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  • 51.
    Walldén, Robert
    Malmö University, Faculty of Education and Society (LS), Department of Culture, Languages and Media (KSM). Malmö University, Disciplinary literacy and inclusive teaching. Trelleborgs kommun.
    Möjligheter till språkutveckling under branschpraktikens språklektioner: Delrapport från följeforskning av projektet Yrkeskedjor Trelleborg2022Report (Other academic)
  • 52.
    Walldén, Robert
    Malmö University, Faculty of Education and Society (LS), Department of Culture, Languages and Media (KSM). Malmö University, Disciplinary literacy and inclusive teaching.
    Negotiating metaphors, narrative structure and linguisticstyle: Classroom work with literature in adult second-language instruction2021Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Within research into second language instruction, there has been a major focus on how to scaffold learners' acquisition of different disciplinary literacies. A central question, reflected to a varying degree in approaches such as genre pedagogy, content-based instruction and CLIL, is how the linguistic dimensions of dealing with instructional content can be made explicit to the learner. However, limited attention has been given to second -anguage learners' negotiating content belonging to the language they are studying. My presentation will be dedicated to this less explored form of disciplinary literacy. Drawing upon a classroom study of adult intermediate second-language instruction, I will employ SFL (systemic-functional linguistics) and LCT (legitimation code theory) to explore how two teachers involved their students in classroom work with literature. Based on observations, voice recordings and collected teaching materials, I will show how the teachers and the students negotiated subject content such as metaphors, narrative structure and linguistic style. In particular, I will highlight discursive shifts in classroom interaction between concrete/everyday and more abstract/metaphorical ways of using language as the teachers and the students discussed formulaic language encountered in the novels. In addition, I will show how these discussions related to the comprehension and interpretation of the literary texts.

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  • 53.
    Walldén, Robert
    Malmö University, Faculty of Education and Society (LS), Department of Culture, Languages and Media (KSM). Malmö University, Disciplinary literacy and inclusive teaching.
    Pedagogisk kommunikation i svenska som andraspråk: Språk, texter och samtal2020 (ed. 1)Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Ett av de viktigaste verktygen i undervisningen för lärare i svenska som andraspråk är den muntliga kommunikationen. Det är genom den som läraren bland annat kan erbjuda tydliga stödstrukturer, utveckla elevernas metaspråkliga kunskap, främja en kritisk textmedvetenhet, organisera engagerande läs- och textarbete samt skapa lärorika interaktionstillfällen i klassrummet. Pedagogisk kommunikation i svenska som andraspråk ger både teoretisk fördjupning i pedagogisk kommunikation och tydliga råd om hur lärare kan utveckla sin andraspråksdidaktik. Genom rikliga klassrumsexempel från såväl grundskola som vuxenundervisning beskriver författaren vad det är som sker i kommunikationen men också hur den skulle kunna genomföras för att ytterligare stärka elevernas språk- och kunskapsutveckling. Boken är främst avsedd för verksamma och blivande lärare i svenska som andraspråk. Den är även lämplig för den som söker fördjupade språkdidaktiska kunskaper om systemisk-funktionell lingvistik, genrepedagogik, litteracitetspraktiker och utbildnings­sociologi.

  • 54.
    Walldén, Robert
    Malmö University, Faculty of Education and Society (LS), Department of Culture, Languages and Media (KSM). Malmö University, Disciplinary literacy and inclusive teaching.
    ”Räknas detta också som text?” Lässtrategier i ett ämnesintegreratarbete med läromedelstexter2022In: Utbildning och Lärande / Education and Learning, ISSN 2001-4554, Vol. 16, no 1, p. 27-50Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article responds to the need of further qualitative insight into teachers’ supporting students’ factual reading by introducing reading strategies. Inspired by ethnographic methods and action research, the material of the study consists of observations and audio recordings (20 lesson) ofteaching in Grade 4 which integrated the subjects Swedish and Science (Physics and Biology). The analysis is mainly based on Langer’s stances for building knowledge in academic disciplines and a social-semiotic perspective inspired by Macken-Horarik’s knowledge domains. The findings show that the classroom interaction involved considerable attention to both the features of the disciplinary texts, verbal as well as visual, and the process of reading. The reading practice allowed the students to share previous experiences and discover a need for new information. However, the teacher and the students largely relied on informal metalanguage and foregrounded connections to everyday experience, rather than using a more elaborate metalanguage to explore how knowledge is construed from the perspective of physics and biology. Implications for teaching reading strategies in ways which promote students’ engagement with disciplinary content are discussed.

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  • 55.
    Walldén, Robert
    Malmö University, Faculty of Education and Society (LS), Department of Culture, Languages and Media (KSM). Malmö University, Disciplinary literacy and inclusive teaching.
    Scaffolding or side-tracking?: The role of knowledge about language in content instruction2019In: Linguistics and Education, ISSN 0898-5898, E-ISSN 1873-1864, Vol. 54, article id 100760Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Teachers who teach content to immigrant language learners are often asked to attend explicitly to linguistic features of texts dealing with disciplinary knowledge. This study uses the theoretical frameworks of Systemic-Functional Linguistics and Legitimation Code Theory to explore the role of language, more specifically technical terms, grammatical metaphors, and genre structures, in knowledge building. The study is based on observations and voice recordings during a curriculum area about maps and population in grade 6 with the participating teacher employing genre-based pedagogy. The studied interaction shows that an initial focus on technical terms within the field of geography in later phases shifts to features of language: genre structures, logical connections and instances of grammatical metaphors. However, these features of language are modelled in texts and wordings belonging to everyday experience rather than disciplinary knowledge. By closely examining the relationship between field knowledge and metalinguistic knowledge, the study contributes to the discussion about the role of language in content learning.

  • 56.
    Walldén, Robert
    Malmö University, Faculty of Education and Society (LS), Department of Culture, Languages and Media (KSM). Malmö University, Disciplinary literacy and inclusive teaching.
    Sfi-elevers språkpraktik - Upplevelser och ordförrådsdiskussioner2023In: NNFF9 - Den nionde konferensen ordnad av Nordiskt nätverkför forskning i förstaspråksdidaktik: Abstraktbok, 2023Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Under de senaste decennierna har utbildningen i svenska för invandrare (sfi) blivit allt starkare kopplad till arbetsmarknaden. Samtidigt tyder tidigare forskning på att sfi-undervisningens relevans för språkligt deltagande utanför klassrummets väggar behöver stärkas (t.ex. Ahlgren & Rydell, 2020;Wedin & Shaswar, 2022). Denna presentation ger en praktiknära och kvalitativ belysning av en kommuns satsning på en sfi-kurs där klassrumsundervisningen integrerades med elevers praktik inom olika branscher. Undervisningen hade inspirerats av tidigare forskning om språkpraktik (Sandwall, 2013) som har visat behovet av atts kapa meningsfull transfer mellan praktikplats och klassrum. Eleverna fick därför språktränande uppgifter som de genomförde under veckovisa praktikdagar som de sedan redovisade inför klasskamraterna.

    Presentationen utgår från följande frågeställningar: Vilka erfarenheter beskriver sfi-eleverna av att använda och utveckla målspråket (svenska) under språkpraktiken och lektionsmomenten? Vad kännetecknar klassrumsinteraktionen under ett specifikt moment som sökte skapa transfer mellan praktikplats och klassrum, nämligen elevers presentationer av en ordförrådsuppgift?

    Forskningen följde en praktiknära och etnografiskt inspirerad ansats där forskaren och den deltagande läraren samarbetade. 20 sfi-elever ingick i studien som studerade kurs C och D. Undervisningen dokumenterades genom observationer, ljudinspelningar och intervjuer under två kurstillfällen som varade totalt 20 veckor. Tematiseringen av elevernas upplevelser av språkpraktiken inspirerades av situationsvariabler för språkanvändning som har utvecklas inom systemisk-funktionell lingvistik. För analys av klassrumsdiskussioner om ord eleverna hade valt ut från praktikplatserna användes semantiska begrepp från Legitimation Code Theory (Maton, 2013; Walldén & Någord Larsson, 2021). Resultatet visar att elever som praktiserade på äldreboenden och förskolor uppgav relativt rikliga språkanvändningsmöjligheter medan det motsatta fallet gällde för elever med branschval inom lager och kök. Under klassrumssamtalen kopplade till elevernas ordförrådsuppgift skedde en rik interaktion om situationsberoende betydelser av ord och uttryck som kan kopplas till olika språkliga domäner. Momentet öppnade upp för en kunskapsbyggande interaktion där både läraren och eleverna bidrog till att kontextualisera de olika betydelserna.

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  • 57.
    Walldén, Robert
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Education and Society (LS), Department of Culture, Languages and Media (KSM).
    Skriftliga genrer i grundskolans läromedel2015In: Dialogkonferens 2015: Pedagogisk forskning i Skåne, 2015, p. 30-31Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Jag genomför för närvarande en delstudie av hur genrepedagogiska principer tar mark i svensk undervisningskontext. Detta sker utifrån positiva exempel på hur arbetssättet har fungerat språkutvecklande i mångkulturella klassrum men också i ljuset av farhågor om att genrepedagogiken för med sig ett formfokuserat och okritiskt skrivande i statiska genrer samt att arbetssättet i svensk tappning riskerar att förlora den lingvistiska och ideologiska bas som utmärker dess ursprungliga intentioner För att ge ett kunskapsbidrag till rekontextualiseringen av genrepedagogiska principer har jag påbörjat en studie av hur läromedel för grundskolan undervisar i olika skriftliga genrer. Detta sker dels med utgångspunkt i de diskursanalytiska system som underbygger arbetssättets lingvistiska komponent (Martin & Rose 2007), dels utifrån ett interdiskursivt ramverk inspirerat av Ivanič (2004) och Janks (2013). Tidiga resultat pekar på att läromedlen till viss del har informerats av genrepedagogikens funktionella språksyn, men att textexempel och skrivuppgifter orienterar eleven mot ett vardagsnära språkbruk snarare än ett språkbruk anpassat för specialiserade och reflexiva domäner. Ett näraliggande problem är att läromedlen endast i begränsad utsträckning utrustar eleverna med ett funktionellt metaspråk, vilket innebär att den språkliga formens roll för att förverkliga olika syften förblir osynlig. Läromedlens tendens att koppla in social-praktiska och processinriktade synsätt på skrivande tycks bidra till dessa förhållanden. Vid vissa tillfällen förekommer som kontrast en överutlärning av språkliga drag som går i strid mot den aktuella genrens särskilda kännetecken. Slutligen tar läromedlen sällan vara på möjligheten stimulera en kritisk medvetenhet i relation till språkbruk och genrer. Uppmaningar till kritisk läsning begränsar sig till att som en del av skrivprocessen reflektera över källors trovärdighet, medan språkets roll för att dölja och upprätthålla maktrelationer inte uppmärksammas.

  • 58.
    Walldén, Robert
    Malmö University, Faculty of Education and Society (LS), Department of Culture, Languages and Media (KSM). Malmö University, Disciplinary literacy and inclusive teaching.
    Språkpraktik i didaktisk belysning: Slutrapport från följeforskning inom projektet Trelleborg Yrkeskedjor (våren och hösten 2022)2023Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna rapport dokumenterar insikter från följeforskning inom projektet Trelleborg Yrkeskedjor på uppdrag av Arbetsmarknadsförvaltningen Trelleborg. Den belyser undervisning i svenska för invandrare som sökte koppla samman elevers branschpraktik med språkundervisning. 

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  • 59.
    Walldén, Robert
    Malmö University, Faculty of Education and Society (LS), Department of Culture, Languages and Media (KSM). Malmö University, Disciplinary literacy and inclusive teaching.
    Språkutvecklande samtal i SO: Textvalets betydelse2022In: Ämneslitteracitet och inkluderande undervisning / [ed] Anders Jakobsson; Pia Nygård Larsson; Lotta Bergman, Lund: Studentlitteratur AB, 2022, p. 93-115Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 60.
    Walldén, Robert
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Education and Society (LS), Department of Culture, Languages and Media (KSM).
    Stapplande steg mot ökad mångfald?2014In: Lisetten : Föreningstidning för lärare i svenska som andraspråk., ISSN 1101-5128, Vol. 25, no 4, p. 28-29Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 61.
    Walldén, Robert
    Malmö University, Faculty of Education and Society (LS), Department of Culture, Languages and Media (KSM). Malmö University, Disciplinary literacy and inclusive teaching.
    Students navigating shifting literacy expectations in grade 6 history teaching: a qualitative text-based study2022In: Cogent Education, E-ISSN 2331-186X, Vol. 9, no 1, article id 2148671Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This qualitative study focuses on Grade 6 students’ possibilities to engage in disciplinary writing practices in history teaching in a school located in a socially disadvantaged and linguistically diverse area. The aim is to contribute knowledge about how students negotiate different literacy expectations in the teaching. The researcher used ethnographic methods to follow one teacher and two groups of Grade 6 students for 12 weeks’ teaching about the Vasa era in Swedish history. The material used consists of samples of students writing, parts of the text material they studied, and written questions they answered in tests and pre-writing discussion. In the analysis, systemic-functional linguistics (SFL) and thematic content analysis were employed to develop categories of literacy expectations based on the written questions. SFL was also used to analyze samples of the students’ writing and relevant textbook material. The findings show that the expectations increased in a final test because most questions required causal reasoning. In contrast, the questions used in text discussions and homework tests conveyed a variety of literacy expectations, with an emphasis on chronological reconstructions of events. While some students adjusted their writing to causal reasoning, others relied on a reconstruct approach that adhered closely to the simple text material that was chronologically structured. Outlier examples showed students using multimodal representations, a substitute teacher’s oral elaboration on a text, and resources of learner language in their answers. Implications for teaching that support all students’ engagement in disciplinary practices of history are discussed. 

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  • 62.
    Walldén, Robert
    Malmö University, Faculty of Education and Society (LS), Department of Culture, Languages and Media (KSM). Malmö University, Disciplinary literacy and inclusive teaching.
    Studie visar på risker med lässtrategier och genrepedagogik2019In: Svenskläraren, ISSN 0346-2412, Vol. 63, no 4 2019, p. 6-7Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 63.
    Walldén, Robert
    Malmö University, Faculty of Education and Society (LS), Department of Culture, Languages and Media (KSM). Malmö University, Disciplinary literacy and inclusive teaching.
    SvD Debatt: Feltänkt att korta sfi-utbildningen2024In: Svenska dagbladet, ISSN 1101-2412Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 64.
    Walldén, Robert
    Malmö University, Faculty of Education and Society (LS), Department of Culture, Languages and Media (KSM). Malmö University, Disciplinary literacy and inclusive teaching.
    "Think: Why? Who? How? Consequences": Shifting writing demands in primary school history teaching2023Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In the past several years, there has been a growing research interest in students’ opportunities to engage in and develop disciplinary literacies through writing. Mirroring developments in other countries, the Swedish national curriculum has required teaching with a more disciplinary focus since 2011. This puts various demans on students'  writing, such as constructing arguments based on source material and explaining causes and consequences of historical events. The presentation will focus on test-related writing practices in history teaching in Grade 6 in a Swedish school located in a socially disadvantaged and linguistically diverse area.

    The presentation is based on research aiming to contribute knowledge about how students negotiate literacy expectations when writing answers to test questions in the teaching of history. The research questions are:

    Which literacy expectations are conveyed by the written questions administered to the students in a final test and in activities leading up to the test?

    How can the students written answers be understood in relation to the literacy expectations in the question posed to them?

    Ethnographically inspired methods were used to document teaching activities, teaching material and students' text in a content area about the early modern period in Swedish history. The study spanned three months. Previous publications from this study have focused on the classroom interaction and the text material used in the teaching (e.g., Author, 2020; Author & Colleague, 2021). This presentation instead focuses on students' written responses to test questions based on 102 collected tests. The analysis was informed by disciplinary literacy and systemic-functional genre theory. It particularly draws on the discourse semantic system of periodicity (Martin & Rose, 2007) to highlight how the students manage the information flow in their texts, for example by introducing, unpacking and re-stating abstract and subject-related concepts. Another important point of reference is the learner's pathway through the genres of history (e.g., Coffin, 1997) which charts the progression from chronological recounts to explanatory texts that rely on causality. 

    The findings show that the literacy expectations increased between homework tests used to preprare the students for a final test and the final test itself. While the homework tests expected the students to reproduce information about historical events and persons in the text material they studied, the final test required them to reason about events in terms of causes and consequences. The students mostly responded to this shift by adding more information about the events in an unplanned manner. However, some students managed to adapt their writing to accommodate the scaled-up demands by using a more planned approach to the writing and adjusting the information flow to accentuate the consequences and historical significance of events. On rare occasions, students used strategies which went beyond the written language, such as incorporating relevant information coveyed orally by a teacher and using multimodal representations. However, most of the students based their writing on a text material that provided limited input for the complex writing expected of them in the final test. Implications for classroom practice include the importance of modelling successful subject-specific writing strategies as well as providing sufficiently rich disciplinary input, through various modes, that the students can use for their written output. It follows that the writing must be understood as part of a disciplinary literacy practice. 

    Coffin, C. (1997). Construing and giving value to the past: an investigation into secondary school history. In F. Christie & J. R. Martin (Eds.), Genre and institutions: Social processes in the workplace and schools (pp. 196-230). Continuum.

    Martin, J. R., & Rose, D. (2007). Working with discourse: meaning beyond the clause. Continuum.

    Walldén, R. (2020). "It was that Trolle thing" Negotiating history in grade 6: A matter of teachers' text choice. Linguistics and Education, 60. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.linged.2020.100884  

    Walldén, R., & Nygård Larsson, P. (2021). “Can you take a wild guess?” Using images and expanding knowledge through interaction in the teaching and learning of history. Linguistics and Education, 65. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.linged.2021.100960  

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  • 65.
    Walldén, Robert
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Education and Society (LS), Department of Culture, Languages and Media (KSM).
    Undervisningens tempus: Genrer och metaspråk i grundskolans läromedel och klassrum2016Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Mitt avhandlingsprojekt belyser hur genrepedagogiska principer (Rose & Martin 2012) rekontextualiseras nationellt i såväl läromedel som klassrumspraktik med fokus på grundskolan. Centrala teoretiska utgångspunkter är kritisk diskursanalys (Fairclough 2010) samt Bernsteins utbildningssociologiska ramverk (Bernstein 2000). Läromedelsstudien undersöker hur fem aktuella läromedel instruerar i olika skriftliga genrer. Resultatet visar att läromedlen i sina yttre informationslager bekänner sig till de genrepedagogiska utgångspunkter som är påtagliga i aktuella styrdokument. Samtidigt fokuserar de endast i mycket begränsad utsträckning språkets roll för att förverkliga olika kommunikativa syften. Istället präglas läromedlen i hög grad av processinriktade perspektiv som sätter stor tilltro till inlärarnas implicita lärande. I studien tillämpas SFL (Halliday & Mathiessen 2014) på läromedlens mönstertexter för att synliggöra möjligheter till en mer explicit språklig stöttning. Den inledda klassrumsstudien granskar hur genrepedagogiska arbetssätt tillämpas av erfarna och specialutbildade pedagoger verksamma i ett socialt utsatt område med hög andel nyanlända elever. Den intresserar sig särskilt för hur lärarna strukturerar undervisningen i ett målmedvetet arbete med elevernas språk- och kunskapsutveckling.

  • 66.
    Walldén, Robert
    Malmö University, Faculty of Education and Society (LS), Department of Culture, Languages and Media (KSM). Malmö University, Disciplinary literacy and inclusive teaching.
    “You know, the world is pretty unfair”: Meaning perspectives in teaching social studies to migrant language learners2022In: Scandinavian Journal of Educational Research, ISSN 0031-3831, E-ISSN 1470-1170, Vol. 66, no 1, p. 179-191Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This contribution explores how subject positions and perspectives are negotiated in the discursive practices of teaching social studies. The study involved a teacher and a group of second-language learners in Grade 6, the data being gathered by observations, voice recordings, and collection of teaching materials throughout seven weeks. The analysis, drawing upon discourse theory and sociological theories of education, is conducted from the perspective of Critical Discourse Analysis. The result, highlighting a curriculum area about living conditions, shows how Western-centric beliefs about a divided world were perpetuated both during introductory activities and in the searching for information about different countries. This mainstream meaning perspective was also sustained when the teacher modelled ways of using language for expressing content knowledge. Throughout, the migrant language learners were positioned as privileged Swedish citizens. Implications for shaping discursive practices of teaching in ways which builds on students’ diverse knowledges and experiences are discussed. 

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  • 67.
    Walldén, Robert
    Malmö University, Faculty of Education and Society (LS), Department of Culture, Languages and Media (KSM). Malmö University, Disciplinary literacy and inclusive teaching.
    Yrkessvenska på sfi – Rekommendationer och reflektioner: Slurapport från följeforskning Yrkeskedjor 20232024Report (Other academic)
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  • 68.
    Walldén, Robert
    et al.
    Malmö University, Faculty of Education and Society (LS), Department of Culture, Languages and Media (KSM). Malmö University, Disciplinary literacy and inclusive teaching.
    Langwagen, Annika
    ”Man förstår nästan allt!”: Läsförståelsearbete med faktatexter i årskurs 42021In: HumaNetten, E-ISSN 1403-2279, no 47, p. 169-181Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
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  • 69.
    Walldén, Robert
    et al.
    Malmö University, Faculty of Education and Society (LS), Department of Culture, Languages and Media (KSM). Malmö University, Disciplinary literacy and inclusive teaching.
    Larsson, Pia N.
    Malmö University, Faculty of Education and Society (LS), Department of Culture, Languages and Media (KSM). Malmö University, Disciplinary literacy and inclusive teaching.
    Visual resources and interaction in Grade 4 science teaching—Moving in and out of discourse when exploring concepts of evolution and adaption2024In: Science Education, ISSN 0036-8326, E-ISSN 1098-237X, Vol. 108, no 2, p. 608-636Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Although visual aids are widely considered a valuable source of scaffolding, the nature and active utilization of these aids in current science classrooms are not well understood. This qualitative study explores interaction in the teaching of concepts related to evolution, with a specific focus on a teacher's use of different visual support material. Based on a classroom study in a linguistically diverse Grade 4 classroom, we employed the perspective of discourse-bridging interaction to develop three broad categories of interactional examples, which we related to three kinds of visual support material used in the instruction: generic visual support images, naturalistic images, and disciplinary images showing examples of natural selection. The findings show that the interaction moved in and out of science discourse in a way that reflected the images' properties. A generic visual support image illustrated the concept of “adaption” as puzzle pieces fitting together, which promoted everyday and anthropomorphic examples of animals and people striving to fit in. When the teacher used naturalistic images, the discourse shifted between a range of perspectives, while visual aids and whiteboard drawings showing the classic examples of giraffes evolving (a disciplinary image) were employed to clarify the notion of natural selection. We discuss the study's implications for using visual support material in a planned way that supports disciplinary understanding.

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  • 70.
    Walldén, Robert
    et al.
    Malmö University, Faculty of Education and Society (LS), Department of Culture, Languages and Media (KSM). Malmö University, Disciplinary literacy and inclusive teaching.
    Lindh, Christina
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Fakulteten för lärarutbildning.
    Litteracitetsförväntningar i historia: En studie av skrivpraktiker i årskurs 62021Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna studie svarar mot behovet av forskning om hur lärare kan stödja elevers ämnesspecifika litteracitet i språkligt heterogena klassrum med fokus på skrivandets roll. Tidigare forskning har belyst att det ofta saknas strukturerade former av textarbete (t.ex. Lindh, 2019; Olvegård, 2014) och hur nationella prov ställer eleverna inför skriftspråkliga utmaningar (t.ex. Staf & Nord, 2018). Mindre uppmärksamhet har ägnats åt undervisning där läraren leder ett strukturerat arbete med texter för att stödja eleverna inför exempelvis provskrivande. Syftet med föreliggande studie är därför att bidra med fördjupad kunskap om litteracitetsförväntningar i historieundervisning. Utgångspunkt tas i följande frågor: Vilka litteracitetsförväntningar är påtagliga i prov samt provförberedande undervisningsaktiviteter? Hur hanterar eleverna dessa förväntningar i sitt skrivande?

    Ett rikt empiriskt material bestående av elevtexter, läromaterial och transkriberade ljudinspelningar insamlat i en språkligt heterogen årskurs 6 har gjort det möjligt att utforska de litteracitetsförväntningar eleverna möter i olika undervisningsmoment, såsom textsamtal, antecknande, läxprov och slutprov. I en tidigare studie på samma material (Walldén & Lindh, 2021) undersöktes olika syften och mål med det skrivande läraren skapade förutsättningar för. Föreliggande studie fäster ett större avseende vid texter eleverna producerade.

    Ett teoretiskt tolkningsramverk inspirerat av systemisk-funktionell genreteori (Martin & Rose, 2008) och skrivhandlingar med utgångspunkt i Skrivhjulet (t.ex. Lindh, 2019) har använts för att klassificera olika frågor som eleverna skulle besvara och för att analysera elevernas texter. Det preliminära resultatet visar att aktiviteter såsom tankeskrivande genom anteckningar, textsamtal och läxprov av övningskaraktär till viss del tycktes stödja elevernas provskrivande. Samtidigt var det påtagligt att förväntningarna stegrades i det avslutande och betygsättande prov läraren gav. Jämfört med läxproven och de frågor som utgjorde utgångspunkt för textsamtal, som ofta pekade mot att rekonstruera eller omformulera stoff från läromedelstexter, ställde slutprovet större krav på att resonera utifrån orsak och verkan. Dessa stegrande förväntningar hanterade eleverna på olika sätt.

    Lindh, C. (2019). I skrivandets spår: elever skriver i SO. Malmö universitet.  

    Olvegård, L. (2014). Herravälde. Är det bara killar eller? Andraspråksläsare möter lärobokstexter i historia för gymnasieskolan. Göteborgs universitet.  

    Staf, S., & Nord, A. (2018). Geografi-och historieämnenas literacy på prov: en kritisk analys av literacyförväntningarna i två nationella prov för samhällsorienterande ämnen för årskurs 9. I D. Wojahn, C. Seiler Brylla, & G. Westberg (Red.), Kritiska text- och diskursstudier (pp. 217–249). Södertörns högskola.  

    Walldén, R., & Lindh, C. (2021). Skrivpraktiker i historieämnet: Strukturerat textarbete i undervisning om Vasatiden. Nordidactica - Journal of Humanities and Social Science Education, 11(1), 54–79.  

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  • 71.
    Walldén, Robert
    et al.
    Malmö University, Faculty of Education and Society (LS), Department of Culture, Languages and Media (KSM). Malmö University, Disciplinary literacy and inclusive teaching.
    Lindh, Christina
    Högskolan Kristianstad.
    Skrivpraktiker i historieämnet: Strukturerat textarbete i undervisning om Vasatiden2021In: Nordidactica: Journal of Humanities and Social Science Education, ISSN 2000-9879, Vol. 11, no 1, p. 54-79Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article, we explore writing as a recurring and structured practice in the teaching of history. A teacher and her Grade 6 students were followed for 12 weeks’ teaching about the Vasa era. The material consists of field notes, transcribed voice recordings, teaching material, and samples of students’ writing. Drawing on the sociology of education, functional theories of writing, and concepts of historical thinking, the result shows that the teacher prioritized organizing information about the era while also, through writing based on images, creating opportunities for imagining, exploring and participating in content-related interaction. Social semiotic analysis highlights how the students employed different ways of taking notes explicitly modelled by the teacher. While the writing practices created some opportunities for learning about important events, understanding the historical significance of the Vasa era, and approaching a historical perspective, ethical dimensions and critical examination of evidence were de-emphasized. Implications for using writing in critical literacy practices of school history are discussed.

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    Skrivpraktiker i historieämnet
  • 72.
    Walldén, Robert
    et al.
    Malmö University, Faculty of Education and Society (LS), Department of Culture, Languages and Media (KSM). Malmö University, Disciplinary literacy and inclusive teaching.
    Nygård Larsson, Pia
    Malmö University, Faculty of Education and Society (LS), Department of Culture, Languages and Media (KSM). Malmö University, Disciplinary literacy and inclusive teaching.
    Bilder, texter och samtal i ett språkligt heterogent SO-klassrum: Kunskapsutvecklande stötestenar och potentialer2020In: ABSTRACTS, 2020Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    De olika medierande resurser som erbjuds i undervisning har en stor betydelse för det ämneslärande som möjliggörs. Språkligt heterogena elevgrupper anses gynnas av en undervisning som erbjuder visualiseringar, rikliga möjligheter till samtal och ett strukturerat arbete med ämnesspecifika begrepp och texter. Det är viktigt inte minst för undervisning i historia som, likt andra SO-ämnen, kännetecknas av ett abstrakt språkbruk samtidigt som ämnet ställer särskilt höga krav på en kritisk textförståelse. Möjligheterna för att iscensätta en språk- och kunskapsutvecklande undervisning i historia i tidigare skolår är dock otillräckligt belyst. I vår presentation kommer vi därför rapportera från en klassrumsstudie i årskurs 6 på en språkligt heterogen skola under ett arbetsområde om Vasatiden. Regelbundna språkdidaktiska inslag i denna undervisning var helklassamtal om visualiserade ämnesrelaterade ord, textsamtal i grupper och läsloggsskrivande om ämnesrelaterade bilder som följdes upp i helklass. Analysen av klassrumsinteraktion och undervisningsmaterial grundar sig på teoretiska ramverk för ämneslitteracitet och diskursiv rörlighet. Resultatet visar hur läraren söker bygga upp elevernas förståelse för arbetsområdet genom öppna samtal kring texter och bilder där olika perspektiv på historiska händelser och nyckelfigurer intas. I samtal om ämnesrelaterade ord är kunskapsutvecklande potentialer påtagliga när den muntliga förhandlingen pendlar mellan vardagliga och mer abstrakta formuleringar och ger eleverna utrymme att formulera en förståelse genom egna innovativa språkliga uttryck. Samtidigt visar resultatet hur förenklade bilder och vardagsspråkliga formuleringar kan motverka elevernas möjligheter att använda sig av ett ämnesspecifikt språkbruk. Interaktionens kunskapsutvecklande potentialer påverkas också av hur samtalen kopplas till de texter som används i undervisningen samt av hur texterna som sådana representerar att ämnesinnehåll. Studien belyser komplexiteten i att stödja kunskapsutveckling genom interaktion och ger en grund för en mer nyanserad förståelse av hur bilder, texter och samtal kan samspela och användas på ett medvetet sätt i ämnesundervisningen.

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  • 73.
    Walldén, Robert
    et al.
    Malmö University, Faculty of Education and Society (LS), Department of Culture, Languages and Media (KSM). Malmö University, Disciplinary literacy and inclusive teaching.
    Nygård Larsson, Pia
    Malmö University, Faculty of Education and Society (LS), Department of Culture, Languages and Media (KSM). Malmö University, Disciplinary literacy and inclusive teaching.
    “Can you take a wild guess?”: Using images and expanding knowledge through interaction in the teaching and learning of history2021In: Linguistics and Education, ISSN 0898-5898, E-ISSN 1873-1864, Vol. 65, p. 1-13, article id 100960Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article contributes knowledge about disciplinary literacy practices in school history, with a particular focus on how key subject-related concepts are visually and orally represented and negotiated in teacher- student interaction. Based on a classroom study of history teaching in a linguistically diverse classroom in Grade 6, we use social-semiotic theories to analyze properties of the images themselves and how they are employed as resources in oral interaction, with particular focus on students’ potential involvement in discursive shifts between everyday and disciplinary wordings. The results show that decontextualized, generic images, particularly those of abstract concepts, can obstruct students’ participation in subject- related discourse. Students’ discursive mobility can also be limited by interaction-driven guessing games about key subject-related concepts and misleading use of everyday language. The results also show how L2 students’ creative use of linguistic resources, connections to learners’ prior knowledge, and reiteration of subject-related concepts can constitute valuable parts of discursive shifts. Implications for using images and oral interaction in ways that support disciplinary learning in history are discussed.

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  • 74.
    Walldén, Robert
    et al.
    Malmö University, Faculty of Education and Society (LS), Department of Culture, Languages and Media (KSM). Malmö University, Disciplinary literacy and inclusive teaching.
    Nygård Larsson, Pia
    Malmö University, Faculty of Education and Society (LS), Department of Culture, Languages and Media (KSM). Malmö University, Disciplinary literacy and inclusive teaching.
    Förhandling om skönlitterärt språk: En lärares diskursiva strategier under högläsning2022Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Tidigare studier har visat den muntliga interaktionens betydelse för att främja elevers språk- och kunskapsutveckling i olika ämneskontexter. Det kontextuella stöd klassrumssamtalen erbjuder är särskilt viktigt i klassrum där undervisningen bedrivs på elevers andraspråk. Trots det tilltagande intresset för ämneslitteracitet och språkliga dimensioner i ämnesundervisning finns det relativt lite forskning som anlägger språkliga perspektiv på elevers möte med skönlitterära texter. En sannolik förklaring är den traditionella uppdelning mellan språk och litteratur som har inspirerat konferenstemat, Språk och litteratur – en omöjlig eller skön förening? Den aktuella presentationen bygger på en studie av en lärares högläsning av den prisbelönta bilderboken Legenden om Sally Jones i en språkligt heterogen årskurs 4. Etnografiskt inspirerade metoder användes för att dokumentera högläsningen i två undervisningsgrupper med fokus på följande forskningsfrågor: 1) Vilka diskursiva strategier använder läraren för att främja förståelsen av skönlitterärt språkbruk under högläsningsaktiviteter, 2) Vad kännetecknar de skönlitterära ord och uttryck som läraren fokuserade på? För att besvara dessa frågor analyserades transkriberade ljudinspelningar utifrån perspektivet diskursiv rörlighet med hjälp av verktyg från systemisk-funktionell lingvistisk och legitimation code theory. Resultatet visar att läraren under högläsningen gjorde många omformuleringar som antingen utvidgade eller förenklade det skönlitterära språket. De utvidgande strategierna var särskilt framträdande och bestod av såväl klargörande omformuleringar som mer diskreta tillägg av vardagsspråklig karaktär. Det skönlitterära språk läraren fokuserade på var dels specialiserade ord och uttryck, dels formuleringar som kan kopplas till skönlitterära beskrivningar. De diskursiva strategiernas roll för att utvidga elevernas språkliga repertoarer och främja deras förståelse och engagemang vid gemensam läsning av skönlitterära texter diskuteras.

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  • 75.
    Walldén, Robert
    et al.
    Malmö University, Faculty of Education and Society (LS), Department of Culture, Languages and Media (KSM). Malmö University, Disciplinary literacy and inclusive teaching.
    Nygård Larsson, Pia
    Malmö University, Faculty of Education and Society (LS), Department of Culture, Languages and Media (KSM). Malmö University, Disciplinary literacy and inclusive teaching.
    "It can be a bit tricky": negotiating disciplinary language in and out of context in civics classrooms2023In: Classroom Discourse, ISSN 1946-3014, E-ISSN 1946-3022, Vol. 14, no 3, p. 302-325Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article focuses on how Grade 6 students interactionally make meaning out of subject-related language encountered in civics textbook material by searching for synonyms and engaging in discussions. Employing ethnographically-inspired methods, data was collected through observations and audio recordings of civics teaching in two linguistically diverse classrooms in which the students were taught in the majority language, Swedish. In the article, oral classroom interaction is perceived as a crucial part of the meaning-making social practice in which students' disciplinary literacy is developed. Key analytical concepts are discursive shifts and discursive mobility - the ability to move between and within different discourses. The results show that the use of online dictionaries promoted decontextualizing processes in which the students unsuccessfully tried to negotiate multiple abstract meanings that, in many cases, were unrelated to the disciplinary content. In other exchanges, the adults gave interactional support by contextualizing the words and expressions in content-relevant ways and pointing out recognizable parts of words. In some cases, the teacher instead drew attention to words that have different meanings, which complicated the content-relevant understanding of the words. Implications for working with subject-related vocabulary in ways which support rather than hinder disciplinary understanding are discussed.

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    fulltext
  • 76.
    Walldén, Robert
    et al.
    Malmö University, Faculty of Education and Society (LS), Department of Culture, Languages and Media (KSM). Malmö University, Disciplinary literacy and inclusive teaching.
    Nygård Larsson, Pia
    Malmö University, Faculty of Education and Society (LS), Department of Natural Science, Mathematics and Society (NMS). Malmö University, Disciplinary literacy and inclusive teaching.
    Joining the adventures of Sally Jones: Discursive strategies for providing access to literary language in a linguistically diverse classroom2022In: Linguistics and Education, ISSN 0898-5898, E-ISSN 1873-1864, Vol. 72, p. 101121-101121, article id 101121Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study illuminates a teacher's discursive strategies for promoting understanding of literary language in a linguistically diverse Swedish classroom. By means of field notes and audio recordings, a Grade 4 teacher's read-aloud of the award-winning picture book The Legend of Sally Jones was documented and analyzed employing concepts from Systemic-Functional Linguistics and Legitimation Code Theory. Combining quantitative and qualitative approaches, the findings show that the teacher used a rich variety of discursive strategies to make specialized terms and literary descriptions available to the students. Apart from using question–answer strategies and commenting on the text in clarifying ways, the teacher made linguistic alterations to either expand or simplify the literary language. The expansive strategies were particularly salient, entailing clarifying paraphrases or subtly infused additions to expand literary meaning. The significance of the strategies to support students’ understanding of literary language and immersion in stories is discussed.

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  • 77.
    Walldén, Robert
    et al.
    Malmö University, Faculty of Education and Society (LS), Department of Culture, Languages and Media (KSM). Malmö University, Disciplinary literacy and inclusive teaching.
    Nygård Larsson, Pia
    Malmö University, Faculty of Education and Society (LS), Department of Culture, Languages and Media (KSM). Malmö University, Disciplinary literacy and inclusive teaching.
    Negotiating figurative language from literary texts: second-language instruction as a dual literacy practice2021In: L1-Educational Studies in Language and Literature, ISSN 1567-6617, E-ISSN 1573-1731, Vol. 21, p. 1-30Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this article is to contribute knowledge about how figurative language from literary texts is negotiated through oral interaction in second-language instruction. The material consists of transcriptions of recordings from a classroom study of basic adult second-language instruction involving two teachers and their two student groups. Theories of semantic waves and discursive mobility are used to explore and visualize discursive shifts between concrete and condensed abstract meanings. The results show a varied use of linguistic resources, where students’ contributions often serve as a bridge between the teachers’ concrete examples and abstract paraphrases in which lexical metaphors interplayed with grammatical metaphors. In some exchanges, characters and events in the literary texts were significantly expanded upon in the interaction as they were used as contextual resources. The study sheds light on second-language instruction as a dual disciplinary literacy practice, involving both language learning and the study of literary texts.

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    Second-language instruction as a dual literacy practice
  • 78.
    Walldén, Robert
    et al.
    Malmö University, Faculty of Education and Society (LS), Department of Culture, Languages and Media (KSM). Malmö University, Disciplinary literacy and inclusive teaching.
    Wennås Brante, Eva
    Malmö University, Faculty of Education and Society (LS), Department of Culture, Languages and Media (KSM). Malmö University, Disciplinary literacy and inclusive teaching.
    ”Jag brukar söka typ på Siri”: 7-åringars förståelse av information på internet2020In: ABSTRACTS, Malmö: Malmö universitet, 2020Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    En majoritet av sjuåringar i Sverige använder internet varje dag. Sjuåringars läsförmåga är dock begränsad, vilket försvårar för dem att hitta information, att avgöra varifrån information härstammar eller med vilken intention den är publicerad. Det innebär också att det är svårt är att avgöra trovärdigheten i den funna informationen. I det centrala innehållet för svenskämnet för årskurs 1-3 framgår att elever ska förstå hur texters avsändare påverka innehållet. Det finns med andra ord ett behov av att stödja barn i att förstå hur information når internet så att barnen kan utvärdera trovärdigheten i den information de finner. Utifrån forskningsfrågorna hur gör barn med begränsad läsförmåga när de söker information och hur tror de att information når internet? har vi genomfört en pilotstudie med 23 barn i årskurs 1 (pojkar = 8, flickor = 15). Intervjuerna genomfördes i grupper om tre under skoldagen. Resultaten från innehållsanalys visar att elevernas tankar om och erfarenhet information på internet präglas starkt av användning av Youtube. De visar hur de kan söka fram fritidsrelaterade bilder och videor genom Siri och Youtube och beskriver hur det ser ut när exempelvis videoklipp laddas upp till Youtube. Angående informationens trovärdighet uttrycker de att allt som visas på Youtube inte är sant eller fungerar att genomföra. De gör också skillnad mellan fakta och fiktion, och vet om att vissa saker kostar pengar. En mer abstrakt och kritisk förståelse för hur information landar på internet och har specifika avsändare med en viss intention saknas.

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    fulltext
  • 79.
    Wennås Brante, Eva
    et al.
    Malmö University, Faculty of Education and Society (LS), Department of Culture, Languages and Media (KSM). Malmö University, Disciplinary literacy and inclusive teaching.
    Walldén, Robert
    Malmö University, Faculty of Education and Society (LS), Department of Culture, Languages and Media (KSM). Malmö University, Disciplinary literacy and inclusive teaching.
    "Internet? That's an app you can download": First-graders use linguistic resources to describe internet and digital information2023In: Education Inquiry, E-ISSN 2000-4508, Vol. 14, no 1, p. 1-21Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Given young children's frequent use of the internet and the expectations formulated in policy documents such as the Swedish national curriculum, teachers need to promote critical awareness about information found online, even in the earliest years of schooling. Responding to the need for more information about how first-graders understand the internet, we report on findings from focus group interviews concerning what students in Grade 1 think the internet is and what kind of experiences and linguistic resources they draw upon to express their understanding. Based on thematic and systemic-functional linguistic analysis, the results show that the children mostly express an understanding of the internet as something concrete, such as an app, as something encapsulated in apps or hardware and, more generally, as an enabler for the use of different apps. Students connections to using YouTube and games are prevalent, and their understanding of the internet is shaped by experiences of screen interactions when using these apps. On rare occasions, students hesitantly tried to formulate abstract perspectives concerning what the internet is or what it means. Possible directions for promoting and researching a more abstract understanding in pedagogical practice are discussed.

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    fulltext
  • 80.
    Wennås Brante, Eva
    et al.
    Malmö University, Faculty of Education and Society (LS), Department of Culture, Languages and Media (KSM). Malmö University, Disciplinary literacy and inclusive teaching.
    Walldén, Robert
    Malmö University, Faculty of Education and Society (LS), Department of Culture, Languages and Media (KSM).
    Åtta-åringar söker information med Ipads: dimensioner av läskompetens2022Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 81.
    Wennås Brante, Eva
    et al.
    Malmö University, Faculty of Education and Society (LS), Department of Culture, Languages and Media (KSM). Malmö University, Disciplinary literacy and inclusive teaching.
    Walldén, Robert
    Malmö University, Faculty of Education and Society (LS), Department of Culture, Languages and Media (KSM). Malmö University, Disciplinary literacy and inclusive teaching.
    Ridell, Kim
    Malmö University, Faculty of Education and Society (LS), Department of Culture, Languages and Media (KSM). Malmö University, Disciplinary literacy and inclusive teaching.
    Eight-year-olds seeking information with ipads: dimensions of reading competence2023In: EARLI 2023: Book of Abstracts, The European Association for Research on Learning and Instruction , 2023Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Children use digital environments at an early age and should be supported from the start of school to a conscious and critical way of navigating the internet.Previous studies show that children have vague ideas about how the information has ended up on the internet, how it should be read and evaluated. In thisexploratory study, we investigated how children start an internet search, how they formulate their search query and what they pay attention to when the searchresult is obtained, as well as how they read the information from the screen. 15 eight-year-old children performed the searches in small groups, using one tabletin joint searches. The children's speech and screen activity were recorded. The data was analyzed with the help of Luke and Freebody's resource model to callin different dimensions of reading competence that are actualized when students initiate searches and navigate search results. The results show that thestudents can use speech and writing to quickly search for specific information. At the same time, they are disinclined to stop and reflect on the relevance,credibility, and sender of the search results. With interactional support, some students were able to identify the sender of the information and reason about which50type of sender might be credible. To reach a more developed thinking and awareness that digital information has a sender, teaching that promotes criticalinformation awareness and multimodal text competence is required. 

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