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  • 1.
    Magnusson, Mia-Maria
    Malmö universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa och samhälle (HS), Enheten för polisiärt arbete.
    Predicting Gun Violence in Stockholm, Sweden, Using Sociodemographics, Crime and Drug Market Locations2023Ingår i: European Journal on Criminal Policy and Research, ISSN 0928-1371, E-ISSN 1572-9869Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The well-being of neighbourhoods in terms of socioeconomic conditions constitutes an important element in analyses focused on the explanation of crime trends and public safety. Recent developments in Sweden concerning gun violence and open drug scenes are worrying and the police are under a great deal of pressure to resolve the situation in many neighbourhoods, which is in turn affecting Swedish society as a whole. This study focuses on micro areas in terms of sociodemographic factors and the presence of drug markets and gun violence. The aim is to explore the relationship between these factors and what characterises areas that are experiencing the greatest difficulties. The study develops an index for the prediction of gun violence in micro areas, in this study portrayed by vector grids. The findings show an overlap between gun violence and drug markets and that micro areas in that overlap share harsh sociodemographic conditions. The study produces an index indicating the probability that a grid cell would experience gun violence. The index was then validated using recent gun incidents, and was found to have high accuracy. The resulting grids constitute a suitable target for resource allocation by police and other actors. This could facilitate a more accurate and precise focus for measures to prevent areas from becoming—or to disrupt already existing—hot spots for gun violence.

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  • 2.
    Magnusson, Mia-Maria
    Malmö universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa och samhälle (HS), Institutionen för kriminologi (KR). The Stockholm Police, Sweden.
    Preventing Relapse into Drug Crime through Motivational Talks at a Drug Scene in Stockholm: A Randomised Controlled Trial of a Law Enforcement Tactic2023Ingår i: Nordic Journal of Studies in Policing, E-ISSN 2703-7045, Vol. 10, nr 1, s. 1-17Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A randomised controlled trial was developed and implemented together with police officers working to combat drugcrime at an open drug scene in Stockholm. The aim was to evaluate a method called motivational talks, which areheld by police officers to encourage drug crime suspects to seek help. Relapse into drug crime was compared betweenthe control group and the experimental group to determine whether the treatment, i.e., the motivational talk, had aneffect. The study shows that motivational talks had a small but non-significant impact on relapse into drug crime afternine months, but the effect had disappeared at the second follow-up. Motivational talks might still have other effectson the individual or the police. Studying the use of repeated treatment might be a way of furthering the research onthe effect of motivational talks.

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  • 3.
    Ceccato, Vania
    et al.
    Department of Urban Planning and Environment, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Teknikringen 10, 10044, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Ioannidis, Ioannis
    Department of Urban Planning and Environment, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Teknikringen 10, 10044, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Magnusson, Mia-Maria
    Malmö universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa och samhälle (HS), Enheten för polisiärt arbete. Unit of Police Work, Stockholm Police Authority.
    Searching for Situational Patterns in Cannabis Dealing, Possession and Use in a Scandinavian Context2023Ingår i: International Criminology, ISSN 2662-9968, Vol. 3, nr 3, s. 222-238Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Although cannabis is the most frequent illicit drug consumed in Sweden, little is known about the situations in which cannabis trade, possession and use occur. Following a recent strand of international research on the effect of recreational drugs on crime, this study uses a unique specially tailored database, Geographical Information Systems (GIS) and regression models, to investigate the situational conditions of cannabis offenses as they are detected in Stockholm, Sweden. Cannabis coincides with the location of drug markets initially delimited by the police but also extends over to locations far from the radar of the police, such as private residences (comfort places). Modeling results indicate that several land uses (convergent public places) have significant predictive value of the geography of cannabis offenses after controlling for other neighborhood characteristics. The article finishes by stating new research questions and making recommendations for practice.

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  • 4.
    Magnusson, Mia-Maria
    et al.
    Malmö universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa och samhälle (HS), Institutionen för kriminologi (KR).
    Chrysoulakis, Alberto P.
    Malmö universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa och samhälle (HS), Institutionen för kriminologi (KR).
    Lekare, Andreas
    Spatial patterns.
    Spatial patterns of gun seizures, shootings and open drug scenes in Stockholm.2023Ingår i: The Stockholm Criminology Symposium, Stockholm, June 12-14, 2023., Stockholm: The Swedish National Council for Crime Prevention (Brå) , 2023Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    There is a surge in gun violence in Sweden. Prior research has shown how these expressions of violence tend to be concentrated in space. For instance, there is an increased risk of a shooting occurring in close proximity to a prior shooting in the three largest cities in Sweden, especially at open drug scenes (ODS) in socially disadvantaged areas. Furthermore, prior research has found a clear spatial connection between shootings and the presence of ODS in Stockholm. However, less is known about the patterns of gun seizures. How does spatial patterns of gun seizures overlap with shootings and the presence of ODS and how can these be used to advance police practice? Such questions are important to add nuance to the overarching view on “gun violence”. The present study aims to explore the questions by converging three types of data drawn from the Stockholm region: one on gun seizures, one on gun incidents and another on the presence of ODS. With the use of spatial data analyses, we learn whether there are systematic differences in the patterns of gun seizures, gun incidents and the presence of ODS. The importance of nuanced data and how the results can be used by the police in their strategic work is discussed. The results may advance both police activities towards gang criminality and future research on gun violence.

  • 5.
    Magnusson, Mia-Maria
    Malmö universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa och samhälle (HS), Institutionen för kriminologi (KR). Polismyndigheten, polisregion Stockholm.
    Open drug scenes and the merging of policing practice and research: a pracademic approach2022Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Policing research has had an upswing as the evidence-based policing movement has grown stronger and entered police practises worldwide. Within the evidence-based policing (EBP) approach, practically and academically skilled individuals, pracademics, have attracted attention as facilitating the merging of policing practice and research.

    Using principles from EBP, and with a special focus on translating between policing practice, policy and research, this thesis aims to explore the characteristics of illicit drug markets with a place-based focus and to link this to the enhancement of EBP in Sweden. The theoretical base of the thesis is drawn from disorganization theory, routine activity theory and situational action theory, and these theories are combined with empirical studies from the research field of drug markets.

    Drug markets are defined as open drug scenes (ODSs) in this pracademic thesis, which includes two empirical studies of patterns that characterize ODSs, one randomized controlled trial (RCT) of a law enforcement tactic at an ODS, and one case study of the impact of the pracademic research approach. The findings show that there are almost 50 ODSs in Stockholm County, which are characterized by patterns of crime concentration, a gun violence overlap, and associations with perceptions of unsafety. Three types of ODSs were identified, providing a basis for the tailoring of future interventions based on area characteristics, ODS stability, levels of violence, and gang activity. Micro places associated with ODSs and gun violence were found to be characterized by harsh social conditions and high levels of crime. A predictive index was created to forecast micro places at which gun violence may occur, and the prediction was enhanced when ODSs were included as predictive locations. The RCT, which was completed at a well-known ODS in the inner city of Stockholm, showed a slight but non-significant effect of the police conducting motivational talks with offenders, which gave rise to questions regarding the method’s effectiveness. The case study of the RCT process found frustration in police departments to be a possible door-opener for research. Ease of implementation was associated with the research having credibility among police officers, which was achieved by including the needs of practice in research questions and through the role played by the pracademic researcher.

    This thesis argues for making use of pracademics to bridge the research-practice gap, a focus on ODSs, and the testing and tracking of methods such as hot spots policing, with an emphasis on properly implemented evidence-based methods and on the goals of enforcement strategies as a means of improving the effectiveness of drug-market policing.

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  • 6.
    Gerell, Manne
    et al.
    Malmö universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa och samhälle (HS), Institutionen för kriminologi (KR). Department for National Operations, Swedish Police Authority.
    Sturup, Joakim
    Stockholm Police Authority; Institute for Future Studies, Stockholm.
    Magnusson, Mia-Maria
    Malmö universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa och samhälle (HS), Institutionen för kriminologi (KR). Stockholm Police Authority.
    Nilvall, Kim
    Department for National Operations, Swedish Police Authority.
    Khoshnood, Ardavan
    Department of Clinical Sciences, Lund University.
    Rostami, Amir
    Stockholm Police Authority; Institute for Future Studies, Stockholm; Department of Social Work and Criminology, University of Gävle.
    Open drug markets, vulnerable neighbourhoods and gun violence in two Swedish cities2021Ingår i: Journal of Policing, Intelligence and Counter Terrorism, ISSN 1833-5330, E-ISSN 2159-5364, Vol. 21, nr 3, s. 223-244Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Gun violence is a serious issue in many countries across the globe. It has been shown that there is an elevated risk for a further shooting nearby within a short time span of a shooting incident, so-called near-repeat patterning. The present study presents new evidence on near-repeat patterning in Sweden, with a focus on neighbourhoods which the police have labelled as ‘vulnerable’ – deprived neighbourhoods where criminal networks have a large impact on local communities. Such neighbourhoods tend to have open drug markets, and to have high levels of gun violence. The present paper analyses the association of open drug markets and vulnerable neighbourhoods with gun violence and near-repeat patterning of gun violence in two Swedish cities. Our findings suggest that gun violence is strongly concentrated on open drug markets in vulnerable neighbourhoods, and that those locations in addition exhibit high risks for repeat shootings after an initial shooting event. We propose that the police can use this knowledge to improve practices to prevent or disrupt gun violence.

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  • 7.
    Magnusson, Mia-Maria
    Malmö universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa och samhälle (HS), Institutionen för kriminologi (KR). The Police Department of Stockholm Region, Sweden.
    Bridging the Gaps by Including the Police Officer Perspective?: A Study of the Design and Implementation of an RCT in Police Practice and the Impact of Pracademic Knowledge2020Ingår i: Policing: A Journal of Policy and Practice, ISSN 1752-4512, E-ISSN 1752-4520, Vol. 14, nr 2, s. 438-455Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    One means of advancing police research is to examine the implementation of studies conducted in the field of police practice. The design and implementation of experiments in police practice is complex because they require the two often separate worlds of research and practice to work together. One way to move forward towards evidence-based policing would be to bridge the gap between research and practice, while also bridging the gap between practice and policy. This article analyses how a randomized controlled trial was designed and implemented in the field of drug policing in Sweden. The analysis is done by comparing the drug enforcement trial to the experimental guidelines presented by Sherman (2010) and by exploring survey responses provided by participating police officers. The study identifies three themes with special relevance for the pracademic perspective; frustration, credibility, and officer perspective. The study concludes that the involvement of pracademic researchers may facilitate better communication between practitioners and police management, enhance evaluation, and improve the chances of changing police practice.

  • 8.
    Ivert, Anna-Karin
    et al.
    Malmö universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa och samhälle (HS), Institutionen för kriminologi (KR).
    Magnusson, Mia-Maria
    Malmö universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa och samhälle (HS), Institutionen för kriminologi (KR).
    Drug use and criminality among unaccompanied refugee minors: a review of the literature2020Ingår i: International Journal of Migration, Health and Social Care, ISSN 1747-9894, E-ISSN 2042-8650, Vol. 16, nr 1, s. 93-107Artikel, forskningsöversikt (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – Organisations working with children have acknowledged that unaccompanied refugee minors (URM) across Europe are exposed to environments and situations that put them at risk for becoming addicted to drugs or becoming involved in crime. The purpose of this paper is to study an examination of existing international research concerning URM and of whether, and if so how, issues relating to drug use and criminality among these children are discussed in the international literature. Design/methodology/approach – A literature review was conducted using PsycINFO, PubMed, Sociological abstracts and ERIC databases, which together cover the social and behavioural science and also medicine. Findings – Findings from the present review show that the issues of drug abuse and criminality among URM are rarely acknowledged in the international research literature. When the occurrence of substance abuse and/or criminality is discussed, it is often in relation to mental health problems and in terms of self-medication, i.e. that alcohol or drugs are used by the URM to cope with painful experiences or mental health problems, and also with the challenges of integrating into a new society, difficulties finding work, unsuitable living conditions and a lack of social support. Originality/value – This review shows that several researchers have emphasised that untreated mental health problems, stressful living conditions and a lack of support and control might put these children at risk for substance abuse and criminality, and this suggests a need for further research in this area.

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  • 9.
    Magnusson, Mia-Maria
    Malmö universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa och samhälle (HS), Institutionen för kriminologi (KR).
    Mapping Open Drug Scenes (ODS)2020Ingår i: Crime and fear in public places: Towards safe, inclusive and sustainable cities / [ed] Vania Ceccato; Mahesh K. Nalla, Routledge, 2020, s. 305-325Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite differences in legislation, culture and societal organization, open use and dealing of drugs is a common problem in societies around the globe. In Open Drug Scenes (ODS), use and dealing of drugs take place in public. This study investigates the spatial nature of ODS in Stockholm, Sweden. The study is an exploratory way to show whether and how ODS influence their surroundings, through an analysis of crime statistics and a citizen safety survey. The study found 48 ODS in the Stockholm region, and just above 50 percent of them showed disrupted symptoms such as crime hotspots in the surrounding areas. The feeling of being unsafe, shootings, and crime concentration at these places is evidence of the impact ODS has on communities. We conclude by making suggestions on how to better understand and respond to the problems of ODS and their local impact. 

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  • 10.
    Magnusson, Mia-Maria
    et al.
    Malmö universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa och samhälle (HS), Institutionen för kriminologi (KR).
    Ivert, Anna-Karin
    Malmö universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa och samhälle (HS), Institutionen för kriminologi (KR).
    Patterns of drug use among unaccompanied refugee minors2019Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Over recent years, Swedish authorities that encounter unaccompanied refugee minors, such as the social services and the police, have reported that drug use is an increasing problem, along with criminality. Likewise, governmental as well as non-governmental organisations working with children have acknowledged that unaccompanied refugee minors across Europe are exposed to environments and situations that put them at risk for becoming addicted to drugs or becoming involved in crime. However, issues of drug abuse and criminality among unaccompanied minors are rarely acknowledged in the international research literature. In the present study we aim to explore this issue from a health care and policing perspective. More precisely we aim to describe (1) the patterns of substance abuse and mental health problems among unaccompanied refugee minors that have been enrolled in outpatient clinics for adolescents with substance use problems, and (2) the patterns of substance use and the situational and spatial circumstances where the police encounter unaccompanied minors. Findings indicate that unaccompanied refugee minors being treated for substance abuse suffer significant mental health related problems. Information from the police indicate that the police encounter unaccompanied refugee minors who use drugs, e.g. cannabis and heroin, as well as minors engaged in drug dealing. Even if only a minority of unaccompanied refugee minors are involved in substance abuse and/or criminality, this is an area of research that requires more attention because of the individual suffering and societal consequences that these problems may produce.

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