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  • 1.
    Nilsson, Eva-Lotta
    et al.
    Malmö universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa och samhälle (HS), Institutionen för kriminologi (KR).
    Vasiljevic, Zoran
    Malmö universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa och samhälle (HS), Institutionen för kriminologi (KR).
    Svensson, Robert
    Malmö universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa och samhälle (HS), Institutionen för kriminologi (KR).
    The association between number of siblings and delinquent behaviour2024Ingår i: Journal of Crime and Justice, ISSN 0735-648XArtikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examines the association between number of siblings and delinquency, adjusting for family relations and demographic variables. Data is based on a nationally representative school survey in Sweden consisting of approximately 25,000 youths. The results show a positive association for those having five or more siblings (IRR = 1.533, p = < .001), whereas one or two siblings is negatively associated with delinquency compared to those having no siblings. These results remain stable after adjusting for family relations. This study underscores the importance of further exploring the variation and direction of the association between the number of siblings and delinquency, as well as deepening our understanding of the various theoretical mechanisms through which the number of siblings is associated with delinquent behaviour.

  • 2.
    Kapetanovic, Sabina
    et al.
    Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, University West, Trollhättan, Sweden; Department of Psychology, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Andersson, Lisa
    Malmö universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa och samhälle (HS), Institutionen för socialt arbete (SA).
    Svensson, Robert
    Malmö universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa och samhälle (HS), Institutionen för kriminologi (KR).
    Johnson, Björn
    School of Social Work, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Validation of the Super-Brief Pathological Narcissism Inventory (SB-PNI) among Swedish adolescents2024Ingår i: Current Psychology, ISSN 1046-1310, E-ISSN 1936-4733Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examines the psychometric structure and properties of the Swedish version of the Super-Brief Pathological Narcissism Inventory (SB-PNI) among adolescents. In order to ensure the validity and feasibility of the measure, we examined the factor structure, measurement invariance across gender, age and ethnicity, and construct validity in relation to a number of correlates of narcissism in adolescence. Data were drawn from a large cross-sectional survey conducted in 35 schools in southern Sweden. The sample consisted of N = 5313 adolescents (Mage = 16.10 SD = 1.55) with 52.2% girls, 45.9% boys and 1.8% adolescents with unspecified gender, from compulsory and upper secondary schools in southern Sweden. The results showed that the measure holds a two-factor structure, suggesting the use of the subscales grandiosity and vulnerability separately, rather than as a unidimensional measure. The correlated factors grandiosity and vulnerability yielded full configural and metric invariance across gender, age, and ethnicity. Both grandiosity and vulnerability were correlated with externalizing and internalizing symptoms, as well as with low self-esteem. The study provides evidence for the utility of the SB-PNI among Swedish adolescents and indicates that the measure can be used across male and female adolescents of different ages and ethnic groups. 

  • 3.
    Vasiljevic, Zoran
    et al.
    Malmö universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa och samhälle (HS), Institutionen för kriminologi (KR).
    Pauwels, Lieven
    Univ Ghent, Ghent, Belgium..
    Nilsson, Eva-Lotta
    Malmö universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa och samhälle (HS), Institutionen för kriminologi (KR).
    Shannon, David
    Swedish Natl Council Crime Prevent, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Svensson, Robert
    Malmö universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa och samhälle (HS), Institutionen för kriminologi (KR).
    Do Moral Values Moderate the Relationship Between Immigrant-School Concentration and Violent Offending?: A Cross-Level Interaction Analysis of Self-Reported Violence in Sweden2023Ingår i: Deviant behavior, ISSN 0163-9625, E-ISSN 1521-0456Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The study examines whether school-level immigrant concentration is related to students' involvement in violence, and whether students' moral values moderate the relationship between immigrant concentration and violence. The study is based on six nationally representative school surveys conducted by the Swedish National Council for Crime Prevention between 1999 and 2011, with a combined sample of 38,711 adolescents. We have combined different surveys to create one large pooled data set to evaluate segregation effects at the school level. Multilevel linear probability models are used to examine cross-level interaction effects. This study shows that contextual effects impact students differently, and that the relationship between immigrant concentration and violence is considerably stronger for adolescents with weak personal moral values. The paper provides empirical support for the differential vulnerability hypothesis. Policy and practice would benefit from a focus on the further development of programs and interventions that target personal moral values, not least in schools.

  • 4.
    Svensson, Robert
    et al.
    Malmö universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa och samhälle (HS), Institutionen för kriminologi (KR).
    Moeller, Kim
    Malmö universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa och samhälle (HS), Institutionen för kriminologi (KR).
    Johnson, Björn
    Malmö universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa och samhälle (HS), Institutionen för socialt arbete (SA).
    Shannon, David
    Natl Council Crime Prevent, Stockholm, Sweden..
    For Whom Do Unstructured Activities Matters? The Interaction Between Unstructured and Structured Activities in Delinquency and Cannabis Use: A National Self-Report Study2023Ingår i: Crime and delinquency, ISSN 0011-1287, E-ISSN 1552-387X, Vol. 69, nr 10, s. 2022-2045, artikel-id 001112872211104Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examines whether unstructured and structured activities interact in their association with delinquency and cannabis use. We hypothesize that unstructured activities are more strongly associated with delinquency and cannabis use for those who are less engaged in structured activities. Data are drawn from three nationally representative self-report studies conducted between 2005 and 2011 in Sweden, and include 19,644 adolescents. The results support the hypothesis that unstructured activities interact with structured activities in the association with delinquency and cannabis use. The association between unstructured activities and these outcomes is stronger for those with lower levels of structured activities. Sporting activities constitute the structured activity that most clearly interacts with unstructured activities in the association with delinquency and cannabis use.

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  • 5.
    Svensson, Robert
    et al.
    Malmö universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa och samhälle (HS), Institutionen för kriminologi (KR).
    Johnson, Björn
    Malmö universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa och samhälle (HS), Institutionen för socialt arbete (SA).
    Olsson, Andreas
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Does gender matter? The association between different digital media activities and adolescent well-being2022Ingår i: BMC Public Health, E-ISSN 1471-2458, Vol. 22, s. 1-10, artikel-id 273Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background:

    Previous research on the relationship between social media use and well-being in adolescents has yielded inconsistent results. We addressed this issue by examining the association between various digital media activities, including a new and differentiated measure of social media use, and well-being (internalizing symptoms) in adolescent boys and girls.

    Method:

    The sample was drawn from the four cross-sectional surveys from the Öckerö project (2016–2019) in eight municipalities in southern Sweden, consisting of 3957 adolescents in year 7 of compulsory education, aged 12–13. We measured the following digital media activities: playing games and three different activities of social media use (chatting, online sociability, and self-presentation). Our outcome measure was internalizing symptoms. Hypotheses were tested with linear regression analysis.

    Results:

    Social media use and playing games were positively associated with internalizing symptoms. The effect of social media use was conditional on gender, indicating that social media use was only associated with internalizing symptoms for girls. Of the social media activities, only chatting and self-presentation (posting information about themselves) were positively associated with internalizing symptoms. Self-presentation was associated with internalizing symptoms only for girls.

    Conclusion:

    Our study shows the importance of research going beyond studying the time spent on social media to examine how different kinds of social media activities are associated with well-being. Consistent with research in psychology, our results suggest that young girls posting information about themselves (i.e. self-presentation) might be especially vulnerable to display internalizing symptoms.

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  • 6.
    Svensson, Robert
    et al.
    Malmö universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa och samhälle (HS), Institutionen för kriminologi (KR).
    Johnson, Björn
    Malmö universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa och samhälle (HS), Institutionen för socialt arbete (SA).
    Does it matter in what family constellations adolescents live? Reconsidering the relationship between family structure and delinquent behaviour.2022Ingår i: PLOS ONE, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 17, nr 4, artikel-id e0265964Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVES: This study examines the associations between ten family structure types and delinquency, including four groups of symmetrical and asymmetrical living arrangements. We also adjust for attachment to parents and parental monitoring.

    METHODS: Data are drawn from four cross-sectional surveys conducted between 2016 and 2019 in southern Sweden. The sample consists of 3,838 adolescents, aged 14-15. Negative binomial models were used to calculate the associations between family structure and delinquency.

    RESULTS: The results show that those living in single-father, single-mother, father-stepmother, mother-stepfather families report significantly more delinquency than adolescents living with both their parents. Adolescents living in "symmetrical" family arrangements, i.e. both parents are single or have a new partner, reported lower levels of delinquency, whereas adolescents living in "asymmetrical" family arrangements, i.e. where either the mother or the father, but not both, have a new partner, reported higher levels of delinquency. Most of the associations between family structure and delinquency decline when adjusted for attachment to parents and parental monitoring.

    DISCUSSION: This study shows that it is important to move on to the use of more detailed categorisations of family structure in relation to delinquency. We need to increase our knowledge about the group of adolescents that moves between parents and especially about the different constellations of asymmetrical and symmetrical living arrangements.

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  • 7.
    Svensson, Robert
    et al.
    Malmö universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa och samhälle (HS), Institutionen för kriminologi (KR).
    Johnson, Björn
    Malmö universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa och samhälle (HS), Institutionen för socialt arbete (SA). Malmö universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa och samhälle (HS), People, Places and Prevention.
    Kronkvist, Karl
    Malmö universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa och samhälle (HS), Institutionen för kriminologi (KR).
    A community intervention to reduce alcohol consumption and drunkenness among adolescents in Sweden: a quasi-experiment2021Ingår i: BMC Public Health, E-ISSN 1471-2458, Vol. 21, nr 1, artikel-id 764Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Several studies have examined the effect of community interventions on youth alcohol consumption, and the results have often been mixed. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of a community intervention known as the Öckerö Method on adolescent alcohol consumption and perceived parental attitudes towards adolescent drinking.

    METHOD: The study is based on a quasi-experimental design, using matched controls. Self-report studies were conducted among adolescents in grades 7-9 of compulsory education in four control and four intervention communities in the south of Sweden in 2016-2018. Baseline measures were collected in autumn 2016 before the intervention was implemented in the intervention communities. Outcomes were the adolescents' alcohol consumption, past-year drunkenness, past-month drunkenness and perceived parental attitudes towards alcohol.

    RESULTS: Estimating Difference-in-Difference models using Linear Probability Models, we found no empirical evidence that the intervention has any effect on adolescents' drinking habits, or on their perceptions of their parents' attitudes towards adolescent drinking.

    CONCLUSION: This is the first evaluation of this method, and we found no evidence that the intervention had any effect on the level of either young people's alcohol consumption or their past-year or past-month drunkenness, nor on their parents' perceived attitudes toward adolescent drinking. A further improvement would be to employ a follow-up period that is longer than the three-year period employed in this study.

    TRIAL REGISTRATION: ISRCTN registry: Study ID: 51635778 , 31th March 2021 (Retrospectively registered).

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  • 8.
    Nivette, Amy E.
    et al.
    Univ Utrecht, Dept Sociol, Utrecht, Netherlands.;Netherlands Inst Study Crime & Law Enforcement NS, Amsterdam, Netherlands..
    Zahnow, Renee
    Univ Queensland, Sch Social Sci, Brisbane, Qld, Australia..
    Aguilar, Raul
    Mossos Esquadra, Catalan Police, Barcelona, Spain..
    Ahven, Andri
    Minist Justice, Tallinn, Estonia..
    Amram, Shai
    Hebrew Univ Jerusalem, Inst Criminol, Fac Law, Jerusalem, Israel..
    Ariel, Barak
    Hebrew Univ Jerusalem, Inst Criminol, Fac Law, Jerusalem, Israel.;Univ Cambridge, Inst Criminol, Cambridge, England..
    Burbano, Maria Jose Arosemena
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Criminol, Cambridge, England..
    Astolfi, Roberta
    Univ Sao Paulo, Fac Med, Dept Med Prevent, Sao Paulo, Brazil..
    Baier, Dirk
    Zurcher Hsch Angew Wissensch ZHAW, Sch Social Work, Inst Delinquency & Crime Prevent, Zurich, Switzerland..
    Bark, Hyung-Min
    Korean Inst Criminol, Seoul, South Korea..
    Beijers, Joris E. H.
    Netherlands Inst Study Crime & Law Enforcement NS, Amsterdam, Netherlands..
    Bergman, Marcelo
    Univ Nacl Tres Febrero, Ctr Estudios Latinoamer Inseguridad & Violencia C, Buenos Aires, DF, Argentina..
    Breetzke, Gregory
    Univ Pretoria, Dept Geog Geoinformat & Meteorol, Pretoria, South Africa..
    Concha-Eastman, I. Alberto
    Secretariat Hlth, Cali, Colombia..
    Curtis-Ham, Sophie
    New Zealand Police, Evidence Based Policing Ctr, Wellington, New Zealand..
    Davenport, Ryan
    UCL, Jill Dando Inst Secur & Crime Sci, London, England.;London Metropolitan Police, London, England..
    Diaz, Carlos
    Catholic Univ Uruguay, Dept Social Sci, Montevideo, Uruguay..
    Fleitas, Diego
    Univ Nacl Tres Febrero, Ctr Estudios Latinoamer Inseguridad & Violencia C, Buenos Aires, DF, Argentina..
    Gerell, Manne
    Malmö universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa och samhälle (HS), Institutionen för kriminologi (KR).
    Jang, Kwang-Ho
    Police Sci Inst, Smart Policing Intelligence Ctr, Seoul, South Korea..
    Kaariainen, Juha
    Univ Helsinki, Inst Criminol & Legal Policy, Helsinki, Finland..
    Lappi-Seppala, Tapio
    Univ Helsinki, Inst Criminol & Legal Policy, Helsinki, Finland..
    Lim, Woon-Sik
    Police Sci Inst, Smart Policing Intelligence Ctr, Seoul, South Korea..
    Revilla, Rosa Loureiro
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Criminol, Cambridge, England..
    Mazerolle, Lorraine
    Univ Queensland, Sch Social Sci, Brisbane, Qld, Australia..
    Mesko, Gorazd
    Univ Maribor, Fac Criminal Justice & Secur, Maribor, Slovenia..
    Pereda, Noemi
    Univ Barcelona, Dept Clin Psychol & Psychobiol, Barcelona, Spain..
    Peres, Maria F. T.
    Univ Sao Paulo, Fac Med, Dept Med Prevent, Sao Paulo, Brazil..
    Poblete-Cazenave, Ruben
    Erasmus Univ, Erasmus Sch Econ, Rotterdam, Netherlands..
    Rose, Simon
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Criminol, Cambridge, England.;London Metropolitan Police, London, England..
    Svensson, Robert
    Malmö universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa och samhälle (HS), Institutionen för kriminologi (KR).
    Trajtenberg, Nico
    Cardiff Univ, Sch Social Sci, Cardiff, Wales..
    van der Lippe, Tanja
    Univ Utrecht, Dept Sociol, Utrecht, Netherlands..
    Veldkamp, Joran
    Univ Utrecht, Dept Sociol, Utrecht, Netherlands..
    Perdomo, Carlos J. Vilalta
    Ctr Res Geospatial Informat Sci CentroGeo, Mexico City, DF, Mexico..
    Eisner, Manuel P.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Criminol, Cambridge, England.;Univ Zurich, Jacobs Ctr Prod Youth Dev, Zurich, Switzerland..
    A global analysis of the impact of COVID-19 stay-at-home restrictions on crime2021Ingår i: Nature Human Behaviour, E-ISSN 2397-3374, Vol. 5, s. 868-877Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The implementation of COVID-19 stay-at-home policies was associated with a considerable drop in urban crime in 27 cities across 23 countries. More stringent restrictions over movement in public space were predictive of larger declines in crime. The stay-at-home restrictions to control the spread of COVID-19 led to unparalleled sudden change in daily life, but it is unclear how they affected urban crime globally. We collected data on daily counts of crime in 27 cities across 23 countries in the Americas, Europe, the Middle East and Asia. We conducted interrupted time series analyses to assess the impact of stay-at-home restrictions on different types of crime in each city. Our findings show that the stay-at-home policies were associated with a considerable drop in urban crime, but with substantial variation across cities and types of crime. Meta-regression results showed that more stringent restrictions over movement in public space were predictive of larger declines in crime.

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  • 9.
    Johnson, Björn
    et al.
    Malmö universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa och samhälle (HS), Institutionen för socialt arbete (SA). Malmö universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa och samhälle (HS), People, Places and Prevention.
    Svensson, Robert
    Malmö universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa och samhälle (HS), Institutionen för kriminologi (KR).
    Alcohol drinking among adolescents with native-Swedish and non-European immigrant background: the importance of parental attitudes and peer attitudes for acculturation2021Ingår i: Drugs: education prevention and policy, ISSN 0968-7637, E-ISSN 1465-3370, Vol. 28, nr 3, s. 255-266Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, we examine differences in alcohol drinking between first- and second-generation non-European immigrant and native-Swedish adolescents. We also examine whether parental and peer attitudes toward alcohol are associated with the acculturation of drinking habits among adolescents with an immigrant background. The study is cross-sectional and based on a school survey conducted in 2016–2019 in eight municipalities in southern Sweden. The sample consists of 3743 adolescents in year 9 of compulsory education, aged 14–15 years, of which 538 (14.4%) had a non-European immigrant background. Non-European immigrant adolescents reported significantly lower levels of drinking than native-Swedish adolescents. Second-generation immigrants reported a higher level of consumption than first-generation immigrants, and among first-generation adolescents, drinking was more prevalent the longer the adolescents had resided in Sweden, which suggests acculturation of drinking habits. This acculturation is mainly related to changes in peer attitudes toward alcohol. Immigrant adolescents with a longer stay in Sweden reported having friends with more positive attitudes toward alcohol. Among first-generation immigrants, drinking was more common among boys than girls. These differences were primarily found among immigrant adolescents with a relatively short period of residence in Sweden, which suggests that acculturation occurs more quickly among boys than among girls.

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  • 10.
    Svensson, Robert
    et al.
    Malmö universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa och samhälle (HS), Institutionen för kriminologi (KR).
    Oberwittler, Dietrich
    Max Planck Inst Study Crime Secur & Law, Freiburg, Germany..
    Changing routine activities and the decline of youth crime: A repeated cross-sectional analysis of self-reported delinquency in Sweden, 1999-20172021Ingår i: Criminology (Beverly Hills), ISSN 0011-1384, E-ISSN 1745-9125, Vol. 59, nr 2, s. 351-386Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examines the declining crime trend among Swedish adolescents between 1999 and 2017 using data from eight repeated cross-sectional waves of a nationally representative school survey (N = ca. 49,000). We examined to what extent changes in parental monitoring, school bonds, attitudes toward crime, routine activities, and binge drinking were related to the noticeable decline in youth crime. Multilevel modeling was employed for the analysis of temporal trends. We found strong empirical support for our hypotheses, that is, that changes in social bonds, attitudes toward crime, and routine activities were all associated with the decline in youth crime. Routine activities had the strongest explanatory power, and all predictors combined accounted for most of the variance attributed to the decline in youth crime. This study moves research on the crime drop closer to the analysis of social mechanisms by demonstrating that micro-level associations between theoretically relevant, proximal variables, and delinquency account for macro-level change.

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  • 11.
    Svensson, Robert
    et al.
    Malmö universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa och samhälle (HS), Institutionen för kriminologi (KR).
    Shannon, David
    Immigrant background and crime among young people: An examination of the importance of delinquent friends based on national self-report data2021Ingår i: Youth & society, ISSN 0044-118X, E-ISSN 1552-8499, Vol. 53, nr 8, s. 1335-1355Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article we examine whether different agents of socialization—family, school, and peers—are differentially associated with offending among different immigrant groups. Our expectation is to find that the association between delinquent friends and offending is stronger for first- and second-generation immigrants than for youths of native Swedish background. We use data from four nationally representative self-report studies of 21,504 adolescents with an average age of 15 years in Sweden. The results show that both first- and second-generation immigrants report committing more offenses than natives. The association is rather weak and the two predictors account for only a marginal amount of the variance in total offending. The results also show that the association between delinquent friends and offending is stronger for both first- and second-generation immigrants than for natives.

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  • 12.
    Vasiljevic, Zoran
    et al.
    Malmö universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa och samhälle (HS), Institutionen för kriminologi (KR).
    Svensson, Robert
    Malmö universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa och samhälle (HS), Institutionen för kriminologi (KR).
    Shannon, David
    Swedish National Council for Crime Prevention, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Trends in alcohol intoxication among native and immigrant youth in Sweden, 1999-2017: A comparison across family structure and parental employment status.2021Ingår i: International journal of drug policy, ISSN 0955-3959, E-ISSN 1873-4758, Vol. 98, artikel-id 103397Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Developing a better understanding of drinking patterns across immigrant generations and how these change over time is important for the development of effective alcohol polices. This study investigates the direction and rate of change in youth alcohol intoxication over time, based on immigrant status, and by family structure and parental employment status.

    METHOD: The study is based on eight nationally representative school surveys conducted by the Swedish National Council for Crime Prevention between 1999 and 2017, with a combined sample of 50,657 adolescents. Group by time interactions were examined to compare rates of change of alcohol intoxication over time across immigrant generations.

    RESULTS: The results show a decreasing trend in alcohol intoxication among both first and second generation immigrant youth, and also among immigrant youth across different family structures and parental employment statuses. The results also show that the decrease in alcohol intoxication over time is greater for youths born abroad and for youths with two immigrant parents than for native Swedes, and that the decrease over time is greater for youths from intact families than for native Swedish youths from non-intact families and youths with one immigrant parent.

    CONCLUSION: Native and first- and second-generation immigrant youth may differ substantially from one another in many ways, and may therefore manifest different patterns of drinking behaviours. From a policy and prevention perspective, the data in this study imply that native youths and youths with one immigrant parent should be a central target group for alcohol prevention policy in Sweden.

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  • 13.
    Vasiljevic, Zoran
    et al.
    Malmö universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa och samhälle (HS), Institutionen för kriminologi (KR).
    Svensson, Robert
    Malmö universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa och samhälle (HS), Institutionen för kriminologi (KR).
    Shannon, David
    Immigration and crime: a time-trend analysis of self-reported crime in Sweden, 1999–20172020Ingår i: Nordic Journal of Criminology, ISSN 2578-983X, Vol. 21, nr 1, s. 1-10Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates the direction and rate of change in self-reported crime over time, based on immigrant status and region of origin. The study is based on eight nationally representive school surveys conducted by the National Council for Crime Prevention between 1999 and 2017, with a sample of 50,657 adolescents. Results in this study showed a decreasing trend in self-reported offending among both first and second generation immigrant youth, and also among immigrant youths from different regions of origin. The results also show that offending has declined at a faster rate among first generation immigrants by comparison with native Swedes.

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  • 14.
    Svensson, Robert
    et al.
    Malmö universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa och samhälle (HS), Institutionen för kriminologi (KR).
    Johnson, Björn
    Malmö universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa och samhälle (HS), Institutionen för socialt arbete (SA).
    Internet use and adolescent drinking: Does it matter what young people do online?2020Ingår i: Drug And Alcohol Dependence, ISSN 0376-8716, E-ISSN 1879-0046, Vol. 213, s. 1-6, artikel-id 108138Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    In this study we examine whether the association between internet use and drinking could be different for different types of internet activities among adolescents. We also adjust for a number of theoretically relevant factors such as peer influence, unstructured activities, impulsivity and parental monitoring.

    Method

    The data are drawn from four cross-sectional surveys from the years 2016–2019 in eight municipalities in southern Sweden. The sample consist of 3733 adolescents in year 9 of compulsory education, aged 14–15.

    Results

    The results show that there is an association between internet activities and drinking and that there are differences depending on what young people do online. Self-presentation and online sociality are both positively associated with drinking, whereas news consumption and playing games are negatively associated with drinking. The results also show that the association between the different internet activities and drinking becomes weaker when adjusting for the control variables.

    Conclusion

    This study suggests that more research is needed to examine the correlations between different forms of internet activities and drinking among adolescents in more detail.

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  • 15.
    Ivert, Anna-Karin
    et al.
    Malmö universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa och samhälle (HS), Institutionen för kriminologi (KR).
    Andersson, Frida
    Svensson, Robert
    Malmö universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa och samhälle (HS), Institutionen för kriminologi (KR).
    Pauvels, Liewen
    Torstensson Levander, Marie
    Malmö universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa och samhälle (HS), Institutionen för kriminologi (KR).
    An examination of the interaction between morality and self-control in offending: A study of differences between girls and boys2018Ingår i: CBMH. Criminal behaviour and mental health, ISSN 0957-9664, E-ISSN 1471-2857, Vol. 28, nr 3, s. 282-294Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: There is a well-documented gender difference in offending, with evidence that boys, on average, are more involved in crime than girls. Opinions differ, however,on whether the causes of crime apply to girls and boys similarly.Aims: Our aim is to explore crime propensity in boys and girls. Our research questions were (1) are there differences between boys and girls in moral values and self-control;(2) are these attributes similarly correlated with offending among girls and boys; and (3) is any interaction effect between morality and self-control identical for girls and boys. Methods: Data were drawn from the Malmö Individual and Neighbourhood Development Study, which includes 481 girls and boys aged 16–17. An 8-item self-control scale was derived from Grasmick’s self-control instrument; we created a 16-item morality scale. Analysis of variance was used to test for differences in scale scores.Results: There were significant gender differences in moral values but not self-control.Moral values and self-control were significantly correlated with offending among both girls and boys. In the multiple regression analysis, the three-way interaction term used to test the interaction between gender, self-control and moral values was non-significant, indicating that the magnitude of the self-control–moral value interaction is not affected by gender.Conclusions: Our findings indicate that effects of morality and self-control are general and apply to girls and boys similarly, so more research is needed to explain gender differences in crime prevalence.

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  • 16. Pauwels, Lieven J. R.
    et al.
    Svensson, Robert
    Malmö universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa och samhälle (HS), Institutionen för kriminologi (KR).
    Hirtenlehner, Helmut
    Testing Situational Action Theory: A narrative review of studies published between 2006 and 20152018Ingår i: European Journal of Criminology, ISSN 1477-3708, E-ISSN 1741-2609, Vol. 15, nr 1, s. 32-55Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This work provides an overview of the current state of research on Situational Action Theory (SAT). Studies that have examined core propositions of SAT within the period 2006 to 2015 are reviewed. The principal aim of this narrative review is to answer the following four questions: (1) Which hypotheses of SAT have been put to the test in empirical enquiries? (2) What does the empirical evidence say about these propositions? (3) Which statements of the theory have received little attention? (4) What are the consequences of the results for future enquiries? An overall finding of this review is that numerous studies have tested selected propositions of the theory using different methods, data and statistical procedures. A majority of these studies found some support for the hypotheses tested, but there are also a few studies that did not back key assumptions of the theory. The reasons for the divergent results are discussed.

  • 17.
    Svensson, Robert
    et al.
    Malmö högskola, Fakulteten för hälsa och samhälle (HS), Institutionen för kriminologi (KR).
    Pauwels, Lieven
    Weerman, Frank
    Bruinsma, Gerben
    Explaining individual changes in moral values and moral emotions among adolescent boys and girls: A fixed-effects analysis2017Ingår i: European Journal of Criminology, ISSN 1477-3708, E-ISSN 1741-2609, Vol. 14, nr 3, s. 290-308Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study we examine to what extent within-individual changes in parental monitoring, bonds with parents and school, and rule-breaking peers can explain within-individual changes in morality. We distinguish between three key dimensions of morality: moral values, anticipated shame, and anticipated guilt. We use data from the SPAN project, a two-wave panel study among 616 adolescents (ages 12–19) from secondary schools in The Hague, The Netherlands. Employing a fixed-effects model, we found that within-individual changes in parental monitoring, bonds with parents and school, and rule-breaking peers are significantly related to within-individual changes in moral values, anticipated shame, and anticipated guilt. These findings emphasize the important role of family, school, and the peer group in the development of morality during adolescence. Implications of these findings are discussed.

  • 18. Pauwels, Lieven
    et al.
    Svensson, Robert
    Malmö högskola, Fakulteten för hälsa och samhälle (HS), Institutionen för kriminologi (KR).
    How robust is the moderating effect of extremist beliefs on the relationship between self-control and violent extremism?2017Ingår i: Crime and delinquency, ISSN 0011-1287, E-ISSN 1552-387X, Vol. 63, nr 8, s. 1000-1016Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The present research note studies the interaction between the ability to exercise self-control and extremist moral beliefs with regard to the explanation of violent extremism. Although some evidence exists for the interaction between moral beliefs and self-control in the explanation of adolescent offending, no previous study has studied this interaction effect in a survey of young adults and with regard to politically or religiously motivated violence. This study therefore extends the existing literature by testing a key proposition of Situational Action Theory. We use a large-scale web survey of young adults in Belgium. The results support the hypothesis that the effect of the ability to exercise self-control is conditional upon one’s extremist beliefs. The results are stable across extremism-specific measures of extremist beliefs.

  • 19.
    Svensson, Robert
    et al.
    Malmö högskola, Fakulteten för hälsa och samhälle (HS), Institutionen för kriminologi (KR).
    Pauwels, Lieven
    Criminology, Criminal Law, and Social Law, Ghent University.
    Weerman, Frank
    Criminology, NSCR, Amsterdam.
    The role of moral beliefs, shame and guilt in criminal decision-making: An overview of theoretical frameworks and empirical results2017Ingår i: The Oxford Handbook of Offender Decision Making / [ed] Wim Bernasco, Jean-Louis van Gelder, Henk Elffers, Oxford University Press, 2017, s. 228-245Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Morality, and particularly the capacity to experience shame and/or guilt, may be viewed as sediments of early experiences with the commitment of acts of crime and rule-breaking and the consequences of these acts. This chapter addresses the specific roles of moral beliefs and moral emotions such as shame and guilt and how they are related to criminal decisions. It presents an overview of relevant theoretical frameworks that explain why and how moral beliefs and moral emotions affect criminal decision making. The focus of this chapter is particularly on anticipations of shame and guilt, two powerful and painful emotions that humans naturally want to avoid. In addition, findings from empirical studies are reviewed, and implications for criminological theory and prevention are addressed.

  • 20.
    Svensson, Robert
    Malmö högskola, Fakulteten för hälsa och samhälle (HS), Institutionen för kriminologi (KR).
    An examination of the interaction between morality and deterrence in offending: a research note2015Ingår i: Crime and delinquency, ISSN 0011-1287, E-ISSN 1552-387X, Vol. 61, nr 1, s. 3-18Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examines whether deterrence and morality interact in the explanation of adolescent offending. On the basis of the Situational Action Theory, the author hypothesizes that deterrence is more effective in preventing offending among individuals with low levels of morality than among individuals with high levels of morality. To test this hypothesis, self-report data are used from a sample of young adolescents in Halmstad, Sweden (N = 891). The findings provide strong support for the hypothesis that the effect of deterrence (measured as the perceived risk of getting caught, that is, “certainty”) on offending is dependent on the individual’s level of morality, indicating that deterrence has a significantly stronger effect on offending for individuals with low levels of morality than for individuals with higher levels of morality.

  • 21.
    Svensson, Robert
    et al.
    Malmö högskola, Fakulteten för hälsa och samhälle (HS), Institutionen för kriminologi (KR).
    Pauwels, Lieven
    Ghent University.
    Weerman, Frank
    Netherlands Institute for the Study of Crime and Law Enforcement .
    Does the effect of self-control on adolescent offending vary by level of morality? A test in three countries2015Ingår i: Developmental and Life-course Criminological Theories / [ed] Tara Renae McGee, Paul Mazerolle, Routledge, 2015, Vol. 37, nr 6, s. 315-326Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examines whether morality and self-control have an interactional effect on offending. Drawing from the situational action theory, the authors hypothesize that self-control has a more important effect on offending for individuals with low levels of morality than for individuals with high levels of morality. To test this hypothesis, self-report data were used from three independent samples of young adolescents in Antwerp, Belgium (N = 2,486); Halmstad, Sweden (N = 1,003); and South-Holland, the Netherlands (N = 1,978). The findings provide strong support for the hypothesis that the effect of self-control on offending is dependent on the individual’s level of morality. The similarity of the results across three independent samples suggests that the findings are robust among different cultural backgrounds and among studies with different operationalizations of the central concepts of interest.

  • 22. Pauwels, Lieven
    et al.
    Svensson, Robert
    Malmö högskola, Fakulteten för hälsa och samhälle (HS), Institutionen för kriminologi (KR).
    Schools and child antisocial behavior: in search for mediator effects of school-level disadvantage2015Ingår i: SAGE Open, E-ISSN 2158-2440, Vol. 5, nr 2, s. 1-13Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Contextual research on delinquency is primarily based on the idea that residential areas provide a major ecological setting that (indirectly) shapes observed differences in delinquency. Just like neighborhoods, schools differ in terms of their level of structural characteristics such as the concentration of immigrant children and children from disrupted families. Such characteristics may also shape delinquency. The present study aims to test the relationship between structural characteristics of schools and child antisocial behavior, using a sample of elementary school children (N = 779, aged 10-12 years in the urban context of Ghent, Belgium). This study found that the concentration of children from disrupted families has an independent effect on child delinquency, independent of social bonds, moral cognitions, and moral emotions. The contextual effect is fully mediated by exposure to peer delinquency.

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  • 23. Van Damme, Anjuli
    et al.
    Pauwels, Lieven
    Svensson, Robert
    Malmö högskola, Fakulteten för hälsa och samhälle (HS), Institutionen för kriminologi (KR).
    Why do Swedes cooperate with the police?: A SEM analysis of Tyler’s procedural justice model2015Ingår i: European Journal on Criminal Policy and Research, ISSN 0928-1371, E-ISSN 1572-9869, Vol. 21, nr 1, s. 15-33Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The present article examines why Swedes cooperate with the police using the framework of the procedural justice theory. This theory assumes that trust in procedural justice and in the effectiveness of the police are important issues in shaping citizens’ perceptions of police legitimacy. Additionally, perceived legitimacy is necessary for the recognition of police authority. When citizens recognize the right of the police to exercise authority, they are assumed to feel an obligation to obey the police, and ultimately they will have a greater tendency to cooperate with them. Because of the ongoing discussion about the meaning and conceptualization of the concept of ‘legitimacy’, some additional ideas are described and are also taken into account in the model that we tested. We used structural equation modelling (SEM) to do the analysis, which was conducted on data available from the European Social Survey (ESS) Round 5. The results indicate that trust in the procedural justice of the police plays an important role in the explanation of citizens’ willingness to cooperate with the police through perceptions of moral alignment and feelings of obligation to obey the police. However, there is still a high percentage of individual variance in willingness to cooperate with the police that cannot be explained by the model we tested. The implications of the findings are discussed.

  • 24. Pauwels, Lieven
    et al.
    Svensson, Robert
    Malmö högskola, Fakulteten för hälsa och samhälle (HS), Institutionen för kriminologi (KR).
    Micro-place disorder, subjective powerlessness and violent youth group involvement: testing an integrative control theory2014Ingår i: International Journal of Criminology and Sociology, E-ISSN 1929-4409, Vol. 3, nr 3, s. 200-221Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study we test an integrative theory that seeks to explain why youth that live in disordered micro-places have an increase likelihood of becoming involved in a violent youth group. The emerging integrative theory is based on the principle of conceptual end-to-end integration and is the result of an attempt to integrate (1) a contemporary version of subjective powerlessness theory with (2) an integrative control framework of violent youth group involvement. We submit the thesis that the both aforementioned models are highly suitable for conceptual integration as micro-place disorder is a common antecedent. In addition, both models share an intervening mechanism in the observed micro-place disorder- violent youth group involvement relationship: the concept of normlessness. An integrative model allows for the study of multiple pathways through which micro-place disorder and subjective powerlessness affect the likelihood of becoming involved in a violent youth group. Using path analyses for continuous and dichotomous outcomes we test key propositions of our theoretical elaboration. Our research is based on a large sample of youths in early adolescence (N=2,486) in the urban context of Antwerp, the second largest city of Belgium. The results indicate that micro-place disorder increases decreases parental monitoring and increases feelings of subjective powerlessness. Normlessness and low self-control are important mediators in the “causal chain” between micro-place disorder, subjective powerlessness and violent youth group involvement. Low self-control and lifestyle risk further mediate the effects of subjective powerlessness, normlessness and micro-place disorder. The implications of these findings for future studies of violent youth group involvement are discussed

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  • 25.
    Svensson, Robert
    et al.
    Malmö högskola, Fakulteten för hälsa och samhälle (HS), Institutionen för kriminologi (KR).
    Weerman, Frank M.
    Pauwels, Lieven J. R.
    Bruinsma, Gerben J. N.
    Bernasco, Wim
    Moral emotions and offending: do feelings of anticipated shame and guilt mediate the effect of socialization on offending?2013Ingår i: European Journal of Criminology, ISSN 1477-3708, E-ISSN 1741-2609, Vol. 10, nr 1, s. 22-39Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study we examine whether feelings of anticipated shame and anticipated guilt when being caught for an offence mediate the relationship between parental monitoring, bonds with parents and school, deviant peers, moral values and offending. We use data from the SPAN project, a study that collected detailed information about offending, moral emotions and socialization among 843 adolescents in The Hague, the Netherlands. The results show that moral emotions of both anticipated shame and guilt have a strong direct effect on offending. The results also show that the relationship between parental monitoring, deviant peers, moral values and offending is substantially mediated by anticipated shame and guilt. This study clearly suggests that both shame and guilt need to be included in the explanation of offending.

  • 26. Pauwels, Lieven
    et al.
    Svensson, Robert
    Malmö högskola, Fakulteten för hälsa och samhälle (HS), Institutionen för kriminologi (KR).
    Violent youth group involvement, self-reported offending and victimisation: An empirical assessment of an integrated informal control/lifestyle model2013Ingår i: European Journal on Criminal Policy and Research, ISSN 0928-1371, E-ISSN 1572-9869, Vol. 19, nr 4, s. 369-386Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study assesses the relationship between family and educational disadvantage on self-reported offending, victimisation and violent youth group involvement in a Belgian medium-sized city. Many studies have focused on the relationship between family disadvantage (one-parent families, immigrant background) and educational disadvantage (vocational tracking, school failure) and violent youth group involvement, offending/victimisation in surveys. The present study primarily assesses to what extent social bonds (parental monitoring and the school social bond), deviant beliefs, low self-control and lifestyle risk are stable mediators of the relationship between family and educational disadvantage and self-reported offending, victimisation and troublesome youth group involvement among young adolescents. The results indicate that the lifestyle-exposure model, which was initially used to explain individual differences in victimisation is much better capable of explaining differences in selfreported offending and violent youth group involvement than victimisation. The implications for further studies are discussed.

  • 27.
    Ivert, Anna-Karin
    et al.
    Malmö högskola, Fakulteten för hälsa och samhälle (HS), Institutionen för kriminologi (KR).
    Merlo, Juan
    Svensson, Robert
    Malmö högskola, Fakulteten för hälsa och samhälle (HS), Institutionen för kriminologi (KR).
    Torstensson Levander, Marie
    Malmö högskola, Fakulteten för hälsa och samhälle (HS), Institutionen för kriminologi (KR).
    How are immigrant background and gender associated with the utilisation of psychiatric care among adolescents?2012Ingår i: Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, ISSN 0933-7954, E-ISSN 1433-9285, Vol. 48, nr 5, s. 693-699Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose To investigate how parental country of birth and individual gender affect utilisation of psychiatric care in adolescents. Methods On the basis of data from the Longitudinal Multilevel Analysis in Scania database, the article employs logistic regression to analyse the utilisation of psychiatric care among adolescents aged 13–18 (n = 92203) who were living in the southern Swedish county of Scania in 2005. Results Adolescents whose parents were born in middle- or low-income countries presented lower levels of psychiatric outpatient care utilisation than those with native parents. Initially, no associations were found between the utilisation of psychiatric inpatient care and parental country of birth. Following adjustment for socio-demographic variables, it was found that adolescents with parents born in low-income countries were less likely to utilise psychiatric inpatient care. Girls presented higher levels of psychiatric care utilisation, but controls for possible interactions revealed that this was true primarily for girls with parents born in Sweden or other high-income countries. Conclusions The different utilisation patterns found among adolescents with different backgrounds should be taken into consideration when planning and designing psychiatric care for adolescents, and when allocating resources. Our results may indicate lower levels of mental health problems among adolescents with parents born in middle- or low-income countries implying that protective factors compensate other stressors implicated in mental health problems. On the other hand, our findings may indicate an unmet health-care need as a result of problems accessing care.

  • 28. Andersson, Frida
    et al.
    Levander, Sten
    Malmö högskola, Fakulteten för hälsa och samhälle (HS), Institutionen för kriminologi (KR).
    Svensson, Robert
    Malmö högskola, Fakulteten för hälsa och samhälle (HS), Institutionen för kriminologi (KR).
    Torstensson Levander, Marie
    Malmö högskola, Fakulteten för hälsa och samhälle (HS), Institutionen för kriminologi (KR).
    Sex differences in offending trajectories in a Swedish cohort2012Ingår i: CBMH. Criminal behaviour and mental health, ISSN 0957-9664, E-ISSN 1471-2857, Vol. 22, nr 2, s. 108-121Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background Despite the increased interest in female offending trajectories over the last decades, knowledge is still limited. Aim To meet the need for more knowledge on female offending trajectories by studying sex differences in criminal career patterns. Method Data on 518 female and 2567 male offenders up to age 30 from the Swedish longitudinal Project Metropolitan study were analysed using latent class analysis. Results The female offenders were much less predisposed to offend than the males, but when they did, they tended to follow a similar set of trajectories to males in their criminal development over time. Four criminal career patterns were identified for each sex. Two patterns were the same between the sexes, and two were gender unique. All career patterns had meaningful and distinct associations with crime characteristics. Conclusions Our study presents indicators relating both to gender differences and to heterogeneity within the group of female offenders. One important finding was the identification of an adult-onset offender group unique to females. This group was characterised by high criminal activity over the years following their late onset. Further research will focus on the childhood origins, pathways and outcomes of different female antisocial and criminal careers.

  • 29. Pauwels, Lieven
    et al.
    Svensson, Robert
    Malmö högskola, Fakulteten för hälsa och samhälle (HS), Institutionen för kriminologi (KR).
    Exploring the relationship between offending and victimization: What is the role of risky lifestyles and low self-control? A test in two urban samples2011Ingår i: European Journal on Criminal Policy and Research, ISSN 0928-1371, E-ISSN 1572-9869, Vol. 17, nr 3, s. 163-177Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study explores the strength of the relationship between offending and victimization among young adolescents. We focus especially on the role background characteristics such as gender, immigrant background and family structure and causal mechanisms such as risky lifestyles and low self-control as many scholars have argued that the correlation between offending and victimization may be caused by common characteristics of offenders and victims. The article build upon two large-scale self-reported delinquency studies in Sint-Niklaas (Belgium) and Halmstad (Sweden). The correlation between offending and victimization is strong, even when controlling for demographics, lifestyles and low self-control. However, the lifestyle and low self-control model predicts offending better than victimization and the independent effect of offending on victimization is larger than the independent effect of victimization of offending. The same pattern is found in both samples, suggesting the stability of findings. The implications of these findings are discussed.

  • 30.
    Ivert, Anna-Karin
    et al.
    Malmö högskola, Fakulteten för hälsa och samhälle (HS), Institutionen för kriminologi (KR).
    Svensson, Robert
    Malmö högskola, Fakulteten för hälsa och samhälle (HS), Institutionen för kriminologi (KR).
    Adler, Hans
    Levander, Sten
    Malmö högskola, Fakulteten för hälsa och samhälle (HS), Institutionen för kriminologi (KR).
    Rydelius, Per-Anders
    Torstensson Levander, Marie
    Malmö högskola, Fakulteten för hälsa och samhälle (HS), Institutionen för kriminologi (KR).
    Pathways to child and adolescent psychiatric clinics: a multilevel study of the significance of ethnicity and neighbourhood social characteristics on source of referral2011Ingår i: Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Mental Health, E-ISSN 1753-2000, Vol. 5, nr 1, artikel-id 6Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background In the Swedish society, as in many other societies, many children and adolescents with mental health problems do not receive the help they need. As the Swedish society becomes increasingly multicultural, and as ethnic and economic residential segregation become more pronounced, this study utilises ethnicity and neighbourhood context to examine referral pathways to child and adolescent psychiatric (CAP) clinics. Methods The analysis examines four different sources of referrals: family referrals, social/legal agency referrals, school referrals and health/mental health referrals. The referrals of 2054 children aged 11-19 from the Stockholm Child-Psychiatric Database were studied using multilevel logistic regression analyses. Results Results indicate that ethnicity played an important role in how children and adolescents were referred to CAP-clinics. Family referrals were more common among children and adolescents with a Swedish background than among those with an immigrant background. Referrals by social/legal agencies were more common among children and adolescents with African and Asian backgrounds. Children with Asian or South American backgrounds were more likely to have been referred by schools or by the health/mental health care sector. A significant neighbourhood effect was found in relation to family referrals. Children and adolescents from neighbourhoods with low levels of socioeconomic deprivation were more likely to be referred to psychiatric child and youth clinics by their families in comparison to children from other neighbourhoods. Such differences were not found in relation in relation to the other sources of referral. Conclusions This article reports findings that can be an important first step toward increasing knowledge on reasons behind differential referral rates and uptake of psychiatric care in an ethnically diverse Swedish sample. These findings have implications for the design and evaluation of community mental health outreach programs and should be considered when developing measures and strategies intended to reach and help children with mental health problems. This might involve providing information about the availability and accessibility of health care for children and adolescents with mental health problems to families in certain neighbourhoods and with different ethnic backgrounds.

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  • 31.
    Svensson, Robert
    et al.
    Malmö högskola, Fakulteten för hälsa och samhälle (HS), Institutionen för kriminologi (KR).
    Pauwels, Lieven
    Weerman, Frank
    Does the effect of self-control on adolescent offending vary by level of morality? A test in three countries2010Ingår i: Criminal justice and behavior, ISSN 0093-8548, E-ISSN 1552-3594, Vol. 37, nr 6, s. 732-743Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examines whether morality and self-control have an interactional effect on offending. Drawing from the situational action theory, the authors hypothesize that self-control has a more important effect on offending for individuals with low levels of morality than for individuals with high levels of morality. To test this hypothesis, self-report data were used from three independent samples of young adolescents in Antwerp, Belgium (N = 2,486); Halmstad, Sweden (N = 1,003); and South-Holland, the Netherlands (N = 1,978). The findings provide strong support for the hypothesis that the effect of self-control on offending is dependent on the individual’s level of morality. The similarity of the results across three independent samples suggests that the findings are robust among different cultural backgrounds and among studies with different operationalizations of the central concepts of interest.

  • 32. Pauwels, Lieven
    et al.
    Svensson, Robert
    Malmö högskola, Fakulteten för hälsa och samhälle (HS), Institutionen för kriminologi (KR).
    Informal controls and the explanation of propensity to offend: A test in two urban samples2010Ingår i: European Journal on Criminal Policy and Research, ISSN 0928-1371, E-ISSN 1572-9869, Vol. 16, nr 1, s. 15-27Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Propensity to offend is an important and stable predictor of offending. A person’s propensity is often thought of as a multidimensional trait consisting of morality and low self-control. The aim of this paper is to explain individual differences in propensity to offend as one single construct and two of its dimensions, namely morality and low self-control. It is well established that low levels of morality and low self-control increase the risk of offending. However, there is less empirical research that focuses on the main predictors of morality and self-control. Therefore the main research question for this study is to explain to what extent parental attachment, parental control and the school social bond have a direct effect on one’s propensity to offend (low morality or delinquency tolerance and low self-control). The data are drawn from two different samples of young adolescents in Antwerp, Belgium (N = 2,486), and Halmstad, Sweden (N = 1,003). The results show that parental control, parental attachment and the school social bond have direct effects on individual differences in propensity to offend, regardless of individual background variables. The results are highly equivalent in both samples. The similarity of the results across two independent samples suggests that the findings are stable. Implications for further studies are discussed.

  • 33.
    Svensson, Robert
    et al.
    Malmö högskola, Fakulteten för hälsa och samhälle (HS), Institutionen för kriminologi (KR).
    Pauwels, Lieven
    Is a risky lifestyle always "risky"? The interaction between individual propensity and lifestyle risk in adolescent offending: A test in two urban samples2010Ingår i: Crime & Delinquency, Vol. 56, nr 4, s. 608-626Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examines the effects on adolescent offending of lifestyle risk and the individual propensity to offend. It is assumed that lifestyle risk will have a more important effect on offending for those individuals with high levels of individual propensity, whereas for individuals with low levels of individual propensity it is assumed that a risky lifestyle will not, or will only marginally, influence their involvement in offending. The data are drawn from two different samples of young adolescents in Antwerp, Belgium (N = 2,486), and Halmstad, Sweden (N = 1,003). The data provide strong support for the hypothesis that the effect of lifestyle risk is dependent on the strength or weakness of individual propensity, indicating that lifestyle risk has a stronger effect on delinquency for individuals with a high propensity to offend. The similarity of the results across two independent samples suggests the findings are stable.

  • 34.
    Svensson, Robert
    et al.
    Malmö högskola, Fakulteten för hälsa och samhälle (HS), Institutionen för kriminologi (KR).
    Oberwittler, Dietrich
    It's not the time they spend, it's what they do: The interaction between delinquent friends and unstructured routine activity on delinquency. Findings from two countries2010Ingår i: Journal of criminal justice, ISSN 0047-2352, E-ISSN 1873-6203, Vol. 38, nr 5, s. 1006-1014Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examines whether having delinquent friends interacts with other peer-related variables in the explanation of adolescent offending. We hypothesise that the relationship between delinquent friends and offending might be conditioned by the effect of (1) how much time they spend with their friends, (2) how much time they spend in unstructured routine activities and (3) their emotional relationship with their friends. To test these three hypotheses we use data from two independent samples of young adolescents in Halmstad, Sweden (N = 1,003) and in Cologne and Freiburg, Germany (N = 955). The results found strong support that the effect of delinquent friends on adolescent offending is conditional on the level of time they spend in unstructured routine activities. This indicates that delinquent friends have a stronger effect on offending for adolescents who often spend their free time in unstructured routine activities.

  • 35.
    Wikström, Per-Olof
    et al.
    Malmö högskola, Fakulteten för hälsa och samhälle (HS), Institutionen för kriminologi (KR).
    Svensson, Robert
    Malmö högskola, Fakulteten för hälsa och samhälle (HS), Institutionen för kriminologi (KR).
    When does self-control matter? The interaction between morality and self-control in crime causation2010Ingår i: European Journal of Criminology, ISSN 1477-3708, E-ISSN 1741-2609, Vol. 7, nr 5, s. 395-410Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we will test one of the key assumptions of Situational Action Theory: that individuals’ (law-relevant) morality is more fundamental to their crime involvement than their ability to exercise self-control. We specifically hypothesize that, for individuals with a strong morality, their capability to exercise self-control plays less of a role in their crime involvement than it does for individuals with a weak morality, whose capability to exercise self-control may substantially influence their engagement in crime. To test this hypothesis we use data from the Peterborough Youth Study (PYS), a cross-sectional survey of 1957 adolescents aged 14—15 from the UK city of Peterborough. The findings support the main hypothesis: young people with a strong (law-relevant) morality do not engage in crime, regardless of their ability to exercise self-control. However, among those with a weaker (law-relevant) morality, their ability to exercise self-control is an important factor in their crime involvement.

  • 36. Pauwels, Lieven
    et al.
    Svensson, Robert
    Malmö högskola, Fakulteten för hälsa och samhälle (HS), Institutionen för kriminologi (KR).
    Adolescent lifestyle risk by gender and ethnic background: Findings from two urban samples2009Ingår i: European Journal of Criminology, Vol. 6, nr 1, s. 5-23Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this paper is to explain individual differences in lifestyle risk. Lifestyle risk has previously been identified as a key social mechanism which has strong direct effects on juvenile offending. Building on statements derived from the Situational Action Theory (SAT), we test the assumptions that (1) family structure explains individual differences in lifestyle risk, (2) these effects are moderated by mechanisms of social control, and (3) the effects of mechanisms of control are moderated by the effect of propensity to offend (morality and self-control). It is assumed that this model holds in different population segments such as subpopulations by gender and ethnic background. Results from two independently drawn urban samples in Belgium and Sweden are used to discuss the generalization of these findings. Mixed support is found for the `equality of effects' thesis

  • 37. Pauwels, Lieven
    et al.
    Ponsaers, Paul
    Svensson, Robert
    Malmö högskola, Fakulteten för hälsa och samhälle (HS), Institutionen för kriminologi (KR).
    Analytical Criminology: A style of theorizing and analyzing themicro-macro context of acts of crime2009Ingår i: Contemporary Issues in the Empirical Study of Crime, Maklu , 2009, s. 137-155Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 38.
    Svensson, Robert
    et al.
    Malmö högskola, Fakulteten för hälsa och samhälle (HS), Institutionen för kriminologi (KR).
    Eriksson, Li
    Den nationella skolundersökningen om brott 1995-2005: Teknisk rapport2008Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 39. Pauwels, Lieven
    et al.
    Svensson, Robert
    Malmö högskola, Fakulteten för hälsa och samhälle (HS), Institutionen för kriminologi (KR).
    How serious is the problem of item nonresponse in delinquency scales and aetiological variables? A cross-national inquiry into two classroom PAPI self-report studies in Antwerp and Halmstad2008Ingår i: European Journal of Criminology, Vol. 5, nr 3, s. 289-308Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The phenomenon of item nonresponse, i.e. missing data, in surveys is well known among methodologists. Item nonresponse is a problem when it is biased to the dependent variables in aetiological research. The occurrence of item nonresponse in self-reported delinquency studies has been associated with the threatening nature of questions about previous delinquent behaviour, but item nonresponse also occurs in scales measuring aetiological variables (theoretical concepts) in aetiological research, and in sociology has also been associated with negative attitudes towards the survey, although evidence from self-reported delinquency studies in support of this concern has not yet been given. The aim of this study is to evaluate the seriousness of the problem of item nonresponse in two independently drawn self-reported delinquency data sets of two classroom delinquency studies conducted among adolescents in Antwerp (Belgium) and Halmstad (Sweden) using paper and pencil interviews (PAPI). We do this by evaluating the non-random character of item nonresponse in scales of delinquency and aetiological variables, by looking at the correlates of item nonresponse and by evaluating the effects of assigning values on the missing data with regard to reliability and correlational validity. The results are rather optimistic about the hypothesized negative effects of item nonresponse.

  • 40.
    Wikström, Per-Olof
    et al.
    Malmö högskola, Fakulteten för hälsa och samhälle (HS), Institutionen för kriminologi (KR).
    Svensson, Robert
    Malmö högskola, Fakulteten för hälsa och samhälle (HS), Institutionen för kriminologi (KR).
    Why are English youths more violent than Swedish youths? A comparative study of the role of crime propensity, lifestyles and their interactions in two cities2008Ingår i: European Journal of Criminology, Vol. 5, nr 3, s. 309-330Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Most cross-national studies of crime and violence explore variation in levels of crime without empirically addressing the causes of these variations. Drawing upon the theoretical framework of the situational action theory of crime causation (e.g. Wikström 2006), in this study we aim to explore and test whether the difference in levels of violence among young people in England and Sweden can be explained (fully or partly) by country differences in young people's crime propensities and lifestyles and their interaction. To achieve this we use data from the English Peterborough Youth Study and the Swedish Eskilstuna Youth Study. The findings show that in both cities (1) young people's self-reported violent behaviour is predicted by crime propensity and lifestyle, and their interaction, and (2) a substantial proportion (40 percent) of the difference in the level of violence vanishes when taking into account national differences in young people's crime propensity and lifestyles. We conclude that the findings support the notion that one major cause of the difference in the level of violence among young people in England and Sweden is that more young people in England have a higher crime propensity and are living criminogenic lifestyles than in Sweden.

  • 41. Ring, Jonas
    et al.
    Svensson, Robert
    Malmö högskola, Fakulteten för hälsa och samhälle (HS), Institutionen för kriminologi (KR).
    Social class and criminality among young people: A study considering the effects of school achievement as a mediating factor on the basis of Swedish register and self-report data2007Ingår i: Journal of Scandinavian Studies in Criminology and Crime Prevention, Vol. 8, nr 2, s. 210-233Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This study focuses on the associations between parental social class, school achievement, and criminality among young people. The study hypothesizes that there is a relationship between class background and school achievement, and between school achievement and crime, and examines whether school achievement is a mediating variable between class background and crime. The study builds on analyses of both register and self-report data. The register study includes all the members of a Swedish birth cohort and utilizes measures of social class, school achievement (at grade 9 compulsory school), and offending (at age 15-22) contained in official registers. The self-report study is based on a large sample of adolescents in grade 9 (aged 15) and utilizes self-report measures. The results show that there is a weak but statistically significant relationship between social class background and criminality in both data sets, indicating that working-class background is associated with a higher risk for offending. The article concludes that social class background seems to have some effect on criminality among young people but that this effect is mediated by school achievement. This mediating effect is evident in both the register and self-report material and for both males and females. By contrast, the effects on crime of the structural background factors of coming from a broken home or an immigrant background are not mediated by school achievement.

  • 42.
    Svensson, Robert
    et al.
    Malmö högskola, Fakulteten för hälsa och samhälle (HS), Institutionen för kriminologi (KR).
    Ring, Jonas
    Trends in self-reported youth crime and victimization in Sweden, 1995-20052007Ingår i: Journal of Scandinavian Studies in Criminology and Crime Prevention, Vol. 8, nr 2, s. 185-209Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The principal objectives of this study are to describe trends over time in self-reported participation in crime or other problem behaviours and in victimization among youths in Sweden. Amongst other things, the article addresses the question of whether the small group that might be labelled high-frequency offenders has become more active over time. Another question examined is that of whether there are differences in the proportions reporting participation in crime and exposure to crime across youths from different backgrounds. These questions are examined on the basis of data collected in six nationally representative questionnaire surveys of youths in their final year of compulsory education (during the years 1995-2005), with sample sizes of between 5,300 and 8,200 respondents. Generally speaking, the proportion reporting that they have committed an offence of some kind has not increased since 1995. Instead the prevalence of several types of crime has decreased over time. No indication has been found that those youths who do commit offences have become more active over time. The reduction in the prevalence of involvement in crime remains when the focus is directed at differences between different socio-demographic groups. The proportions exposed to theft, threats, and serious violence have remained relatively constant over the period examined. The central impression produced by the findings about youth victimization is that of consistent and in some instances rather striking differences in the risk for victimization among youths from different social backgrounds.

  • 43.
    Svensson, Robert
    Malmö högskola, Fakulteten för hälsa och samhälle (HS), Institutionen för kriminologi (KR).
    Ungdomar och brott åren 1995-2005: resultat från sex självdeklarationsundersökningar bland elever i årskurs 92006Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
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