to improve children’s health and empower children to act as democratic agents. In local curricula this subject is formulated as a possibility for schools to organize values education and other mandatory cross-disciplinary subjects. Thus, when Life Competence Education is interpreted in the local school practice t is transformed into more of a solution of locally defined social and individual problems. Children’s personal experiences are often at center of attention when problem solving, risking exploiting children’s private relations. As a consequence, the educational setting transforms into a therapeutic setting. The analysis shows that the children, in classroom interaction, demonstrate their agencies opposing the values upheld by the teachers.

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  • 61.
    Löf, Camilla
    Malmö högskola, School of Teacher Education (LUT), Children-Youth-Society (BUS).
    Performing Gender. An example from Life Competence Education2008Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Life Competence Education (Sw. Livskunskap) has developed as a new school subject in Swedish compulsory schools. It lacks national curricula or guidelines, leaving schools with a wide range of interpretations and aims. However, Life Competence Education is commonly interpreted as a way of contextualizing sex and relationship education, in which topics such as gender, friendship and health are explored. The aim of this paper is to analyze what discourses children use to perform gender within Life Competence Education. The study is part of a thesis in progress, in which an ethnographic approach and video recordings are used, in order to develop an understanding of schools as normative and regulating practices.

  • 62.
    Löf, Camilla
    Malmö högskola, School of Teacher Education (LUT), Children-Youth-Society (BUS).
    Skolämnet livskunskap och den riskfyllda barndomen2011In: Skola och barndom: normering, demokratisering, individualisering / [ed] Ingegerd Tallberg Broman, Gleerups Utbildning AB, 2011, p. 133-143Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 63.
    Löf, Camilla
    Malmö högskola, School of Teacher Education (LUT), Children-Youth-Society (BUS).
    What values are upheld in Life Competence Education?2010In: Abstracts, Active Citizenship;abstract 46, 2010, article id 46Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Research topic/aim: The aim of this paper is to analyse what values are upheld in the new school subject Life Competence Education, as interpreted by local school practices in Sweden. Theoretical framework: Life Competence Education has developed in Swedish schools over the past decade as a way of organizing the fundamental values of the swedish school system. An important approach for the understanding of Life Competence Education is therefore the notion of broad didactics (Englund, 1997), in which education and classroom activities s contextualized with societal values. Moreover, an ambition with this school subject is to empower children and prevent them from a riskful society (Lee, 2001; James & Prout, 2006). This paper is part of the four year cross scientific programme Multi-Contextual Childhood, which is financed by the Swedish research council. Methodology/research design: This study draws upon an ethnographic fieldwork (october 2006- may 2008), combined with video recordings and analysis of policy documents. The study is conducted in Malmö Sweden and includes three compulsory schools, which all have implemented Life Competence Education as a subject on the schedule. Expected conclusions/findings: A critical analysis of local curricula shows how some personal qualities are highlighted as desirable. Consequently other qualities and behaviours are regulated through training. One paradox is that the values and normalities that are constructed in the school practices are based on local definitions and understandings of terms such as “culture” and “friendship”. Consequently these definitions emphaze that for example integration is relevant only for those that are segregated, rather than making integration a matter for the entire society. I will here argue for the need of reflection over whether these local values are in line with national curricula? Relevance for Nordic Educational research: Life Competence Education is a new subject in Swedish schools, and there is little research on this phenomena. There is an emerging need for knowledge on Life Competence Education, both in relation to school agendas and related to childhood and children’s peer cultures.

  • 64.
    Löfgren, Horst
    Malmö högskola, School of Teacher Education (LUT), Children-Youth-Society (BUS).
    Grundläggande statistiska metoder för analys av kvantitativa data: med övningar för programpaketet SPSS2006Book (Other academic)
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  • 65.
    Löfgren, Horst
    et al.
    Malmö högskola, School of Teacher Education (LUT), Children-Youth-Society (BUS).
    Malm, BirgitteMalmö högskola, School of Teacher Education (LUT), Children-Youth-Society (BUS).
    Bridging the fields of drama and conflict management: Empowering students to handle conflicts through school-based programmes2005Collection (editor) (Other academic)
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  • 66.
    Malm, Birgitte
    Malmö högskola, School of Teacher Education (LUT), Children-Youth-Society (BUS).
    Authenticity in teachers lives and work. Some philosophical and empirical considerations2008In: Scandinavian Journal of Educational Research, ISSN 0031-3831, E-ISSN 1470-1170, Vol. 52, no 4, p. 373-386Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article the concept of authenticity is explored within an educational context, using examples from the lives and work of teachers to illustrate the many qualities, dimensions and complexities involved in striving to be true to oneself. In educational settings authenticity has been aligned with personal commitment, meaningful contexts, realistic intentions, respect for students and on‐going professional development. In essence, general fulfilment is attained when values pertaining to teachers' personal and professional selves are in unison; when “what I am” and “what I do” are as true to ones nature as they can possibly be. By recognising and acknowledging authenticity as a personal process of engagement, manifested in teachers' lives and work, we may acquire a deeper understanding of the kinds of practices and pedagogical encounters that enhance, or even limit, student and teacher development. 

  • 67.
    Malm, Birgitte
    Malmö högskola, School of Teacher Education (LUT), Children-Youth-Society (BUS).
    Being a Montessori Teacher. Reflections on Life and Work2008Book (Other academic)
  • 68.
    Malm, Birgitte
    Malmö högskola, School of Teacher Education (LUT), Children-Youth-Society (BUS).
    Personal reflections on professional practice. A portrayal of Nora2008In: New Zealand Journal of Teacher's Work, no 5(2), 2008Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 69.
    Malm, Birgitte
    Malmö högskola, School of Teacher Education (LUT), Children-Youth-Society (BUS).
    Personal values, professional roles: Teachers' reflections on their lives and work2007Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, the occupational life histories of a small group of female Montessori teachers in Sweden are in focus. Of interest has been to shed light on underlying values, ways in which professional roles reflect personal values as well as teachers' reflections on the present and future perspectives of their profession. Of special interest has been to discover if and to what extent these teachers are able or willing to adapt to changing conditions within the overall educational establishment, i.e. in the light of current pedagogical development and research. Data exploration based on journals, interviews, written reflections and conversations has culminated in a collection of occupational life histories. These in turn have been able to shed light on the ways in which personal and professional lives are formed, influenced and developed. Tendencies towards continuity or change in education depend to a great extent on the ways in which teachers are able to critically reflect about how they think and what they do. Taking seriously what teachers have to say is in fact essential in order to understand the forces that, among other things, govern and sway teachers' inner as well as outer motivations, something I believe to be of relevance and concern to all involved in teaching and educational processes.

  • 70.
    Malm, Birgitte
    Malmö högskola, School of Teacher Education (LUT), Children-Youth-Society (BUS).
    Teachers' lives and work in a cultural and historical context. Reflections based on the professional life histories of eight Montessori teachers in Sweden2002Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper discusses the implications of using life history methodology in teacher research. By examining teachers’ life stories within a cultural and historical context the researcher and teacher, in collaboration, construct a life history. Biographical material based on the personal and professional aspects of being a teacher were collected from eight Montessori teachers in Sweden. Empirical data included interviews, diaries, written narratives and discussions. Theoretical and philosophical issues raised in conjunction with the biographies included counterconcepts such as traditional educational theory/critical reflection and continuity/change within the profession. Specific issues were raised in regard to students, parents, the work situation, etc. Valuable insights were gained concerning the changing roles of teachers in contemporary educational contexts. The voices and visions of teachers should thus be able to contribute to a deeper understanding of the role of the teacher and by so doing lead to improvements within the profession as a whole.

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  • 71.
    Malm, Birgitte
    Malmö högskola, School of Teacher Education (LUT), Children-Youth-Society (BUS).
    Towards a new professionalism: enhancing personal and professional development in teacher education2009In: Journal of Education for Teaching, ISSN 0260-7476, E-ISSN 1360-0540, Vol. 35, no 1, p. 77-91Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The diversity and complexity of the post-modern era places new and important challenges on Teacher Education. The crucial role that personal dispositions have for professional learning needs to be better understood and acknowledged. Teacher training programmes need to focus more on objectives such as promoting conflict literacy, self-awareness, empathy, leadership and collaborative skills, i.e. taking into account not only the cognitive but also the social and emotional aspects of human development. In this article, Swedish lecturers’ descriptions of what they consider to be competences and qualities necessary for future teachers constitute the starting point for a wider discussion on the decisive role of beliefs and emotions in being and becoming a teacher. Issues raised here should be able to contribute to a better understanding of what it means to be a teacher and, consequently, result in improvements in the planning of teacher training programmes.

  • 72.
    Malm, Birgitte
    Malmö högskola, School of Teacher Education (LUT), Children-Youth-Society (BUS).
    Understanding what it means to be a Montessori teacher: teachers reflections on their lives and work2003Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The overall aim of this study has been to come to a better understanding of what it means to be a Montessori teacher, by getting a group of Montessori teachers to reflect on their lives and work. Data exploration has comprised journals, interviews, written reflections and collaborative con-textual analysis. Analysis of the teachers? occupational life histories and the findings as a whole have been used to shed light on: ?Values and specific aspects of the philosophy of Montessori edu-cation that primarily attract teachers to this profession. ?Ways in which teachers? conceptions of their professional roles reflect their own personal values, beliefs and convictions. ?Teachers? views regarding the role of Montessori education to-day and in the future. Eight female Montessori primary school teachers participated in the study. Findings reveal that the strengths of the Montessori method lie in its focus on philosophical awareness, the holistic approach and a genuine ethic of care. Montessori?s fundamental educational principles are also in alignment with the current Curriculum for Compulsory Schools (Lpo 94). On the other hand, difficulties are experienced due to conflicting tradi-tional/contemporary interpretations of Montessori theory and practice and a general lack of collaboration among Montessori teachers. Open discussion and a sharing of ideas and experiences would help Montessori teachers come to terms with how to apply fundamental principles in new ways without the fear of losing an educational ?identity?. The Montessori teachers in this study reflect this attitude. Tendencies toward continu-ity/meaningful change in education depend to a great extent on the ways in which teachers are able to critically reflect about how they think and what they do. Taking seriously what teachers have to say is in fact essen-tial in order to understand the forces that, among other things, govern and sway teachers? inner as well as outer motivations, something of relevance and concern to all involved in teaching and educational processes.

  • 73.
    Malm, Birgitte
    et al.
    Malmö högskola, School of Teacher Education (LUT), Children-Youth-Society (BUS).
    Löfgren, Horst
    Malmö högskola, School of Teacher Education (LUT), Children-Youth-Society (BUS).
    Empowering students to handle conflicts through the use of drama2007In: Journal of Peace Education, ISSN 1740-0201, E-ISSN 1740-021X, Vol. 4, no 1Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    DRACON (DRAma for CONflict management) is an interdisciplinary and comparative action research project aimed at improving conflict handling among adolescent school children through the use of educational drama. The main purpose of our research has been to develop an integrated programme using conflict management as the theory and practice, and drama as the pedagogy, in order to empower students through an integrated, school-based programme to manage their own conflict experiences in all aspects of their lives. In our studies we have used different forms of self-reported data, such as questionnaires, diaries and questions requiring problem solving. Interviews with students and their teachers as well as observations have been used; drama exercises have also been video-recorded for further analysis. While students found it difficult to articulate their understanding of conflicts verbally, their engagement in the reconstruction of conflicts disclosed their grasp of the components of a conflict clearly enough. Peer teaching was found to be an effective method of teaching about conflict management. Results within DRACON have shown promising results with regard to empowering students to manage their own conflicts.

  • 74.
    Månsson, Annika
    Malmö högskola, School of Teacher Education (LUT), Children-Youth-Society (BUS).
    Becoming a preschool child - Subjectification in toddlers during their introduction to preschool in a gender perspective2010In: Abstracts;330, 2010, article id 44Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this presentation is to discuss and problematize children’s introduction to the pre-school as social practice with a focus on subjectification in a gender perspective. This introductory process is to be of great importance in the Swedish preschool. This paper is based on a study carried out in one strategically chosen preschool infant group. The study addresses the question of which possible subject positions can be adopted by children during their introduction period to the preschool, their first institutional practice. What possibilities are offered and what limitations imposed as part of the pedagogical practice? The focus is on the interaction between the teachers and the children and between the children and the social practice. One of the analytical tools used is the concept “positioning”. In my observations I observed gendered positions for the child as both in need of care and competent. Key words: Childhood, childhood care, subjectification, gender, positioning, toddlers.

  • 75.
    Månsson, Annika
    Malmö högskola, School of Teacher Education (LUT), Children-Youth-Society (BUS).
    Becoming a preschool child: Subjectification in toddlers during their introduction to preschool, from a gender perspective2011In: International Journal of Early Childhood, ISSN 0020-7187, E-ISSN 1878-4658, Vol. 43, no 1, p. 7-22Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract The aim of this paper is to contribute to the knowledge of children’s introduction to pre-school as social practice with a focus on subjectification from a gender perspective. This introductory process is given great importance in the Swedish pre-school. This paper is based on a study carried out in one strategically chosen preschool infant group. The study addresses the question of which possible subject positions can be adopted by children during their period of introduction to preschool, their first institutional experience. The focus is on the interaction between teachers and children and between children and social practice. One of the analytical tools used is the concept ”positioning”. The analysis indicates gendered positions for the child as both in need of care and competent. Key words Gender, positioning, preschool, toddlers.

  • 76.
    Månsson, Annika
    Malmö högskola, School of Teacher Education (LUT), Children-Youth-Society (BUS).
    Möten som formar: interaktionsmönster på förskola mellan pedagoger och de yngsta barnen i ett genusperspektiv2000Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The gendered encounter Interaction between toddlers and preschool teachers in a gender perspective In studies concerning the youngest children, the so-called toddlers, the gender perspective is often missing. My interest is, therefore, to study if and how the gender construction in the interaction between children and preschool teachers in day care centres is visible. The domain of interaction I have chosen to focus upon is mainly the intersubjective one, where reciprocity and affect are of great importance. In this observation part of the study, the theoretical ground is psychodynamic and the main theorist is the American researcher Daniel Stern (Stern, 1991). Although his theory is based on observations of interaction between mothers and infants it seems possible to apply his categories of development in day care centres as well. As Stern does not have a gender perspective, I have chosen to treat those categories from a gender construction perspective. (Walkerdine, 1989). How does reciprocity and affective tone emerge in the interaction between the female preschool teachers and the children from a gender perspective? Does this interaction appear differently in different contexts? Do the children seem to play a role in this gender construction? are some of the research questions of this study.

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  • 77.
    Månsson, Annika
    Malmö högskola, School of Teacher Education (LUT), Children-Youth-Society (BUS).
    The construction of “the competent child” and early childhood care2007Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract The construction of “the competent child” and early childhood care Values education among the youngest children in a nursery school The phenomenon I focus on in this article is the construction of “the competent child”. This discourse, that has developed from both psychology and later the sociology of childhood, has influenced the Swedish Childhood Education. One purpose of this paper is to investigate the pedagogical signs in this construction of “the competent child” and to investigate the influence of a new understanding of children in a child care practice. I have chosen a Reggio Emilia-inspired nursery, with its emphasis on democracy and view of the child as competent and active, to shed light on the connections between this view and a values education. I also aim to problematise this paradigm of childhood. The theoretical discussions concerning the view of the competent child are illustrated by empirical material from a limited case study at one child care centre. The methods used in the present study are field notes and video recordings. Empirical material from my case study illustrates how values education is expressed in a child care practice. The children in the nursery observed can be seen as both “being” with access to adult nursing and care, and also as being competent.

  • 78.
    Månsson, Annika
    Malmö högskola, School of Teacher Education (LUT), Children-Youth-Society (BUS).
    The construction of "the competent child" and early childhood care: Values education among the youngest children in a nursery school2008In: Educare, ISSN 1653-1868, E-ISSN 2004-5190, no 3, p. 21-41Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The phenomenon I focus on in this article is the construction of “the competent child”, which has developed from both psychology and later the sociology of childhood and has influenced the Swedish Childhood Education. One purpose of this paper is to investigate the pedagogical signs in this construction of “the competent child” and to contribute to the discussion of the influence of a new understanding of children in a nursery practice. In addition to the theoretical part of the article, I present analysed material from a limited case study. I have chosen a Reggio Emilia-inspired nursery, with its emphasis on democracy and view of children as competent and active, to shed light on the connections between this view and a values education. I also aim to problematise this paradigm of childhood. The methods used in the present study are field notes and video recordings. Material from my case study illustrates how values education is expressed in a child care practice.

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  • 79.
    Månsson, Annika
    Malmö högskola, School of Teacher Education (LUT), Children-Youth-Society (BUS).
    The construction of the competent child and the pre-school2007Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 80.
    Månsson, Annika
    Malmö högskola, School of Teacher Education (LUT), Children-Youth-Society (BUS).
    Toddlers’ introduction to the nursery and children’s meaning making2008Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Toddlers’ introduction to the nursery and children’s meaning making A majority of the children in Swedish nurseries (the nursery is a part of the Swedish pre-school) are 1- 4 years old. In spite of this, studies that focus on toddlers in educational contexts are rare; mostly they involve older children. Sciences that define children and childhood are of importance to the construction of this phase of life. The aim of this study is therefore to investigate the youngest children’s first encounter with an educational institution and their meaning making processes. The initial question of the study is: Which patterns and variations are distinguished by toddlers´ introduction to a nursery in a perspective of interaction and meaning making? This project concerning toddlers’ introduction to a nursery is accomplished as a case study at one nursery with 20 children aged 1-1 1/2 years old. The study is theoretically based on the sociology of childhood, theory of learning and meaning making. The methods used are observations, field notes and interviews with educators and parents. This is a study in progress and at present the analyses are not completed. However, the preliminary result of my observations is that the interaction between the educators and the children vary, have different functions in different situations and that expressions of emotions and the responses from the educators are of importance concerning children’s meaning making.

  • 81.
    Nilsson, Fredrik
    Malmö högskola, School of Teacher Education (LUT), Children-Youth-Society (BUS).
    Ett fett problem? En kulturanalytisk studie av övervikt och maskulinitet2009Report (Other academic)
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  • 82.
    Nilsson, Fredrik
    Malmö högskola, School of Teacher Education (LUT), Children-Youth-Society (BUS).
    I förbjuden körriktning. Cykling, rockmusik, förbrytarbiografier2009In: ETN: HOJ, Lunds universitet , 2009, p. 82-92Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Liksom under tidigare månader fanns det i november gott om syndande cyklister. Två som cyklat utan tänd lykta fick böta vardera 20 kronor, medan tre andra cyklister, som gjort sig skyldiga till samma förseelse men dessutom ej haft sina respektive cyklar försedda med namnskyltar, fick punga ut med vardera 30 kronor. Ytterligare en femma fick en sjätte cyklist böta för de nämnda förseelserna samt för att hans cykel saknade ringklocka. Åtta personer hade kört två på en cykel, fem ålades att böta vardera 15 kr. och en 25 kr. Av de båda övriga, som dessutom gjort sig skyldiga till olaga cykelparkering respektive ej haft skylt på cykeln, fick parkeringssyndaren böta 30 och den andra 25 kr. Två personer, vars cyklar saknat namnskyltar, straffades med vardera 15 kronors böter, och 15 kr. fick även två andra cyklister, varav den ene cyklat på gångbana och den andre gjort sig skyldig till olaga cykelparkering, böta. För olaga cykelparkering och förseelse mot namnskyltsbestämmelsen fick vidare tre personer böta vardera 25 kr., medan en annan parkeringssyndare, som dessutom lämnat sin cykel olåst, slapp undan med 20 kronors böter. Vardera 20 kronor fick också två personer, som låtit sina cyklar dragas av andra fordon, betala. (Nordvästra Skånes Tidningar (NST) 3/12 1956)

  • 83.
    Persson, Sven
    Malmö högskola, School of Teacher Education (LUT), Children-Youth-Society (BUS).
    Skolan i ett samhällsperspektiv2011In: Utbildningsvetenskap för grundskolans tidiga år / [ed] Sven Persson, Bim Riddersporre, Natur & Kultur , 2011, p. 73-93Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Att försöka beskriva den svenska skolan ur ett samhällsperspektiv är egentligen en paradox; skola är samhälle och samhälle är skola. Den täta sammanflätningen mellan skola och det vi kallar samhälle beror på att utbildning är det mest kraftfulla sättet att tradera och överföra de normer, värden och kunskaper som utgör samhällets kitt. barn och ungdomar spenderar därför en stor del av sin tid i utbildning; och det ställs stora förhoppningar på att de investeringar som görs i utbildning så småningom ska ge avkastning - i form av utveckling av samhället.

  • 84.
    Persson, Sven
    et al.
    Malmö högskola, School of Teacher Education (LUT), Individual and Society (IS).
    Tallberg Broman, Ingegerd
    Malmö högskola, School of Teacher Education (LUT), Children-Youth-Society (BUS).
    Det är ju ett annat jobb: Förskollärare, grundskollärare och lärarstuderande om professionell identitet i konflikt och förändring2002In: Pedagogisk forskning i Sverige, ISSN 1401-6788, E-ISSN 2001-3345, no 4 Årg 7, p. 257-278Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    In this article the task of the teaching profession in relation to the role of the family, both at present and in historical terms, is discussed. Considerable changes in the tasks teachers are given have occurred within recent years. Schools have been given increasing responsibility not only for education but also for the upbringing of children. This has confronted teachers with a variety of new tasks and problems. Giving teachers much of the responsibility that parents traditionally had for the bringing up of children can be viewed against the background of a critical attitude which the pluralistic society of today has shown toward the role of parents and of the family. In the social and educational professions as these have developed, criticisms of parents and of their manner of bringing up their children have been voiced repeatedly (Donzelot 1997, Johansson 1993). This has been accompanied by an increasing professionalism in the care of children. Criticisms of the parental role have paved the way for an increase in the tasks the schools are given. Schools are expected to create a holistic context and a sense of citizenship based on the values generally accepted in society. This is seen as calling for more comprehensive work on the part of teachers. As a result, teachers are faced with difficult and complex problems today. The postmodern pluralism of childhood, with the many different forms it can take, calls into question the demands for homogeneity, stability and normality that institutionalised ideologies make. This confrontation between schools as they presently exist and postmodern conceptions of childhood leads to a questioning of the goal of creating normality (Hargreaves 1994). The basic aim of the project in which we are engaged is to analyze how the responsibility for reproducing the goals and content of society is divided up at present, and has been divided up earlier, between the home and the school. The results of two investigations are presented: - In the one study, elementary school and preschool teachers from schools in two areas of differing socioeconomic level described in open-ended interviews their thoughts regarding their professional task, as well as children generally, childhood and the role of parents. That study had a clear perspective of change. Those interviewed have also been asked to report their views on the changes that had occurred in the teaching task and in the content of their profession. - The other investigation was a questionnaire study of teacher-training students in either their first or their final semester of training. The questions involved were based on statements the teachers who had taken part in the interview investigation had made. The statements made in the interview by the teachers from schools in the two areas of differing socioeconomic level, regarding their tasks being much broader than they had been earlier, were very much alike. It thus seems to be factors other than those of the character of the area involved that affect how changes in the role of teachers are experienced. It appeared that the flexibility of the women teachers was taken advantage of. The new expectations placed on teachers were seen to involve a redefinition of the teaching profession that those interviewed were unwilling to accept. As they expressed it the content of their work was being transformed from working with children to working increasingly with groups of adults and they explained of there being no adequate rationale for the changes that had occurred. They considered that the demands placed on them failed to correspond to certain deeply rooted conceptions of their profession, representing a clear threat to their professional identity, creating a sense of insecurity in their day-by-day work. They also regarded it as being a change for the worse in their professional status through its degrading their position from their being educators to their providing children help and support on an individual basis (Johansson & Pramling 2000). Those teaching at both the preschool and the primary school level provided a negative account of childhood and parenting today, describing children as being less empathetic and less concentrated today than earlier. The preschool teachers in particular felt that children had difficulties in playing with each other, whilst the elementary school teachers emphasised marked difficulties children had in following norms. The preschool and the elementary school teachers from the ecnomically less privileged area agreed closely with each other in describing children as being unconcentrated, being inept in their use of language, showing a lack of empathy and having difficulties in playing with each other. Although the elementary school and preschool teachers from schools in the economically prosperous area likewise considered childhood to be particularly problematical today, their major criticisms differed from the views just reported. They described children as having an overly scheduled and planned existence, one that differed from what they considered to be a happy childhood situation. They considered children to have too structured an existence and to be overly exposed to stress. The teachers as a whole felt that the conditions with which parents are faced today have changed. Parents do not have the same possibilities for bringing up their children as earlier and have partly given up the responsibilities in this respect that they once took. This result was independent of the socioeconomic status of the parents. At the same time, two differing conceptions of the problems with which parents are faced were evident. Parents from the more well-to-do area were considered to be subjected to a high degree of stress, to have very strong demands placed on them, and to work so much that they were unable to spend sufficient time with their children. Parents from the more economically depressed area were considered to likewise neglect their children, although in a different way - many of them having social problems and letting their children fend for themselves to a large extent. It was felt that the conditions for the upbringing of children in the home had declined. Teachers felt they were increasingly involved in the children's and the families' private lives and that their responsibilities toward children had increased. There appeared to be no comparable increase in the involvement of parents in matters of the preschool and elementary school education of their children. In summary, one can say that the preschool teachers and primary school teachers from schools in both socioeconomic areas were engaged in compensatory efforts to reconstruct for their pupils more of what they regarded as being ideal childhood conditions, involving children being provided with a calm and relaxed environment, having more free time, having more outdoor activities, developing a greater degree of fantasy and greater empathy, being better able to play with each other, being more active physically and having greater respect both for adults and for other children. What was regarded as the most important task of the elementary school and the preschool was to provide children with a sense of self-confidence, joy and a desire to learn. The teacher's task was seen as being a difficult one if this was combined, in these times of reductions in educational resources, with the need of conducting psychologically problematical discussions both with children and with their parents. Regarding the questionnaire results, a particular concern of the teacher trainees for the problems of both children and their parents and their belief that giving children a sense of security was the foremost function of the pre-school and the elementary school alike could be noted. Among those preparing to be preschool teachers, those in their last semester of training showed a more critical attitude towards children and their parents than those in their first semester of training. No such differences were noted, however, among those preparing to be elementary school teachers, although there were differences between the first and last semester groups in the problems they emphasized and in their conceptions regarding the teaching profession and the school as an institution. We plan to relate the various patterns we discovered to questions of the content of teacher training. How do those involved in teacher training view the broadened tasks that teachers are faced by today? How is the extended responsibility for children on the part of teachers dealt with in teacher training? Are the relations of teachers to the families of the children discussed in a critical way? What position is taken toward the rights of parents to influence the schools? Teacher training has been criticized for its failure to emphasize either the importance of caring for the emotional needs of the individual child or the important role that many socioemotional relations teachers develop play (Gannerud 1999). It is often felt that during teacher training too little attention is directed at these highly important aspects of teacher work. Regardless of the socioeconomic context in which their teaching took place, the teachers who were interviewed told of the teaching profession having changed in the direction of greater emphasis being placed on social dimensions and of the teacher's task being broadened. Despite this increase in the teachers' social responsibilities, both in preschools and elementary schools, this matter appeared not to have been dealt with either in their socialization to the role of being a teacher or in their teacher training. They described a conflict between professional ideologies they had come to accept, both during their teacher training and on the basis of traditions propagated generally in their profession, and the demands and expectations placed on them by the changed tasks they were confronted by, one which led to a sense of uncertainty in their professional identity. The conceptions they had of what a happy childhood involves collided with how they experienced the childhood of those children with whom they had contact in their teaching. The statements of the teachers in our interviews concern a teaching profession caught up in change. The professional identity of teachers is being challenged. It is also difficult for teachers to set limits to the tasks with which they are faced. Many of the statements the teachers made can be considered to represent strategies for defining their profession, directing criticism at the family being one way of dealing with the challenges involved and of defining their task. Strong protests against being confronted with tasks of a more social character, involving the need of giving the individual children particular support and understanding, can be noted. Criticism of this sort was particularly strong on the part of the elementary school teachers, who considered the changes involved to constitute a lowering of their professional status. A sense of security was a central concept we noted in the material, a concept clearly integrated into the institutional and professional ideology of both the preschool and the elementary school teachers, who obviously considered that providing children with it was a major goal of their work. The tendency to think in these terms could be examined in relation to gender, to class or to ethnicity. Both those involved in teaching and those preparing for it are predominately women, who are given a social, collective and normative task. Providing a sense of security can be regarded as an antidote to a sense of disorder and to the development of an increasingly pluralistic society caught up in a process of rapid change. Endeavoring to achieve a sense of security can also be viewed as a typical Swedish or Nordic cultural trait, one that is strongly emphasized by both teachers and parents (Gullestad 1997, Iwarsson Jansson 2001, Kvalbein 1998, Nikolova 2001). One can note, finally, that discussions of problems in a personal and thoroughgoing way with both children and their parents, as well as considering the most important goal of education to be that of providing children a sense of security through use of educational methods that are very much individually oriented, represent a sociopedagogical approach that is partly new. It is one that requires a considerable degree of rethinking on the part of many educators.

  • 85.
    Pålsson, Maria
    Malmö högskola, School of Teacher Education (LUT), Children-Youth-Society (BUS).
    The pre-school class and the desirable citizen: to train and discipline in the name of competence2007Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 86.
    Qvarsebo, Jonas
    Malmö högskola, School of Teacher Education (LUT), Children-Youth-Society (BUS).
    Corporal Punishment, Disciplinary Regimes and the Irony of History2007Conference paper (Other academic)
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  • 87.
    Qvarsebo, Jonas
    Malmö högskola, School of Teacher Education (LUT), Children-Youth-Society (BUS).
    Det önskvärda skolbarnet: Diskurser om barn och fostran i Svensk Lärartidning 1946-19622006In: Normalitetens förhandling och förvandling: en antologi om barn, skola och föräldraskap; / [ed] Judith Lind, Östlings bokförlag Symposion , 2006, p. 131-164Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 88.
    Qvarsebo, Jonas
    Malmö högskola, School of Teacher Education (LUT), Children-Youth-Society (BUS).
    Grundskolereformen och talet om differentieringen: differentieringsfrågan och konstruktionen av barns och ungdomars olikheter2009In: Historien, barnen och barndomarna: vad är problemet?: en vänbok till Bengt Sandin / [ed] Judith Lind, Cecilia Lindgren, Mats Sjöberg, Karin Zetterqvist Nelson, Linköpings universitet , 2009, p. 281-311Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 89.
    Qvarsebo, Jonas
    Malmö högskola, School of Teacher Education (LUT), Children-Youth-Society (BUS).
    Hemmafruns sista suck2006In: Populär Historia, ISSN 1102-0822, no 3Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Under 1960-talet pågick en livlig jämställdhetsdebatt i Sverige, en debatt som i förlängningen fick dramatiska konsekvenser för den rådande familjestrukt

  • 90.
    Qvarsebo, Jonas
    Malmö högskola, School of Teacher Education (LUT), Children-Youth-Society (BUS).
    Progressive School Politics and the Disciplinary Regimes of the Classroom: a Genealogical perspective2007Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 91.
    Qvarsebo, Jonas
    Malmö högskola, School of Teacher Education (LUT), Children-Youth-Society (BUS).
    Skolaga, disciplin och historiens ironi: Vad hände med den progressiva visionen?2007In: Locus, ISSN 1100-3197, no 1-2Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Hur man skulle fostra barnen till goda samhällsmedborgare utan att använda aga, var en central skolfråga under efterkrigstiden. Debatten började när 1946 års skolkommission i sitt principbetänkande hävdade att skolan halkat efter samhällsutvecklingen. Man menade att äldre auktoritära sätt att fostra barnen måste ge vika för en modern och progressiv fostran med demokrati som mål och medel. Författaren Jonas Qvarsebo visar att det äldre tänkandet kring disciplin satt djupare än många hade trott.

  • 92.
    Qvarsebo, Jonas
    Malmö högskola, School of Teacher Education (LUT), Children-Youth-Society (BUS).
    Skolbarnets fostran: enhetsskolan, agan och politiken om barnet 1946-19622006Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This dissertation analyses the controversy on corporal punishment that arose in conjunction with the Swedish comprehensive school reform. The time period covered is 1946-1962. The overarching aim has been to explore and analyse the origins, development and consequences of this debate in relation to the school’s task of character formation and changed notions of childhood. The school politics in which the comprehensive school reform took shape has been examined and a number of central documents that were produced in this process have been analysed. Theoretically and methodologically a discourse-analytical approach has been used where issues of power and governance have been central. In the discussion on character formation in school different discourses were operating, which at certain points stood in sharp disagreement with each other. This became especially clear in the debate on corporal punishment. A closer analysis of these discourses has revealed their different conditions of possibilities, in the sense of their historical and societal circumstances and their internal logics, and the keywords, concepts and metaphors that constituted the central elements of these discourses have been highlighted and described. The two theoretical concepts governmentality and hegemony have been used as the primary analytical tools for the study. With the concept of governmentality the goals, attitudes and problems that have been tied to the training of the schoolchild during the period have been made visible. The different presuppositions about the child’s being and development on which the character-forming practices have been built, the knowledge and science that have been referred to, the techniques that have been viewed as necessary and the subject that has been the goal for various character-forming actions have been analysed and discussed. With the concept of hegemony the power struggle connected to the discussion of character formation during the period has been examined and the various guidelines for the school’s task of character formation that were formulated and expressed in the formative documents of the comprehensive school have been made visible.

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  • 93.
    Qvarsebo, Jonas
    et al.
    Malmö högskola, School of Teacher Education (LUT), Children-Youth-Society (BUS).
    Tallberg Broman, Ingegerd
    Malmö högskola, School of Teacher Education (LUT), Children-Youth-Society (BUS).
    Från storslagna visioner till professionell bedömning: Inledning2010In: Från storslagna visioner till professionell bedömning: om barndom, utbildning och styrning, Malmö högskola, Lärarutbildningen , 2010, p. 9-13Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    I denna antologi presenteras ett axplock av pågående forskning vid enheten Barn-Unga-Samhälle (BUS) inom Lärarutbildningen vid Malmö högskola. Antologin belyser en utbildningshistorisk förskjutning från visionärt arbete och tilltro om en bättre framtid via uppfostran och utbildning, till en ökad oro för framtiden i en global konkurrens. Styrning och kontroll av barndom och utbildning, via exempelvis dokumentation, bedömning och utvärdering, blir allt mer framträdande, både nationellt och internationellt.

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  • 94.
    Qvarsebo, Jonas
    et al.
    Malmö högskola, School of Teacher Education (LUT), Children-Youth-Society (BUS).
    Tallberg Broman, IngegerdMalmö högskola, School of Teacher Education (LUT), Children-Youth-Society (BUS).
    Från storslagna visioner till professionell bedömning: Om barndom, utbildning och styrning2010Collection (editor) (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    I denna antologi presenteras ett axplock av pågående forskning vid enheten Barn-Unga-Samhälle (BUS) inom Lärarutbildningen vid Malmö högskola. Antologin belyser en utbildningshistorisk förskjutning från visionärt arbete och tilltro om en bättre framtid via uppfostran och utbildning, till en ökad oro för framtiden i en global konkurrens. Styrning och kontroll av barndom och utbildning, via exempelvis dokumentation, bedömning och utvärdering, blir allt mer framträdande, både nationellt och internationellt. Antologin vänder sig till alla som är intresserade av frågor om barndom och utbildning ur ett samhällsperspektiv.

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  • 95.
    Sandell, Anna
    Malmö högskola, School of Teacher Education (LUT), Children-Youth-Society (BUS).
    Gendered positionings in education2007Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Educational segregation concerns democracy and equality, since individuals are positioned differently in relation to power, economy, work opportunities etc. During the late twentieth century, Swedish educational politics have aimed to broaden the recruitment to higher education. Both concerning gender and concerning class. The recruitment is however still skewed, due to social reproduction, and it starts (at the latest) with the choice of upper secondary school education. Young men and women’s educational segregation challenges the Swedish gender equality goals. Even more so, since the segregation is more pronounced when class is added as a factor. This paper presents some results from a study of 35 Swedish ninth graders, in a town with a history of labour work and low transition to higher education. Through reasonings of traditional gender divisions and interests, they reproduce gender dichotomy and thereby justify educational segregation. The paper further discusses these boys and girls’ positionings away from traditional female domains, the girls’ tendency to be individualized to a greater extent than boys, and the different (gendered) frames of action they perceive and act within.

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  • 96.
    Sandell, Anna
    Malmö högskola, School of Teacher Education (LUT), Children-Youth-Society (BUS).
    Utbildningssegregation och självsortering: Om gymnasieval, genus och lokala praktiker2007Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis explores and analyzes segregation and self-sorting in education. It aims at discussing how this relates to gender, individualization and young men and women’s positionings in local practices, through choices of upper secondary school education. It focuses on how young men and women cope with and adapt to the changing society in late modernity. The thesis is based on three empirical studies as well as national and local statistics. Observations in a natural science programme class at upper secondary school, interviews with study and vocational counsellors and statistics made the foundation for an interview study with 35 ninth graders about to make their choice of upper secondary school education in a middle-sized city with tradition of labour work. Statistics show a clear segregation among girls and boys at upper secondary school, especially when differentiated by class, geography, and to some extent ethnicity. The segregation continues on higher levels of education and then on to the labour market. This challenges political goals, both in gender equality and in education. It also challenges the late modernity demand for individualization. Theoretically this is explored with Bourdieu’s concepts of habitus and capital as well as with late modernity concepts of cultural release, individualization, agency and positioning. Gender is explored by Harding’s model for analyzing the gender order. The interview study shows that both girls and boys distance themselves rhetorically from what is traditionally considered female. Both female domains and behaviour are lowly ranked. Girls’ strategy is to choose gender neutral marked programmes. They experience restrictions on basis of their gender, and want to use education as a means to break gender patterns. The boys’ also positioned themselves, but to a higher extent to avoid divergence from the hegemonic masculinity. These differences could not be seen in the observation study, which is interpreted as a result of the self-sorting young people do in relation to their gender and class. The conclusion is that the place encourages girls and boys to act differently. The relation between structures and agency differs. Girls are, in the interview study, encouraged to have a broader perspective on education, future professions, moving and so on. Their future can also be looked for outside the place and the positionings they now possess. Boys are encouraged to have a narrower perspective on the same phenomenons. The place also enables for the boys to stay to a higher extent than for the girls. The boys have, for example, a local labour market that corresponds to their choices. It is suggested that agency should be better supported in school. The pupils themselves stressed the importance of getting alternative experiences, for example through the work experience programme. It is also of importance that teachers encourage pupils to make changes in positions. The counsellors stressed the importance of doing outreached work and find pupils that do not voluntarily come to counselling. Through counselling, the pupils can be given tools for opening alternative ways. The gender marking of programmes could be loosened by introducing branches that attract the opposite gender. The naming of the programmes should also be under consideration. New technology and computers as means to enable changes in positionings are discussed.

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  • 97.
    Sernhede, Ove
    et al.
    University of Gothenburg.
    Tallberg Broman, Ingegerd
    Malmö högskola, School of Teacher Education (LUT), Children-Youth-Society (BUS).
    Förord2011In: Educare, ISSN 1653-1868, E-ISSN 2004-5190, no 2, p. 7-10Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The article is an introducation to different articles based on presentations on the conference: Welfare state in transition.

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  • 98.
    Sundkvist, Maria
    Malmö högskola, School of Teacher Education (LUT), Children-Youth-Society (BUS).
    Av, om och för barn. Källor till den barndomshistoriska forskningen2008In: Barn, ISSN 0800-1669, Vol. 2, no 2, p. 31-41Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    I artikeln problematiseras möjliga källor till barndomshistorisk forskning. De har kategoriserats utifrån om de är skrivna av, om eller för barn. Empiriska exempel visar att barndomshistoria kan skrivas utifrån samtliga källtyper. Barndomshistorisk forskning är central för att förstå mänskligt handlande, då ålder är minst lika viktigt som social klass, kön och etnisk tillhörighet.

  • 99.
    Sundkvist, Maria
    Malmö högskola, School of Teacher Education (LUT), Children-Youth-Society (BUS).
    Klassens klasser: gymnasieföreningar i läroverk och gymnasieskolor 1846-19962006Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    1900-talet präglades av likhetssträvanden i olika former i svensk politik. I den här boken analyseras hur ett skolsystem som från början var till för en exklusiv, manlig elit, öppnades för alla i en viss ålder. Trots denna likhetspolitik kvarstår faktum att en elit ändå framgångsrikt reproducerat sig, generation efter generation. Den här boken försöker bidra till förståelsen av detta fenomen. Utgångspunkten är att det är i frivilliga föreningar som identitet, socialt kapital och sociala skillnader skapas, befästs, fördjupas och reproduceras. Genom att närläsa protokoll och andra skriftliga handlingar och analysera intervjuer med medlemmar i så kallade gymnasieföreningar, beskrivs den process som leder fram till att människor ser och gör sig själva och andra. Klassens klasser ger insikter om de villkor som styr unga människors liv i skolan bortom de ramar som regleras av styrdokument och lokala politiska ambitioner. Därmed fyller den en viktig lucka i forskningen om skolans och ungdomstidens historia.

  • 100.
    Söderman, Johan
    Malmö högskola, School of Teacher Education (LUT), Children-Youth-Society (BUS).
    ‘Folkbildning’ through hip-hop: how the ideals of three rappers parallel a Scandinavian educational tradition2011In: Music Education Research, ISSN 1461-3808, E-ISSN 1469-9893, Vol. 13, no 2, p. 211-225Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this article is to show how the rappers' talk about hip-hop and its connection to pedagogy and social activism parallel the Scandinavian tradition of folkbildning. Scandinavian folkbildning can be seen as a movement to provide voluntary education for the general population. It can also be the name of the process of learning in which self-education is an important dimension. There has been an educational component to hip-hop culture since hip-hop was placed on the map as a vibrant subculture during the 1970s in New York City. In the same way as the Swedish working class once found a way out of their marginal position through folkbildning, today's immigrant youth, ‘new Swedes’ access Swedish society by articulating their position through hip-hop. In this article, interviews have been conducted with three rappers who follow the pedagogical way presented in hip-hop. Although, semi-structured and conversational, there was a clear focus on hip-hop and learning in the discussions. Each interview lasted for approximately one hour and was subsequently transcribed. The quotes of the rappers have been analysed and categorised into four themes. These themes are hip-hop as a political tool, marginalisation and exclusion, a voice for the weak, and the power of knowledge. The results show that the rappers can be seen as both culturally radical and culturally conservative, which is in line with the old tradition of Scandinavian folkbildning. The work of the rappers might be seen as not only as a barometer of our time and development of society in general, but also as a well-established practice of musical learning outside school. Finally, hip-hop has the potential to contribute valuable knowledge to teachers implementing what might be described as out-of-school musical activities in school.

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