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  • 1.
    Waldner, Oscar
    et al.
    Malmö universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa och samhälle (HS), Institutionen för kriminologi (KR).
    Moeller, Kim
    Malmö universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa och samhälle (HS), Institutionen för kriminologi (KR).
    Collective Displacement of Regional Cryptomarket Vendors-A Study on the Aftermath of the Flugsvamp 3.0 Closure2024Ingår i: International Criminal Justice Review, ISSN 1057-5677, E-ISSN 1556-3855Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The cryptomarket ecosystem has become increasingly volatile and fragmented with sites shutting down on short notice. Displacement to new marketplaces is tricky when the original location was domestically oriented. We examine the spatial and temporal displacement of 83 Swedish vendors in the aftermath of the Flugsvamp 3.0 shutdown. Vendors rejected the successor Flugsvamp 4.0 and moved to German-run Archetyp Market. Using quantitative cross-sectional data from Archetyp Market we measure bivariate correlations between the temporal displacement and status-related variables. We found moderately strong correlation between vendors' number of sales per day and the order of their relocation to Archetyp. We also examined cryptomarket discussion forums and blogs during the time of the Flugsvamp 3.0 shutdown. This qualitative data supported the finding that migration choices of high-status vendors inspired others to follow.

  • 2.
    Moeller, Kim
    et al.
    Malmö universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa och samhälle (HS), Institutionen för kriminologi (KR).
    Khan, Sadia
    Malmö universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa och samhälle (HS), Institutionen för kriminologi (KR).
    Reporting honor-based crimes to the police – Social workers’ perspectives2024Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 3.
    Svensson, Robert
    et al.
    Malmö universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa och samhälle (HS), Institutionen för kriminologi (KR).
    Moeller, Kim
    Malmö universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa och samhälle (HS), Institutionen för kriminologi (KR).
    Johnson, Björn
    Malmö universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa och samhälle (HS), Institutionen för socialt arbete (SA).
    Shannon, David
    Natl Council Crime Prevent, Stockholm, Sweden..
    For Whom Do Unstructured Activities Matters? The Interaction Between Unstructured and Structured Activities in Delinquency and Cannabis Use: A National Self-Report Study2023Ingår i: Crime and delinquency, ISSN 0011-1287, E-ISSN 1552-387X, Vol. 69, nr 10, s. 2022-2045, artikel-id 001112872211104Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examines whether unstructured and structured activities interact in their association with delinquency and cannabis use. We hypothesize that unstructured activities are more strongly associated with delinquency and cannabis use for those who are less engaged in structured activities. Data are drawn from three nationally representative self-report studies conducted between 2005 and 2011 in Sweden, and include 19,644 adolescents. The results support the hypothesis that unstructured activities interact with structured activities in the association with delinquency and cannabis use. The association between unstructured activities and these outcomes is stronger for those with lower levels of structured activities. Sporting activities constitute the structured activity that most clearly interacts with unstructured activities in the association with delinquency and cannabis use.

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  • 4.
    Ejbye-Ernst, Peter
    et al.
    Netherlands Inst Study Crime & Law Enforcement, Boelelaan 1077, NL-1081 HV Amsterdam, Netherlands..
    Moeller, Kim
    Malmö universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa och samhälle (HS), Institutionen för kriminologi (KR).
    Liebst, Lasse S.
    Netherlands Inst Study Crime & Law Enforcement, Boelelaan 1077, NL-1081 HV Amsterdam, Netherlands.;Univ Copenhagen, Dept Sociol, Copenhagen, Denmark..
    Thomas, Jo
    Netherlands Inst Study Crime & Law Enforcement, Boelelaan 1077, NL-1081 HV Amsterdam, Netherlands..
    Sexton, Melissa
    Free Univ Amsterdam, Sch Business & Econ, Amsterdam, Netherlands..
    Lindegaard, Marie R.
    Netherlands Inst Study Crime & Law Enforcement, Boelelaan 1077, NL-1081 HV Amsterdam, Netherlands.;Univ Amsterdam, Dept Sociol, Amsterdam, Netherlands..
    "It's illegal to buy drugs from street dealers": a video-based pre-post study of a behavioral intervention to displace dealers from an Amsterdam open-air drug market2023Ingår i: Journal of Experimental Criminology, ISSN 1573-3750, E-ISSN 1572-8315Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: A high number of street dealers operate in the Red Light District in Amsterdam, The Netherlands. To displace the dealers, the Municipality of Amsterdam installed text-based light projections in a street attracting a high number of dealers.

    Methods: To evaluate the intervention, we did a pre-post analysis of video footage from two CCTV cameras located in the street. In total, we analyzed 765 one-minute segments of footage from before and after the implementation.

    Results: The implementation was followed by a four percentage point reduction in street dealers. However, the estimated effect shows fragileness with wide confidence intervals and a p-value just below 0.05, and a Bayesian robustness analysis suggests that the intervention was not associated with the outcome.

    Conclusions: Analyzing CCTV-footage offers a unique avenue for evaluating small scale interventions in open-air drug markets. While we observed a decrease in the presence of dealers, the intervention still needs further validation.

  • 5.
    Ejbye-Ernst, Peter
    et al.
    NCSR.
    Moeller, Kim
    Liebst, Lasse
    Copenhagen University.
    Thomas, Jo
    NCSR.
    Sexton, Melissa
    NCSR.
    Rosenkrantz Lindegaard, Marie
    NSCR.
    It’s illegal to buy drugs from the street dealers”: A Video-Based Study of a Behavioral Intervention to Reduce Dealers in Amsterdam2023Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    A high number of street dealers operate in the open-air drug market in the Red Light District in Amsterdam, The Netherlands selling cocaine and ecstasy to visitors. This is a nuisance to shop owners and inhabitants in the area. To mitigate this problem, the Municipality of Amsterdam installed three text-based light projections on the pavement and walls of a specific street known for attracting high numbers of dealers. The text discouraged visitors from buying drugs from street dealers. The aim of the intervention was to displace dealers from the specific street to surrounding areas. In order to investigate the influence of this intervention, we collected and analyzed video footage from two CCTV cameras located in the street. We analyzed a total of 765 one-minute segments of video footage from before and after the intervention was implemented. The analysis of the video footage showed that there were statistically significantly fewer street dealers observed in the street after the intervention was implemented. This difference amounted to an approximately 25 percent reduction of observed street dealers, when we controlled for time of day, day of the week, and the crowding of the area. These results indicate that the light-based interventions successfully discouraged street dealers from operating in the street. This influence of the intervention might be connected to the nature of the Open-Air Drug market in the Red Light District, which is almost exclusively catering to tourists and where dealers are constantly moving around rather than standing still. The generalizability of the current study to other open-air drug markets therefore remains uncertain.

  • 6.
    Moeller, Kim
    Malmö universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa och samhälle (HS), Institutionen för kriminologi (KR).
    Street gangs and juvenile delinquency: A comparative study based on Nordic ISRD4 Eurogang modul2023Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 7.
    Jacques, Scott
    et al.
    Georgia State Univ, CrimRx, Atlanta, GA 30302 USA.;Georgia State Univ, Criminol, Atlanta, GA USA.;Georgia State Univ, POB 4018, Atlanta, GA 30302 USA..
    Moeller, Kim
    Malmö universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa och samhälle (HS), Institutionen för kriminologi (KR).
    Toleration by Victimized Coffeeshops in Amsterdam2023Ingår i: Crime and delinquency, ISSN 0011-1287, E-ISSN 1552-387X, Vol. 69, nr 3, s. 510-532Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Dutch coffeeshops are quasi-illegal. Their sale of cannabis is de jure prohibited but de facto permitted. In this sense, their criminal acts are tolerated. Less often explored, and less well understood, is that coffeeshops also tolerate crimes against them. "Doing nothing" is a common way to manage conflict. Why and how does it occur? In this article, we use the opportunity and rationality perspectives to analyze qualitative data obtained during interviews with 50 personnel of coffeeshops in Amsterdam, the Netherlands. After presenting our findings, we discuss their general implications for tolerant, and intolerant, ways to manage conflict.

  • 8.
    Moeller, Kim
    Malmö universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa och samhälle (HS), Institutionen för kriminologi (KR).
    Trust in Cryptomarkets for Illicit Drugs2023Ingår i: Digital Transformations of Illicit Drug Markets: Reconfiguration and Continuity / [ed] Tzanetakis, M.; South, N., Emerald Group Publishing Limited, 2023, s. 29-43Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The growth in cryptomarkets has reinvigorated the research on illicit drug distribution due to the availability of large-scale data. This data has enabled researchers to ask new and detailed questions about how participants in these markets trust each other enough for the market not to collapse. This question deserves more attention because it has become a taken-for-granted notion that repeated transactions and social categories create trust. Whether online or on the street, economic exchanges under illegality are more uncertain than transactions in the legal economy. This puts higher demands on trust, as there is less information and the stakes are higher. In this chapter, the author presents definitions, typologies, and disciplinary contributions to the study of trust and examine how it has been operationalised in a sample of 13 peer-reviewed articles. These articles focus on three dimensions of trust: process-based trust that derives from repeated transactions with known partners; character-based trust measured by the networked reputation scores; and institutional-based trust in the platform and its administrators. In practice, the trust bases are intertwined. Drawing on the broader social science literature on trust, a mesolevel operationalisation that centres on networked reputation scores as embedded in processes and institutions can draw the research together in a multidisciplinary framework.

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  • 9.
    Pritchett, Sarah
    et al.
    Malmö universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa och samhälle (HS), Institutionen för kriminologi (KR).
    Moeller, Kim
    Malmö universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa och samhälle (HS), Institutionen för kriminologi (KR).
    Can social bonds and social learning theories help explain radical violent extremism?2022Ingår i: Nordic Journal of Criminology, ISSN 2578-983X, nr 1, s. 83-101Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Radical violent extremism is a growing concern for the Nordic countries. In this interest, we examine how traditional criminological theories can help to explain the difference between violent and non-violent radical extremist individuals. We analyse the Profiles of Individuals Radicalized in the United States (PIRUS) dataset, with information on 2148 radical criminals in the United States, using a logistic regression, wherein violence was the dependent variable. The independent variables corresponded to aspects of social bonds and social learning. Results indicate that social bond theory has little predictive value for violence among radical criminals. Social learning perspectives were somewhat more predictive, with radical peers having a significant positive effect on the likelihood of radical violence. Socio-economic status, ideology and criminal history had significant positive effects as well. We conclude by exploring theoretical explanations, further research implications and discuss a Nordic version of a database. 

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  • 10.
    Moeller, Kim
    Malmö universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa och samhälle (HS), Institutionen för kriminologi (KR).
    Hybrid Governance in Online Drug Distribution2022Ingår i: Contemporary Drug Problems, ISSN 0091-4509, E-ISSN 2163-1808, Vol. 49, nr 4, s. 491-504Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A growing share of illicit drug dealing occurs on online platforms. Technological innovations, such as encryption and anonymous payments, have enabled new and more complex ways of organizing transactions. This conceptual essay advances the study of online drug dealing by describing how governance mechanisms from markets, networks, and hierarchies are combined to reduce transactional uncertainty. Based on published research, I argue that cryptomarkets and social media drug distribution prioritize prices, trust, and rules differently, and that this can be understood as hybrid governance. In cryptomarkets, networked reputation scores are important, but their reliability is interdependent of administrators’ sanctioning capacity. Similarly, the open advertisement of prices and products relies on the ability to expose fraudulent vendors. On social media, buyers prioritize easy access and fast delivery and characteristics of market governance, while hierarchical rules are absent, and networked reputations play only a small role. Existing typologies of drug dealing organization do not capture these combinations of governance mechanisms. Hybrid governance and the interdependence of several governance mechanisms better capture the empirical reality of new and emerging modes in online drug distribution.

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  • 11.
    Moeller, Kim
    et al.
    Malmö universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa och samhälle (HS), Institutionen för kriminologi (KR).
    Jacques, Scott
    Department of Criminal Justice & Criminology, Georgia State University, Atlanta, GA, United States.
    Amsterdam coffeeshops, victimisation, and police mobilization2021Ingår i: Policing & society, ISSN 1043-9463, E-ISSN 1477-2728, Vol. 31, nr 7, s. 822-833Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Police mobilisation is a first step in the judicial process and an important source of information on offending. Whether victims mobilise police is affected by their assessment of its utility. Victims who are criminals, such as drug dealers, are known to face a different cost–benefit scenario than law-abiding persons. Dutch ‘coffeeshops’ are a unique type of dealer. They operate in a grey area, allowed by the government to sell a prohibited drug, cannabis, so long as they comply with a set of regulations. Little is known about their mobilisation of police in response to victimisation, including how it is affected by the rules governing their business. We explore this issue with qualitative data collected from personnel of 50 coffeeshops in Amsterdam, the Netherlands. We analyse how they think about the potential benefits and costs of asking the police for help post victimisation. In many ways, their thought process is similar to that of most any victim, but they also consider the potential negative ramifications of inviting police to their door. We conclude by discussing the implications for future research, regulation and drug control broadly, and coffeeshops specifically.

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  • 12.
    Houborg, Esben
    et al.
    Centre for Alcohol and Drug Research, Aarhus University, Denmark.
    Moeller, Kim
    Malmö universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa och samhälle (HS), Institutionen för kriminologi (KR).
    Danish Drug Policy: Between Repression and Harm Reduction2021Ingår i: Retreat or Entrenchment? / [ed] Henrik Tham, Stockholm University Press, 2021, s. 13-36Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The development of drug policy in Denmark has moved from a relatively liberal position to a stricter policy. The 2020s is marked by both criminalization and harm reduction and the development can be characterized as following a dual track where people with a problematic drug use are being cared for. 

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  • 13.
    Moeller, Kim
    Malmö universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa och samhälle (HS), Institutionen för kriminologi (KR).
    Enforcement Intensity in Danish Drug Control, 1996–20172021Ingår i: European Journal on Criminal Policy and Research, ISSN 0928-1371, E-ISSN 1572-9869, Vol. 27, nr 4, s. 571-586Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Enforcement intensity towards drug law offences in Denmark has increased since 2004, making Denmark one of the few Western countries that is heading towards a more repressive drug control approach. The aim of this study is to examine patterns and correlates of drug enforcement intensity over time. Policy documents and criminal statistics on drug law offences, from 1996 to 2017, are analysed in the context of the rationality perspective and the theory of policy coherence. Time series analyses and bivariate tests of statistical significance are used to examine enforcement intensity over time, between seasons, and in the gender and ethnic composition of convictions. Three periods are identified, delineated by documents that set forth drug policy aims. From 1996 to 2003, a series of qualitative changes to the legal framework was introduced, followed by a quantitative increase in enforcement pressure from 2004 to 2010 with a focus on Copenhagen. From 2011 to 2017, other regions of the country also increased enforcement. The increased intensity in drug control followed a period of increasing cannabis prevalence rates. The increase in reported minor drug law offences correlated with increased seasonal variations and increased disparity in the gender and ethnicity of convicted individuals. 

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  • 14.
    Moeller, Kim
    et al.
    Malmö universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa och samhälle (HS), Institutionen för kriminologi (KR).
    Svensson, Bengt
    Malmö universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa och samhälle (HS), Institutionen för socialt arbete (SA).
    Munksgaard, Rasmus
    École de criminologie, Université de Montréal, Canada.
    Fentanyl analogs on the Swedish webforum flashback: Interest and impact of scheduling2021Ingår i: International journal of drug policy, ISSN 0955-3959, E-ISSN 1873-4758, Vol. 87, artikel-id 103013Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Sweden regulates new psychoactive substances, including fentanyl analogs, individually. This reactive scheduling procedure enabled the existence of a recreational market for unscheduled fentanyl analogs sold from surface webshops. We measure the interest in 24 named fentanyl analogs and the impact of scheduling.

    Methods

    We scraped posts in threads on named fentanyl analogs from the Swedish internet forum Flashback.org, 2012–2019. The sample consists of 24 threads with a total of 8761 posts. We construct five measures of interest based on duration of threads, number of posts, and number of distinct posters, and fit a non-seasonal ARMA model to test if there was a change in mean activity after scheduling.

    Results

    Across the five measures, there was most interest in acryl fentanyl, butyr fentanyl, and acetyl fentanyl. The number of daily posts was significantly reduced in nine out of 13 threads after scheduling.

    Conclusion

    The scheduling of fentanyl analogs impacted interest on Flashback.org. The biggest effect sizes were from the narcotics scheduling of 2-Me-MAF, acryl, and acetyl fentanyl, while furanyl fentanyl saw the biggest reduction after health scheduling. The reductions were bigger for narcotics scheduling compared to health scheduling.

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  • 15.
    Moeller, Kim
    et al.
    Malmö universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa och samhälle (HS), Institutionen för kriminologi (KR).
    Munksgaard, Rasmus
    École de criminologie, Université de Montréal, Canada.
    Demant, Jakob
    Department of Sociology, Copenhagen University, Denmark.
    Illicit drug prices and quantity discounts: A comparison between a cryptomarket, social media, and police data2021Ingår i: International journal of drug policy, ISSN 0955-3959, E-ISSN 1873-4758, Vol. 91, artikel-id 102969Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Illicit drugs are increasingly sold on cryptomarkets and on social media. Buyers and sellers perceive these online transactions as less risky than conventional street-level exchanges. Following the Risks & Prices framework, law enforcement is the largest cost component of illicit drug distribution. We examine whether prices on cryptomarkets are lower than prices on social media and prices reported by law enforcement on primarily offline markets.

    METHODS: Data consists of online advertisements for illicit drugs in Sweden in 2018, scraped from the cryptomarket Flugsvamp 2.0 (n = 826) and collected with digital ethnography on Facebook (n = 446). Observations are advertisements for herbal cannabis (n = 421), cannabis resin, hash (n = 594), and cocaine (n = 257) from 156 sellers. Prices are compared with estimates from Swedish police districts (n = 53). Three multilevel linear regression models are estimated, one for each drug type, comparing price levels and discount elasticities for each platform and between sellers on each platform.

    RESULTS: Price levels are similar on the two online platforms, but cocaine is slightly more expensive on social media. There are quantity discounts for all three drug types on both platforms with coefficients between -0.10 and -0.21. Despite the higher competition between sellers on cryptomarkets, prices are not lower compared to social media. Online price levels for hash and cocaine are similar to those reported by police at the 1 g level.

    CONCLUSION: Mean prices and quantity discounts are similar in the two online markets. This provides support for the notion that research on cryptomarkets can also inform drug market analysis in a broader sense. Online advertisements for drugs constitute a new detailed transaction-level data source for supply-side price information for research.

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  • 16.
    Moeller, Kim
    et al.
    Malmö universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa och samhälle (HS), Institutionen för kriminologi (KR).
    Kiis, Emma
    Jabeer Takiar, Deputy Chief Superintendent, Danish National Police2021Ingår i: Trends in Policing: Interviews with Police Leaders Across the Globe / [ed] B. Baker; D. Das, Routledge, 2021Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Jabeer Takiar, Deputy Chief Superintendent, Danish National Police. Interviewed by Kim Moeller and Emma Elisabeth Kiis. The interview offers keen insights into the challenges of being an officer from an immigrant family and of encouraging ethnic minorities to enter the police service.

  • 17.
    Moeller, Kim
    Malmö universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa och samhälle (HS), Institutionen för kriminologi (KR).
    Qualitative meta-synthesis2021Ingår i: The Encyclopedia of Research Methods in Criminology and Criminal Justice / [ed] J.C. Barnes; David R. Forde, Wiley-Blackwell, 2021Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Qualitative meta-synthesis (QMS) is a method that is used to explain the findings of a group of qualitative studies on a similar subject. QMS can be explained as a qualitative counterpart to quantitative meta-analysis or as a methodological development from critical literature reviews and secondary analysis. The following four elements constitute any QMS: conceiving the synthesis, retrieving and appraising sample studies, extracting themes in and between studies, and synthesizing the findings. This chapter describes these four procedural steps. The intention is that they should serve as stimulus to creativity rather than to prescriptive procedures. QMS can contribute to reducing the divide between the qualitative and quantitative research in criminology by managing information from qualitative studies, addressing knowledge fragmentation, and encouraging dialogue. By interpreting qualitative findings across studies and raising the level of abstraction, QMS increases their relevance to the benefit of criminology and criminal justice research as a whole.  

  • 18.
    Moeller, Kim
    et al.
    Malmö universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa och samhälle (HS), Institutionen för kriminologi (KR).
    Svensson, Bengt
    Malmö universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa och samhälle (HS), Institutionen för socialt arbete (SA).
    "Shop Until You Drop": Valuing Fentanyl Analogs on a Swedish Internet Forum2021Ingår i: Journal of Drug Issues, ISSN 0022-0426, E-ISSN 1945-1369, Vol. 51, nr 1, s. 181-195, artikel-id 0022042620964129Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Fentanyl analogs are synthetic opioids used for pain treatment and palliative care, which are also sought after by drug users for their psychoactive properties. Clandestinely produced fentanyl has caused an overdose crises of unprecedented scale in the United States. In Sweden, the retail purchase, possession, and use of some analogs are legal, providing opiate users with a legal alternative, until the process of scheduling is finished. The continuous process of scheduling and introduction of slightly modified variants implies that there is much uncertainty regarding the potency and quality of newly introduced analogs. We examine user perceptions of fentanyl analogs in a thematic analysis of the public internet forum, Flashback, from 2012 to 2019. In 24 threads on fentanyl analogs, posters shared and discussed information on the emergence of new analogs, their desirability and prices, adverse health effects, and eventual scheduling.

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  • 19.
    Costa Storti, Claudia
    et al.
    European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction, Lisbon, Portugal.
    Bretteville-Jensen, Anne Line
    Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Oslo, Norway.
    De Grauwe, Paul
    European Institute, London School of Economics, London, United Kingdom.
    Moeller, Kim
    Malmö universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa och samhälle (HS), Institutionen för kriminologi (KR).
    Mounteney, Jane
    European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction, Lisbon, Portugal.
    Stevens, Alex
    School of Social Policy, Sociology and Social Research, University of Kent, Medway, United Kingdom.
    The Double Effect of COVID-19 Confinement Measures and Economic Recession on High-Risk Drug Users and Drug Services.2021Ingår i: European Addiction Research, ISSN 1022-6877, E-ISSN 1421-9891, Vol. 27, s. 239-241Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The ongoing COVID-19 pandemic is likely to have a profound impact on the lives of high-risk drug users and on the services responding to their needs in at least two important ways: first, through the restrictive measures introduced to mitigate the spread of the virus and, second, as a result of extensive economic downturn. Currently there is great uncertainty as to the future intensity and duration of the pandemic. In addition, the lessons we have been able to learn from previous economic downturns may be of limited applicability to the current situation, which differs in a number of significant respects. Experience nevertheless suggests that the potential consequences for drug users' health and well-being may be severe. The ongoing uncertainty serves to underline the importance of close monitoring of the drug situation and preparing flexible and innovative solutions to be able to meet new challenges which may arise.

  • 20.
    Philpot, Richard
    et al.
    Department of Psychology, Fylde College, Lancaster University, Lancaster, LA1 4YF, United Kingdom; Department of Sociology, University of Copenhagen, Øster Farimagsgade 5A, Bld. 16, Copenhagen K, Denmark.
    Liebst, Lasse
    Department of Sociology, University of Copenhagen, Øster Farimagsgade 5A, Bld. 16, Copenhagen K, Denmark.
    Møller, Kim Kristian
    Malmö universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa och samhälle (HS), Institutionen för kriminologi (KR).
    Lindegaard, Marie
    Department of Sociology, University of Copenhagen, Øster Farimagsgade 5A, Bld. 16, Copenhagen K, Denmark; Netherlands Institute for the Study of Crime and Law Enforcement (NSCR), P.O. Box 71304, Amsterdam, 1008, BH, Netherlands.
    Levine, Mark
    Department of Psychology, Fylde College, Lancaster University, Lancaster, LA1 4YF, United Kingdom; Department of Psychology, University of Exeter, Perry Road, Exeter, EX4 4QG, United Kingdom.
    Capturing violence in the night-time economy: A review of established and emerging methodologies2019Ingår i: Aggression and Violent Behavior, ISSN 1359-1789, E-ISSN 1873-6335, Vol. 46, s. 56-65Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Night-time economy (NTE) leisure zones, while providing local economic growth and positive social experiences, are hotspots for urban public violence. Research aimed at better understanding and thus reducing this violence has employed a range of empirical methods: official records, self-reports, experiments, and observational techniques. In this paper, we review the applications of these methodologies for analyzing NTE violence on key research dimensions, including mapping incidents across time and space; interpreting the motivations and meaning of violence; identifying social psychological background variables and health consequences; and the ability to examine mid-violent interactions. Further, we assess each method in terms of reliability, validity, and the potential for establishing causal claims. We demonstrate that there are fewer and less established methodologies available for examining the interactional dynamics of NTE violence. Using real-life NTE bystander intervention as a case example, we argue that video-based behavioral analysis is a promising method to address this gap. Given the infancy and relative lack of exposure of the video observational method, we provide recommendations for scholars interested in adopting this technique.

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  • 21.
    Moeller, Kim
    et al.
    Malmö universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa och samhälle (HS), Institutionen för kriminologi (KR).
    Sandberg, Sveinung
    Department of Criminology and Sociology of Law, Oslo University, Norway.
    Putting a price on drugs: An economic sociological study of price formation in illicit drug markets2019Ingår i: Criminology (Beverly Hills), ISSN 0011-1384, E-ISSN 1745-9125, Vol. 57, nr 2, s. 289-313Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Prices in illegal drug markets are difficult to predict. Based on qualitative interviews with 68 incarcerated drug dealers in Norway, we explore dealers’ perspectives on fair prices and the processes that influence their pricing decisions. Synthesized through economic sociology, we draw on perspectives from traditions as different as behavioral economics and cultural analysis to demonstrate how participants in illicit drug distribution base their pricing decisions on institutional context, social networks, and drug market cultures. We find that dealers take institutional constraints into consideration and search for niches with high earnings and low risks. The use of transactions embedded in social networks promotes a trusting form of governance, which enables strategic network management and expedient distribution but also uncompetitive pricing. Finally, dealers’ pricing decisions are embedded in three different cultures narratives: business, friendship, and street cultural stories, with widely varying implications for prices. Our findings demonstrate how an economic sociology of illicit drug distribution can extend insights from behavioral economics and cultural studies into a coherent criminology of illegal drug markets.

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  • 22.
    Moeller, Kim
    Malmö universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa och samhälle (HS), Institutionen för kriminologi (KR).
    Ranking Nordic Criminologists by Impact and Prestige2019Ingår i: Journal of Criminal Justice Education, ISSN 1051-1253, E-ISSN 1745-9117, Vol. 30, nr 4, s. 536-550Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Criminology is growing internationally. In this study, I examine articles by Nordic criminologists in fifteen top journals for the period 2008–2017 and present quality-adjusted rankings of the top 30. The ranking applies measures that integrate publications and citations with position in the author-sequence and journal impact factor. I found 191 articles by 188 unique authors with 352 contributions in total. The scholars in the sample had, on average, contributed to 1.87 articles in the selected journals, but only about a third were published in ten selected U.S.-based journals while the rest were published in five European-based journals. Six scholars place high on all the three composite scores of impact and prestige. The identified trend may signal the increasing diversity and inclusivity of the field. The results can provide benchmarks for the going rate of academic performance among Nordic criminologists and may serve to empower younger researchers seeking promotions.

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  • 23.
    Moeller, Kim
    Malmö universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa och samhälle (HS), Institutionen för kriminologi (KR).
    Sisters are never alike? Drug control intensity in the Nordic countries.2019Ingår i: International journal on drug policy, ISSN 0955-3959, E-ISSN 1873-4758, Vol. 73, s. 141-145Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The Nordic countries — Denmark, Finland, Norway, and Sweden — have traditionally had different approaches to drug control policies. From the late 1980s to the early 1990s, Sweden and Norway were the most restrictive countries. Prior research has described how Nordic control policies became more repressive after this, but no research has examined this claim using the intensity of implementation as a measure. Methods: This study uses data collated by the EMCDDA to examine drug control intensity from 2000 to 2016. The four countries are compared on three measures: seizure numbers relative to total population, seizures numbers by type of drug relative to population, and cannabis seizures relative to the number of annual cannabis users. Standard bivariate tests for statistical significance are used to compare control intensity over time and between countries. Results: Compared to an earlier period from the late 1980s to the early 1990s, Denmark maintained the level of drug seizures to population from 2000 to 2016. Finland increased intensity by 176 percent but remained at the lowest level in the region. Norway increased by 18 percent and is currently the country with the highest enforcement intensity. Sweden reduced overall intensity by 57 percent, which decreases the level for the region by 22 percent. Sixty to seventy percent of all seizures in every country was for cannabis. Accounting for cannabis prevalence rates changes the ranking of enforcement intensity in the countries. Conclusion: Drug control intensity in the Nordic countries has harmonized over time. The disparity between the extremes of low control intensity in Finland and high intensity in Sweden has been reduced. Denmark is still comparatively lenient to users when considering high cannabis prevalence rates and Norway has taken the position as the strictest country on all control intensity measures.

  • 24. Moeller, Kim
    et al.
    Sandberg, Sveinung
    Credit and trust: Management of network ties in illicit drug distribution2015Ingår i: Journal of research in crime and delinquency, ISSN 0022-4278, E-ISSN 1552-731X, Vol. 52, nr 5, s. 691-716Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives:This study examines the use of credit, or ‘‘fronting,’’ in the illegaldrug economy. We study how fronting affects transaction costs and insulates against law enforcement in drug distribution networks and what role fronting plays in the management of interpersonal network ties. The emphasis is on the cooperative dimension of credits.Methods:Qualitative interviews were conducted with 68 incarcerated drug dealers in Norwegian prisons. Most were mid-level dealers (66 percent), dealing with many different drugs, but amphetamines were the main drugs distributed (38 percent). Using qualitative content analysis, we explore their perspective on the fronting of illegal drugs and associated practices in the illegal drug economy.Results:We find that dealers are generally skeptical toward fronting drugs,and accepting fronted drugs, but that this practice still is common. The main reason is that the practice secures a faster turnaround. Credits are embedded in social relationships both economically and socially. Previous social relationships are often a prerequisite, but fronting is also used to build trust.Conclusion:Although transaction cost economics captures the economic dimension of credit, insights from economic sociology and in par-ticular the social embeddedness approach are necessary to understand theinterplay between economic and social factors when drugs are fronted inthe illegal economy.

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