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  • 1.
    Sales-Silva, J. V.
    et al.
    Observ Nacl MCTI, MCTI, R Gen Jose Cristino 77, BR-20921400 Rio De Janeiro, Brazil..
    Cunha, K.
    Observ Nacl MCTI, MCTI, R Gen Jose Cristino 77, BR-20921400 Rio De Janeiro, Brazil.;Univ Arizona, Steward Observ, Tucson, AZ 85719 USA..
    Smith, V. V.
    NOIRLab, Tucson, AZ 85719 USA..
    Daflon, S.
    Observ Nacl MCTI, MCTI, R Gen Jose Cristino 77, BR-20921400 Rio De Janeiro, Brazil..
    Souto, D.
    Univ Fed Sergipe, Dept Fis, Ave Marechal Rondon S-N, BR-49000000 Sao Cristovao, SE, Brazil..
    Guerco, R.
    Observ Nacl MCTI, MCTI, R Gen Jose Cristino 77, BR-20921400 Rio De Janeiro, Brazil..
    Queiroz, A.
    Inst Astrofis Canarias, E-38200 San Cristobal la Laguna, Tenerife, Spain..
    Chiappini, C.
    Leibniz Inst Astrophys Potsdam AIP, Sternwarte 16, D-14482 Potsdam, Germany..
    Hayes, C. R.
    NRC Herzberg Astron & Astrophys Res Ctr, 5071 West Saanich Rd, Victoria, BC V9E 2E7, Canada..
    Masseron, T.
    Inst Astrofis Canarias IAC, E-38205 San Cristobal la Laguna, Tenerife, Spain.;Univ La Laguna ULL, Dept Astrofis, San Cristobal la Laguna 38206, Tenerife, Spain..
    Hasselquist, Sten
    Space Telescope Sci Inst, Baltimore, MD USA..
    Horta, D.
    Flatiron Inst, New York, NY 10010 USA..
    Prantzos, N.
    Inst Astrophys Paris, UMR 7095, CNRS, 98 Bis Blvd Arago, F-75014 Paris, France.;Sorbonne Univ, 98 Bis Blvd Arago, F-75014 Paris, France..
    Zoccali, M.
    Pontificia Univ Catolica Chile, Inst Astrofis, Vicuna Mackenna 4860,Macul,Casilla 306, Santiago 22, Chile.;Millenium Inst Astrophys MAS, Nuncio Monsenor Sotero Sanz 100, Santiago, Chile..
    Allende Prieto, C.
    Inst Astrofis Canarias IAC, E-38205 San Cristobal la Laguna, Tenerife, Spain.;Univ La Laguna ULL, Dept Astrofis, San Cristobal la Laguna 38206, Tenerife, Spain..
    Barbuy, B.
    Univ Sao Paulo, IAG, Rua Matao 1226, Cidade Universitaria, BR-05508090 Sao Paulo, Brazil..
    Beaton, R.
    Space Telescope Sci Inst, Baltimore, MD USA..
    Bizyaev, D.
    New Mex State Univ, Apache Point Observ, POB 59, Sunspot, NM 88349 USA.;Moscow MV Lomonosov State Univ, Sternberg Astron Inst, Moscow, Russia..
    Fernandez-Trincado, J. G.
    Univ Catolica Norte, Inst Astron, Ave Angamos 0610, Antofagasta, Chile..
    Frinchaboy, P. M.
    Texas Christian Univ, Dept Phys & Astron, TCU Box 298840, Ft Worth, TX 76129 USA..
    Holtzman, J. A.
    New Mexico State Univ, Las Cruces, NM 88003 USA..
    Johnson, J. A.
    Ohio State Univ, Ctr Cosmol & Astro Particle Phys, Dept Astron, Columbus, OH 43210 USA..
    Jönsson, Henrik
    Malmö University, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS), Department of Materials Science and Applied Mathematics (MTM).
    Majewski, S. R.
    Univ Virginia, Dept Astron, Charlottesville, VA 22904 USA..
    Minniti, D.
    Univ Fed Santa Catarina, Dept Fis, BR-88040900 Florianopolis, Brazil.;Univ Andres Bello, Fac Ciencias Exactas, Inst Astrofis, Ave Fernandez Concha 700, Santiago, Chile.;Vatican Observ, Vatican City I-V00120, Vatican..
    Nidever, D. L.
    Montana State Univ, Dept Phys, POB 173840, Bozeman, MT 59717 USA..
    Schiavon, R. P.
    Liverpool John Moores Univ, Astrophys Res Inst, Liverpool L3, England..
    Schultheis, M.
    Univ Cote Azur, Observ Cote Azur, CNRS, Lab Lagrange, Bd Observ,CS 34229, F-06304 Nice 4, France..
    Sobeck, J.
    Univ Washington, Dept Astron, Box 351580, Seattle, WA 98195 USA..
    Stringfellow, G. S.
    Univ Colorado, Ctr Astrophys & Space Astron, 389 UCB, Boulder, CO 80309 USA..
    Zasowski, G.
    Univ Utah, Dept Phys & Astron, Salt Lake City, UT 84105 USA..
    A Perspective on the Milky Way Bulge Bar as Seen from the Neutron-capture Elements Cerium and Neodymium with APOGEE2024In: Astrophysical Journal, ISSN 0004-637X, E-ISSN 1538-4357, Vol. 965, no 2, article id 119Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study probes the chemical abundances of the neutron-capture elements cerium and neodymium in the inner Milky Way from an analysis of a sample of similar to 2000 stars in the Galactic bulge bar spatially contained within divided by X-Gal divided by < 5 kpc, divided by Y-Gal divided by < 3.5 kpc, and divided by Z(Gal)divided by < 1 kpc, and spanning metallicities between -2.0 less than or similar to [Fe/H] less than or similar to +0.5. We classify the sample stars into low- or high-[Mg/Fe] populations and find that, in general, values of [Ce/Fe] and [Nd/Fe] increase as the metallicity decreases for the low- and high-[Mg/Fe] populations. Ce abundances show a more complex variation across the metallicity range of our bulge-bar sample when compared to Nd, with the r-process dominating the production of neutron-capture elements in the high-[Mg/Fe] population ([Ce/Nd] < 0.0). We find a spatial chemical dependence of Ce and Nd abundances for our sample of bulge-bar stars, with low- and high-[Mg/Fe] populations displaying a distinct abundance distribution. In the region close to the center of the MW, the low-[Mg/Fe] population is dominated by stars with low [Ce/Fe], [Ce/Mg], [Nd/Mg], [Nd/Fe], and [Ce/Nd] ratios. The low [Ce/Nd] ratio indicates a significant contribution in this central region from r-process yields for the low-[Mg/Fe] population. The chemical pattern of the most metal-poor stars in our sample suggests an early chemical enrichment of the bulge dominated by yields from core-collapse supernovae and r-process astrophysical sites, such as magnetorotational supernovae.

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  • 2.
    Ratcliffe, Bridget
    et al.
    Leibniz-Institut für Astrophysik Potsdam (AIP), An der Sternwarte 16, D-14482 Potsdam, Germany.
    Minchev, Ivan
    Leibniz-Institut für Astrophysik Potsdam (AIP), An der Sternwarte 16, D-14482 Potsdam, Germany.
    Cescutti, Gabriele
    Dipartimento di Fisica, Sezione di Astronomia, Università di Trieste, via G. B. Tiepolo 11, I-34143 Trieste, Italy; INAF, Osservatorio Astronomico di Trieste, via G.B. Tiepolo 11, I-34131 Trieste, Italy; INFN, Sezione di Trieste, Via A. Valerio 2, I-34127 Trieste, Italy.
    Spitoni, Emanuele
    INAF, Osservatorio Astronomico di Trieste, via G.B. Tiepolo 11, I-34131 Trieste, Italy.
    Jönsson, Henrik
    Malmö University, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS), Department of Materials Science and Applied Mathematics (MTM).
    Anders, Friedrich
    Dept. de Física Quàntica i Astrofísica (FQA), Universitat de Barcelona (UB), C Martí i Franqués, 1, E-08028 Barcelona, Spain; Institut de Ciències del Cosmos (ICCUB), Universitat de Barcelona (UB), C Martí i Franqués, 1, E-08028 Barcelona, Spain; Institut d’Estudis Espacials de Catalunya (IEEC), C Gran Capità, 2-4, E-08034 Barcelona, Spain.
    Queiroz, Anna
    Leibniz-Institut für Astrophysik Potsdam (AIP), An der Sternwarte 16, D-14482 Potsdam, Germany; Laboratório Interinstitucional de e-Astronomia – LIneA, Rua Gal. José Cristino 77, Rio de Janeiro RJ-20921-400, Brazil; Institut für Physik und Astronomie, Universität Potsdam, Haus 28 Karl-Liebknecht-Str 24/25, D-14476 Golm, Germany.
    Steinmetz, Matthias
    Leibniz-Institut für Astrophysik Potsdam (AIP), An der Sternwarte 16, D-14482 Potsdam, Germany.
    Chemical clocks and their time zones: understanding the [s/Mg]–age relation with birth radii2024In: Monthly notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, ISSN 0035-8711, E-ISSN 1365-2966, Vol. 528, no 2, p. 3464-3472Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The relative enrichment of s-process to α-elements ([s/α]) has been linked with age, providing a potentially useful avenue in exploring the Milky Way’s chemical evolution. However, the age–[s/α] relationship is non-universal, with dependencies on metallicity and current location in the Galaxy. In this work, we examine these chemical clock tracers across birth radii (⁠𝑅birth⁠), recovering the inherent trends between the variables. We derive 𝑅birth and explore the [s/α]–age–𝑅birth relationship for 36 652 APOGEE DR17 red giant and 24 467 GALAH DR3 main-sequence turn-off and subgiant branch disc stars using [Ce/Mg], [Ba/Mg], and [Y/Mg]. We discover that the age–[𝑠/Mg] relation is strongly dependent on birth location in the Milky Way, with stars born in the inner disc having the weakest correlation. This is congruent with the Galaxy’s initially weak, negative [𝑠/Mg] radial gradient, which becomes positive and steep with time. We show that the non-universal relations of chemical clocks is caused by their fundamental trends with 𝑅birth over time, and suggest that the tight age–[𝑠/Mg] relation obtained with solar-like stars is due to similar 𝑅birth for a given age. Our results are put into context with a Galactic chemical evolution model, where we demonstrate the need for data-driven nucleosynthetic yields.

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  • 3.
    Nandakumar, G.
    et al.
    Lund Univ, Dept Phys, Div Astrophys, Box 43, S-22100 Lund, Sweden..
    Ryde, N.
    Lund Univ, Dept Phys, Div Astrophys, Box 43, S-22100 Lund, Sweden..
    Forsberg, R.
    Lund Univ, Dept Phys, Div Astrophys, Box 43, S-22100 Lund, Sweden..
    Montelius, M.
    Univ Groningen, Kapteyn Astron Inst, Landleven 12, NL-9747 AD Groningen, Netherlands..
    Mace, G.
    Univ Texas Austin, Dept Astron, Austin, TX 78712 USA.;Univ Texas Austin, McDonald Observ, Austin, TX 78712 USA..
    Jönsson, Henrik
    Malmö University, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS), Department of Materials Science and Applied Mathematics (MTM).
    Thorsbro, B.
    Lund Univ, Dept Phys, Div Astrophys, Box 43, S-22100 Lund, Sweden.;CNRS, UMR 7293, Observ Cote Dazur, Lab Lagrange,BP4229, F-06304 Nice 4, France..
    M giants with IGRINS III. Abundance trends for 21 elements in the solar neighborhood from high-resolution near-infrared spectra2024In: Astronomy and Astrophysics, ISSN 0004-6361, E-ISSN 1432-0746, Vol. 684, article id A15Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Context. To be able to investigate the chemical history of the entire Milky Way, it is imperative to also study its dust-obscured regions in detail, as this is where most of the mass lies. The Galactic Center is an example of such a region. Due to the intervening dust along the line of sight, near-infrared spectroscopic investigations are necessary to study this region of interest. Aims. The aim of this work is to demonstrate that M giants observed at high spectral resolution in the H- and K-bands (1.5-2.4 mu m) can yield useful abundance ratio trends versus metallicity for 21 elements. These elements can then also be studied for heavily dust-obscured regions of the Galaxy, such as the Galactic Center. The abundance ratio trends will be important for further investigation of the Galactic chemical evolution in these regions. Methods. We observed near-infrared spectra of 50 M giants in the solar neighborhood at high signal-to-noise and at a high spectral resolution with the IGRINS spectrometer on the Gemini South telescope. The full H- and K-bands were recorded simultaneously at R = 45 000. Using a manual spectral synthesis method, we determined the fundamental stellar parameters for these stars and derived the stellar abundances for 21 atomic elements, namely, F, Mg, Si, S, Ca, Na, Al, K, Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Y, Ce, Nd, and Yb. We systematically studied useful spectral lines of all these elements in the H- and K-bands. Results. We demonstrate that elements can be analyzed from H- and K-band high-resolution spectra, and we show which spectral lines can be used for an abundance analysis, identifying them line by line. We discuss the 21 abundance ratio trends and compare them with those determined from APOGEE and from the optical Giants in the Local Disk (GILD) sample. From high-resolution H- and K-band spectra, the trends of the heavy elements Cu, Zn, Y, Ce, Nd, and Yb can be retrieved. This opens up the nucleosynthetic channels, including the s-process and the r-process in dust-obscured populations. The [Mn/Fe] versus [Fe/H] trend is shown to be more or less flat at low metallicities, implying that existing non-local thermodynamic equilibrium correction is relevant. Conclusions. With high-resolution near-infrared spectra, it is possible to determine reliable abundance ratio trends versus metallicity for 21 elements, including elements formed in several different nucleosynthetic channels. It is also possible to determine the important neutron-capture elements, both s- and r-dominated elements. This opens up the possibility to study the chemical evolution in detail of dust-obscured regions of the Milky Way, such as the Galactic Center. The M giants are useful bright probes for these regions and for future studies of extra-galactic stellar populations. A careful analysis of high-quality spectra is needed to retrieve all of these elements, which are often from weak and blended lines. A spectral resolution of R greater than or similar to 40 000 is a further quality that helps in deriving precise abundances for this range of elements. In comparison to APOGEE, we can readily obtain the abundances for Cu, Ce, Nd, and Yb from the H-band, demonstrating an advantage of analyzing high-resolution spectra.

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  • 4.
    Bijavara Seshashayana, Shilpa
    et al.
    Malmö University, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS), Department of Materials Science and Applied Mathematics (MTM).
    Jönsson, Henrik
    Malmö University, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS), Department of Materials Science and Applied Mathematics (MTM).
    D'Orazi, V.
    Univ Roma Tor Vergata, Dept Phys, Via Ric Sci 1, I-00133 Rome, Italy.;INAF Osservatorio Astron Padova, Vicolo Osservatorio 5, I-35122 Padua, Italy..
    Nandakumar, G.
    Lund Univ, Dept Phys, Div Astrophys, Lund Observ, S-22100 Lund, Sweden..
    Oliva, E.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofisico Arcetri, Largo Enr Fermi 5, I-50125 Florence, Italy..
    Bragaglia, A.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofis & Sci Spazio Bologna, Via Piero Gobetti 93-3, I-40129 Bologna, Italy..
    Sanna, N.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofisico Arcetri, Largo Enr Fermi 5, I-50125 Florence, Italy..
    Romano, D.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofis & Sci Spazio Bologna, Via Piero Gobetti 93-3, I-40129 Bologna, Italy..
    Spitoni, E.
    INAF Osservatorio Astron Trieste, Via GB Tiepolo 11, I-34131 Trieste, Italy..
    Karakas, A.
    Monash Univ, Sch Phys & Astron, Clayton, Vic 3800, Australia..
    Lugaro, M.
    Monash Univ, Sch Phys & Astron, Clayton, Vic 3800, Australia.;Res Ctr Astron & Earth Sci CSFK, Konkoly Observ, ELKH, Konkoly Thege Mikl Ut 15-17, H-1121 Budapest, Hungary..
    Origlia, L.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofis & Sci Spazio Bologna, Via Piero Gobetti 93-3, I-40129 Bologna, Italy..
    Stellar Population Astrophysics (SPA) with TNG2024In: Astronomy and Astrophysics, ISSN 0004-6361, E-ISSN 1432-0746, Vol. 683, article id A218Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Context. The age, evolution, and chemical properties of the Galactic disk can be effectively ascertained using open clusters. Within the large program Stellar Populations Astrophysics at the Telescopio Nazionale Galileo, we specifically focused on stars in open clusters, to investigate various astrophysical topics, from the chemical content of very young systems to the abundance patterns of lesser studied intermediate-age and old open clusters.

    Aims. We investigate the astrophysically interesting element fluorine (F), which has an uncertain and intriguing cosmic origin. We also determine the abundance of cerium (Ce), as F abundance is expected to correlate with the s-process elements. We intend to determine the trend of F abundance across the Galactic disk as a function of metallicity and age. This will offer insights into Galactic chemical evolution models, potentially enhancing our comprehension of this element’s cosmic origin.

    Methods. High-resolution near-infrared spectra were obtained using the GIANO-B spectrograph. The Python version of Spectroscopy Made Easy (PySME), was used to derive atmospheric parameters and abundances. The stellar parameters were determined using OH, CN, and CO molecular lines along with Fe I lines. The F and Ce abundances were inferred using two K-band HF lines (λλ 2.28, 2.33 µm) and two atomic H-band lines (λλ 1.66, and 1.71 µm), respectively.

    Results. Of all the clusters in our sample, only King 11 had not been previously studied through medium- to high-resolution spectroscopy, and our stellar parameter and metallicity findings align well with those documented in the literature. We have successfully inferred F and Ce abundances in all seven open clusters and probed the radial and age distributions of abundance ratios. This paper presents the first F Galactic radial abundance gradient. Our results are also compared with literature estimates and with Galactic chemical evolution models that have been generated using different F production channels.

    Conclusions. Our results indicate a constant, solar pattern in the [F/Fe] ratios across clusters of different ages, supporting the latest findings that fluorine levels do not exhibit any secondary behavior for stars with solar or above-solar metallicity. However, an exception to this trend is seen in NGC 6791, a metal-rich, ancient cluster whose chemical composition is distinct due to its enhanced fluorine abundance. This anomaly strengthens the hypothesis that NGC 6791 originated in the inner regions of the Galaxy before migrating to its present position. By comparing our sample stars with the predictions of Galactic chemical evolution models, we came to the conclusion that both asymptotic giant branch stars and massive stars, including a fraction of fast rotators that increase with decreasing metallicity, are needed to explain the cosmic origin of F.

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  • 5.
    Schiavon, Ricardo P.
    et al.
    Liverpool John Moores Univ, Astrophys Res Inst, 146 Brownlow Hill, Liverpool L3 5RF, England..
    Phillips, Sian G.
    Liverpool John Moores Univ, Astrophys Res Inst, 146 Brownlow Hill, Liverpool L3 5RF, England..
    Myers, Natalie
    Texas Christian Univ, Dept Phys & Astron, Ft Worth, TX 76129 USA..
    Horta, Danny
    Liverpool John Moores Univ, Astrophys Res Inst, 146 Brownlow Hill, Liverpool L3 5RF, England.;Flatiron Inst, Ctr Computat Astrophys, 162 5th Ave, New York, NY 10010 USA..
    Minniti, Dante
    Univ Andres Bello, Fac Ciencias Exactas, Inst Astrofis, Fernandez Concha 700, Santiago, Chile.;Vatican Observ, V-00120 Vatican, Italy.;Univ Fed Santa Catarina, Dept Fis, BR-88040900 Florianopolis, Brazil..
    Allende Prieto, Carlos
    Inst Astrofis Canarias, Via Lactea S-N, E-38205 San Cristobal la Laguna, Tenerife, Spain.;Univ La Laguna, Dept Astrofis, E-38206 San Cristobal la Laguna, Tenerife, Spain..
    Anguiano, Borja
    Univ Notre Dame, Dept Phys & Astron, 225 Nieuwland Sci Hall, Notre Dame, IN 46556 USA.;Univ Virginia, Dept Astron, Charlottesville, VA 22904 USA..
    Beaton, Rachael L.
    Princeton Univ, Dept Astrophys Sci, 4 Ivy Lane, Princeton, NJ 08544 USA.;Observ Carnegie Inst Sci, 813 Santa Barbara St, Pasadena, CA 91101 USA..
    Beers, Timothy C.
    Univ Notre Dame, Dept Phys & Astron, Notre Dame, IN 46556 USA.;Univ Notre Dame, JINA Ctr Evolut Elements, Notre Dame, IN 46556 USA..
    Brownstein, Joel R.
    Univ Utah, Dept Phys & Astron, 115 S 1400 E, Salt Lake City, UT 84112 USA..
    Cohen, Roger E.
    Rutgers State Univ, 136 Frelinghuysen Rd, Piscataway, NJ 08854 USA..
    Fernandez-Trincado, Jose G.
    Univ Catolica Norte, Inst Astron, Ave Angamos 0610, Antofagasta, Chile..
    Frinchaboy, Peter M.
    Texas Christian Univ, Dept Phys & Astron, Ft Worth, TX 76129 USA..
    Jönsson, Henrik
    Malmö University, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS), Department of Materials Science and Applied Mathematics (MTM).
    Kisku, Shobhit
    Liverpool John Moores Univ, Astrophys Res Inst, 146 Brownlow Hill, Liverpool L3 5RF, England..
    Lane, Richard R.
    Univ Bernardo OHiggins, Ctr Invest Astron, Ave Viel 1497, Santiago, Chile..
    Majewski, Steven R.
    Univ Virginia, Dept Astron, Charlottesville, VA 22904 USA..
    Mason, Andrew C.
    Liverpool John Moores Univ, Astrophys Res Inst, 146 Brownlow Hill, Liverpool L3 5RF, England..
    Meszaros, Szabolcs
    Eotvos Lorand Univ, Gothard Astrophys Observ, Szent Imre H st 112, H-9700 Szombathely, Hungary.;MTA ELTE Exoplanet Res Grp, Szent Imre H St 112, H-9700 Szombathely, Hungary..
    Stringfellow, Guy S.
    Univ Colorado, Ctr Astrophys & Space Astron, 389 UCB, Boulder, CO 80309 USA..
    The APOGEE value-added catalogue of Galactic globular cluster stars2024In: Monthly notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, ISSN 0035-8711, E-ISSN 1365-2966, Vol. 528, no 2, p. 1393-1407Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We introduce the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS)/ Apache Point Observatory Galactic Evolution Experiment (APOGEE) value-added catalogue of Galactic globular cluster (GC) stars. The catalogue is the result of a critical search of the APOGEE Data Release 17 (DR17) catalogue for candidate members of all known Galactic GCs. Candidate members are assigned to various GCs on the basis of position in the sky, proper motion, and radial velocity. The catalogue contains a total of 7737 entries for 6422 unique stars associated with 72 Galactic GCs. Full APOGEE DR17 information is provided, including radial velocities and abundances for up to 20 elements. Membership probabilities estimated on the basis of precision radial velocities are made available. Comparisons with chemical compositions derived from the GALactic Archaeology with HERMES (GALAH) survey, as well as optical values from the literature, show good agreement. This catalogue represents a significant increase in the public data base of GC star chemical compositions and kinematics, providing a massive homogeneous data set that will enable a variety of studies. The catalogue in fits format is available for public download from the SDSS-IV DR17 value-added catalogue website.

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  • 6.
    Schonhut-Stasik, Jessica
    et al.
    Vanderbilt Univ, Dept Phys & Astron, 6301 Stevenson Ctr Lane, Nashville, TN 37235 USA..
    Zinn, Joel C.
    Amer Museum Nat Hist, Dept Astrophys, Cent Pk West,79th St, New York, NY 10024 USA.;Calif State Univ, Dept Phys & Astron, Long Beach, CA 90840 USA..
    Stassun, Keivan G.
    Vanderbilt Univ, Dept Phys & Astron, 6301 Stevenson Ctr Lane, Nashville, TN 37235 USA..
    Pinsonneault, Marc
    Ohio State Univ, Dept Astron, McPherson Lab, 140 West 18th Ave, Columbus, OH 43210 USA..
    Johnson, Jennifer A.
    Ohio State Univ, Dept Astron, McPherson Lab, 140 West 18th Ave, Columbus, OH 43210 USA.;Ctr Cosmol & AstroParticle Phys, Phys Res Bldg,190 West Woodruff Ave, Columbus, OH 43210 USA..
    Warfield, Jack T.
    Univ Virginia, Dept Astron, 530 McCormick Rd, Charlottesville, VA 22904 USA..
    Stello, Dennis
    Univ New South Wales, Sch Phys, Sydney, NSW 2052, Australia.;Univ Sydney, Sch Phys, Sydney Inst Astron SIfA, Sydney, NSW 2006, Australia.;ARC Ctr Excellence All Sky Astrophys 3 Dimens AST, Parkville, Vic, Australia.;Aarhus Univ, Dept Phys & Astron, Stellar Astrophys Ctr, Ny Munkegade 120, DK-8000 Aarhus C, Denmark..
    Elsworth, Yvonne
    Aarhus Univ, Dept Phys & Astron, Stellar Astrophys Ctr, Ny Munkegade 120, DK-8000 Aarhus C, Denmark.;Univ Birmingham, Sch Phys & Astron, Birmingham B15 2TT, W Midlands, England..
    Garcia, Rafael A.
    Univ Paris Saclay, Univ Paris Cite, CEA, CNRS,AIM, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette, France..
    Mathur, Savita
    Inst Astrofis Canarias IAC, E-38205 San Cristobal la Laguna, Tenerife, Spain.;Univ La Laguna, Dept Astrofis, E-38206 San Cristobal la Laguna, Tenerife, Spain..
    Mosser, Benoit
    Univ Paris, Sorbonne Univ, CNRS, LESIA,Observ Paris,Univ PSL, F-92195 Meudon, France..
    Hon, Marc
    Univ Hawaii, Inst Astron, 2680 Woodlawn Dr, Honolulu, HI 96822 USA..
    Tayar, Jamie
    Univ Florida, Dept Astron, Bryant Space Sci Ctr, Stadium Rd, Gainesville, FL 32611 USA..
    Stringfellow, Guy S.
    Univ Colorado, Ctr Astrophys & Space Astron, 389 UCB, Boulder, CO 80309 USA..
    Beaton, Rachael L.
    Space Telescope Sci Inst, Baltimore, MD 21218 USA.;Johns Hopkins Univ, Dept Phys & Astron, Baltimore, MD 21218 USA..
    Jönsson, Henrik
    Malmö University, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS), Department of Materials Science and Applied Mathematics (MTM).
    Minniti, Dante
    Univ Fed Santa Catarina, Dept Fis, BR-88040900 Florianopolis, SC, Brazil.;Univ Andres Bello, Inst Astrofis, Fac Ciencias Exactas, Ave Fernandez Concha 700, Santiago, Chile.;Vatican Observ, I-V00120 Vatican City, Vatican..
    The APO-K2 Catalog. I. ∼7500 Red Giants with Fundamental Stellar Parameters from APOGEE DR17 Spectroscopy and K2-GAP Asteroseismology2024In: Astronomical Journal, ISSN 0004-6256, E-ISSN 1538-3881, Vol. 167, no 2, article id 50Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present a catalog of fundamental stellar properties for similar to 7500 evolved stars, including stellar radii and masses, determined from the combination of spectroscopic observations from the Apache Point Observatory Galactic Evolution Experiment, part of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey IV, and asteroseismology from K2. The resulting APO-K2 catalog provides spectroscopically derived temperatures and metallicities, asteroseismic global parameters, evolutionary states, and asteroseismically derived masses and radii. Additionally, we include kinematic information from Gaia. We investigate the multidimensional space of abundance, stellar mass, and velocity with an eye toward applications in Galactic archaeology. The APO-K2 sample has a large population of low-metallicity stars (similar to 288 with [M/H] <= -1), and their asteroseismic masses are larger than astrophysical estimates. We argue that this may reflect offsets in the adopted fundamental temperature scale for metal-poor stars rather than metallicity-dependent issues with interpreting asteroseismic data. We characterize the kinematic properties of the population as a function of alpha enhancement and position in the disk and identify those stars in the sample that are candidate components of the Gaia-Enceladus merger. Importantly, we characterize the selection function for the APO-K2 sample as a function of metallicity, radius, mass, nu max , color, and magnitude referencing Galactic simulations and target selection criteria to enable robust statistical inferences with the catalog.

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  • 7.
    Fernandes, Laura
    et al.
    Astrophysics Research Institute, Liverpool John Moores University , 146 Brownlow Hill, Liverpool L3 5RF, UK.
    Mason, Andrew C
    Astrophysics Research Institute, Liverpool John Moores University , 146 Brownlow Hill, Liverpool L3 5RF, UK.
    Horta, Danny
    Astrophysics Research Institute, Liverpool John Moores University , 146 Brownlow Hill, Liverpool L3 5RF, UK.
    Schiavon, Ricardo P
    Astrophysics Research Institute, Liverpool John Moores University , 146 Brownlow Hill, Liverpool L3 5RF, UK.
    Hayes, Christian
    NRC Herzberg Astronomy and Astrophysics , 5071 West Saanich Road, Victoria, BC V9E 2E7, Canada.
    Hasselquist, Sten
    Space Telescope Science Institute , 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218, USA.
    Feuillet, Diane
    Lund Observatory, Department of Astronomy and Theoretical Physics , Box 43, SE-221 00 Lund, Sweden.
    Beaton, Rachael L
    Department of Astrophysical Sciences , 4 Ivy Lane, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544, USA;The Observatories of the Carnegie Institution for Science , 813 Santa Barbara St, Pasadena, CA 91101, USA.
    Jönsson, Henrik
    Malmö University, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS), Department of Materials Science and Applied Mathematics (MTM).
    Kisku, Shobhit
    Astrophysics Research Institute, Liverpool John Moores University , 146 Brownlow Hill, Liverpool L3 5RF, UK.
    Lacerna, Ivan
    Instituto de Astronomía y Ciencias Planetarias, Universidad de Atacama , Copayapu 485, Copiapó, Chile;Millennium Institute of Astrophysics , Nuncio Monsenor Sotero Sanz 100, Of. 104, Providencia, Santiago, Chile.
    Lian, Jianhui
    Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Utah , 115 S. 1400 E., Salt Lake City, UT 84112, USA.
    Minniti, Dante
    Departamento de Ciencias Físicas, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, Universidad Andres Bello , Fernández Concha 700, Las Condes, Santiago, Chile;Vatican Observatory , Vatican City State, I-00120 Castello, Italy.
    Villanova, Sandro
    Departamento de Astronomía, Universidad de Concepción , Casilla 160-C, Concepción, Chile.
    A comparative analysis of the chemical compositions of Gaia-Enceladus/Sausage and Milky Way satellites using APOGEE2023In: Monthly notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, ISSN 0035-8711, E-ISSN 1365-2966, Vol. 519, no 3, p. 3611-3622Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We use data from the 17th data release of the Apache Point Observatory Galactic Evolution Experiment (APOGEE 2) to contrast the chemical composition of the recently discovered Gaia Enceladus/Sausage system (GE/S) to those of 10 Milky Way (MW) dwarf satellite galaxies: LMC, SMC, Boötes I, Carina, Draco, Fornax, Sagittarius, Sculptor, Sextans, and Ursa Minor. Our main focus is on the distributions of the stellar populations of those systems in the [Mg/Fe]–[Fe/H] and [Mg/Mn]–[Al/Fe] planes, which are commonly employed in the literature for chemical diagnosis and where dwarf galaxies can be distinguished from in situ populations. We show that, unlike MW satellites, a GE/S sample defined purely on the basis of orbital parameters falls almost entirely within the locus of ‘accreted’ stellar populations in chemical space, which is likely caused by an early quenching of star formation in GE/S. Due to a more protracted history of star formation, stars in the metal-rich end of the MW satellite populations are characterized by lower [Mg/Mn] than those of their GE/S counterparts. The chemical compositions of GE/S stars are consistent with a higher early star formation rate (SFR) than MW satellites of comparable and even higher mass, suggesting that star formation in the early universe was strongly influenced by other parameters in addition to mass. We find that the direction of the metallicity gradient in the [Mg/Mn]–[Al/Fe] plane of dwarf galaxies is an indicator of the early SFR of the system. 

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  • 8.
    Imig, Julie
    et al.
    New Mexico State Univ, Dept Astron, POB 30001,MSC 4500, Las Cruces, NM 88033 USA..
    Price, Cathryn
    New Mexico State Univ, Dept Astron, POB 30001,MSC 4500, Las Cruces, NM 88033 USA..
    Holtzman, Jon A.
    New Mexico State Univ, Dept Astron, POB 30001,MSC 4500, Las Cruces, NM 88033 USA..
    Stone-Martinez, Alexander
    New Mexico State Univ, Dept Astron, POB 30001,MSC 4500, Las Cruces, NM 88033 USA..
    Majewski, Steven R.
    Univ Virginia, Dept Astron, Charlottesville, VA 22904 USA..
    Weinberg, David H.
    Ohio State Univ, Dept Astron, Columbus, OH 43210 USA.;Ohio State Univ, Ctr Cosmol & Astro Particle Phys, Columbus, OH 43210 USA.;Inst Adv Study, Princeton, NJ 08540 USA..
    Johnson, Jennifer A.
    Ohio State Univ, Dept Astron, Columbus, OH 43210 USA.;Ohio State Univ, Ctr Cosmol & Astro Particle Phys, Columbus, OH 43210 USA..
    Prieto, Carlos Allende
    Inst Astrofis Canarias, E-38205 San Cristobal la Laguna, Tenerife, Spain.;Univ La Laguna, Dept Astrofis, E-38206 San Cristobal la Laguna, Tenerife, Spain..
    Beaton, Rachael L.
    Space Telescope Sci Inst, 3700 San Martin Dr, Baltimore, MD 21218 USA.;Princeton Univ, Dept Astrophys Sci, Princeton, NJ 08544 USA.;Observ Carnegie Inst Sci, 813 Santa Barbara St, Pasadena, CA 91101 USA..
    Beers, Timothy C.
    Univ Notre Dame, Dept Phys & Astron, Notre Dame, IN 46556 USA.;Univ Notre Dame, JINA Ctr Evolut Elements, Notre Dame, IN 46556 USA..
    Bizyaev, Dmitry
    New Mexico State Univ, Apache Point Observ, POB 59, Sunspot, NM 88349 USA.;Moscow MV Lomonosov State Univ, Sternberg Astron Inst, Moscow, Russia..
    Blanton, Michael R.
    NYU, Ctr Cosmol & Particle Phys, Dept Phys, 726 Broadway,Room 1005, New York, NY 10003 USA..
    Brownstein, Joel R.
    Univ Utah, Dept Phys & Astron, 115 S 1400 E, Salt Lake City, UT 84112 USA..
    Cunha, Katia
    Univ Arizona, Steward Observ, Tucson, AZ 85721 USA..
    Fernandez-Trincado, Jose G.
    Univ Catolica Norte, Inst Astron, Ave Angamos 0610, Antofagasta, Chile..
    Feuillet, Diane K.
    Lund Observ, Dept Astron & Theoret Phys, Box 43, SE-22100 Lund, Sweden..
    Hasselquist, Sten
    Space Telescope Sci Inst, 3700 San Martin Dr, Baltimore, MD 21218 USA..
    Hayes, Christian R.
    NRC Herzberg Astron & Astrophys Res Ctr, 5071 West Saanich Rd, Victoria, BC V9E 2E7, Canada..
    Jönsson, Henrik
    Malmö University, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS), Department of Materials Science and Applied Mathematics (MTM).
    Lane, Richard R.
    Univ Bernardo OHiggins, Ctr Invest Astron, Ave Viel 1497, Santiago, Chile..
    Lian, Jianhui
    Yunnan Univ, South Western Inst Astron Res, Kunming 650091, Yunnan, Peoples R China..
    Meszaros, Szabolcs
    Eotvos Lorand Univ, Gothard Astrophys Observ, Szent Imre H St 112, H-9700 Szombathely, Hungary.;MTA ELTE Lendulet Momentum Milky Way Res Grp, Budapest, Hungary.;MTA ELTE Exoplanet Res Grp, Szent Imre HU 112, H-9700 Szombathely, Hungary..
    Nidever, David L.
    Montana State Univ, Dept Phys, POB 173840, Bozeman, MT 59717 USA..
    Robin, Annie C.
    Univ Bourgogne Franche Comte, Inst UTINAM, CNRS, UMR 6213,OSU THETA, 41Bis Ave Observ, F-25000 Besancon, France..
    Shetrone, Matthew
    UC Santa Cruz, Univ Calif Observ, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 USA..
    Smith, Verne
    NSFs Natl Opt Infrared Astron Res Lab, 950 North Cherry Ave, Tucson, AZ 85719 USA..
    Wilson, John C.
    Univ Virginia, Astron Dept, Charlottesville, VA 22901 USA..
    A Tale of Two Disks: Mapping the Milky Way with the Final Data Release of APOGEE2023In: Astrophysical Journal, ISSN 0004-637X, E-ISSN 1538-4357, Vol. 954, no 2, article id 124Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present new maps of the Milky Way disk showing the distribution of metallicity ([Fe/H]), alpha-element abundances ([Mg/Fe]), and stellar age, using a sample of 66,496 red giant stars from the final data release (DR17) of the Apache Point Observatory Galactic Evolution Experiment survey. We measure radial and vertical gradients, quantify the distribution functions for age and metallicity, and explore chemical clock relations across the Milky Way for the low-a disk, high-alpha disk, and total population independently. The low-alpha disk exhibits a negative radial metallicity gradient of -0.06 +/- 0.001 dex kpc(-1), which flattens with distance from the midplane. The high-alpha disk shows a flat radial gradient in metallicity and age across nearly all locations of the disk. The age and metallicity distribution functions shift from negatively skewed in the inner Galaxy to positively skewed at large radius. Significant bimodality in the [Mg/Fe]-[Fe/H] plane and in the [Mg/Fe]-age relation persist across the entire disk. The age estimates have typical uncertainties of similar to 0.15 in log(age) and may be subject to additional systematic errors, which impose limitations on conclusions drawn from this sample. Nevertheless, these results act as critical constraints on galactic evolution models, constraining which physical processes played a dominant role in the formation of the Milky Way disk. We discuss how radial migration predicts many of the observed trends near the solar neighborhood and in the outer disk, but an additional more dramatic evolution history, such as the multi-infall model or a merger event, is needed to explain the chemical and age bimodality elsewhere in the Galaxy.

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  • 9.
    Loaiza-Tacuri, V.
    et al.
    Observ Nacl, Rua Gen Jose Cristino 77, BR-20921400 Rio De Janeiro, RJ, Brazil..
    Cunha, K.
    Observ Nacl, Rua Gen Jose Cristino 77, BR-20921400 Rio De Janeiro, RJ, Brazil.;Univ Arizona, Steward Observ, 933 North Cherry Ave, Tucson, AZ 85721 USA.;Sorbonne Univ, Inst Astrophys Paris, CNRS, UMR7095, 98bis Bd Arago, F-75014 Paris, France..
    Souto, D.
    Univ Fed Sergipe, Dept Fis, Av Marechal Rondon S-N, BR-49000000 Sao Cristovao, SE, Brazil..
    Smith, V. V.
    Sorbonne Univ, Inst Astrophys Paris, CNRS, UMR7095, 98bis Bd Arago, F-75014 Paris, France.;NSFs NOIRLab, 950 N Cherry Ave, Tucson, AZ 85719 USA..
    Guerco, R.
    Observ Nacl, Rua Gen Jose Cristino 77, BR-20921400 Rio De Janeiro, RJ, Brazil..
    Chiappini, C.
    Leibniz Inst Astrophys Potsdam AIP, Sternwarte 16, D-14482 Potsdam, Germany..
    Sales-Silva, J. V.
    Observ Nacl, Rua Gen Jose Cristino 77, BR-20921400 Rio De Janeiro, RJ, Brazil..
    Horta, D.
    Flatiron Inst, Ctr Computat Astrophys, 162 Fifth Ave, New York, NY 10010 USA..
    Allende Prieto, C.
    Univ La Laguna, Dept Astrofis, E-38206 Tenerife, Spain..
    Beaton, R.
    Observ Carnegie Inst Sci, 813 Santa Barbara St, Pasadena, CA 91101 USA..
    Bizyaev, D.
    Apache Point Observ, POB 59, Sunspot, NM 88349 USA.;New Mexico State Univ, POB 59, Sunspot, NM 88349 USA.;Moscow MV Lomonosov State Univ, Sternberg Astron Inst, Moscow 119234, Russia..
    Daflon, S.
    Observ Nacl, Rua Gen Jose Cristino 77, BR-20921400 Rio De Janeiro, RJ, Brazil..
    Frinchaboy, P.
    Texas Christian Univ, Dept Phys & Astron, TCU Box 298840, Ft Worth, TX 76129 USA..
    Hasselquist, S.
    Space Telescope Sci Inst, 3700 San Martin Dr, Baltimore, MD 21218 USA..
    Hayes, C. R.
    NRC Herzberg Astron & Astrophys Res Ctr, 5071 West Saanich Rd, Victoria, BC V9E 2E7, Canada..
    Holtzman, J. A.
    New Mexico State Univ, Las Cruces, NM 88003 USA..
    Jönsson, H.
    Malmö University, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS), Department of Materials Science and Applied Mathematics (MTM).
    Majewski, S. R.
    Univ Virginia, Dept Astron, Charlottesville, VA 22904 USA..
    Meszaros, S.
    Eotvos Lorand Univ, Gothard Astrophys Observ, Szent Imre H St 112, H-9700 Szombathely, Hungary.;MTA ELTE Lendulet Momentum Milk Way Res Grp, Szombathely, Hungary..
    Nidever, D. L.
    Montana State Univ, Dept Phys, POB 173840, Bozeman, MT 59717 USA..
    Pinsonneault, M.
    Ohio State Univ, Dept Astron, Columbus, OH 43210 USA..
    Zasowski, G.
    Univ Utah, Dept Phys & Astron, Salt Lake City, UT 84105 USA..
    Chemical abundances of the young inner-disc open cluster NGC 6705 observed by APOGEE: sodium-rich and not α-enhanced2023In: Monthly notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, ISSN 0035-8711, E-ISSN 1365-2966, Vol. 526, no 2, p. 2378-2393Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous results in the literature have found the young inner-disc open cluster NGC 6705 to be mildly alpha-enhanced. We examined this possibility via an independent chemical abundance analysis for 11 red-giant members of NGC 6705. The analysis is based on near-infrared APOGEE spectra and relies on LTE calculations using spherical model atmospheres and radiative transfer. We find a mean cluster metallicity of [Fe / H] = +0.13 +/- 0.04, indicating that NGC 6705 is metal-rich, as may be expected for a young inner-disc cluster. The mean alpha-element abundance relative to iron is , which is not at odds with expectations from general Galactic abundance trends. NGC 6705 also provides important probes for studying stellar mixing, given its turn-off mass of M similar to 3.3M(circle dot). Its red giants have low C-12 abundances ([C-12/Fe] = -0.16) and enhanced N-14 abundances ([N-14/Fe] = +0.51), which are key signatures of the first dredge-up on the red giant branch. An additional signature of dredge-up was found in the Na abundances, which are enhanced by [Na/Fe] = +0.29, with a very small non-LTE correction. The O-16 and Al abundances are found to be near-solar. All of the derived mixing-sensitive abundances are in agreement with stellar models of approximately 3.3M(circle dot) evolving along the red giant branch and onto the red clump. As found in young open clusters with similar metallicities, NGC 6705 exhibits a mild excess in the s-process element cerium with [Ce/Fe] = +0.13 +/- 0.07.

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  • 10.
    Forsberg, R.
    et al.
    Lund Univ, Dept Astron & Theoret Phys, Lund Observ, Box 43, S-22100 Lund, Sweden..
    Rich, R. M.
    ICLA, Dept Phys & Astron, 430 Portola Plaza,Box 951547, Los Angeles, CA 90095 USA.;Univ Cote Azur, Observ Cote Azur, Lab Lagrange, CNRS, Blvd Observ, F-06304 Nice, France..
    Nieuwmunster, N.
    Lund Univ, Dept Astron & Theoret Phys, Lund Observ, Box 43, S-22100 Lund, Sweden.;Univ Cote Azur, Observ Cote Azur, Lab Lagrange, CNRS, Blvd Observ, F-06304 Nice, France..
    Jönsson, Henrik
    Malmö University, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS), Department of Materials Science and Applied Mathematics (MTM).
    Schultheis, M.
    Univ Cote Azur, Observ Cote Azur, Lab Lagrange, CNRS, Blvd Observ, F-06304 Nice, France..
    Ryde, N.
    Lund Univ, Dept Astron & Theoret Phys, Lund Observ, Box 43, S-22100 Lund, Sweden..
    Thorsbro, B.
    Lund Univ, Dept Astron & Theoret Phys, Lund Observ, Box 43, S-22100 Lund, Sweden.;Univ Tokyo, Sch Sci, Dept Astron, 7-3-1 Hongo,Bunkyo ku, Tokyo 1130033, Japan..
    First r-process enhanced star confirmed as a member of the Galactic bulge2023In: Astronomy and Astrophysics, ISSN 0004-6361, E-ISSN 1432-0746, Vol. 669, article id A17Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims. Stars with strong enhancements of r-process elements are rare and tend to be metal-poor, generally with [Fe/H] < -2 dex, and located in the halo. In this work, we aim to investigate a candidate r-process enriched bulge star with a relatively high metallicity of [Fe/H] similar to - 0.65 dex and to compare it with a previously published r-rich candidate star in the bulge. Methods. We reconsidered the abundance analysis of a high-resolution optical spectrum of the red-giant star 2MASS J18082459-2548444 and determined its europium (Eu) and molybdenum (Mo) abundance, using stellar parameters from five different previous studies. Applying 2MASS photometry, Gaia astrometry, and kinematics, we estimated the distance, orbits, and population membership of 2MASS J18082459-2548444 and a previously reported r-enriched star 2MASS J18174532-3353235. Results. We find that 2MASS J18082459-2548444 is a relatively metal-rich, enriched r-process star that is enhanced in Eu and Mo, but not substantially enhanced in s-process elements. There is a high probability that it has a Galactic bulge membership, based on its distance and orbit. We find that both stars show r-process enhancement with elevated [Eu/Fe]-values, even though 2MASS J18174532-3353235 is 1 dex lower in metallicity. Additionally, we find that the plausible origins of 2MASS J18174532-3353235 to be either that of the halo or the thick disc. Conclusions. We conclude that 2MASS J18082459-2548444 represents the first example of a confirmed r-process enhanced star confined to the inner bulge. We assume it is possibly a relic from a period of enrichment associated with the formation of the bar.

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  • 11.
    da Silva, R.
    et al.
    Inaf -Osservatorio Astronomico di Roma, via Frascati 33, Monte Porzio Catone, 00078, Italy; Agenzia Spaziale Italiana, Space Science Data Center, via del Politecnico snc, Rome, 00133, Italy.
    D’Orazi, V.
    Department of Physics, University of Rome Tor Vergata, via della Ricerca Scientifica 1, Rome, 00133, Italy; Inaf -Osservatorio Astronomico di Padova, vicolo dell'Osservatorio 5, Padova, 35122, Italy.
    Palla, M.
    Sterrenkundig Observatorium, Ghent University, Krijgslaan 281 - S9, Gent, 9000, Belgium; Inaf -Osservatorio Astronomico di Bologna, via Gobetti 93/3, Bologna, 40129, Italy.
    Bono, G.
    Inaf -Osservatorio Astronomico di Roma, via Frascati 33, Monte Porzio Catone, 00078, Italy; Department of Physics, University of Rome Tor Vergata, via della Ricerca Scientifica 1, Rome, 00133, Italy.
    Braga, V. F.
    Inaf -Osservatorio Astronomico di Roma, via Frascati 33, Monte Porzio Catone, 00078, Italy; Agenzia Spaziale Italiana, Space Science Data Center, via del Politecnico snc, Rome, 00133, Italy.
    Fabrizio, M.
    Inaf -Osservatorio Astronomico di Roma, via Frascati 33, Monte Porzio Catone, 00078, Italy; Agenzia Spaziale Italiana, Space Science Data Center, via del Politecnico snc, Rome, 00133, Italy.
    Lemasle, B.
    Astronomisches Rechen-Institut, Zah, Universität Heidelberg, Mönchhofstr. 12-14, Heidelberg, 69120, Germany.
    Spitoni, E.
    Inaf, Osservatorio Astronomico di Trieste, via G. B. Tiepolo 11, Trieste, 34131, Italy.
    Matteucci, F.
    Inaf, Osservatorio Astronomico di Trieste, via G. B. Tiepolo 11, Trieste, 34131, Italy; Dipartimento di Fisica, Sezione di Astronomia, Università Degli Studi di Trieste, via G. B. Tiepolo 11, Trieste, 34131, Italy; Infn, Sezione di Trieste, via A. Valerio 2, Trieste, 34100, Italy.
    Jönsson, H.
    Malmö University, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS), Department of Materials Science and Applied Mathematics (MTM).
    Kovtyukh, V.
    Astronomical Observatory, Odessa National University, Shevchenko Park, Odessa, 65014, Ukraine.
    Magrini, L.
    Inaf -Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri, Largo E. Fermi 5, Firenze, Italy.
    Bergemann, M.
    Max Planck Institute for Astronomy, Heidelberg, 69117, Germany; Niels Bohr International Academy, Niels Bohr Institute, Blegdamsvej 17, Copenhagen, 2100, Denmark.
    Dall’Ora, M.
    Inaf -Osservatorio Astronomico di Capodimonte, Salita Moiariello 16, Napoli, 80131, Italy.
    Ferraro, I.
    Inaf -Osservatorio Astronomico di Roma, via Frascati 33, Monte Porzio Catone, 00078, Italy.
    Fiorentino, G.
    Inaf -Osservatorio Astronomico di Roma, via Frascati 33, Monte Porzio Catone, 00078, Italy.
    François, P.
    Gepi, Observatoire de Paris, Psl Research University, Cnrs, 61 avenue de l'Observatoire, Paris, 75014, France; Upjv, Université de Picardie Jules Verne, 33 rue St Leu, Amiens, 80080, France.
    Iannicola, G.
    Inaf -Osservatorio Astronomico di Roma, via Frascati 33, Monte Porzio Catone, 00078, Italy.
    Inno, L.
    Science and Technology Department, Parthenope University of Naples, Naples, Italy.
    Kudritzki, R.-P.
    Lmu München, Universitätssternwarte, Scheinerstr. 1, München, 81679, Germany; Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii at Manoa, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, Honolulu, 96822, HI, United States.
    Matsunaga, N.
    Department of Astronomy, School of Science, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1, Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, 113-0033, Japan; Laboratory of Infrared High-Resolution Spectroscopy (LiH), Koyama Astronomical Observatory, Kyoto Sangyo University, Motoyama, Kamigamo, Kita-ku, Kyoto, 603-8555, Japan.
    Monelli, M.
    Inaf -Osservatorio Astronomico di Roma, via Frascati 33, Monte Porzio Catone, 00078, Italy; Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias (IAC), C. Vía Láctea s/n, La Laguna, 38205, Spain; Departamento de Astrofísica, Universidad de la Laguna (ULL), Laguna, 38200 La, Spain.
    Nonino, M.
    Inaf, Osservatorio Astronomico di Trieste, via G. B. Tiepolo 11, Trieste, 34131, Italy.
    Sneden, C.
    Department of Astronomy and McDonald Observatory, The University of Texas, Austin, 78712, TX, United States.
    Storm, J.
    Leibniz-Institut für Astrophysik Potsdam (AIP), An der Sternwarte 16, Potsdam, 14482, Germany.
    Thévénin, F.
    Université Côte d'Azur, Observatoire de la Côte d'Azur, Cnrs, Lagrange Umr 7293, Cs 34229 Cedex, Nice, 06304-4, France.
    Tsujimoto, T.
    National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Mitaka, Tokyo, 1818588, Japan.
    Zocchi, A.
    Department of Astrophysics, University of Vienna, Türkenschanzstraße 17, Vienna, 1180, Austria.
    Oxygen, sulfur, and iron radial abundance gradients of classical Cepheids across the Galactic thin disk2023In: Astronomy and Astrophysics, ISSN 0004-6361, E-ISSN 1432-0746, Vol. 678, p. A195-A195Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Context. Classical Cepheids (CCs) are solid distance indicators and tracers of young stellar populations. Dating back to the beginning of the 20th century, they have been safely adopted to trace the rotation, kinematics, and chemical enrichment history of the Galactic thin disk.

    Aims. The main aim of this investigation is to provide iron, oxygen, and sulfur abundances for the largest and most homogeneous sample of Galactic CCs analyzed so far (1118 spectra of 356 objects). The current sample, containing 70 CCs for which spectroscopic metal abundances are provided for the first time, covers a wide range in galactocentric distances, pulsation modes, and pulsation periods.

    Methods. Optical high-resolution spectra with a high signal-to-noise ratio that were collected with different spectrographs were adopted to provide homogeneous estimates of the atmospheric parameters (effective temperature, surface gravity, and microturbulent velocity) that are required to determine the abundance. Individual distances were based either on trigonometric parallaxes by the Gaia Data Release 3 (Gaia DR3) or on distances based on near-infrared period-luminosity relations.

    Results. We found that iron and α-element radial gradients based on CCs display a well-defined change in the slope for galactocentric distances larger than ~12 kpc. We also found that logarithmic regressions account for the variation in [X/H] abundances from the inner to the outer disk. Radial gradients for the same elements, but based on open clusters covering a wide range in cluster ages, display similar trends. This means that the flattening in the outer disk is an intrinsic feature of the radial gradients because it is independent of age. Empirical evidence indicates that the S radial gradient is steeper than the Fe radial gradient. The difference in the slope is a factor of two in the linear fit (−0.081 vs. −0.041 dex kpc−1) and changes from −1.62 to −0.91 in the logarithmic distance. Moreover, we found that S (explosive nucleosynthesis) is underabundant on average when compared with O (hydrostatic nucleosynthesis). The difference becomes clearer in the metal-poor regime and for the [O/Fe] and [S/Fe] abundance ratios. We performed a detailed comparison with Galactic chemical evolution models and found that a constant star formation efficiency for galactocentric distances larger than 12 kpc accounts for the flattening observed in both iron and α-elements. To further constrain the impact of the predicted S yields for massive stars on radial gradients, we adopted a toy model and found that the flattening in the outermost regions requires a decrease of a factor of four in the current S predictions.

    Conclusions. CCs are solid beacons for tracing the recent chemical enrichment of young stellar populations. Sulfur photospheric abundances, when compared with other α-elements, have the key advantage of being a volatile element. Therefore, stellar S abundances can be directly compared with nebular sulfur abundances in external galaxies.

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  • 12.
    Wanderley, Fabio
    et al.
    MCTIC, Observ Nacl, R Gen Jose Cristino, 77, BR-20921400 Rio De Janeiro, Brazil..
    Cunha, Katia
    MCTIC, Observ Nacl, R Gen Jose Cristino, 77, BR-20921400 Rio De Janeiro, Brazil.;Univ Arizona, Steward Observ, 933 North Cherry Ave, Tucson, AZ 85721 USA.;Sorbonne Univ, Inst Astrophys Paris, UMR 7095, CNRS, 98bis Bd Arago, F-75014 Paris, France..
    Souto, Diogo
    Univ Fed Sergipe, Dept Fis, Ave Marechal Rondon, S N, BR-49000000 Sao Cristovao, SE, Brazil..
    Smith, Verne V.
    Sorbonne Univ, Inst Astrophys Paris, UMR 7095, CNRS, 98bis Bd Arago, F-75014 Paris, France.;NSF's NOIRLab, 950 N Cherry Ave, Tucson, AZ 85719 USA..
    Cao, Lyra
    Ohio State Univ, Dept Astron, Columbus, OH 43210 USA..
    Pinsonneault, Marc
    Ohio State Univ, Dept Astron, Columbus, OH 43210 USA..
    Allende Prieto, C.
    Inst Astrofis Canarias, E-38205 San Cristobal la Laguna, Tenerife, Spain.;Univ La Laguna, Dept Astrofis, E-38206 San Cristobal la Laguna, Tenerife, Spain..
    Covey, Kevin
    Western Washington Univ, Dept Phys & Astron, Bellingham, WA 98225 USA..
    Masseron, Thomas
    Inst Astrofis Canarias, E-38205 San Cristobal la Laguna, Tenerife, Spain.;Univ La Laguna, Dept Astrofis, E-38206 San Cristobal la Laguna, Tenerife, Spain..
    Pascucci, Ilaria
    Univ Arizona, Lunar & Planetary Lab, Tucson, AZ 85721 USA. Vanderbilt Univ, Dept Phys & Astron, 6301 Stevenson Ctr Lane, Nashville, TN 37235 USA. Carleton Coll, Dept Phys & Astron, Northfield, MN 55057 USA. Apache Point Observ, Sunspot, NM 88349 USA..
    Stassun, Keivan G.
    Vanderbilt Univ, Dept Phys & Astron, 6301 Stevenson Ctr Lane, Nashville, TN 37235 USA.
    Terrien, Ryan
    Carleton Coll, Dept Phys & Astron, Northfield, MN 55057 USA.
    Bergsten, Galen J.
    Univ Arizona, Lunar & Planetary Lab, Tucson, AZ 85721 USA. Vanderbilt Univ, Dept Phys & Astron, 6301 Stevenson Ctr Lane, Nashville, TN 37235 USA. Carleton Coll, Dept Phys & Astron, Northfield, MN 55057 USA. Apache Point Observ, Sunspot, NM 88349 USA..
    Bizyaev, Dmitry
    New Mexico State Univ, Sunspot, NM 88349 USA. Moscow MV Lomonosov State Univ, Sternberg Astron Inst, Moscow 119992, Russia. Univ Catolica Norte, Inst Astron, Ave Angamos 0610, Antofagasta, Chile. Malmö Univ, Mat Sci & Appl Math, SE-20506 Malmö, Sweden. Space Telescope Sci Inst, 3700 San Martin Dr, Baltimore, MD 21218 USA. New Mexico State Univ, Las Cruces, NM 88003 USA. Univ Bernardo OHiggins, Ctr Invest Astron, Ave Viel 1497, Santiago, Chile. Dept Astron & Astrophys, 525 Davey Lab, University Pk, PA 16802 USA. Ctr Exoplanets & Habitable Worlds, 525 Davey Lab, University Pk, PA 16802 USA. Univ Virginia, Dept Astron, Charlottesville, VA 22904 USA. Univ Andres Bello, Fac Ciencias Exactas, Dept Ciencias Fis, Fernandez Concha 700, Santiago, Chile. Vatican Observ, I-00120 Vatican, Italy. Univ Autonoma Mexico, Inst Astron, Ensenada, Mexico. Univ Washington, Dept Astron, Box 351580, Seattle, WA 98195 USA. Univ Colorado, Ctr Astrophys & Space Astron, Campus Box 389, Boulder, CO 80309 USA..
    Fernandez-Trincado, Jose G.
    Univ Catolica Norte, Inst Astron, Ave Angamos 0610, Antofagasta, Chile.
    Jönsson, Henrik
    Malmö University, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS), Department of Materials Science and Applied Mathematics (MTM).
    Hasselquist, Sten
    Space Telescope Sci Inst, 3700 San Martin Dr, Baltimore, MD 21218 USA.
    Holtzman, Jon A.
    New Mexico State Univ, Las Cruces, NM 88003 USA.
    Lane, Richard R.
    Univ Bernardo OHiggins, Ctr Invest Astron, Ave Viel 1497, Santiago, Chile.
    Mahadevan, Suvrath
    Dept Astron & Astrophys, 525 Davey Lab, University Pk, PA 16802 USA; Ctr Exoplanets & Habitable Worlds, 525 Davey Lab, University Pk, PA 16802 USA.
    Majewski, Steven R.
    Univ Virginia, Dept Astron, Charlottesville, VA 22904 USA.
    Minniti, Dante
    Univ Andres Bello, Fac Ciencias Exactas, Dept Ciencias Fis, Fernandez Concha 700, Santiago, Chile; Vatican Observ, I-00120 Vatican, Italy.
    Pan, Kaike
    New Mexico State Univ, Sunspot, NM 88349 USA. Moscow MV Lomonosov State Univ, Sternberg Astron Inst, Moscow 119992, Russia. Univ Catolica Norte, Inst Astron, Ave Angamos 0610, Antofagasta, Chile. Malmö Univ, Mat Sci & Appl Math, SE-20506 Malmö, Sweden. Space Telescope Sci Inst, 3700 San Martin Dr, Baltimore, MD 21218 USA. New Mexico State Univ, Las Cruces, NM 88003 USA. Univ Bernardo OHiggins, Ctr Invest Astron, Ave Viel 1497, Santiago, Chile. Dept Astron & Astrophys, 525 Davey Lab, University Pk, PA 16802 USA. Ctr Exoplanets & Habitable Worlds, 525 Davey Lab, University Pk, PA 16802 USA. Univ Virginia, Dept Astron, Charlottesville, VA 22904 USA. Univ Andres Bello, Fac Ciencias Exactas, Dept Ciencias Fis, Fernandez Concha 700, Santiago, Chile. Vatican Observ, I-00120 Vatican, Italy. Univ Autonoma Mexico, Inst Astron, Ensenada, Mexico. Univ Washington, Dept Astron, Box 351580, Seattle, WA 98195 USA. Univ Colorado, Ctr Astrophys & Space Astron, Campus Box 389, Boulder, CO 80309 USA..
    Serna, Javier
    Univ Autonoma Mexico, Inst Astron, Ensenada, Mexico.
    Sobeck, Jennifer
    Univ Washington, Dept Astron, Box 351580, Seattle, WA 98195 USA.
    Stringfellow, Guy S.
    Univ Colorado, Ctr Astrophys & Space Astron, Campus Box 389, Boulder, CO 80309 USA.
    Stellar Characterization and Radius Inflation of Hyades M-dwarf Stars from the APOGEE Survey2023In: Astrophysical Journal, ISSN 0004-637X, E-ISSN 1538-4357, Vol. 951, no 2, article id 90Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present a spectroscopic analysis of a sample of 48 M-dwarf stars (0.2 M (& ODOT;) < M < 0.6 M (& ODOT;)) from the Hyades open cluster using high-resolution H-band spectra from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey/Apache Point Observatory Galactic Evolution Experiment (APOGEE) survey. Our methodology adopts spectrum synthesis with LTE MARCS model atmospheres, along with the APOGEE Data Release 17 line list, to determine effective temperatures, surface gravities, metallicities, and projected rotational velocities. The median metallicity obtained for the Hyades M dwarfs is [M/H] = 0.09 & PLUSMN; 0.03 dex, indicating a small internal uncertainty and good agreement with optical results for Hyades red giants. Overall, the median radii are larger than predicted by stellar models by 1.6% & PLUSMN; 2.3% and 2.4% & PLUSMN; 2.3%, relative to a MIST and DARTMOUTH isochrone, respectively. We emphasize, however, that these isochrones are different, and the fractional radius inflation for the fully and partially convective regimes have distinct behaviors depending on the isochrone. Using a MIST isochrone there is no evidence of radius inflation for the fully convective stars, while for the partially convective M dwarfs the radii are inflated by 2.7% & PLUSMN; 2.1%, which is in agreement with predictions from models that include magnetic fields. For the partially convective stars, rapid rotators present on average higher inflation levels than slow rotators. The comparison with SPOTS isochrone models indicates that the derived M-dwarf radii can be explained by accounting for stellar spots in the photosphere of the stars, with 76% of the studied M dwarfs having up to 20% spot coverage, and the most inflated stars with & SIM;20%-40% spot coverage.

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  • 13.
    Horta, Danny
    et al.
    Astrophys Res Inst, 146 Brownlow Hill, Liverpool L35RF, England.;Univ Queensland, Sch Math & Phys, St Lucia, Qld 4072, Australia..
    Schiavon, Ricardo P.
    Astrophys Res Inst, 146 Brownlow Hill, Liverpool L35RF, England..
    Mackereth, J. Ted
    Univ Toronto, Canadian Inst Theoret Astrophys, Toronto, ON M5S 3H8, Canada.;Univ Toronto, Dunlap Inst Astron & Astrophys, Toronto, ON M5S3H4, Canada..
    Weinberg, David H.
    Ohio State Univ, Dept Astron, Columbus, OH 43210 USA..
    Hasselquist, Sten
    Space Telescope Sci Inst, 3700 San Martin Dr, Baltimore, MD 21218 USA..
    Feuillet, Diane
    Lund Observ, Dept Astron & Theoret Phys, Box 43, SE-22100 Lund, Sweden..
    O'Connell, Robert W.
    Univ Virginia, Dept Astron, Charlottesville, VA 22904 USA..
    Anguiano, Borja
    Univ Virginia, Dept Astron, Charlottesville, VA 22904 USA..
    Allende-Prieto, Carlos
    Inst Astrofis Canarias IAC, E-38205 San Cristobal la Laguna, Tenerife, Spain.;Univ Laguna ULL, Dept Astrofis, E-38206 San Cristobal la Laguna, Tenerife, Spain..
    Beaton, Rachael L.
    Observ Carnegie Inst Sci, Pasadena, CA 91101 USA..
    Bizyaev, Dmitry
    New Mexico State Univ, Las Cruces, NM 88003 USA..
    Cunha, Katia
    Univ Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85719 USA.;Observ Nacl, Sao Cristovao, RJ, Brazil..
    Geisler, Doug
    Univ Concepcion, Dept Astron, Casilla 160-C, Concepcion, Chile.;Univ Serena, Inst Invest Multidisciplinario Ciencia & Tecnol, Ave Raul Bitran S-N, La Serena, Chile.;Univ Serena, Fac Ciencias, Dept Astron, Av Juan Cisternas 120, La Serena, Chile..
    Garcia-Hernandez, D. A.
    Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias (IAC), E-38205 La Laguna, Tenerife, Spain.
    Holtzman, Jon
    New Mexico State University, Las Cruces, NM 88003, USA.
    Jönsson, Henrik
    Malmö University, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS), Department of Materials Science and Applied Mathematics (MTM).
    Lane, Richard R.
    Univ Bernardo OHiggins, Ctr Invest Astron, Ave Viel 1497, Santiago, Chile..
    Majewski, Steve R.
    Department of Astronomy, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22904-4325, USA.
    Meszaros, Szabolcs
    ELTE Eotv Lorand Univ, Gothard Astrophys Observ, SzentImreH st 112, H-9700 Szombathely, Hungary.;ELTE Lendulet Momentum Milky Way Res Grp, MTA, Szombathely, Hungary..
    Minniti, Dante
    Univ Andres Bello, Fac Ciencias Exactas, Dept Ciencias Fis, Av Fernandez Concha 700, Santiago, Chile.;Vatican Observ, Vatican City V-00120, Vatican City St, Vatican..
    Nitschelm, Christian
    Univ Antofagasta, Ctr Astron CITEVA, Ave Angamos 60, Antofagasta 1270300, Chile..
    Shetrone, Matthew
    Univ Texas Austin, McDonald Observ, Austin, TX 79734 USA..
    Smith, Verne V.
    Natl Opt Astron Observ, Tucson, AZ 85719 USA..
    Zasowski, Gail
    Univ Utah, Dept Phys & Astron, Salt Lake City, UT 84105 USA..
    The chemical characterization of halo substructure in the Milky Way based on APOGEE2023In: Monthly notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, ISSN 0035-8711, E-ISSN 1365-2966, Vol. 520, no 4, p. 5671-5711Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Galactic haloes in a ?-CDM universe are predicted to host today a swarm of debris resulting from cannibalized dwarf galaxies. The chemodynamical information recorded in their stellar populations helps elucidate their nature, constraining the assembly history of the Galaxy. Using data from APOGEE and Gaia, we examine the chemical properties of various halo substructures, considering elements that sample various nucleosynthetic pathways. The systems studied are Heracles, Gaia-Enceladus/Sausage (GES), the Helmi stream, Sequoia, Thamnos, Aleph, LMS-1, Arjuna, I'itoi, Nyx, Icarus, and Pontus. Abundance patterns of all substructures are cross-compared in a statistically robust fashion. Our main findings include: (i) the chemical properties of most substructures studied match qualitatively those of dwarf Milky Way satellites, such as the Sagittarius dSph. Exceptions are Nyx and Aleph, which are chemically similar to disc stars, implying that these substructures were likely formed in situ; (ii) Heracles differs chemically from in situ populations such as Aurora and its inner halo counterparts in a statistically significant way. The differences suggest that the star formation rate was lower in Heracles than in the early Milky Way; (iii) the chemistry of Arjuna, LMS-1, and I'itoi is indistinguishable from that of GES, suggesting a possible common origin; (iv) all three Sequoia samples studied are qualitatively similar. However, only two of those samples present chemistry that is consistent with GES in a statistically significant fashion; (v) the abundance patterns of the Helmi stream and Thamnos are different from all other halo substructures.

  • 14.
    Lemasle, B.
    et al.
    Zentrum für Astronomie der Universität Heidelberg, Germany.
    Bono, G
    Universita di Roma Tor Vergata, Italy; INAF - Osservatorio Astronomico di Roma, Italy.
    Orazi, V.D
    INAF - Osservatorio Astronomico di Padova, Italy; School of Physics and Astronomy, Monash University, Clayton, Australia.
    Franchini, M
    INAF - Osservatorio Astronomico di Trieste, Italy.
    Jönsson, Henrik
    Malmö University, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS), Department of Materials Science and Applied Mathematics (MTM).
    Abundance gradients to trace galaxy formationand evolution: the Galactic disk2022In: MEMORIE della Società Astronomica Italiana, ISSN 0037-8720, E-ISSN 1824-016X, Vol. 93, no 4Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Abundance gradients are one of the few observables constraining the chemo-dynamical models of the Milky Way disk. Here, we review recent improvements regarding the determination of chemical abundances of young stellar systems, Cepheids, and RGB stars, that are used to trace abundance gradients, before focusing on the oxygen gradient.

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  • 15.
    Forsberg, R.
    et al.
    Lund Univ, Dept Astron & Theoret Phys, Lund Observ, Box 43, S-22100 Lund, Sweden..
    Ryde, N.
    Lund Univ, Dept Astron & Theoret Phys, Lund Observ, Box 43, S-22100 Lund, Sweden..
    Jönsson, Henrik
    Malmö University, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS), Department of Materials Science and Applied Mathematics (MTM).
    Rich, R. M.
    ICLA, Dept Phys & Astron, 430 Portola Plaza,Box 951547, Los Angeles, CA 90095 USA..
    Johansen, A.
    Lund Univ, Dept Astron & Theoret Phys, Lund Observ, Box 43, S-22100 Lund, Sweden.;Globe Inst Univ Copenhagen, Ctr Star & Planet Format, Oster Voldgade 5-7, DK-1350 Copenhagen, Denmark..
    Abundances of disk and bulge giants from high-resolution optical spectra V. Molybdenum: The p-process element2022In: Astronomy and Astrophysics, ISSN 0004-6361, E-ISSN 1432-0746, Vol. 666, article id A125Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims. In this work, we aim to make a differential comparison of the neutron-capture and p-process element molybdenum (Mo) in the stellar populations in the local disk(s) and the bulge, focusing on minimising possible systematic effects in the analysis. Methods. The stellar sample consists of 45 bulge and 291 local disk K-giants observed with high-resolution optical spectra. The abundances are determined by fitting synthetic spectra using the Spectroscopy Made Easy (SME) code. The disk sample is separated into thin and thick disk components using a combination of abundances and kinematics. The cosmic origin of Mo is investigated and discussed by comparing with published abundances of Mo and the neutron-capture elements cerium (Ce) and europium (Eu). Results. We determine reliable Mo abundances for 35 bulge and 282 disk giants with a typical uncertainty of [Mo/Fe] similar to 0.2 and similar to 0.1 dex for the bulge and disk, respectively. Conclusions. We find that the bulge is possibly enhanced in [Mo/Fe] compared to the thick disk, which we do not observe in either [Ce/Fe] or [Eu/Fe]. This might suggest a higher past star-formation rate in the bulge; however, as we do not observe the bulge to be enhanced in [Eu/Fe], the origin of the molybdenum enhancement is yet to be constrained. Although the scatter is large, we may be observing evidence of the p-process contributing to the heavy element production in the chemical evolution of the bulge.

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  • 16.
    Phillips, Sian G.
    et al.
    Liverpool John Moores Univ, Astrophys Res Inst, 146 Brownlow Hill, Liverpool L3 5RF, Merseyside, England..
    Schiavon, Ricardo P.
    Liverpool John Moores Univ, Astrophys Res Inst, 146 Brownlow Hill, Liverpool L3 5RF, Merseyside, England..
    Mackereth, J. Ted
    Univ Toronto, Canadian Inst Theoret Astrophys, 60 St George St, Toronto, ON M5S 3H8, Canada.;Univ Toronto, Dunlap Inst Astron & Astrophys, 60 St George St, Toronto, ON M5S 3H4, Canada..
    Prieto, Carlos Allende
    Inst Astrofis Canarias IAC, E-38205 San Cristobal la Laguna, Spain.;Univ La Laguna ULL, Dept Astrofis, E-38206 San Cristobal la Laguna, Spain..
    Anguiano, Borja
    Univ Virginia, Dept Astron, Charlottesville, VA 22904 USA..
    Beaton, Rachael L.
    Observ Carnegie Inst Sci, 813 Santa Barbara St, Pasadena, CA 91101 USA.;Princeton Univ, Dept Astrophys Sci, 4 Ivy Lane, Princeton, NJ 08544 USA..
    Cohen, Roger E.
    Space Telescope Sci Inst, 3700 San Martin Dr, Baltimore, MD 21218 USA..
    Garcia-Hernandez, D. A.
    Inst Astrofis Canarias IAC, E-38205 San Cristobal la Laguna, Spain.;Univ La Laguna ULL, Dept Astrofis, E-38206 San Cristobal la Laguna, Spain..
    Geisler, Douglas
    Univ Concepcion, Dept Astron, Casilla 160-C, Concepcion, Chile.;Univ La Serena, Inst Invest Multidisciplinario Ciencia & Tecnol, Ave Raul Bitran S-N, La Serena, Chile.;Univ La Serena, Fac Ciencias, Dept Astron, Av Juan Cisternas 1200, La Serena, Chile..
    Horta, Danny
    Liverpool John Moores Univ, Astrophys Res Inst, 146 Brownlow Hill, Liverpool L3 5RF, Merseyside, England..
    Jönsson, Henrik
    Malmö University, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS), Department of Materials Science and Applied Mathematics (MTM).
    Kisku, Shobhit
    Liverpool John Moores Univ, Astrophys Res Inst, 146 Brownlow Hill, Liverpool L3 5RF, Merseyside, England..
    Lane, Richard R.
    Univ Atacama, Inst Astron & Ciencias Planetarias Atacama, Copayapu 485, Copiapo, Chile..
    Majewski, Steven R.
    Univ Virginia, Dept Astron, Charlottesville, VA 22904 USA..
    Mason, Andrew
    Liverpool John Moores Univ, Astrophys Res Inst, 146 Brownlow Hill, Liverpool L3 5RF, Merseyside, England..
    Minniti, Dante
    Univ Andres Bello, Dept Ciencias Fis, Fernandez Concha 700 Las Condes, Santiago, Chile.;Vatican Observ, I-00120 Vatican City V, Vatican..
    Schultheis, Mathias
    Univ Cote dAzur, Observ Cote dAzur, Lagrange Lab, CNRS, Observ Bd,CS 34229, F-06304 Nice 4, France..
    Taylor, Dominic
    Liverpool John Moores Univ, Astrophys Res Inst, 146 Brownlow Hill, Liverpool L3 5RF, Merseyside, England..
    APOGEE detection of N-rich stars in the tidal tails of Palomar 52022In: Monthly notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, ISSN 0035-8711, E-ISSN 1365-2966, Vol. 510, no 3, p. 3727-3733Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent results from chemical tagging studies using Apache Point Observatory Galactic Evolution Experiment data suggest a strong link between the chemical abundance patterns of stars found within globular clusters (GC), and chemically peculiar populations in the Galactic halo field. In this paper, we analyse the chemical compositions of stars within the cluster body and tidal streams of Palomar 5, a GC that is being tidally disrupted by interaction with the Galactic gravitational potential. We report the identification of nitrogen-rich (N-rich) stars both within and beyond the tidal radius of Palomar 5, with the latter being clearly aligned with the cluster tidal streams; this acts as confirmation that N-rich stars are lost to the Galactic halo from GCs, and provides support to the hypothesis that field N-rich stars identified by various groups have a GC origin.

  • 17.
    Hayes, Christian R.
    et al.
    NRC Herzberg Astron & Astrophys Res Ctr, 5071 West Saanich Rd, Victoria, BC V9E 2E7, Canada..
    Masseron, Thomas
    Inst Astrofis Canaries, E-38205 Tenerife, Spain.;Univ La Laguna, Dept Astrofis, E-38206 Tenerife, Spain..
    Sobeck, Jennifer
    Univ Washington, Dept Astron, Box 351580, Seattle, WA 98195 USA..
    Garcia-Hernandez, D. A.
    Inst Astrofis Canaries, E-38205 Tenerife, Spain.;Univ La Laguna, Dept Astrofis, E-38206 Tenerife, Spain..
    Allende Prieto, Carlos
    Inst Astrofis Canaries, E-38205 Tenerife, Spain.;Univ La Laguna, Dept Astrofis, E-38206 Tenerife, Spain..
    Beaton, Rachael L.
    Princeton Univ, Dept Astrophys Sci, 4 Ivy Lane, Princeton, NJ 08544 USA.;Observ Carnegie Inst Sci, 813 Santa Barbara St, Pasadena, CA 91101 USA..
    Cunha, Katia
    Observ Nacl, 77 Rua Gen Jose Cristino, BR-20921400 Rio De Janeiro, Brazil.;Univ Arizona, Steward Observ, 933 North Cherry Ave, Tucson, AZ 85721 USA..
    Hasselquist, Sten
    Space Telescope Sci Inst, 3700 San Martin Dr, Baltimore, MD 21218 USA..
    Holtzman, Jon A.
    New Mexico State Univ, Las Cruces, NM 88003 USA..
    Jönsson, Henrik
    Malmö University, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS), Department of Materials Science and Applied Mathematics (MTM).
    Majewski, Steven R.
    Univ Virginia, Dept Astron, Charlottesville, VA 22903 USA..
    Shetrone, Matthew
    Univ Calif Santa Cruz, Univ Calif Observ, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 USA..
    Smith, Verne V.
    NSFs Natl Opt Infrared Astron Res Lab, 950 North Cherry Ave, Tucson, AZ 85719 USA..
    Almeida, Andres
    Univ Virginia, Dept Astron, Charlottesville, VA 22903 USA..
    BACCHUS Analysis of Weak Lines in APOGEE Spectra (BAWLAS)2022In: Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series, ISSN 0067-0049, E-ISSN 1538-4365, Vol. 262, no 1, article id 34Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Elements with weak and blended spectral features in stellar spectra are challenging to measure and require specialized analysis methods to precisely measure their chemical abundances. In this work, we have created a catalog of approximately 120,000 giants with high signal-to-noise Apache Point Observatory Galactic Evolution Experiment (APOGEE) Data Release 17 (DR17) spectra, for which we explore weak and blended species to measure Na, P, S, V, Cu, Ce, and Nd abundances and C-12/C-13 isotopic ratios. We employ an updated version of the Brussels Automatic Code for Characterizing High-accuracy Spectra (BACCHUS) code to derive these abundances using the stellar parameters measured by APOGEE's DR17 Stellar Parameters and Chemical Abundances Pipeline, quality flagging to identify suspect spectral lines, and a prescription for upper limits. Combined, these allow us to provide our BACCHUS Analysis of Weak Lines in APOGEE Spectra catalog of precise chemical abundances for these weak and blended species, which agrees well with the literature and improves upon APOGEE abundances for these elements, some of which are unable to be measured with APOGEE's current, grid-based approach without computationally expensive expansions. This new catalog can be used alongside APOGEE and provides measurements for many scientific applications ranging from nuclear physics to Galactic chemical evolution and Milky Way population studies. To illustrate this we show some examples of uses for this catalog, such as showing that we observe stars with enhanced s-process abundances or that we can use the C-12/C-13 ratios to explore extra mixing along the red giant branch.

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  • 18.
    Weinberg, David H.
    et al.
    Ohio State Univ, Dept Astron, 174 W 18Th Ave, Columbus, OH 43210 USA.;Ohio State Univ, Ctr Cosmol & AstroParticle Phys, Columbus, OH 43210 USA.;Inst Adv Study, Olden Lane, Princeton, NJ 08540 USA..
    Holtzman, Jon A.
    New Mexico State Univ, Dept Astron, Las Cruces, NM 88003 USA..
    Johnson, Jennifer A.
    Ohio State Univ, Dept Astron, 174 W 18Th Ave, Columbus, OH 43210 USA.;Ohio State Univ, Ctr Cosmol & AstroParticle Phys, Columbus, OH 43210 USA..
    Hayes, Christian
    Univ Washington, Dept Astron, Seattle, WA 98195 USA..
    Hasselquist, Sten
    Univ Utah, Dept Phys & Astron, Salt Lake City, UT 84112 USA..
    Shetrone, Matthew
    Univ Calif Santa Cruz, UCO, Lick Observ, 1156 High St, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 USA..
    Ting, Yuan-Sen
    Inst Adv Study, Olden Lane, Princeton, NJ 08540 USA.;Princeton Univ, Dept Astrophys Sci, Princeton, NJ 08540 USA.;Observ Carnegie Inst Washington, 813 Santa Barbara St, Pasadena, CA 91101 USA.;Australian Natl Univ, Res Sch Astron & Astrophys, Cotter Rd, Weston, ACT 2611, Australia.;Australian Natl Univ, Res Sch Comp Sci, Canberra, ACT 2601, Australia..
    Beaton, Rachael L.
    Observ Carnegie Inst Washington, 813 Santa Barbara St, Pasadena, CA 91101 USA..
    Beers, Timothy C.
    Univ Notre Dame, Dept Phys, Notre Dame, IN 46556 USA.;Univ Notre Dame, JINA Ctr Evolut Elements, Notre Dame, IN 46556 USA..
    Bird, Jonathan C.
    Vanderbilt Univ, Dept Phys & Astron, VU Stn 1807, Nashville, TN 37235 USA..
    Bizyaev, Dmitry
    Apache Point Observ, POB 59, Sunspot, NM 88349 USA..
    Blanton, Michael R.
    NYU, Ctr Cosmol & Particle Phys, Dept Phys, 726 Broadway,Room 1005, New York, NY 10003 USA..
    Cunha, Katia
    Univ Atacama, Inst Astron & Ciencias Planetarias, Copayapu 485, Copiapo, Chile.;Univ Catolica Norte, Inst Astron, Av Angamos 0610, Antofagasta, Chile..
    Fernandez-Trincado, Jose G.
    Univ Atacama, Inst Astron & Ciencias Planetarias, Copayapu 485, Copiapo, Chile.;Univ Catolica Norte, Inst Astron, Av Angamos 0610, Antofagasta, Chile..
    Frinchaboy, Peter M.
    Texas Christian Univ, Dept Phys & Astron, Ft Worth, TX 76129 USA..
    Garcia-Hernandez, D. A.
    Inst Astrofis Canarias, E-38205 Tenerife, Spain.;Univ La Laguna ULL, Dept Astrofis, E-38206 Tenerife, Spain..
    Griffith, Emily
    Ohio State Univ, Dept Astron, 174 W 18Th Ave, Columbus, OH 43210 USA.;Ohio State Univ, Ctr Cosmol & AstroParticle Phys, Columbus, OH 43210 USA..
    Johnson, James W.
    Ohio State Univ, Dept Astron, 174 W 18Th Ave, Columbus, OH 43210 USA.;Ohio State Univ, Ctr Cosmol & AstroParticle Phys, Columbus, OH 43210 USA..
    Jönsson, Henrik
    Malmö University, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS), Department of Materials Science and Applied Mathematics (MTM).
    Lane, Richard R.
    Univ Bernardo OHiggins, Ctr Invest Astron, Ave Viel 1497, Santiago, Chile..
    Leung, Henry W.
    Univ Toronto, Dunlap Inst Astron & Astrophys, 50 St George St, Toronto, ON M5S 3H4, Canada..
    Mackereth, J. Ted
    Univ Toronto, Dunlap Inst Astron & Astrophys, 50 St George St, Toronto, ON M5S 3H4, Canada.;Univ Toronto, David A Dunlap Dept Astron & Astrophys, 50 St George St, Toronto, ON M5S 3H4, Canada.;Univ Toronto, Canadian Inst Theoret Astrophys, 60 St George St, Toronto, ON M5S 3H8, Canada..
    Majewski, Steven R.
    Univ Virginia, Dept Astron, Charlottesville, VA 22904 USA..
    Meszaros, Szabolcs
    Eotvos Lorand Univ, Gothard Astrophys Observ, Szent Imre H St 112, H-9700 Szombathely, Hungary.;MTA ELTE Lendulet Milky Way Res Grp, Budapest, Hungary.;MTA ELTE Exoplanet Res Grp, Budapest, Hungary..
    Nitschelm, Christian
    Univ Antofagasta, Ctr Astron CITEVA, Ave Angamos 601, Antofagasta 1270300, Chile..
    Pan, Kaike
    Apache Point Observ, POB 59, Sunspot, NM 88349 USA..
    Schiavon, Ricardo P.
    Liverpool John Moores Univ, Astrophys Res Inst, Liverpool L3 5RF, Merseyside, England..
    Schneider, Donald P.
    Penn State Univ, Dept Astron & Astrophys, 525 Davey Lab, University Pk, PA 16802 USA.;Penn State Univ, Inst Gravitat & Cosmos, University Pk, PA 16802 USA..
    Schultheis, Mathias
    Observ Cote Azur, Lab Lagrange, F-06304 Nice 4, France..
    Smith, Verne
    NSFs Natl Opt Infrared Astron Res Lab, 950 North Cherry Ave, Tucson, AZ 85719 USA..
    Sobeck, Jennifer S.
    Univ Washington, Dept Astron, Seattle, WA 98195 USA..
    Stassun, Keivan G.
    Vanderbilt Univ, Dept Phys & Astron, VU Stn 1807, Nashville, TN 37235 USA..
    Stringfellow, Guy S.
    Univ Colorado, Ctr Astrophys & Space Astron, Dept Astrophys & Planetary Sci, 389 UCB, Boulder, CO 80309 USA..
    Vincenzo, Fiorenzo
    Ohio State Univ, Dept Astron, 174 W 18Th Ave, Columbus, OH 43210 USA.;Ohio State Univ, Ctr Cosmol & AstroParticle Phys, Columbus, OH 43210 USA..
    Wilson, John C.
    Univ Virginia, Dept Astron, Charlottesville, VA 22904 USA..
    Zasowski, Gail
    Univ Utah, Dept Phys & Astron, 115 S 1400 E, Salt Lake City, UT 84112 USA..
    Chemical Cartography with APOGEE: Mapping Disk Populations with a 2-process Model and Residual Abundances2022In: Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series, ISSN 0067-0049, E-ISSN 1538-4365, Vol. 260, no 2, p. 1-46, article id 32Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We apply a novel statistical analysis to measurements of 16 elemental abundances in 34,410 Milky Way disk stars from the final data release (DR17) of APOGEE-2. Building on recent work, we fit median abundance ratio trends [X/Mg] versus [Mg/H] with a 2-process model, which decomposes abundance patterns into a "prompt" component tracing core-collapse supernovae and a "delayed" component tracing Type Ia supernovae. For each sample star, we fit the amplitudes of these two components, then compute the residuals Delta[X/H] from this two-parameter fit. The rms residuals range from similar to 0.01-0.03 dex for the most precisely measured APOGEE abundances to similar to 0.1 dex for Na, V, and Ce. The correlations of residuals reveal a complex underlying structure, including a correlated element group comprised of Ca, Na, Al, K, Cr, and Ce and a separate group comprised of Ni, V, Mn, and Co. Selecting stars poorly fit by the 2-process model reveals a rich variety of physical outliers and sometimes subtle measurement errors. Residual abundances allow for the comparison of populations controlled for differences in metallicity and [alpha/Fe]. Relative to the main disk (R = 3-13 kpc), we find nearly identical abundance patterns in the outer disk (R = 15-17 kpc), 0.05-0.2 dex depressions of multiple elements in LMC and Gaia Sausage/Enceladus stars, and wild deviations (0.4-1 dex) of multiple elements in omega Cen. The residual abundance analysis opens new opportunities for discovering chemically distinctive stars and stellar populations, for empirically constraining nucleosynthetic yields, and for testing chemical evolution models that include stochasticity in the production and redistribution of elements.

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  • 19.
    Montelius, M.
    et al.
    Univ Groningen, Kapteyn Astron Inst, Landleven 12, NL-9747 AD Groningen, Netherlands.;Lund Univ, Dept Astron & Theoret Phys, Lund Observ, Box 43, S-22100 Lund, Sweden..
    Forsberg, R.
    Lund Univ, Dept Astron & Theoret Phys, Lund Observ, Box 43, S-22100 Lund, Sweden..
    Ryde, N.
    Lund Univ, Dept Astron & Theoret Phys, Lund Observ, Box 43, S-22100 Lund, Sweden..
    Jönsson, H.
    Malmö University, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS), Department of Materials Science and Applied Mathematics (MTM). Malmo Univ, Mat Sci & Appl Math, S-20506 Malmo, Sweden..
    Afsar, M.
    Ege Univ, Dept Astron & Space Sci, TR-35100 Izmir, Turkey.;Univ Texas Austin, Dept Astron, Austin, TX 78712 USA.;Univ Texas Austin, McDonald Observ, Austin, TX 78712 USA..
    Johansen, A.
    Lund Univ, Dept Astron & Theoret Phys, Lund Observ, Box 43, S-22100 Lund, Sweden.;Univ Copenhagen, GLOBE Inst, Ctr Star & Planet Format, Oster Voldgade 5-7, DK-1350 Copenhagen, Denmark..
    Kaplan, K. F.
    NASA, SOFIA Sci Ctr USRA, Ames Res Ctr, Moffett Field, CA 94035 USA..
    Kim, H.
    Gemini Observ NOIRLab, Casilla 603, La Serena, Chile..
    Mace, G.
    Univ Texas Austin, Dept Astron, Austin, TX 78712 USA.;Univ Texas Austin, McDonald Observ, Austin, TX 78712 USA..
    Sneden, C.
    Univ Texas Austin, Dept Astron, Austin, TX 78712 USA.;Univ Texas Austin, McDonald Observ, Austin, TX 78712 USA..
    Thorsbro, B.
    Lund Univ, Dept Astron & Theoret Phys, Lund Observ, Box 43, S-22100 Lund, Sweden..
    Chemical evolution of ytterbium in the Galactic disk2022In: Astronomy and Astrophysics, ISSN 0004-6361, E-ISSN 1432-0746, Vol. 665, article id A135Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Context. Measuring the abundances of neutron-capture elements in Galactic disk stars is an important part of understanding key stellar and galactic processes. In the optical wavelength regime a number of different neutron-capture elements have been measured; however, only the s-process-dominated element cerium has been accurately measured for a large sample of disk stars from the infrared H band. The more r-process dominated element ytterbium has only been measured in a small subset of stars so far. Aims. In this study we aim to measure the ytterbium (Yb) abundance of local disk giants using the Yb II line at lambda(air) = 16 498 angstrom. We also compare the resulting abundance trend with cerium and europium abundances for the same stars to analyse the s- and r-process contributions. Methods. We analyse 30 K giants with high-resolution H band spectra using spectral synthesis. The very same stars have already been analysed using high-resolution optical spectra via the same method, but it was not possible to determine the abundance of Yb from those spectra due to blending issues for stars with [Fe/H] > -1. In the present analysis, we utilise the stellar parameters determined from the optical analysis. Results. We determined the Yb abundances with an estimated uncertainty for [Yb/Fe] of 0.1 dex. By comparison, we found that the [Yb/Fe] trend closely follows the [Eu/Fe] trend and has clear s-process enrichment in identified s-rich stars. This comparison confirms both that the validity of the Yb abundances is ensured and that the theoretical prediction that the s-/r-process contribution to the origin of Yb of roughly 40/60 is supported. Conclusions. These results show that, with a careful and detailed analysis of infrared spectra, reliable Yb abundances can be derived for a wider sample of cooler giants in the range -1.1 < [Fe/H] < 0.3. This is promising for further studies of the production of Yb and for the r-process channel, key for galactochemical evolution, in the infrared.

  • 20.
    Souto, Diogo
    et al.
    Univ Fed Sergipe, Sao Cristovao,Brazil..
    Cunha, Katia
    Univ Arizona, Rio De Janeiro, Brazil..
    Smith, Verne V.
    NOIRlab, USA..
    Prieto, C. Allende
    Inst Astrof Sica Canarias,Tenerife, Spain..
    Covey, Kevin
    Western Washington Univ,Bellingham, WA 98225 USA..
    Garcia-Hernandez, D. A.
    Inst Astrof Sica Canarias, Tenerife, Spain.;Univ La Laguna, Dept Astrof Sica,Tenerife, Spain..
    Holtzman, Jon A.
    New Mexico State Univ, Las Cruces, NM 88003 USA..
    Jönsson, Henrik
    Malmö University, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS), Department of Materials Science and Applied Mathematics (MTM).
    Mahadevan, Suvrath
    Penn State, Dept Astron & Astrophys, USA..
    Majewski, Steven R.
    Univ Virginia, Dept Astron, Charlottesville, USA..
    Masseron, Thomas
    Inst Astrof Sica Canarias Tenerife, Spain.;Univ La Laguna, Tenerife, Spain..
    Pinsonneault, Marc
    Ohio State Univ, Dept Astron, Columbus, USA..
    Schneider, Donald P.
    Penn State, Dept Astron & Astrophys, USA..
    Shetrone, Matthew
    Univ Texas Austin, McDonald Observ, USA..
    Stassun, Keivan G.
    Vanderbilt Univ, Dept Phys & Astron, USA..
    Terrien, Ryan
    Carleton Coll, Dept Phys & Astron, USA..
    Zamora, Olga
    Inst Astrof Sica Canarias, Spain.; Univ La Laguna, Dept Astrof Sica, Tenerife, Spain..
    Stringfellow, Guy S.
    Univ Colorado, Ctr Astrophys & Space Astron, USA..
    Lane, Richard R.
    Univ Bernardo Higgins,, Chile..
    Nitschelm, Christian
    Univ Antofagasta, Ctr Astron, Chile .
    Rojas-Ayala, Barbara
    Univ Tarapac, Chile..
    Detailed Chemical Abundances for a Benchmark Sample of M Dwarfs from the APOGEE Survey2022In: Astrophysical Journal, ISSN 0004-637X, E-ISSN 1538-4357, Vol. 927, no 1, article id 123Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Individual chemical abundances for 14 elements (C, O, Na, Mg, Al, Si, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, and Ni) are derived for a sample of M dwarfs using high-resolution, near-infrared H-band spectra from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey-IV/Apache Point Observatory Galactic Evolution Experiment (APOGEE) survey. The quantitative analysis included synthetic spectra computed with 1D LTE plane-parallel MARCS models using the APOGEE Data Release 17 line list to determine chemical abundances. The sample consists of 11 M dwarfs in binary systems with warmer FGK dwarf primaries and 10 measured interferometric angular diameters. To minimize atomic diffusion effects, [X/Fe] ratios are used to compare M dwarfs in binary systems and literature results for their warmer primary stars, indicating good agreement (<0.08 dex) for all studied elements. The mean abundance difference in primaries minus this work's M dwarfs is -0.05 +/- 0.03 dex. It indicates that M dwarfs in binary systems are a reliable way to calibrate empirical relationships. A comparison with abundance, effective temperature, and surface gravity results from the APOGEE Stellar Parameter and Chemical Abundances Pipeline (ASPCAP) Data Release 16 finds a systematic offset of [M/H], T (eff), log g = +0.21 dex, -50 K, and 0.30 dex, respectively, although ASPCAP [X/Fe] ratios are generally consistent with this study. The metallicities of the M dwarfs cover the range of [Fe/H] = -0.9 to +0.4 and are used to investigate Galactic chemical evolution via trends of [X/Fe] as a function of [Fe/H]. The behavior of the various elemental abundances [X/Fe] versus [Fe/H] agrees well with the corresponding trends derived from warmer FGK dwarfs, demonstrating that the APOGEE spectra can be used to examine Galactic chemical evolution using large samples of selected M dwarfs.

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  • 21.
    Sales-Silva, J. V.
    et al.
    Observatório Nacional/MCTIC, R. Gen. José Cristino, 77, 20921-400, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
    Daflon, S.
    Observatório Nacional/MCTIC, R. Gen. José Cristino, 77, 20921-400, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
    Cunha, K.
    Observatório Nacional/MCTIC, R. Gen. José Cristino, 77, 20921-400, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil; Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85719, USA.
    Souto, D.
    Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal de Sergipe, Av. Marechal Rondon, S/N, 49000-000 São Cristóvão, SE, Brazil.
    Smith, V. V.
    Noirlab, Tucson, AZ 85719, USA.
    Chiappini, C.
    Leibniz-Institut für Astrophysik Potsdam (AIP), An der Sternwarte 16, D-14482 Potsdam, Germany.
    Donor, J.
    Department of Physics & Astronomy, Texas Christian University, TCU Box 298840, Fort Worth, TX 76129, USA.
    Frinchaboy, P. M.
    Department of Physics & Astronomy, Texas Christian University, TCU Box 298840, Fort Worth, TX 76129, USA.
    Garcia-Hernandez, D. A.
    Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias (IAC), E-38205 La Laguna, Tenerife, Spain; Universidad de La Laguna (ULL), Departamento de Astrofísica, E-38206 La Laguna, Tenerife, Spain.
    Hayes, C.
    Department of Astronomy, University of Washington, Box 351580, Seattle, WA 98195, USA.
    Majewski, S. R.
    Department of Astronomy, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22904-4325, USA.
    Masseron, T.
    Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias (IAC), E-38205 La Laguna, Tenerife, Spain; Universidad de La Laguna (ULL), Departamento de Astrofísica, E-38206 La Laguna, Tenerife, Spain.
    Schiavon, R. P.
    Astrophysics Research Institute, Liverpool John Moores University, Liverpool, L3 5RF, UK.
    Weinberg, D. H.
    Department of Astronomy & Center for Cosmology and AstroParticle Physics, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210, USA; Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton, NJ 08540, USA.
    Beaton, R. L.
    The Carnegie Observatories, 813 Santa Barbara Street, Pasadena, CA 91101, USA.
    Fernandez-Trincado, J. G.
    Instituto de Astronomía, Universidad Católica del Norte, Av. Angamos 0610, Antofagasta, Chile; Instituto de Astronomía y Ciencias Planetarias, Universidad de Atacama, Copayapu 485, Copiapó, Chile.
    Jönsson, Henrik
    Malmö University, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS), Department of Materials Science and Applied Mathematics (MTM).
    Lane, R. R.
    Centro de Investigación en Astronomía, Universidad Bernardo O'Higgins, Avenida Viel 1497, Santiago, Chile.
    Minniti, D.
    Departamento de Ciencias Fisicas, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, Universidad Andres Bello, Av. Fernandez Concha 700, Las Condes, Santiago, Chile; Vatican Observatory, I-00120 Vatican City State, Italy.
    Manchado, A.
    Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias (IAC), E-38205 La Laguna, Tenerife, Spain; Universidad de La Laguna (ULL), Departamento de Astrofísica, E-38206 La Laguna, Tenerife, Spain; Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, C. Vía Láctea, s/n, 38205 San Cristóbal de La Laguna, Santa Cruz de Tenerife, Spain.
    Moni Bidin, C.
    Instituto de Astronomía, Universidad Católica del Norte, Av. Angamos 0610, Antofagasta, Chile.
    Nitschelm, C.
    Centro de Astronomía (CITEVA), Universidad de Antofagasta, Avenida Angamos 601, Antofagasta 1270300, Chile.
    O'Connell, J.
    Departamento de Astronomía, Casilla 160-C, Universidad de Concepción, Concepción, Chile.
    Villanova, S.
    Departamento de Astronomía, Casilla 160-C, Universidad de Concepción, Concepción, Chile.
    Exploring the S-process History in the Galactic Disk: Cerium Abundances and Gradients in Open Clusters from the OCCAM/APOGEE Sample2022In: Astrophysical Journal, ISSN 0004-637X, E-ISSN 1538-4357, Vol. 926, no 2, article id 154Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The APOGEE Open Cluster Chemical Abundances and Mapping survey is used to probe the chemical evolution of the s-process element cerium in the Galactic disk. Cerium abundances were derived from measurements of Ce ii lines in the APOGEE spectra using the Brussels Automatic Code for Characterizing High Accuracy Spectra in 218 stars belonging to 42 open clusters. Our results indicate that, in general, for ages < 4 Gyr, younger open clusters have higher [Ce/Fe] and [Ce/α-element] ratios than older clusters. In addition, metallicity segregates open clusters in the [Ce/X]–age plane (where X can be H, Fe, or the α-elements O, Mg, Si, or Ca). These metallicity-dependent relations result in [Ce/Fe] and [Ce/α] ratios with ages that are not universal clocks. Radial gradients of [Ce/H] and [Ce/Fe] ratios in open clusters, binned by age, were derived for the first time, with d[Ce/H]/dRGC being negative, while d[Ce/Fe]/dRGC is positive. [Ce/H] and [Ce/Fe] gradients are approximately constant over time, with the [Ce/Fe] gradient becoming slightly steeper, changing by ∼+0.009 dex kpc−1 Gyr−1. Both the [Ce/H] and [Ce/Fe] gradients are shifted to lower values of [Ce/H] and [Ce/Fe] for older open clusters. The chemical pattern of Ce in open clusters across the Galactic disk is discussed within the context of s-process yields from asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars, gigayear time delays in Ce enrichment of the interstellar medium, and the strong dependence of Ce nucleosynthesis on the metallicity of its AGB stellar sources.

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  • 22.
    Randich, S.
    et al.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofis Arcetri, Largo E Fermi 5, I-50125 Florence, Italy..
    Gilmore, G.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 0HA, England..
    Magrini, L.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofis Arcetri, Largo E Fermi 5, I-50125 Florence, Italy..
    Sacco, G. G.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofis Arcetri, Largo E Fermi 5, I-50125 Florence, Italy..
    Jackson, R. J.
    Keele Univ, Astrophys Grp, Keele ST55BG, Staffs, England..
    Jeffries, R. D.
    Keele Univ, Astrophys Grp, Keele ST55BG, Staffs, England..
    Worley, C. C.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 0HA, England..
    Hourihane, A.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 0HA, England..
    Gonneau, A.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 0HA, England..
    Vazquez, C. Viscasillas
    Vilnius Univ, Inst Theoret Phys & Astron, Sauletekio Av 3, LT-10257 Vilnius, Lithuania..
    Franciosini, E.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofis Arcetri, Largo E Fermi 5, I-50125 Florence, Italy..
    Lewis, J. R.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 0HA, England..
    Alfaro, E. J.
    CSIC, Inst Astrofis Andalucia, Glorieta Astron SNR, Granada 18008, Spain..
    Allende Prieto, C.
    Inst Astrofis Canarias, Via Lactea SNR, E-38205 Tenerife, Spain.;Univ La Laguna, Dept Astrofis, E-38205 Tenerife, Spain..
    Bensby, T.
    Lund Observ, Dept Astron & Theoret Phys, Box 43, S-22100 Lund, Sweden..
    Blomme, R.
    Rob Royal Observ Belgium, Ringlaan 3, B-1180 Brussels, Belgium..
    Bragaglia, A.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofis & Sci Spazio, Via P Gobetti 93-3, I-40129 Bologna, Italy..
    Flaccomio, E.
    INAF Osservatorio Asron Palermo, Piazza Parlamento, I-190134 Palermo, Italy..
    Francois, P.
    PSL Res Univ, Univ Paris Diderot, Observ Paris, Sorbonne Paris Cite,GEPI,CNRS, 61 Ave Observ, F-75014 Paris, France..
    Irwin, M. J.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 0HA, England..
    Koposov, S. E.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 0HA, England.;Univ Edin Burgh, Inst Astron, Royal Observ, Blackford Hill, Edinburgh EH9 3HJ, Midlothian, Scotland..
    Korn, A. J.
    Uppsala Univ, Div Astron & Space Phys, Dept Phys & Astron, Observat Astrophys, Box 516, S-75120 Uppsala, Sweden..
    Lanzafame, A. C.
    Univ Catania, Dipartimento Fis & Astron, Sez Astrofis, Via S Sofia 78, I-95123 Catania, Italy..
    Pancino, E.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofis Arcetri, Largo E Fermi 5, I-50125 Florence, Italy.;Agenzia Spaziale Italiana, Space Sci Data Ctr, Via Politecn Snc, I-00133 Rome, Italy..
    Recio-Blanco, A.
    Univ Cote dAzur, Observ Cote dAzur, Lab Lagrange, CNRS, Bd Observ,CS 34229, F-06304 Nice 4, France..
    Smiljanic, R.
    Polish Acad Sci Ences, Nicolaus Copernicus Astron Ctr, Ul Bartycka 18, PL-00716 Warsaw, Poland..
    Van Eck, S.
    Univ Libre Bruxelles, Inst Astron & Astrophys, CP 226,Blvd Triomphe, B-1050 Brussels, Belgium..
    Zwitter, T.
    Univ Ljubljana, Fac Math & Phys, Jadranska 19, Ljubljana 1000, Slovenia..
    Asplund, M.
    Australian Acad Sci, Box 783, Canberra, ACT 2601, Australia..
    Bonifacio, P.
    Univ PSL, Observ Paris, CNRS, GEPI, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France..
    Feltzing, S.
    Lund Observ, Dept Astron & Theoret Phys, Box 43, S-22100 Lund, Sweden..
    Binney, J.
    Clarendon Lab, Rudolf Peierls Ctr Theoret Phys, Parks Rd, Oxford OX1 3PU, England..
    Drew, J.
    UCL, Dept Phys & Astron, Gower St, London WC1E 6BT, England..
    Ferguson, A. M. N.
    Univ Edinburgh, Inst Astron, Blackford Hill, Edinburgh EH9 3HJ, Midlothian, Scotland..
    Micela, G.
    INAF Osservatorio Asron Palermo, Piazza Parlamento, I-190134 Palermo, Italy..
    Negueruela, I
    Univ Alicante, Dept Fis Aplicada, Fac Ciencias, Alicante 03690, Spain..
    Prusti, T.
    European Space Res & Technol Ctr ESTEC, European Space Agcy ESA, Keplerlaan 1, NL-2201 AZ Noordwijk, Netherlands..
    Rix, H-W
    Max Planck Inst Astron, Konigstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Vallenari, A.
    INAF Osservatorio Astron Padova, Vicolo Osservatorio 5, I-35122 Padua, Italy..
    Bayo, A.
    Univ Valparaiso, Fac Ciencias, Inst Fis & Astron, Valparaiso, Chile.;Univ Valparaiso, Nucleo Milenio Formac Planetaria NPF, Valparaiso, Chile..
    Bergemann, M.
    Max Planck Inst Astron, Konigstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg, Germany.;Niels Bohr Inst, Niels Bohr Int Acad, Blegdamsvej 17, DK-2100 Copenhagen O, Denmark..
    Biazzo, K.
    INAF Osservatorio Astron Roma, Via Frascati 33, I-00040 Rome, Italy..
    Carraro, G.
    Univ Padua, Dept Phys & Astron, V Osservatorio 2, I-35122 Padua, Italy..
    Casey, A. R.
    Monash Univ, Sch Phys & Astron, Wellington Rd, Clayton, Vic 3800, Australia..
    Damiani, F.
    INAF Osservatorio Asron Palermo, Piazza Parlamento, I-190134 Palermo, Italy..
    Frasca, A.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofis Catania, Via S Sofia 78, I-95123 Catania, Italy..
    Heiter, U.
    Uppsala Univ, Div Astron & Space Phys, Dept Phys & Astron, Observat Astrophys, Box 516, S-75120 Uppsala, Sweden..
    Hill, V
    Univ Cote dAzur, Observ Cote dAzur, Lab Lagrange, CNRS, Bd Observ,CS 34229, F-06304 Nice 4, France..
    Jofre, P.
    Univ Diego Portales, Fac Ingn & Ciencias, Nucleo Astron, Av Ejercito 441, Santiago, Chile..
    de Laverny, P.
    Univ Cote dAzur, Observ Cote dAzur, Lab Lagrange, CNRS, Bd Observ,CS 34229, F-06304 Nice 4, France..
    Lind, K.
    Stockholm Univ, AlbaNova Univ Ctr, Dept Astron, S-10691 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Marconi, G.
    ESO European Org Astron Res Southern Hemisphere, Alonso de Cordova 3107, Casilla 19001, Santiago De Chi, Chile..
    Martayan, C.
    ESO European Org Astron Res Southern Hemisphere, Alonso de Cordova 3107, Casilla 19001, Santiago De Chi, Chile..
    Masseron, T.
    Inst Astrofis Canarias, Via Lactea SNR, E-38205 Tenerife, Spain.;Univ La Laguna, Dept Astrofis, E-38205 Tenerife, Spain..
    Monaco, L.
    Univ Andres Bello, Dept Ciencias Fis, Fernandez Concha 700, Santiago, Spain..
    Morbidelli, L.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofis Arcetri, Largo E Fermi 5, I-50125 Florence, Italy..
    Prisinzano, L.
    INAF Osservatorio Asron Palermo, Piazza Parlamento, I-190134 Palermo, Italy..
    Sbordone, L.
    ESO European Org Astron Res Southern Hemisphere, Alonso de Cordova 3107, Casilla 19001, Santiago De Chi, Chile..
    Sousa, S. G.
    Univ Porto, Inst Astrofis & Ciencias Espaco, CAUP, Rua Estrelas, P-4150762 Porto, Portugal..
    Zaggia, S.
    INAF Osservatorio Astron Padova, Vicolo Osservatorio 5, I-35122 Padua, Italy..
    Adibekyan, V
    Univ Porto, Inst Astrofis & Ciencias Espaco, CAUP, Rua Estrelas, P-4150762 Porto, Portugal..
    Bonito, R.
    INAF Osservatorio Asron Palermo, Piazza Parlamento, I-190134 Palermo, Italy..
    Caffau, E.
    Univ PSL, Observ Paris, CNRS, GEPI, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France..
    Daflon, S.
    Observ MCTI ON, Rua Gal Jose Cristino 77, BR-20921400 Sao Cristovao, RJ, Brazil..
    Feuillet, D. K.
    Lund Observ, Dept Astron & Theoret Phys, Box 43, S-22100 Lund, Sweden.;Max Planck Inst Astron, Konigstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Gebran, M.
    St Marys Coll, Dept Chem & Phys, Notre Dame, IN 46556 USA..
    Gonzalez Hernandez, J. , I
    Inst Astrofis Canarias, Via Lactea SNR, E-38205 Tenerife, Spain.
    Guiglion, G.
    Leibniz Inst Astrophys Potsdam AIP, Sternwarte 16, D-14482 Potsdam, Germany..
    Herrero, A.
    Inst Astrofis Canarias, Via Lactea SNR, E-38205 Tenerife, Spain.;Univ La Laguna, Dept Astrofis, E-38205 Tenerife, Spain..
    Lobel, A.
    Rob Royal Observ Belgium, Ringlaan 3, B-1180 Brussels, Belgium..
    Maiz Apellaniz, J.
    Ctr Astrobiol CSIC INTA, Dept Astrofis, Campus ESAC,Camino Bajo del Castillo SNR, Madrid 28692, Spain..
    Montes, D.
    Univ Complutense Madrid, Fac Ciencias Fis, Dept Fis Tierra & Astrofis, E-28040 Madrid, Spain.;Univ Complutense Madrid, Fac Ciencias Fis, IPARCOS UCM Inst Fis Particulas & Cosmos, UCM, E-28040 Madrid, Spain..
    Morel, T.
    Univ Liege, Space Sci Technol & Astrophys Res Star Inst, Bat B5c,Allee 6 Aout,19c, B-4000 Liege, Belgium..
    Soubiran, C.
    Univ Bordeaux, Lab Astrophys Bordeaux, CNRS, B18N,Allee Geoffroy St Hilaire, F-33615 Pessac, France..
    Spina, L.
    INAF Osservatorio Astron Padova, Vicolo Osservatorio 5, I-35122 Padua, Italy..
    Tabernero, H. M.
    Ctr Astrobiol CSIC INTA, Carretera Ajalvir Km 4, E-28850 Madrid, Spain..
    Traven, G.
    Univ Ljubljana, Fac Math & Phys, Jadranska 19, Ljubljana 1000, Slovenia..
    Valentini, M.
    Leibniz Inst Astrophys Potsdam AIP, Sternwarte 16, D-14482 Potsdam, Germany..
    Van der Swaelmen, M.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofis Arcetri, Largo E Fermi 5, I-50125 Florence, Italy..
    Villanova, S.
    Univ Concepcion, Dept Astron, Casilla 160-C, Concepcion, Chile..
    Wright, N. J.
    Keele Univ, Astrophys Grp, Keele ST55BG, Staffs, England..
    Abbas, U.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofis Torino, Via Osservatorio 20, I-10025 Pino Torinese, Italy..
    Borsen-Koch, V. Aguirre
    Aarhus Univ, Stellar Astrophys Ctr, Dept Phys & Astron, Ny Munkegade 120, DK-8000 Aarhus C, Denmark..
    Alves, J.
    Univ Vienna, Dept Astrophys, Turkenschanzstr 17, A-1180 Vienna, Austria..
    Balaguer-Nunez, L.
    Univ Barcelona IEEC UB, Inst Ciencies Cosmos ICCUB, Marti i Franques 1, E-08028 Barcelona, Spain..
    Barklem, P. S.
    Uppsala Univ, Dept Phys & Astron, Theoret Astrophys, Box 516, S-75120 Uppsala, Sweden..
    Barrado, D.
    Ctr Astrobiol INTA CSIC, Camino Bajo del Castillo SNR, Madrid 28692, Spain..
    Berlanas, S. R.
    Univ Alicante, Dept Fis Aplicada, Fac Ciencias, Alicante 03690, Spain..
    Binks, A. S.
    Keele Univ, Astrophys Grp, Keele ST55BG, Staffs, England.;MIT, Kavli Inst Astrophys & Space Res, 77 Massachusetts Ave, Cambridge, MA 02139 USA..
    Bressan, A.
    SISSA, Via Bonomea 265, I-34136 Trieste, Italy..
    Capuzzo-Dolcetta, R.
    Sapienza Univ Roma, Dept Phys, Rome, Italy..
    Casagrande, L.
    Australian Natl Univ, Res Sch Astron & Astrophys, Weston, ACT 2611, Australia..
    Casamiquela, L.
    Univ Bordeaux, Lab Astrophys Bordeaux, CNRS, B18N,Allee Geoffroy St Hilaire, F-33615 Pessac, France..
    Collins, R. S.
    Univ Edin Burgh, Inst Astron, Royal Observ, Blackford Hill, Edinburgh EH9 3HJ, Midlothian, Scotland..
    D'Orazi, V
    INAF Osservatorio Astron Padova, Vicolo Osservatorio 5, I-35122 Padua, Italy..
    Dantas, M. L. L.
    Polish Acad Sci Ences, Nicolaus Copernicus Astron Ctr, Ul Bartycka 18, PL-00716 Warsaw, Poland..
    Debattista, V. P.
    Univ Cent Lancashire, Jeremiah Horrocks Inst, Preston PR1 2HE, Lancs, England..
    Delgado-Mena, E.
    Univ Porto, Inst Astrofis & Ciencias Espaco, CAUP, Rua Estrelas, P-4150762 Porto, Portugal..
    Di Marcantonio, P.
    INAF Osservatorio Astron Trieste, Via GB Tiepolo 11, I-34143 Trieste, Italy..
    Drazdauskas, A.
    Vilnius Univ, Inst Theoret Phys & Astron, Sauletekio Av 3, LT-10257 Vilnius, Lithuania..
    Evans, N. W.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 0HA, England..
    Famaey, B.
    Univ Strasbourg, Observ Astron Strasbourg, CNRS, UMR 7550, F-67000 Strasbourg, France..
    Franchini, M.
    INAF Osservatorio Astron Trieste, Via GB Tiepolo 11, I-34143 Trieste, Italy..
    Fremat, Y.
    Rob Royal Observ Belgium, Ringlaan 3, B-1180 Brussels, Belgium..
    Friel, E. D.
    Indiana Univ, Astron Dept, 727 East 3rd St, Bloomington, IN 47405 USA..
    Fu, X.
    Peking Univ, Kavli Inst Astron & Astrophys, Beijing 100871, Peoples R China..
    Geisler, D.
    Univ Concepcion, Dept Astron, Casilla 160-C, Concepcion, Chile.;Univ La Serena, Inst Invest Multidisciplinario Ciencia & Tecnol, Ave Raul Bitran SNR, La Serena, Chile.;Univ La Serena, Fac Ciencias, Dept Astron, Av Juan Cisternas 1200, La Serena, Chile..
    Gerhard, O.
    Max Planck Inst Ex Phys, Giessenbachstr 1, D-85748 Garching, Germany..
    Solares, E. A. Gonzalez
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 0HA, England..
    Grebel, E. K.
    Heidelberg Univ, Astron Rech Inst, Zentrum Astron, Monchhofstr 12-14, D-69120 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Gutierrez Albarran, M. L.
    Univ Complutense Madrid, Fac Ciencias Fis, Dept Fis Tierra & Astrofis, E-28040 Madrid, Spain.;Univ Complutense Madrid, Fac Ciencias Fis, IPARCOS UCM Inst Fis Particulas & Cosmos, UCM, E-28040 Madrid, Spain..
    Hatzidimitriou, D.
    Natl & Kapodistrian Univ Athens, Dept Phys, Sect Astrophys, Athens 15784, Greece.;Natl Observ Athens, IAASARS, GR-15236 Penteli, Greece..
    Held, E. , V
    INAF Osservatorio Astron Padova, Vicolo Osservatorio 5, I-35122 Padua, Italy.
    Jimenez-Esteban, F.
    Ctr Astrobiol CSIC INTA, Dept Astrofis, Campus ESAC,Camino Bajo del Castillo SNR, Madrid 28692, Spain..
    Jönsson, Henrik
    Malmö University, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS), Department of Materials Science and Applied Mathematics (MTM).
    Jordi, C.
    Univ Barcelona IEEC UB, Inst Ciencies Cosmos ICCUB, Marti i Franques 1, E-08028 Barcelona, Spain..
    Khachaturyants, T.
    Univ Cent Lancashire, Jeremiah Horrocks Inst, Preston PR1 2HE, Lancs, England..
    Kordopatis, G.
    Univ Cote dAzur, Observ Cote dAzur, Lab Lagrange, CNRS, Bd Observ,CS 34229, F-06304 Nice 4, France..
    Kos, J.
    Univ Ljubljana, Fac Math & Phys, Jadranska 19, Ljubljana 1000, Slovenia..
    Lagarde, N.
    Univ Bordeaux, Lab Astrophys Bordeaux, CNRS, B18N,Allee Geoffroy St Hilaire, F-33615 Pessac, France.;Univ Bourgogne Franche Comte, Inst UTINAM, Observ Besancon,CNRS UMR6213, OSU THETA Franche Comte Bourgogne, BP 1615, F-25010 Besancon, France..
    Mahy, L.
    Rob Royal Observ Belgium, Ringlaan 3, B-1180 Brussels, Belgium..
    Mapelli, M.
    INAF Osservatorio Astron Padova, Vicolo Osservatorio 5, I-35122 Padua, Italy..
    Marfil, E.
    Ctr Astrobiol CSIC INTA, Dept Astrofis, Campus ESAC,Camino Bajo del Castillo SNR, Madrid 28692, Spain..
    Martell, S. L.
    Univ New South Wales, Sch Phys, Sydney, NSW 2052, Australia..
    Messina, S.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofis Catania, Via S Sofia 78, I-95123 Catania, Italy..
    Miglio, A.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofis & Sci Spazio, Via P Gobetti 93-3, I-40129 Bologna, Italy.;Univ Bologna, Dipartimento Fis & Astron, Via Gobetti 93-2, I-40129 Bologna, Italy..
    Minchev, I
    Leibniz Inst Astrophys Potsdam AIP, Sternwarte 16, D-14482 Potsdam, Germany..
    Moitinho, A.
    Univ Lisbon, Fac Ciencias, CENTRA, C8, P-1749016 Lisbon, Portugal..
    Montalban, J.
    Univ Bologna, Dipartimento Fis & Astron, Via Gobetti 93-2, I-40129 Bologna, Italy..
    Monteiro, M. J. P. F. G.
    Univ Porto, Inst Astrofis & Ciencias Espaco, CAUP, Rua Estrelas, P-4150762 Porto, Portugal.;Univ Porto, Dept Fis & Astron, Fac Ciencias, Porto, Portugal..
    Morossi, C.
    INAF Osservatorio Astron Trieste, Via GB Tiepolo 11, I-34143 Trieste, Italy..
    Mowlavi, N.
    Univ Geneva, Dept Astron, 51 Chemin Pegasi, CH-1290 Versoix, Switzerland..
    Mucciarelli, A.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofis & Sci Spazio, Via P Gobetti 93-3, I-40129 Bologna, Italy.;Univ Bologna, Dipartimento Fis & Astron, Via Gobetti 93-2, I-40129 Bologna, Italy..
    Murphy, D. N. A.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 0HA, England..
    Nardetto, N.
    Univ Cote dAzur, Observ Cote dAzur, Lab Lagrange, CNRS, Bd Observ,CS 34229, F-06304 Nice 4, France..
    Ortolani, S.
    Univ Padua, Dept Phys & Astron, V Osservatorio 2, I-35122 Padua, Italy..
    Paletou, F.
    Univ Toulouse, Observ Midi Pyrenees, IRAP, CNRS, 14 Av E Belin, F-31400 Toulouse, France..
    Palous, J.
    CAS, Astron Inst, Bocni II 1401, Prague 14100 4, Czech Republic..
    Paunzen, E.
    Masaryk Univ, Fac Sci, Dept Theoret Phys & Astrophys, Kotlarska 2, Brno 61137, Czech Republic..
    Pickering, J. C.
    Imperial Coll London, Phys Dept, Prince Consort Rd, London SW7 2BZ, England..
    Quirrenbach, A.
    Heidelberg Univ, Zentrum Astron, Konigstuhl 12, D-69117 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Fiorentin, P. Re
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofis Torino, Via Osservatorio 20, I-10025 Pino Torinese, Italy..
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    Univ Surrey, Phys Dept, Guildford GU2 7XH, Surrey, England.
    Romano, D.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofis & Sci Spazio, Via P Gobetti 93-3, I-40129 Bologna, Italy..
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    Lund Observ, Dept Astron & Theoret Phys, Box 43, S-22100 Lund, Sweden..
    Sanna, N.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofis Arcetri, Largo E Fermi 5, I-50125 Florence, Italy..
    Santos, W.
    Observ MCTI ON, Rua Gal Jose Cristino 77, BR-20921400 Sao Cristovao, RJ, Brazil..
    Seabroke, G. M.
    Univ Coll London, Mullard Space Sci Lab, Dorking RH5 6NT, Surrey, England..
    Spagna, A.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofis Torino, Via Osservatorio 20, I-10025 Pino Torinese, Italy..
    Steinmetz, M.
    Leibniz Inst Astrophys Potsdam AIP, Sternwarte 16, D-14482 Potsdam, Germany..
    Stonkute, E.
    Vilnius Univ, Inst Theoret Phys & Astron, Astron Observ, Sauletekio Av 3, LT-10257 Vilnius, Lithuania..
    Sutorius, E.
    Univ Edin Burgh, Inst Astron, Royal Observ, Blackford Hill, Edinburgh EH9 3HJ, Midlothian, Scotland..
    Thevenin, F.
    Univ Cote dAzur, Observ Cote dAzur, Lab Lagrange, CNRS, Bd Observ,CS 34229, F-06304 Nice 4, France..
    Tosi, M.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofis & Sci Spazio, Via P Gobetti 93-3, I-40129 Bologna, Italy..
    Tsantaki, M.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofis Arcetri, Largo E Fermi 5, I-50125 Florence, Italy..
    Vink, J. S.
    Armagh Observ & Planetarium, Coll Hill, Armagh BT61 9DG, North Ireland..
    Wright, N.
    Keele Univ, Astrophys Grp, Keele ST55BG, Staffs, England..
    Wyse, R. F. G.
    Johns Hopkins Univ, Dept Phys & Astron, Baltimore, MD 21218 USA..
    Zoccali, M.
    Pontificia Univ Catolica Chile, Inst Astrophys, Av Vicuna Mackenna 4860, Santiago, Chile..
    Zorec, J.
    Sorbonne Univ, UMR7095 Inst Astrophys Paris, UPMC, CNRS, 98Bis Bd Arago, F-75014 Paris, France..
    Zucker, D. B.
    Macquarie Univ, Dept Phys & Astron, Sydney, NSW 2109, Australia..
    Walton, N. A.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 0HA, England..
    The Gaia-ESO Public Spectroscopic Survey: Implementation, data products, open cluster survey, science, and legacy2022In: Astronomy and Astrophysics, ISSN 0004-6361, E-ISSN 1432-0746, Vol. 666, article id A121Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Context. In the last 15 years different ground-based spectroscopic surveys have been started (and completed) with the general aim of delivering stellar parameters and elemental abundances for large samples of Galactic stars, complementing Gaia astrometry. Among those surveys, the Gaia-ESO Public Spectroscopic Survey, the only one performed on a 8m class telescope, was designed to target 100 000 stars using FLAMES on the ESO VLT (both Giraffe and UVES spectrographs), covering all the Milky Way populations, with a special focus on open star clusters. Aims. This article provides an overview of the survey implementation (observations, data quality, analysis and its success, data products, and releases), of the open cluster survey, of the science results and potential, and of the survey legacy. A companion article reviews the overall survey motivation, strategy, Giraffe pipeline data reduction, organisation, and workflow. Methods. We made use of the information recorded and archived in the observing blocks; during the observing runs; in a number of relevant documents; in the spectra and master catalogue of spectra; in the parameters delivered by the analysis nodes and the working groups; in the final catalogue; and in the science papers. Based on these sources, we critically analyse and discuss the output and products of the Survey, including science highlights. We also determined the average metallicities of the open clusters observed as science targets and of a sample of clusters whose spectra were retrieved from the ESO archive. Results. The Gaia-ESO Survey has determined homogeneous good-quality radial velocities and stellar parameters for a large fraction of its more than 110 000 unique target stars. Elemental abundances were derived for up to 31 elements for targets observed with UVES. Lithium abundances are delivered for about 1/3 of the sample. The analysis and homogenisation strategies have proven to be successful; several science topics have been addressed by the Gaia-ESO consortium and the community, with many highlight results achieved. Conclusions. The final catalogue will be released through the ESO archive in the first half of 2022, including the complete set of advanced data products. In addition to these results, the Gaia-ESO Survey will leave a very important legacy, for several aspects and for many years to come.

  • 23.
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    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 0HA, England..
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    INAF Osservatorio Astrofis Arcetri, Largo E Fermi 5, I-50125 Florence, Italy..
    Worley, C. C.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 0HA, England..
    Hourihane, A.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 0HA, England..
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    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 0HA, England..
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    INAF Osservatorio Astrofis Arcetri, Largo E Fermi 5, I-50125 Florence, Italy..
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    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 0HA, England..
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    INAF Osservatorio Astrofis Arcetri, Largo E Fermi 5, I-50125 Florence, Italy..
    Francois, P.
    Univ Paris Diderot, PSL Res Univ, Observ Paris, Sorbonne Paris Cite,GEPI,CNRS, 61 Ave Observ, F-75014 Paris, France..
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    Keele Univ, Astrophys Grp, Keele ST55BG, Staffs, England..
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    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 0HA, England.;Univ Edinburgh, Inst Astron, Royal Observ, Blackford Hill, Edinburgh EH9 3HJ, Midlothian, Scotland..
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    INAF Osservatorio Astrofis & Sci Spazio, Via P Gobetti 93-3, I-40129 Bologna, Italy..
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    CSIC, Inst Astrofis Andalucia, Glorieta Astron S-N, Granada 18008, Spain..
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    Inst Astrofis Canarias, Via Lactea S-N, Tenerife 38205, Spain.;Univ La Laguna, Dept Astrofis, Tenerife 38205, Spain..
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    Rob Royal Observ Belgium, Ringlaan 3, B-1180 Brussels, Belgium..
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    Uppsala Univ, Dept Phys & Astron, Div Astron & Space Phys, Observat Astrophys, Box 516, S-75120 Uppsala, Sweden..
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    Univ Catania, Sez Astrofis, Dipartimento Fis & Astron, Via S Sofia 78, I-95123 Catania, Italy..
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    INAF Osservatorio Astrofis Arcetri, Largo E Fermi 5, I-50125 Florence, Italy.;Agenzia Spaziale Italiana, Space Sci Data Ctr, Via Politecn Snc, I-00133 Rome, Italy..
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    Univ Cote dAzur, Lab Oratoire Lagrange, CNRS, Observ Cote dAzur, Bd Observ,CS 34229, F-34229 Nice, France..
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    Polish Acad Sci, Nicolaus Copernicus Astron Ctr, Ul Bartycka 18, PL-00716 Warsaw, Poland..
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    Univ Libre Bruxelles, Inst Astron & Astrophys, CP 226,Blvd Triomphe, B-1050 Brussels, Belgium..
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    Univ Ljubljana, Fac Math & Phys, Jadranska 19, Ljubljana 1000, Slovenia..
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    Lund Observ, Dept Astron & Theoret Phys, Box 43, S-22100 Lund, Sweden..
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    INAF Osservatorio Asron Palermo, Piazza Parlamento, I-190134 Palermo, Italy..
    Irwin, M. J.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 0HA, England..
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    INAF Osservatorio Astrofis Arcetri, Largo E Fermi 5, I-50125 Florence, Italy..
    Morbidelli, L.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofis Arcetri, Largo E Fermi 5, I-50125 Florence, Italy..
    Damiani, F.
    INAF Osservatorio Asron Palermo, Piazza Parlamento, I-190134 Palermo, Italy..
    Bonito, R.
    INAF Osservatorio Asron Palermo, Piazza Parlamento, I-190134 Palermo, Italy..
    Friel, E. D.
    Indiana Univ, Astron Dept, 727 East 3rd St, Bloomington, IN 47405 USA..
    Vink, J. S.
    Armagh Observ & Planetarium, Coll Hill, Armagh BT61 9DG, North Ireland..
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    INAF Osservatorio Asron Palermo, Piazza Parlamento, I-190134 Palermo, Italy..
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    INAF Osservatorio Astrofis Torino, Via Osservatorio 20, I-10025 Pino Torinese, Italy..
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    Natl & Kapodistrian Univ Athens, Dept Phys, Sect Astrophys Astron & Mech, Athens 15784, Greece.;Natl Observ Athens, IAASARS, Penteli 15236, Greece..
    Held, E. , V
    INAF Osservatorio Astron Padova, Vicolo Osservatorio 5, I-35122 Padua, Italy.
    Jordi, C.
    Univ Barcelona IEEC UB, Inst Ciencies Cosmos ICCUB, Marti i Franques 1, Barcelona 08028, Spain..
    Paunzen, E.
    Masaryk Univ, Fac Sci, Dept Theoret Phys & Astrophys, Kotlarska 2, Brno 61137, Czech Republic..
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    INAF Osservatorio Astrofis Torino, Via Osservatorio 20, I-10025 Pino Torinese, Italy..
    Jackson, R. J.
    Keele Univ, Astrophys Grp, Keele ST55BG, Staffs, England..
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    Ctr Astrobiol CSIC INTA, Dept Astrofis, Campus ESAC,Camino Bajo del Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain..
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    Australian Acad Sci, Box 783, Canberra, ACT 2601, Australia..
    Bonifacio, P.
    Univ PSL, CNRS, Observ Paris, GEPI, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France..
    Feltzing, S.
    Lund Observ, Dept Astron & Theoret Phys, Box 43, S-22100 Lund, Sweden..
    Binney, J.
    Clarendon Lab, Rudolf Peierls Ctr Theoret Phys, Parks Rd, Oxford OX1 3PU, England..
    Drew, J.
    UCL, Dept Phys & Astron, Gower St, London WC1E 6BT, England..
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    Univ Edinburgh, Inst Astron, Blackford Hill, Edinburgh EH9 3HJ, Midlothian, Scotland..
    Micela, G.
    INAF Osservatorio Asron Palermo, Piazza Parlamento, I-190134 Palermo, Italy..
    Negueruela, I
    Univ Alicante, Dept Fis Aplicada, Fac Ciencias, Alicante 03690, Spain..
    Prusti, T.
    European Space Res & Technol Ctr ESTEC, European Space Agcy ESA, Keplerlaan 1, NL-2201 AZ Noordwijk, Netherlands..
    Rix, H-W
    Max Planck Inst Astron, Konigstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg, Germany..
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    INAF Osservatorio Astron Padova, Vicolo Osservatorio 5, I-35122 Padua, Italy..
    Bergemann, M.
    Max Planck Inst Astron, Konigstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg, Germany.;Niels Bohr Inst, Niels Bohr Int Acad, Blegdamsvej 17, DK-2100 Copenhagen O, Denmark..
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    Monash Univ, Sch Phys & Astron, Wellington Rd, Clayton, Vic 3800, Australia..
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    Univ Cote dAzur, Lab Oratoire Lagrange, CNRS, Observ Cote dAzur, Bd Observ,CS 34229, F-34229 Nice, France..
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    INAF Osservatorio Astrofis Catania, Via S Sofia 78, I-95123 Catania, Italy..
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    Univ Cote dAzur, Lab Oratoire Lagrange, CNRS, Observ Cote dAzur, Bd Observ,CS 34229, F-34229 Nice, France..
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    Stockholm Univ, AlbaNova Univ Ctr, Dept Astron, S-10691 Stockholm, Sweden..
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    ESO European Org Astron Res Southern Hemisphere, Alonso de Cordova 3107, Casilla 19001, Santiago De Chi, Chile..
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    Univ Porto, Inst Astrofis & Ciencias Espaco, CAUP, Rua Estrelas, P-4150762 Porto, Portugal..
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    Univ Porto, Inst Astrofis & Ciencias Espaco, CAUP, Rua Estrelas, P-4150762 Porto, Portugal..
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    Univ PSL, CNRS, Observ Paris, GEPI, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France..
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    Observ Nacl MCTI ON, Rua Gal Jose Cristino 77, BR-20921400 Rio De Janeiro, Brazil..
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    Lund Observ, Dept Astron & Theoret Phys, Box 43, S-22100 Lund, Sweden.;Max Planck Inst Astron, Konigstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg, Germany..
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    St Marys Coll, Dept Chem & Phys, Notre Dame, IN 46556 USA..
    Gonzalez Hernandez, J. , I
    Inst Astrofis Canarias, Via Lactea S-N, Tenerife 38205, Spain.
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    Leibniz Inst Astrophys Potsdam AIP, Sternwarte 16, D-14482 Potsdam, Germany..
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    Inst Astrofis Canarias, Via Lactea S-N, Tenerife 38205, Spain.;Univ La Laguna, Dept Astrofis, Tenerife 38205, Spain..
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    Rob Royal Observ Belgium, Ringlaan 3, B-1180 Brussels, Belgium..
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    Univ Complutense Madrid, Fac Ciencias Fis, Dept Fis Tierra & Astrofis, Madrid 28040, Spain.;Univ Complutense Madrid, Fac Ciencias Fis, IPARCOS UCM Inst Fis Particulas & Cosmos, UCM, Madrid 28040, Spain..
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    Univ Liege, Space Sci Technol & Astrophys Res STAR Inst, Bat B5c,Allee 6 Aout,19c, B-4000 Liege, Belgium..
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    Lund Observ, Dept Astron & Theoret Phys, Box 43, S-22100 Lund, Sweden..
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    Univ Bordeaux, Lab Astrophys Bordeaux, CNRS, B18N,Allee Geoffroy St Hilaire, F-33615 Pessac, France..
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    Ctr Astrobiol CSIC INTA, Carretera Ajalvir Km 4, Madrid 28850, Spain..
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    Vilnius Univ, Inst Theoret Phys & Astron, Sauletekio Av 3, LT-10257 Vilnius, Lithuania..
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    Univ Ljubljana, Fac Math & Phys, Jadranska 19, Ljubljana 1000, Slovenia..
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    Leibniz Inst Astrophys Potsdam AIP, Sternwarte 16, D-14482 Potsdam, Germany..
    Van der Swaelmen, M.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofis Arcetri, Largo E Fermi 5, I-50125 Florence, Italy..
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    Univ Concepcion, Dept Astron, Casilla 160-C, Concepcion, Chile..
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    Vilnius Univ, Inst Theoret Phys & Astron, Sauletekio Av 3, LT-10257 Vilnius, Lithuania..
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    Univ Valparaiso, Fac Ciencias, Inst Fis & Astron, Valparaiso, Chile.;Univ Valparaiso, Nucleo Milenio Formac Planetaria NPF, Valparaiso, Chile..
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    INAF Osservatorio Astron Roma, Via Frascati 33, I-00040 Rome, Italy..
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    Univ Padua, Dept Phys & Astron, V Osservatorio 2, I-35122 Padua, Italy..
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    Uppsala Univ, Dept Phys & Astron, Theoret Astrophys, Box 516, S-75120 Uppsala, Sweden..
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    Uppsala Univ, Dept Phys & Astron, Div Astron & Space Phys, Observat Astrophys, Box 516, S-75120 Uppsala, Sweden..
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    Univ Diego Portales, Fac Ingn & Ciencias, Nucleo Astron, Av Ejercito 441, Santiago, Chile..
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    ESO European Org Astron Res Southern Hemisphere, Alonso de Cordova 3107, Casilla 19001, Santiago De Chi, Chile..
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    ESO European Org Astron Res Southern Hemisphere, Alonso de Cordova 3107, Casilla 19001, Santiago De Chi, Chile..
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    Inst Astrofis Canarias, Via Lactea S-N, Tenerife 38205, Spain.;Univ La Laguna, Dept Astrofis, Tenerife 38205, Spain..
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    Univ Andres Bello, Dept Ciencias Fis, Fernandez Concha 700, Santiago, Chile..
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    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 0HA, England..
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    INAF Osservatorio Astron Padova, Vicolo Osservatorio 5, I-35122 Padua, Italy..
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    Aarhus Univ, Stellar Astrophys Ctr, Dept Phys & Astron, Ny Munkegade 120, DK-8000 Aarhus C, Denmark..
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    Univ Vienna, Dept Astrophys, Turkenschanzstr 17, A-1180 Vienna, Austria..
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    Univ Barcelona IEEC UB, Inst Ciencies Cosmos ICCUB, Marti i Franques 1, Barcelona 08028, Spain..
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    Uppsala Univ, Dept Phys & Astron, Theoret Astrophys, Box 516, S-75120 Uppsala, Sweden..
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    Ctr Astrobiol INTA CSIC, Camino Bajo del Castillos S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain..
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    INAF Osservatorio Astrofis & Sci Spazio, Via P Gobetti 93-3, I-40129 Bologna, Italy..
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    Univ Alicante, Dept Fis Aplicada, Fac Ciencias, Alicante 03690, Spain..
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    Keele Univ, Astrophys Grp, Keele ST55BG, Staffs, England.;MIT, Kavli Inst Astrophys & Space Res, 77 Massachusetts Ave, Cambridge, MA 02139 USA..
    Bressan, A.
    SISSA, Via Bonomea 265, I-34136 Trieste, Italy..
    Capuzzo-Dolcetta, R.
    Sapienza Univ Roma, Dept Phys, Rome, Italy..
    Casagrande, L.
    Australian Natl Univ, Res Sch Astron & Astrophys, Weston, ACT 2611, Australia..
    Casamiquela, L.
    Univ Bordeaux, Lab Astrophys Bordeaux, CNRS, B18N,Allee Geoffroy St Hilaire, F-33615 Pessac, France..
    Collins, R. S.
    Univ Edinburgh, Inst Astron, Royal Observ, Blackford Hill, Edinburgh EH9 3HJ, Midlothian, Scotland..
    D'Orazi, V
    INAF Osservatorio Astron Padova, Vicolo Osservatorio 5, I-35122 Padua, Italy..
    Dantas, M. L. L.
    Polish Acad Sci, Nicolaus Copernicus Astron Ctr, Ul Bartycka 18, PL-00716 Warsaw, Poland..
    Debattista, V. P.
    Univ Cent Lancashire, Jeremiah Horrocks Inst, Preston PR1 2HE, Lancs, England..
    Delgado-Mena, E.
    Univ Porto, Inst Astrofis & Ciencias Espaco, CAUP, Rua Estrelas, P-4150762 Porto, Portugal..
    Di Marcantonio, P.
    INAF Osservatorio Astron Trieste, Via GB Tiepolo 11, I-34143 Trieste, Italy..
    Drazdauskas, A.
    Vilnius Univ, Inst Theoret Phys & Astron, Sauletekio Av 3, LT-10257 Vilnius, Lithuania..
    Evans, N. W.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 0HA, England..
    Famaey, B.
    Univ Strasbourg, CNRS, Observ Astron Strasbourg, UMR 7550, F-67000 Strasbourg, France..
    Franchini, M.
    INAF Osservatorio Astron Trieste, Via GB Tiepolo 11, I-34143 Trieste, Italy..
    Fremat, Y.
    Rob Royal Observ Belgium, Ringlaan 3, B-1180 Brussels, Belgium..
    Fu, X.
    Peking Univ, Kavli Inst Astron & Astrophys, Beijing 100871, Peoples R China..
    Geisler, D.
    Univ Concepcion, Dept Astron, Casilla 160-C, Concepcion, Chile.;Univ La Serena, Inst Invest Multidisciplinario Ciencia & Tecnol, Ave Raul Bitran S-N, La Serena, Chile.;Univ La Serena, Fac Ciencias, Dept Astron, Av Juan Cisternas 1200, La Serena, Chile..
    Gerhard, O.
    Max Planck Inst Ex Phys, Giessenbachstr 1, D-85748 Garching, Germany..
    Solares, E. A. Gonzalez
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 0HA, England..
    Grebel, E. K.
    Heidelberg Univ, Zentrum Astron, Astron Rech Inst, Monchhofstr 12 14, D-69120 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Gutierrez Albarran, M. L.
    Univ Complutense Madrid, Fac Ciencias Fis, Dept Fis Tierra & Astrofis, Madrid 28040, Spain.;Univ Complutense Madrid, Fac Ciencias Fis, IPARCOS UCM Inst Fis Particulas & Cosmos, UCM, Madrid 28040, Spain..
    Jimenez-Esteban, F.
    Ctr Astrobiol CSIC INTA, Dept Astrofis, Campus ESAC,Camino Bajo del Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain..
    Jönsson, Henrik
    Malmö University, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS), Department of Materials Science and Applied Mathematics (MTM).
    Khachaturyants, T.
    Univ Cent Lancashire, Jeremiah Horrocks Inst, Preston PR1 2HE, Lancs, England..
    Kordopatis, G.
    Univ Cote dAzur, Lab Oratoire Lagrange, CNRS, Observ Cote dAzur, Bd Observ,CS 34229, F-34229 Nice, France..
    Kos, J.
    Univ Ljubljana, Fac Math & Phys, Jadranska 19, Ljubljana 1000, Slovenia..
    Lagarde, N.
    Univ Bordeaux, Lab Astrophys Bordeaux, CNRS, B18N,Allee Geoffroy St Hilaire, F-33615 Pessac, France.;Univ Bourgogne Franche Comte, Inst UTINAM, OSU THETA Franche Comte Bourgogne, CNRS UMR6213,Observ Besancon, BP 1615, F-25010 Besancon, France..
    Ludwig, H-G
    Heidelberg Univ, Landessternwarte, Zentrum Astron, Konigstuhl 12, D-69117 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Mahy, L.
    Rob Royal Observ Belgium, Ringlaan 3, B-1180 Brussels, Belgium..
    Mapelli, M.
    INAF Osservatorio Astron Padova, Vicolo Osservatorio 5, I-35122 Padua, Italy..
    Marfil, E.
    Ctr Astrobiol CSIC INTA, Dept Astrofis, Campus ESAC,Camino Bajo del Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain..
    Martell, S. L.
    Univ New South Wales, Sch Phys, Sydney, NSW 2052, Australia..
    Messina, S.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofis Catania, Via S Sofia 78, I-95123 Catania, Italy..
    Miglio, A.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofis & Sci Spazio, Via P Gobetti 93-3, I-40129 Bologna, Italy.;Univ Bologna, Dipartimento Fis & Astron, Via Gobetti 93-2, I-40129 Bologna, Italy..
    Minchev, I
    Leibniz Inst Astrophys Potsdam AIP, Sternwarte 16, D-14482 Potsdam, Germany..
    Moitinho, A.
    Univ Lisbon, Fac Ciencias, CENTRA, Ed C8, P-1749016 Lisbon, Portugal..
    Montalban, J.
    Univ Bologna, Dipartimento Fis & Astron, Via Gobetti 93-2, I-40129 Bologna, Italy..
    Monteiro, M. J. P. F. G.
    Univ Porto, Inst Astrofis & Ciencias Espaco, CAUP, Rua Estrelas, P-4150762 Porto, Portugal.;Univ Porto, Dept Fis & Astron, Fac Ciencias, Porto, Portugal..
    Morossi, C.
    INAF Osservatorio Astron Trieste, Via GB Tiepolo 11, I-34143 Trieste, Italy..
    Mowlavi, N.
    Univ Geneva, Dept Astron, 51 Chemin Pegasi, CH-1290 Versoix, Switzerland..
    Mucciarelli, A.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofis & Sci Spazio, Via P Gobetti 93-3, I-40129 Bologna, Italy.;Univ Bologna, Dipartimento Fis & Astron, Via Gobetti 93-2, I-40129 Bologna, Italy..
    Murphy, D. N. A.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 0HA, England..
    Nardetto, N.
    Univ Cote dAzur, Lab Oratoire Lagrange, CNRS, Observ Cote dAzur, Bd Observ,CS 34229, F-34229 Nice, France..
    Ortolani, S.
    Univ Padua, Dept Phys & Astron, V Osservatorio 2, I-35122 Padua, Italy..
    Paletou, F.
    Univ Toulouse, Observ Midi Pyrenees, CNRS, IRAP, 14 Av E Belin, F-31400 Toulouse, France..
    Palous, J.
    CAS, Astron Inst, Bocni II 1401, Prague 14100 4, Czech Republic..
    Pickering, J. C.
    Imperial Coll London, Phys Dept, Prince Consort Rd, London SW7 2BZ, England..
    Quirrenbach, A.
    Heidelberg Univ, Landessternwarte, Zentrum Astron, Konigstuhl 12, D-69117 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Fiorentin, P. Re
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofis Torino, Via Osservatorio 20, I-10025 Pino Torinese, Italy..
    Read, J. , I
    Univ Surrey, Phys Dept, Guildford GU2 7XH, Surrey, England.
    Romano, D.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofis & Sci Spazio, Via P Gobetti 93-3, I-40129 Bologna, Italy..
    Ryde, N.
    Lund Observ, Dept Astron & Theoret Phys, Box 43, S-22100 Lund, Sweden..
    Sanna, N.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofis Arcetri, Largo E Fermi 5, I-50125 Florence, Italy..
    Santos, W.
    Observ Nacl MCTI ON, Rua Gal Jose Cristino 77, BR-20921400 Rio De Janeiro, Brazil..
    Seabroke, G. M.
    Univ Coll London, Mullard Space Sci Lab, Dorking RH5 6NT, Surrey, England..
    Spina, L.
    INAF Astron Observ Padua, Vicolo Osservatorio 5, I-35122 Padua, PD, Italy..
    Steinmetz, M.
    Leibniz Inst Astrophys Potsdam AIP, Sternwarte 16, D-14482 Potsdam, Germany..
    Stonkute, E.
    Vilnius Univ, Inst Theoret Phys & Astron, Astron Observ, Sauletekio Av 3, LT-10257 Vilnius, Lithuania..
    Sutorius, E.
    Univ Edinburgh, Inst Astron, Royal Observ, Blackford Hill, Edinburgh EH9 3HJ, Midlothian, Scotland..
    Thevenin, F.
    Univ Cote dAzur, Lab Oratoire Lagrange, CNRS, Observ Cote dAzur, Bd Observ,CS 34229, F-34229 Nice, France..
    Tosi, M.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofis & Sci Spazio, Via P Gobetti 93-3, I-40129 Bologna, Italy..
    Tsantaki, M.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofis Arcetri, Largo E Fermi 5, I-50125 Florence, Italy..
    Wright, N.
    Keele Univ, Astrophys Grp, Keele ST55BG, Staffs, England..
    Wyse, R. F. G.
    Johns Hopkins Univ, Dept Phys & Astron, Baltimore, MD 21218 USA..
    Zoccali, M.
    Pontificia Univ Catolica Chile, Inst Astrophys, Av Vicuna Mackenna 4860, Santiago, Chile..
    Zorec, J.
    Sorbonne Univ, CNRS, UPMC, UMR7095,Inst Astrophys Paris, 98Bis Bd Arago, F-75014 Paris, France..
    Zucker, D. B.
    Macquarie Univ, Dept Phys & Astron, Sydney, NSW 2109, Australia..
    The Gaia-ESO Public Spectroscopic Survey: Motivation, implementation, GIRAFFE data processing, analysis, and final data products star2022In: Astronomy and Astrophysics, ISSN 0004-6361, E-ISSN 1432-0746, Vol. 666, article id A120Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Context. The Gaia-ESO Public Spectroscopic Survey is an ambitious project designed to obtain astrophysical parameters and elemental abundances for 100 000 stars, including large representative samples of the stellar populations in the Galaxy, and a well-defined sample of 60 (plus 20 archive) open clusters. We provide internally consistent results calibrated on benchmark stars and star clusters, extending across a very wide range of abundances and ages. This provides a legacy data set of intrinsic value, and equally a large wide-ranging dataset that is of value for the homogenisation of other and future stellar surveys and Gaia's astrophysical parameters. Aims. This article provides an overview of the survey methodology, the scientific aims, and the implementation, including a description of the data processing for the GIRAFFE spectra. A companion paper introduces the survey results. Methods. Gaia-ESO aspires to quantify both random and systematic contributions to measurement uncertainties. Thus, all available spectroscopic analysis techniques are utilised, each spectrum being analysed by up to several different analysis pipelines, with considerable effort being made to homogenise and calibrate the resulting parameters. We describe here the sequence of activities up to delivery of processed data products to the ESO Science Archive Facility for open use. Results. The Gaia-ESO Survey obtained 202 000 spectra of 115 000 stars using 340 allocated VLT nights between December 2011 and January 2018 from GIRAFFE and UVES. Conclusions. The full consistently reduced final data set of spectra was released through the ESO Science Archive Facility in late 2020, with the full astrophysical parameters sets following in 2022. A companion article reviews the survey implementation, scientific highlights, the open cluster survey, and data products.

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  • 24.
    Nandakumar, G.
    et al.
    Lund Univ, Dept Astron & Theoret Phys, Lund Observ, Box 43, S-22100 Lund, Sweden..
    Ryde, N.
    Lund Univ, Dept Astron & Theoret Phys, Lund Observ, Box 43, S-22100 Lund, Sweden..
    Montelius, M.
    Univ Groningen, Kapteyn Astron Inst, Landleven 12, NL-9747 AD Groningen, Netherlands..
    Thorsbro, B.
    Univ Tokyo, Sch Sci, Dept Astron, Bunkyo Ku, 7-3-1 Hongo, Tokyo 1130033, Japan..
    Jönsson, Henrik
    Malmö University, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS), Department of Materials Science and Applied Mathematics (MTM). Malmo Univ, Mat Sci & Appl Math, S-20506 Malmo, Sweden..
    Mace, G.
    Univ Texas Austin, Dept Astron, RLM 15308, Austin, TX 78712 USA.;Univ Texas Austin, McDonald Observ, Austin, TX 78712 USA..
    The Galactic chemical evolution of phosphorus observed with IGRINS2022In: Astronomy and Astrophysics, ISSN 0004-6361, E-ISSN 1432-0746, Vol. 668, article id A88Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Context. Phosphorus (P) is considered to be one of the key elements for life, making it an important element to look for in the abundance analysis of spectra of stellar systems. Yet, only a select number of spectroscopic studies exist to estimate the phosphorus abundances and investigate its trend across a range of metallicities. This is due to the lack of good phosphorus lines in the optical wavelength region and the requirement of careful manual analysis of the blended phosphorus lines in near-infrared H-band spectra obtained with individual observations and surveys such as the Apache Point Observatory Galactic Evolution Experiment (APOGEE). Aims. Based on a consistent and systematic analysis of high-resolution, near-infrared Immersion GRating INfrared Spectrograph (IGRINS) spectra of 38 K giant stars in the Solar neighborhood, we present and investigate the phosphorus abundance trend in the metallicity range of -1.2 dex < [Fe/H] < 0.4 dex. Furthermore, we compare this trend with the available chemical evolution models to shed some light on the origin and evolution of phosphorus. Methods. We have observed full H- and K-band spectra at a spectral resolving power of R = 45 000 with IGRINS mounted on the Gemini South telescope, the Discovery Channel Telescope, and the Harlan J Smith Telescope at McDonald Observatory. Abundances were determined from spectral lines by modeling the synthetic spectrum that best matches the observed spectrum by chi(2) minimization. For this task, we used the Spectroscopy Made Easy (SME) tool in combination with one-dimensional (1D) Model Atmospheres in a Radiative and Convective Scheme (MARCS) stellar atmosphere models. The investigated sample of stars have reliable stellar parameters estimated using optical FIber-fed Echelle Spectrograph (FIES) spectra obtained in a previous study of a set of stars called Giants in the Local Disk (GILD). In order to determine the phosphorus abundances from the 16482.92 angstrom phosphorus line, we needed to take special care blending the CO(v = 7-4) line. With the stellar parameters known, we thus determined the C, N, and O abundances from atomic carbon and a range of nonblended molecular lines (CO, CN, and OH) which are plentiful in the H-band region of K giant stars, assuring an appropriate modeling of the blending CO(v = 7-4) line. Results. We present the [P/Fe] versus [Fe/H] trend for K giant stars in the metallicity range of -1.2 dex < [Fe/H] < 0.4 dex and enhanced phosphorus abundances for two metal-poor s-rich stars. We find that our trend matches well with the compiled literature sample of prominently dwarf stars and the limited number of giant stars. Our trend is found to be higher by similar to 0.05-0.1 dex compared to the theoretical chemical evolution trend resulting from the core collapse supernova (type II) of massive stars with the phosphorus yields arbitrarily increased by a factor of 2.75. Thus the enhancement factor might need to be similar to 0.05-0.1 dex higher to match our trend. We also find an empirically determined primary behavior for phosphorus. Furthermore, the phosphorus abundance is found to be elevated by similar to 0.6-0.9 dex in the two s-enriched stars compared to the theoretical chemical evolution trend.

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  • 25.
    Wilson, Robert F.
    et al.
    Univ Virginia, Dept Astron, Charlottesville, VA 22904 USA.;NASA, Goddard Space Flight Ctr, 8800 Greenbelt Rd, Greenbelt, MD 20771 USA..
    Canas, Caleb, I
    Penn State Univ, Dept Astron & Astrophys, 525 Davey Lab, University Pk, PA 16802 USA.;Penn State Univ, Ctr Exoplanets & Habitable Worlds, 525 Davey Lab, University Pk, PA 16802 USA..
    Majewski, Steven R.
    Univ Virginia, Dept Astron, Charlottesville, VA 22904 USA..
    Cunha, Katia
    Observ Nacl, Rua Gen Jose Cristino 77, BR-20921400 Rio De Janeiro, RJ, Brazil.;Univ Arizona, Steward Observ, 933 North Cherry Ave, Tucson, AZ 85721 USA..
    Smith, Verne V.
    NSFs NOIRLab, 950 North Cherry Ave, Tucson, AZ 85719 USA..
    Bender, Chad F.
    Univ Arizona, Steward Observ, 933 North Cherry Ave, Tucson, AZ 85721 USA..
    Mahadevan, Suvrath
    Penn State Univ, Dept Astron & Astrophys, 525 Davey Lab, University Pk, PA 16802 USA.;Penn State Univ, Ctr Exoplanets & Habitable Worlds, 525 Davey Lab, University Pk, PA 16802 USA..
    Fleming, Scott W.
    Space Telescope Sci Inst, 3700 San Martin Dr, Baltimore, MD 21218 USA..
    Teske, Johanna
    Carnegie Earth & Planets Lab, 5241 Broad Branch Rd NW, Washington, DC 20015 USA..
    Ghezzi, Luan
    Univ Fed Rio de Janeiro, Observ Valongo, Ladeira Pedro Antonio 43, BR-20080090 Rio De Janeiro, RJ, Brazil..
    Jönsson, Henrik
    Malmö University, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS), Department of Materials Science and Applied Mathematics (MTM).
    Beaton, Rachael L.
    Princeton Univ, Dept Astrophys Sci, 4 Ivy Lane, Princeton, NJ 08544 USA.;Observ Carnegie Inst Sci, 813 Santa Barbara St, Pasadena, CA 91101 USA.;Princeton Univ, Princeton, NJ 08544 USA..
    Hasselquist, Sten
    Univ Utah, Dept Phys & Astron, Salt Lake City, UT 84112 USA..
    Stassun, Keivan
    Vanderbilt Univ, Dept Phys & Astron, VU Stn 1807, Nashville, TN 37235 USA..
    Nitschelm, Christian
    Univ Antofagasta, Ctr Astronomia CITEVA, Ave Angamos 601, Antofagasta 1270300, Chile..
    Garcia-Hernandez, D. A.
    Inst Astrofis Canarias IAC, E-38205 Tenerife, Spain.;Univ La Laguna ULL, Dept Astrofis, E-38206 Tenerife, Spain..
    Hayes, Christian R.
    Univ Washington, Dept Astron, Box 351580, Seattle, WA 98195 USA..
    Tayar, Jamie
    Univ Hawaii Manoa, Inst Astron, 2680 Woodlawn Dr, Honolulu, HI 96822 USA.;Univ Florida, Bryant Space Sci Ctr, Dept Astron, Stadium Rd, Gainesville, FL 32611 USA..
    The Influence of 10 Unique Chemical Elements in Shaping the Distribution of Kepler Planets2022In: Astronomical Journal, ISSN 0004-6256, E-ISSN 1538-3881, Vol. 163, no 3, article id 128Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The chemical abundances of planet-hosting stars offer a glimpse into the composition of planet-forming environments. To further understand this connection, we make the first ever measurement of the correlation between planet occurrence and chemical abundances for ten different elements (C, Mg, Al, Si, S, K, Ca, Mn, Fe, and Ni). Leveraging data from the Apache Point Observatory Galactic Evolution Experiment (APOGEE) and Gaia to derive precise stellar parameters (sigma(R star) approximate to 2.3%, sigma(M star) approximate to 4.5%) for a sample of 1018 Kepler Objects of Interest, we construct a sample of well-vetted Kepler planets with precisely measured radii (sigma(Rp) approximate to 3.4%). After controlling for biases in the Kepler detection pipeline and the selection function of the APOGEE survey, we characterize the relationship between planet occurrence and chemical abundance as the number density of nuclei of each element in a star's photosphere raised to a power, beta. varies by planet type, but is consistent within our uncertainties across all ten elements. For hot planets (P = 1-10 days), an enhancement in any element of 0.1 dex corresponds to an increased occurrence of approximate to 20% for super-Earths (R-p = 1-1.9 R-circle plus) and approximate to 60% for sub-Neptunes (R-p = 1.9-4 R-circle plus). Trends are weaker for warm (P = 10-100 days) planets of all sizes and for all elements, with the potential exception of sub-Saturns (R-p = 4-8 R.). Finally, we conclude this work with a caution to interpreting trends between planet occurrence and stellar age due to degeneracies caused by Galactic chemical evolution and make predictions for planet occurrence rates in nearby open clusters to facilitate demographics studies of young planetary systems.

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  • 26.
    Myers, Natalie
    et al.
    Texas Christian Univ, Dept Phys & Astron, TCU Box 298840, Ft Worth, TX 76129 USA..
    Donor, John
    Texas Christian Univ, Dept Phys & Astron, TCU Box 298840, Ft Worth, TX 76129 USA..
    Spoo, Taylor
    Texas Christian Univ, Dept Phys & Astron, TCU Box 298840, Ft Worth, TX 76129 USA..
    Frinchaboy, Peter M.
    Texas Christian Univ, Dept Phys & Astron, TCU Box 298840, Ft Worth, TX 76129 USA..
    Cunha, Katia
    Observ Nacl, Rua Gen Jose Cristino 77, BR-20921400 Rio De Janeiro, RJ, Brazil.;Univ Arizona, Steward Observ, 933 North Cherry Ave, Tucson, AZ 85721 USA..
    Price-Whelan, Adrian M.
    Flatiron Inst, Ctr Computat Astrophys, 162 Fifth Ave, New York, NY 10010 USA..
    Majewski, Steven R.
    Univ Virginia, Dept Astron, Charlottesville, VA 22904 USA..
    Beaton, Rachael L.
    Princeton Univ, Dept Astrophys Sci, 4 Ivy Lane, Princeton, NJ 08544 USA.;Observ Carnegie Inst Sci, 813 Santa Barbara St, Pasadena, CA 91101 USA..
    Zasowski, Gail
    Univ Utah, Dept Phys & Astron, 115 S 1400 E, Salt Lake City, UT 84112 USA..
    O'Connell, Julia
    Texas Christian Univ, Dept Phys & Astron, TCU Box 298840, Ft Worth, TX 76129 USA..
    Ray, Amy E.
    Texas Christian Univ, Dept Phys & Astron, TCU Box 298840, Ft Worth, TX 76129 USA..
    Bizyaev, Dmitry
    Apache Point Observ, POB 59, Sunspot, NM 88349 USA.;New Mexico State Univ, POB 59, Sunspot, NM 88349 USA.;Moscow MV Lomonosov State Univ, Sternberg Astron Inst, Moscow, Russia..
    Chiappini, Cristina
    Leibniz Inst Astrophys Potsdam AIP, Sternwarte 16, D-14482 Potsdam, Germany..
    Garcia-Hernandez, D. A.
    Inst Astrofis Canarias, Via Lactea S-N, E-38205 San Cristobal la Laguna, Tenerife, Spain.;Univ La Laguna, Dept Astrofis, E-30206 San Cristobal la Laguna, Tenerife, Spain..
    Geisler, Doug
    Univ Concepcion, Dept Astron, Casilla 160-C, Concepcion, Chile.;Univ La Serena, Inst Invest Multidisciplinario Ciencia & Tecnol, Ave Raul Bitran S-N, La Serena, Chile.;Univ La Serena, Dept Astron, La Serena, Chile..
    Jönsson, Henrik
    Malmö University, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS), Department of Materials Science and Applied Mathematics (MTM).
    Lane, Richard R.
    Univ Bernardo OHiggins, Ctr Invest Astron, Ave Viel 1497, Santiago, Chile..
    Longa-Pena, Penelope
    Univ Antofagasta, Ctr Astron CITEVA, Ave Angamos 601, Antofagasta 1270300, Chile..
    Minchev, Ivan
    Leibniz Inst Astrophys Potsdam AIP, Sternwarte 16, D-14482 Potsdam, Germany..
    Minniti, Dante
    Univ Andres Bello, Fac Ciencias Exactas, Dept Ciencias Fis, Av Fernandez Concha 700, Santiago, Chile.;Vatican Observ, I-00120 Vatican City, Vatican..
    Nitschelm, Christian
    Univ Antofagasta, Ctr Astron CITEVA, Ave Angamos 601, Antofagasta 1270300, Chile..
    Roman-Lopes, A.
    Univ La Serena, Dept Astron, La Serena, Chile..
    The Open Cluster Chemical Abundances and Mapping Survey. VI. Galactic Chemical Gradient Analysis from APOGEE DR172022In: Astronomical Journal, ISSN 0004-6256, E-ISSN 1538-3881, Vol. 164, no 3, article id 85Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The goal of the Open Cluster Chemical Abundances and Mapping (OCCAM) survey is to constrain key Galactic dynamic and chemical evolution parameters by the construction and analysis of a large, comprehensive, uniform data set of infrared spectra for stars in hundreds of open clusters. This sixth contribution from the OCCAM survey presents analysis of SDSS/APOGEE Data Release 17 (DR17) results for a sample of stars in 150 open clusters, 94 of which we designate to be "high-quality" based on the appearance of their color-magnitude diagram. We find the APOGEE DR17-derived [Fe/H] values to be in good agreement with those from previous high-resolution spectroscopic open cluster abundance studies. Using a subset of the high-quality sample, the Galactic abundance gradients were measured for 16 chemical elements, including [Fe/H], for both Galactocentric radius (R (GC)) and guiding center radius (R (guide)). We find an overall Galactic [Fe/H] versus R (GC) gradient of -0.073 +/- 0.002 dex kpc(-1) over the range of 6 > R (GC) < 11.5 kpc, and a similar gradient is found for [Fe/H] versus R (guide). Significant Galactic abundance gradients are also noted for O, Mg, S, Ca, Mn, Na, Al, K, and Ce. Our large sample additionally allows us to explore the evolution of the gradients in four age bins for the remaining 15 elements.

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  • 27.
    Spoo, Taylor
    et al.
    Texas Christian Univ, Dept Phys & Astron, TCU Box 298840, Ft Worth, TX 76129 USA..
    Tayar, Jamie
    Univ Hawaii Manoa, Inst Astron, 2680 Woodlawn Dr, Honolulu, HI 96822 USA.;Univ Florida, Dept Astron, 211 Bryant Space Sci Ctr, Gainesville, FL 32611 USA..
    Frinchaboy, Peter M.
    Texas Christian Univ, Dept Phys & Astron, TCU Box 298840, Ft Worth, TX 76129 USA..
    Cunha, Katia
    Observ Nacl, Rua Gen Jose Cristino 77, BR-20921400 Rio De Janeiro, RJ, Brazil.;Univ Arizona, Steward Observ, 933 North Cherry Ave, Tucson, AZ 85721 USA..
    Myers, Natalie
    Texas Christian Univ, Dept Phys & Astron, TCU Box 298840, Ft Worth, TX 76129 USA..
    Donor, John
    Texas Christian Univ, Dept Phys & Astron, TCU Box 298840, Ft Worth, TX 76129 USA..
    Majewski, Steven R.
    Univ Virginia, Dept Astron, Charlottesville, VA 22904 USA..
    Bizyaev, Dmitry
    Apache Point Observ, POB 59, Sunspot, NM 88349 USA.;New Mexico State Univ, POB 59, Sunspot, NM 88349 USA.;Moscow MV Lomonosov State Univ, Sternberg Astron Inst, Moscow, Russia..
    Garcia-Hernandez, D. A.
    Inst Astrofis Canarias, Via Lactea S-N, E-38205 Tenerife, Spain.;Univ La Laguna, Dept Astrofis, E-30206 Tenerife, Spain..
    Jönsson, Henrik
    Malmö University, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS), Department of Materials Science and Applied Mathematics (MTM). Malmo Univ, Mat Sci & Appl Math, SE-20506 Malmo, Sweden..
    Lane, Richard R.
    Univ Bernardo OHiggins, Ctr Invest Astron, Ave Viel 1497, Santiago, Chile..
    Pan, Kaike
    Apache Point Observ, POB 59, Sunspot, NM 88349 USA.;New Mexico State Univ, POB 59, Sunspot, NM 88349 USA..
    Longa-Pena, Penelope
    Univ Antofagasta, Ctr Astron, Ave Angamos 601, Antofagasta 1270300, Chile..
    Roman-Lopes, A.
    Univ La Serena, Dept Astron, La Serena, Chile..
    The Open Cluster Chemical Abundances and Mapping Survey. VII. APOGEE DR17 [C/N]-Age Calibration2022In: Astronomical Journal, ISSN 0004-6256, E-ISSN 1538-3881, Vol. 163, no 5, article id 229Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Large-scale surveys open the possibility to investigate Galactic evolution both chemically and kinematically; however, reliable stellar ages remain a major challenge. Detailed chemical information provided by high-resolution spectroscopic surveys of the stars in clusters can be used as a means to calibrate recently developed chemical tools for age-dating field stars. Using data from the Open Cluster Abundances and Mapping survey, based on the Sloan Digital Sky Survey/Apache Point Observatory Galactic Evolution Experiment 2 survey, we derive a new empirical relationship between open cluster stellar ages and the carbon-to-nitrogen ([C/N]) abundance ratios for evolved stars, primarily those on the red giant branch. With this calibration, [C/N] can be used as a chemical clock for evolved field stars to investigate the formation and evolution of different parts of our Galaxy. We explore how mixing effects at different stellar evolutionary phases, like the red clump, affect the derived calibration. We have established the [C/N]-age calibration for APOGEE Data Release 17 (DR17) giant star abundances to be log [Age(yr)](DR17) = 10.14 (+/- 0.08) + 2.23(+/- 0.19) [C/N], usable for 8.62 <= log(Age[yr]) <= 9.82, derived from a uniform sample of 49 clusters observed as part of APOGEE DR17 applicable primarily to metal-rich, thin- and thick-disk giant stars. This measured [C/N]-age APOGEE DR17 calibration is also shown to be consistent with asteroseismic ages derived from Kepler photometry.

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  • 28.
    Abdurro'uf,
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    Max Planck Inst Extraterr Phys, Giessenbachstr 1, D-85748 Garching, Germany..
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    Max Planck Inst Extraterr Phys, Giessenbachstr 1, D-85748 Garching, Germany..
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    Penn State Univ, Eberly Coll Sci, Dept Astron & Astrophys, 525 Davey Lab, University Pk, PA 16802 USA..
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    Aix Marseille Univ, CPPM, CNRS IN2P3, Marseille, France..
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    Univ Arizona, Steward Observ, 933 North Cherry Ave, Tucson, AZ 85721 USA..
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    Univ Washington, Dept Astron, Box 351580, Seattle, WA 98195 USA..
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    Hebei Normal Univ, Coll Phys, Shijiazhuang 050024, Hebei, Peoples R China..
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    Max Planck Inst Astron, Konigstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg, Germany.;Lund Univ, Dept Astron & Theoret Phys, Lund Observ, Box 43, SE-22100 Lund, Sweden..
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    Max Planck Inst Astrophys, Karl Schwarzschild Str 1, D-85748 Garching, Germany..
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    Univ Washington, Dept Astron, Box 351580, Seattle, WA 98195 USA..
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    Texas Christian Univ, Dept Phys & Astron, Ft Worth, TX 76129 USA..
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    CSIC, Inst Space Sci ICE, Carrer Can Magrans S-N,Campus UAB, E-08193 Barcelona, Spain..
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    Univ Paris Saclay, Univ Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cite, AIM,CEA,CNRS, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette, France..
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    Inst Astrofis Canarias IAC, C Via Lactea S-N, E-38205 Tenerife, Spain.;Univ La Laguna ULL, Dept Astrofis, E-38206 Tenerife, Spain..
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    Chinese Acad Sci, Natl Astron Observ China, 20A Datun Rd, Beijing 100012, Peoples R China..
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    Univ La Serena, Inst Invest Multidisciplinario Ciencia & Tecnol, Ave Raul Bitran S-N, La Serena, Chile.;Univ Concepcion, Dept Astron, Casilla 160-C, Concepcion, Chile.;Univ La Serena, Fac Ciencias, Dept Fis & Astron, Av Juan Cisternas 1200, La Serena, Chile..
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    NYU, Ctr Cosmol & Particle Phys, Dept Phys, 726 Broadway,Room 1005, New York, NY 10003 USA..
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    Univ Utah, Dept Phys & Astron, 115 South 1400 East, Salt Lake City, UT 84112 USA..
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    Haverford Coll, Dept Phys, 370 Lancaster Ave, Haverford, PA 19041 USA..
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    Ohio State Univ, Dept Astron, 140 West 18th Ave, Columbus, OH 43210 USA.;Ohio State Univ, Ctr Cosmol & AstroParticle Phys, 140 West 18th Ave, Columbus, OH 43210 USA..
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    Apache Point Observ, POB 59, Sunspot, NM 88349 USA..
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    Chinese Acad Sci, Shanghai Astron Observ, 80 Nandan Rd, Shanghai 200030, Peoples R China..
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    Lawrence Berkeley Natl Lab, 1 Cyclotron Rd, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA..
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    Case Western Reserve Univ, Dept Astron, Cleveland, OH 44106 USA..
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    Univ Portsmouth, Inst Cosmol & Gravitat, Dennis Sciama Bldg, Portsmouth PO1 3FX, Hants, England..
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    New Mexico State Univ, Dept Astron, Las Cruces, NM 88003 USA..
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    Univ Hawaii, Inst Astron, 2680 Woodlawn Dr, Honolulu, HI 96822 USA..
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    Inst Astrofis Canarias IAC, C Via Lactea S-N, E-38205 Tenerife, Spain.;Univ La Laguna ULL, Dept Astrofis, E-38206 Tenerife, Spain.;Univ Paris, PSL Univ, LERMA, UMR 8112, F-75014 Paris, France..
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    Western Washington Univ, Comp Sci Dept, 516 High St, Bellingham, WA 98225 USA.;Pacific Northwest, Comp & Analyt Div, Richland, WA USA..
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    Max Planck Inst Extraterr Phys, Giessenbachstr 1, D-85748 Garching, Germany..
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    New Mexico State Univ, Dept Astron, Las Cruces, NM 88003 USA..
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    Space Telescope Sci Inst, 3700 San Martin Dr, Baltimore, MD 21218 USA..
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    Malmö University, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS), Department of Materials Science and Applied Mathematics (MTM).
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    Moscow MV Lomonosov State Univ, Sternberg Astron Inst, Moscow 119992, Russia.;NYU Abu Dhabi, POB 129188, Abu Dhabi, U Arab Emirates..
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    Apache Point Observ, POB 59, Sunspot, NM 88349 USA..
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    Liverpool John Moores Univ, Astrophys Res Inst, IC2,Liverpool Sci Pk,146 Brownlow Hill, Liverpool L3 5RF, Merseyside, England..
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    Inst Astrofis Canarias IAC, C Via Lactea S-N, E-38205 Tenerife, Spain.;Univ La Laguna ULL, Dept Astrofis, E-38206 Tenerife, Spain..
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    Heidelberg Univ, Astron Rech Inst, Zentrum Astron, Monchhofstr 12-14, D-69120 Heidelberg, Germany..
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    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Astron, 475 North Charter St, Madison, WI 53703 USA..
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    MAS, Millennium Inst Astrophys, Nuncio Monsenor Sotero Sanz 100,Of 104, Santiago, Chile.;Univ Atacama, Inst Astron & Ciencias Planetarias, Copayapu 485, Copiapo, Chile..
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    Univ Bernardo OHiggins, Ctr Invest Astron, Ave Viel 1497, Santiago, Chile..
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    Bryn Mawr Coll, 101 North Merion Ave, Bryn Mawr, PA 19010 USA..
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    South Carolina State Univ, Dept Biol & Phys Sci, POB 7024, Orangeburg, SC 29117 USA..
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    Space Telescope Sci Inst, 3700 San Martin Dr, Baltimore, MD 21218 USA..
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    Univ Kentucky, Dept Phys & Astron, 505 Rose St, Lexington, KY 40506 USA..
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    Univ Toronto, David A Dunlap Dept Astron & Astrophys, 50 St George St, Toronto, ON M5S 3H4, Canada..
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    Univ St Andrews, Sch Phys & Astron, St Andrews KY16 9SS, Fife, Scotland..
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    Univ Virginia, Dept Astron, Charlottesville, VA 22904 USA..
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    Tsinghua Univ, Dept Astron, Beijing 100084, Peoples R China..
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    Chinese Acad Sci, Natl Astron Observ China, 20A Datun Rd, Beijing 100012, Peoples R China..
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    Univ Utah, Dept Phys & Astron, 115 South 1400 East, Salt Lake City, UT 84112 USA..
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    Univ Oxford, Subdept Astrophys, Dept Phys, Denys Wilkinson Bldg,Keble Rd, Oxford OX1 3RH, England.;Tsinghua Univ, Dept Astron, Beijing 100084, Peoples R China..
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    Acad Sinica, Inst Astron & Astrophys, 11F AS NTU,Astron Math Bldg 1,Sec 4,Roosevelt Rd, Taipei 10617, Taiwan..
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    Acad Sinica, Inst Astron & Astrophys, 11F AS NTU,Astron Math Bldg 1,Sec 4,Roosevelt Rd, Taipei 10617, Taiwan..
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    NYU, Ctr Cosmol & Particle Phys, Dept Phys, 726 Broadway,Room 1005, New York, NY 10003 USA..
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    Univ Oxford, Subdept Astrophys, Dept Phys, Denys Wilkinson Bldg,Keble Rd, Oxford OX1 3RH, England..
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    Apache Point Observ, POB 59, Sunspot, NM 88349 USA..
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    Univ Antofagasta, Ctr Astronom CITEVA, Ave Angamos 601, Antofagasta 1270300, Chile..
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    Acad Sinica, Inst Astron & Astrophys, 11F AS NTU,Astron Math Bldg 1,Sec 4,Roosevelt Rd, Taipei 10617, Taiwan..
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    Tsinghua Univ, Dept Astron, Beijing 100084, Peoples R China..
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    Univ N Carolina, Dept Phys & Astron, One Univ Hts, Asheville, NC 28804 USA..
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    Johns Hopkins Univ, Ctr Astrophys Sci, Dept Phys & Astron, 3400 North Charles St, Baltimore, MD 21218 USA..
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    Univ Toronto, David A Dunlap Dept Astron & Astrophys, 50 St George St, Toronto, ON M5S 3H4, Canada.;Univ Toronto, Dunlap Inst Astron & Astrophys, 50 St George St, Toronto, ON M5S 3H4, Canada.;Univ Toronto, Canadian Inst Theoret Astrophys, 60 St George St, Toronto, ON M5S 3H8, Canada..
    de la Macorra, Axel
    Univ Nacl Autonoma Mexico, Inst Fis, Cd De Mexico 04510, Mexico..
    Mahadevan, Suvrath
    Penn State Univ, Eberly Coll Sci, Dept Astron & Astrophys, 525 Davey Lab, University Pk, PA 16802 USA..
    Majewski, Steven R.
    Univ Virginia, Dept Astron, Charlottesville, VA 22904 USA..
    Manchado, Arturo
    Inst Astrofis Canarias IAC, C Via Lactea S-N, E-38205 Tenerife, Spain.;Univ La Laguna ULL, Dept Astrofis, E-38206 Tenerife, Spain.;CSIC, Madrid, Spain..
    Mandeville, Travis
    Univ Washington, Dept Astron, Box 351580, Seattle, WA 98195 USA..
    Maraston, Claudia
    Univ Portsmouth, Inst Cosmol & Gravitat, Dennis Sciama Bldg, Portsmouth PO1 3FX, Hants, England..
    Margalef-Bentabol, Berta
    Univ Penn, Dept Phys & Astron, Philadelphia, PA 19104 USA..
    Masseron, Thomas
    Inst Astrofis Canarias IAC, C Via Lactea S-N, E-38205 Tenerife, Spain.;Univ La Laguna ULL, Dept Astrofis, E-38206 Tenerife, Spain..
    Masters, Karen L.
    Haverford Coll, Dept Phys, 370 Lancaster Ave, Haverford, PA 19041 USA..
    Mathur, Savita
    Inst Astrofis Canarias IAC, C Via Lactea S-N, E-38205 Tenerife, Spain.;Univ La Laguna ULL, Dept Astrofis, E-38206 Tenerife, Spain..
    McDermid, Richard M.
    Macquarie Univ, Dept Phys & Astron, Sydney, NSW 2109, Australia.;ARC Ctr Excellence All Sky Astrophys 3 Dimens AST, Stromlo, ACT, Australia..
    Mckay, Myles
    Univ Washington, Dept Astron, Box 351580, Seattle, WA 98195 USA..
    Merloni, Andrea
    Max Planck Inst Extraterr Phys, Giessenbachstr 1, D-85748 Garching, Germany..
    Merrifield, Michael
    Univ Nottingham, Sch Phys & Astron, Univ Pk, Nottingham NG7 2RD, England..
    Meszaros, Szabolcs
    Eotvos Lorand Univ, Gothard Astrophys Observ, Szent Imre H St 112, H-9700 Szombathely, Hungary.;MTA ELTE Lendulet Milky Way Res Grp, Budapest, Hungary.;MTA ELTE Exoplanet Res Grp, Budapest, Hungary..
    Miglio, Andrea
    Univ Bologna, Dipartimento Fis & Astron Augusto Righi, Via Gobetti 93-2, I-40129 Bologna, Italy..
    Di Mille, Francesco
    Campanas Observ, Colina El Pino Casilla 601, La Serena, Chile..
    Minniti, Dante
    Univ Andres Bello, Dept Ciencias Fis, Av Republ 220, Santiago, Chile.;Vatican Observ, V-00120 Vatican City, Vatican..
    Minsley, Rebecca
    Bates Coll, Dept Phys & Astron, 44 Campus Ave, Lewiston, ME 04240 USA..
    Monachesi, Antonela
    Univ La Serena, Dept Astron, Av Juan Cisternas 1200 Norte, La Serena, Chile.;Univ La Serena, Inst Invest Multidisciplinario Ciencia & Tecnol, Ave Raul Bitran S-N, La Serena, Chile..
    Moon, Jeongin
    Sejong Univ, Dept Astron & Space Sci, 209 Neungdong Ro, Seoul, South Korea..
    Mosser, Benoit
    Univ Paris, Sorbonne Univ, CNRS, LESIA,Observ Paris,Univ PSL, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92195 Meudon, France..
    Mulchaey, John
    Observ Carnegie Inst Sci, 813 Santa Barbara St, Pasadena, CA 91101 USA..
    Muna, Demitri
    Ohio State Univ, Dept Astron, 140 West 18th Ave, Columbus, OH 43210 USA.;Ohio State Univ, Ctr Cosmol & AstroParticle Phys, 140 West 18th Ave, Columbus, OH 43210 USA..
    Munoz, Ricardo R.
    Univ Chile, Dept Astron, Camino El Observ 1515, Las Condes, Chile..
    Myers, Adam D.
    Univ Wyoming, Dept Phys & Astron, Laramie, WY 82071 USA..
    Myers, Natalie
    Texas Christian Univ, Dept Phys & Astron, Ft Worth, TX 76129 USA..
    Nadathur, Seshadri
    UCL, Dept Phys & Astron, Gower St, London WC1E 6BT, England..
    Nair, Preethi
    Univ Alabama, Dept Phys & Astron, Tuscaloosa, AL 35487 USA..
    Nandra, Kirpal
    Max Planck Inst Extraterr Phys, Giessenbachstr 1, D-85748 Garching, Germany..
    Neumann, Justus
    Univ Portsmouth, Inst Cosmol & Gravitat, Dennis Sciama Bldg, Portsmouth PO1 3FX, Hants, England..
    Newman, Jeffrey A.
    Univ Pittsburgh, Dept Phys & Astron, PITT PACC, Pittsburgh, PA 15260 USA..
    Nidever, David L.
    Montana State Univ, Dept Phys, POB 173840, Bozeman, MT 59717 USA..
    Nikakhtar, Farnik
    Univ Penn, Dept Phys & Astron, Philadelphia, PA 19104 USA..
    Nitschelm, Christian
    Univ Antofagasta, Ctr Astronom CITEVA, Ave Angamos 601, Antofagasta 1270300, Chile..
    O'Connell, Julia E.
    Texas Christian Univ, Dept Phys & Astron, Ft Worth, TX 76129 USA.;Univ Concepcion, Dept Astron, Casilla 160-C, Concepcion, Chile..
    Garma-Oehmichen, Luis
    Univ Nacl Autonoma Mexico, Inst Astron, AP 70-264, Cdmx 04510, Mexico..
    de Oliveira, Gabriel Luan Souza
    Lab Interinst E Astron, 77 Rua Gen Jose Cristino, BR-20921400 Rio De Janeiro, Brazil.;Univ Fed Santa Maria, Ctr Ciencias Nat & Exatas, Dept Fis, BR-97105900 Santa Maria, RS, Brazil..
    Olney, Richard
    Western Washington Univ, Dept Phys & Astron, 516 High St, Bellingham, WA 98225 USA..
    Oravetz, Daniel
    Apache Point Observ, POB 59, Sunspot, NM 88349 USA..
    Ortigoza-Urdaneta, Mario
    Univ Atacama, Inst Astron & Ciencias Planetarias, Copayapu 485, Copiapo, Chile..
    Osorio, Yeisson
    Inst Astrofis Canarias IAC, C Via Lactea S-N, E-38205 Tenerife, Spain..
    Otter, Justin
    Johns Hopkins Univ, Ctr Astrophys Sci, Dept Phys & Astron, 3400 North Charles St, Baltimore, MD 21218 USA..
    Pace, Zachary J.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Astron, 475 North Charter St, Madison, WI 53703 USA..
    Padilla, Nelson
    Pontificia Univ Catolica Chile, Inst Astrofis, Av Vicuna Mackenna 4860, Santiago 7820436, Chile..
    Pan, Kaike
    Apache Point Observ, POB 59, Sunspot, NM 88349 USA..
    Pan, Hsi-An
    Max Planck Inst Astron, Konigstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Parikh, Taniya
    Max Planck Inst Extraterr Phys, Giessenbachstr 1, D-85748 Garching, Germany..
    Parker, James
    Apache Point Observ, POB 59, Sunspot, NM 88349 USA..
    Peirani, Sebastien
    SU CNRS, Inst Astrophys Paris, UMR 7095, 98Bis Bd Arago, F-75014 Paris, France..
    Ramirez, Karla Pena
    Univ Antofagasta, Ctr Astronom CITEVA, Ave Angamos 601, Antofagasta 1270300, Chile..
    Penny, Samantha
    Univ Portsmouth, Inst Cosmol & Gravitat, Dennis Sciama Bldg, Portsmouth PO1 3FX, Hants, England..
    Percival, Will J.
    Univ Waterloo, Waterloo Ctr Astrophys, Waterloo, ON N2L 3G1, Canada.;Univ Waterloo, Dept Phys & Astron, Waterloo, ON N2L 3G1, Canada.;Perimeter Inst Theoret Phys, Waterloo, ON N2L 2Y5, Canada..
    Perez-Fournon, Ismael
    Inst Astrofis Canarias IAC, C Via Lactea S-N, E-38205 Tenerife, Spain.;Univ La Laguna ULL, Dept Astrofis, E-38206 Tenerife, Spain..
    Pinsonneault, Marc
    Ohio State Univ, Dept Astron, 140 West 18th Ave, Columbus, OH 43210 USA.;Ohio State Univ, Ctr Cosmol & AstroParticle Phys, 140 West 18th Ave, Columbus, OH 43210 USA..
    Poidevin, Frederick
    Inst Astrofis Canarias IAC, C Via Lactea S-N, E-38205 Tenerife, Spain.;Univ La Laguna ULL, Dept Astrofis, E-38206 Tenerife, Spain..
    Poovelil, Vijith Jacob
    Univ Utah, Dept Phys & Astron, 115 South 1400 East, Salt Lake City, UT 84112 USA..
    Price-Whelan, Adrian M.
    Flatiron Inst, Ctr Computat Astrophys, 162 Fifth Ave, New York, NY 10010 USA..
    Queiroz, Anna Barbara de Andrade
    Leibniz Inst Astrophys Potsdam AIP, Sternwarte 16, D-14482 Potsdam, Germany..
    Raddick, M. Jordan
    Johns Hopkins Univ, Ctr Astrophys Sci, Dept Phys & Astron, 3400 North Charles St, Baltimore, MD 21218 USA..
    Ray, Amy
    Texas Christian Univ, Dept Phys & Astron, Ft Worth, TX 76129 USA..
    Rembold, Sandro Barboza
    Lab Interinst E Astron, 77 Rua Gen Jose Cristino, BR-20921400 Rio De Janeiro, Brazil.;Univ Fed Santa Maria, Ctr Ciencias Nat & Exatas, Dept Fis, BR-97105900 Santa Maria, RS, Brazil..
    Riddle, Nicole
    Texas Christian Univ, Dept Phys & Astron, Ft Worth, TX 76129 USA..
    Riffel, Rogemar A.
    Lab Interinst E Astron, 77 Rua Gen Jose Cristino, BR-20921400 Rio De Janeiro, Brazil.;Univ Fed Santa Maria, Ctr Ciencias Nat & Exatas, Dept Fis, BR-97105900 Santa Maria, RS, Brazil..
    Riffel, Rogerio
    Lab Interinst E Astron, 77 Rua Gen Jose Cristino, BR-20921400 Rio De Janeiro, Brazil.;Univ Fed Rio Grande do Sul, Inst Fis, Dept Astron, Av Bento Goncalves 9500, BR-91501970 Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil..
    Rix, Hans-Walter
    Max Planck Inst Astron, Konigstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Robin, Annie C.
    Univ Bourgogne Franche Comte, OSU THETA Franche Comte Bourgogne, Inst UTINAM, CNRS, F-25000 Besancon, France..
    Rodriguez-Puebla, Aldo
    Univ Nacl Autonoma Mexico, Inst Astron, AP 70-264, Cdmx 04510, Mexico..
    Roman-Lopes, Alexandre
    Univ La Serena, Dept Astron, Av Juan Cisternas 1200 Norte, La Serena, Chile..
    Roman-Zuniga, Carlos
    Univ Nacl Autonoma Mexico, Inst Astron, AP 106, Ensenada 22800, Baja California, Mexico..
    Rose, Benjamin
    Univ Notre Dame, Dept Phys, Notre Dame, IN 46556 USA.;Univ Notre Dame, JINA Ctr Evolut Elements, Notre Dame, IN 46556 USA..
    Ross, Ashley J.
    Ohio State Univ, Ctr Cosmol & AstroParticle Phys, 140 West 18th Ave, Columbus, OH 43210 USA.;Ohio State Univ, Dept Phys, Columbus, OH 43210 USA..
    Rossi, Graziano
    Sejong Univ, Dept Astron & Space Sci, 209 Neungdong Ro, Seoul, South Korea..
    Rubin, Kate H. R.
    Univ Calif San Diego, Ctr Astrophys & Space Sci, La Jolla, CA 92093 USA.;San Diego State Univ, Dept Astron, San Diego, CA 92182 USA..
    Salvato, Mara
    Max Planck Inst Extraterr Phys, Giessenbachstr 1, D-85748 Garching, Germany..
    Sanchez, Sebastian F.
    Univ Nacl Autonoma Mexico, Inst Astron, AP 70-264, Cdmx 04510, Mexico..
    Sanchez-Gallego, Jose R.
    Univ Washington, Dept Astron, Box 351580, Seattle, WA 98195 USA..
    Sanderson, Robyn
    Univ Penn, Dept Phys & Astron, Philadelphia, PA 19104 USA.;Flatiron Inst, Ctr Computat Astrophys, 162 Fifth Ave, New York, NY 10010 USA..
    Rojas, Felipe Antonio Santana
    Univ Chile, Dept Astron, Camino El Observ 1515, Las Condes, Chile..
    Sarceno, Edgar
    Bates Coll, Dept Phys & Astron, 44 Campus Ave, Lewiston, ME 04240 USA..
    Sarmiento, Regina
    Inst Astrofis Canarias IAC, C Via Lactea S-N, E-38205 Tenerife, Spain.;Univ La Laguna ULL, Dept Astrofis, E-38206 Tenerife, Spain..
    Sayres, Conor
    Univ Washington, Dept Astron, Box 351580, Seattle, WA 98195 USA..
    Sazonova, Elizaveta
    Johns Hopkins Univ, Ctr Astrophys Sci, Dept Phys & Astron, 3400 North Charles St, Baltimore, MD 21218 USA..
    Schaefer, Adam L.
    Max Planck Inst Astrophys, Karl Schwarzschild Str 1, D-85748 Garching, Germany..
    Schiavon, Ricardo
    Liverpool John Moores Univ, Astrophys Res Inst, IC2,Liverpool Sci Pk,146 Brownlow Hill, Liverpool L3 5RF, Merseyside, England..
    Schlegel, David J.
    Lawrence Berkeley Natl Lab, 1 Cyclotron Rd, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA..
    Schneider, Donald P.
    Penn State Univ, Eberly Coll Sci, Dept Astron & Astrophys, 525 Davey Lab, University Pk, PA 16802 USA.;Penn State Univ, Inst Gravitat & Cosmos, University Pk, PA 16802 USA..
    Schultheis, Mathias
    Observ Cote dAzur, Lab Lagrange, F-06304 Nice 4, France..
    Schwope, Axel
    Leibniz Inst Astrophys Potsdam AIP, Sternwarte 16, D-14482 Potsdam, Germany..
    Serenelli, Aldo
    CSIC, Inst Space Sci ICE, Carrer Can Magrans S-N,Campus UAB, E-08193 Barcelona, Spain.;Inst Estudis Espacials Catalunya, C Gran Capita 2-4, Barcelona, Spain..
    Serna, Javier
    Univ Nacl Autonoma Mexico, Inst Astron, AP 70-264, Cdmx 04510, Mexico..
    Shao, Zhengyi
    Chinese Acad Sci, Shanghai Astron Observ, 80 Nandan Rd, Shanghai 200030, Peoples R China..
    Shapiro, Griffin
    Middlebury Coll, Middlebury, VT 05753 USA..
    Sharma, Anubhav
    Haverford Coll, Dept Phys, 370 Lancaster Ave, Haverford, PA 19041 USA..
    Shen, Yue
    Univ Illinois, Dept Astron, Urbana, IL 61801 USA..
    Shetrone, Matthew
    Univ Calif Santa Cruz, UCO Lick Observ, 1156 High St, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 USA..
    Shu, Yiping
    Max Planck Inst Astrophys, Karl Schwarzschild Str 1, D-85748 Garching, Germany..
    Simon, Joshua D.
    Observ Carnegie Inst Sci, 813 Santa Barbara St, Pasadena, CA 91101 USA..
    Skrutskie, M. F.
    Univ Virginia, Dept Astron, Charlottesville, VA 22904 USA..
    Smethurst, Rebecca
    Univ Oxford, Subdept Astrophys, Dept Phys, Denys Wilkinson Bldg,Keble Rd, Oxford OX1 3RH, England..
    Smith, Verne
    NSFs Natl Opt Infrared Astron Res Lab, 950 North Cherry Ave, Tucson, AZ 85719 USA..
    Sobeck, Jennifer
    Univ Washington, Dept Astron, Box 351580, Seattle, WA 98195 USA..
    Spoo, Taylor
    Texas Christian Univ, Dept Phys & Astron, Ft Worth, TX 76129 USA..
    Sprague, Dani
    Western Washington Univ, Comp Sci Dept, 516 High St, Bellingham, WA 98225 USA..
    Stark, David, V
    Haverford Coll, Dept Phys, 370 Lancaster Ave, Haverford, PA 19041 USA..
    Stassun, Keivan G.
    Vanderbilt Univ, Dept Phys & Astron, VU Stn 1807, Nashville, TN 37235 USA..
    Steinmetz, Matthias
    Leibniz Inst Astrophys Potsdam AIP, Sternwarte 16, D-14482 Potsdam, Germany..
    Stello, Dennis
    Univ Sydney, Sch Phys, Sydney Inst Astron, Sydney, NSW 2006, Australia.;UNSW Sydney, Sch Phys, Sydney, NSW 2052, Australia..
    Stone-Martinez, Alexander
    New Mexico State Univ, Dept Astron, Las Cruces, NM 88003 USA..
    Storchi-Bergmann, Thaisa
    Lab Interinst E Astron, 77 Rua Gen Jose Cristino, BR-20921400 Rio De Janeiro, Brazil.;Univ Fed Rio Grande do Sul, Inst Fis, Dept Astron, Av Bento Goncalves 9500, BR-91501970 Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil..
    Stringfellow, Guy S.
    Univ Colorado, Ctr Astrophys & Space Astron, Dept Astrophys & Planetary Sci, 389 UCB, Boulder, CO 80309 USA..
    Stutz, Amelia
    Univ Concepcion, Dept Astron, Casilla 160-C, Concepcion, Chile..
    Su, Yung-Chau
    Acad Sinica, Inst Astron & Astrophys, 11F AS NTU,Astron Math Bldg 1,Sec 4,Roosevelt Rd, Taipei 10617, Taiwan.;Natl Taiwan Univ, Dept Phys, Taipei 10617, Taiwan..
    Taghizadeh-Popp, Manuchehr
    Johns Hopkins Univ, Ctr Astrophys Sci, Dept Phys & Astron, 3400 North Charles St, Baltimore, MD 21218 USA..
    Talbot, Michael S.
    Univ Utah, Dept Phys & Astron, 115 South 1400 East, Salt Lake City, UT 84112 USA..
    Tayar, Jamie
    Univ Hawaii, Inst Astron, 2680 Woodlawn Dr, Honolulu, HI 96822 USA..
    Telles, Eduardo
    Observ Nacl, Rio De Janeiro, Brazil..
    Teske, Johanna
    Carnegie Inst Sci, Earth & Planets Lab, 5241 Broad Branch Rd NW, Washington, DC 20015 USA..
    Thakar, Ani
    Johns Hopkins Univ, Ctr Astrophys Sci, Dept Phys & Astron, 3400 North Charles St, Baltimore, MD 21218 USA..
    Theissen, Christopher
    Univ Calif San Diego, Ctr Astrophys & Space Sci, La Jolla, CA 92093 USA..
    Tkachenko, Andrew
    Katholieke Univ Leuven, Inst Astron, Celestijnenlaan 200D, B-3001 Leuven, Belgium..
    Thomas, Daniel
    Univ Portsmouth, Inst Cosmol & Gravitat, Dennis Sciama Bldg, Portsmouth PO1 3FX, Hants, England..
    Tojeiro, Rita
    Univ St Andrews, Sch Phys & Astron, St Andrews KY16 9SS, Fife, Scotland..
    Toledo, Hector Hernandez
    Univ Nacl Autonoma Mexico, Inst Astron, AP 70-264, Cdmx 04510, Mexico..
    Troup, Nicholas W.
    Salisbury Univ, Dept Phys, 1101 Camden Ave, Salisbury, MD 21804 USA..
    Trump, Jonathan R.
    Univ Connecticut, Dept Phys, 2152 Hillside Rd,Unit 3046, Storrs, CT 06269 USA..
    Trussler, James
    Univ Cambridge, Cavendish Lab, 19 JJ Thomson Ave, Cambridge CB3 0HE, England.;Univ Cambridge, Kavli Inst Cosmol, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 0HA, England..
    Turner, Jacqueline
    Haverford Coll, Dept Phys, 370 Lancaster Ave, Haverford, PA 19041 USA..
    Tuttle, Sarah
    Univ Washington, Dept Astron, Box 351580, Seattle, WA 98195 USA..
    Unda-Sanzana, Eduardo
    Univ Antofagasta, Ctr Astronom CITEVA, Ave Angamos 601, Antofagasta 1270300, Chile..
    Vazquez-Mata, Jose Antonio
    Univ Nacl Autonoma Mexico, Inst Astron, AP 70-264, Cdmx 04510, Mexico.;Univ Nacl Autonoma Mexico, Fac Ciencias, Dept Fis, Ciudad Univ, Cdmx 04510, Mexico..
    Valentini, Marica
    Leibniz Inst Astrophys Potsdam AIP, Sternwarte 16, D-14482 Potsdam, Germany..
    Valenzuela, Octavio
    Univ Nacl Autonoma Mexico, Inst Astron, AP 70-264, Cdmx 04510, Mexico..
    Vargas-Gonzalez, Jaime
    Univ Hertfordshire, Ctr Astrophys Res, Sch Phys Astron & Math, Coll Lane, Hatfield AL10 9AB, Herts, England..
    Vargas-Magana, Mariana
    Univ Nacl Autonoma Mexico, Inst Fis, Cd De Mexico 04510, Mexico..
    Alfaro, Pablo Vera
    Univ La Serena, Dept Astron, Av Juan Cisternas 1200 Norte, La Serena, Chile..
    Villanova, Sandro
    Univ Concepcion, Dept Astron, Casilla 160-C, Concepcion, Chile..
    Vincenzo, Fiorenzo
    Ohio State Univ, Dept Astron, 140 West 18th Ave, Columbus, OH 43210 USA.;Ohio State Univ, Ctr Cosmol & AstroParticle Phys, 140 West 18th Ave, Columbus, OH 43210 USA..
    Wake, David
    Univ N Carolina, Dept Phys & Astron, One Univ Hts, Asheville, NC 28804 USA..
    Warfield, Jack T.
    Univ Virginia, Dept Astron, Charlottesville, VA 22904 USA..
    Washington, Jessica Diane
    Wellesley Coll, 106 Cent St, Wellesley, MA 02481 USA..
    Weaver, Benjamin Alan
    NSFs Natl Opt Infrared Astron Res Lab, 950 North Cherry Ave, Tucson, AZ 85719 USA..
    Weijmans, Anne-Marie
    Univ St Andrews, Sch Phys & Astron, St Andrews KY16 9SS, Fife, Scotland..
    Weinberg, David H.
    Ohio State Univ, Dept Astron, 140 West 18th Ave, Columbus, OH 43210 USA.;Ohio State Univ, Ctr Cosmol & AstroParticle Phys, 140 West 18th Ave, Columbus, OH 43210 USA..
    Weiss, Achim
    Max Planck Inst Astrophys, Karl Schwarzschild Str 1, D-85748 Garching, Germany..
    Westfall, Kyle B.
    Univ Calif Santa Cruz, UCO Lick Observ, 1156 High St, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 USA..
    Wild, Vivienne
    Univ St Andrews, Sch Phys & Astron, St Andrews KY16 9SS, Fife, Scotland..
    Wilde, Matthew C.
    Univ Washington, Dept Astron, Box 351580, Seattle, WA 98195 USA..
    Wilson, John C.
    Univ Virginia, Dept Astron, Charlottesville, VA 22904 USA..
    Wilson, Robert F.
    Univ Virginia, Dept Astron, Charlottesville, VA 22904 USA..
    Wilson, Mikayla
    Texas Christian Univ, Dept Phys & Astron, Ft Worth, TX 76129 USA..
    Wolf, Julien
    Max Planck Inst Extraterr Phys, Giessenbachstr 1, D-85748 Garching, Germany.;Exzellenzcluster ORIGINS, Boltzmannstr 2, D-85748 Garching, Germany..
    Wood-Vasey, W. M.
    Univ Pittsburgh, Dept Phys & Astron, PITT PACC, Pittsburgh, PA 15260 USA..
    Yan, Renbin
    Univ Kentucky, Dept Phys & Astron, 505 Rose St, Lexington, KY 40506 USA.;Chinese Univ Hong Kong, Dept Phys, Shatin, Hong Kong, Peoples R China..
    Zamora, Olga
    Inst Astrofis Canarias IAC, C Via Lactea S-N, E-38205 Tenerife, Spain..
    Zasowski, Gail
    Univ Utah, Dept Phys & Astron, 115 South 1400 East, Salt Lake City, UT 84112 USA..
    Zhang, Kai
    Lawrence Berkeley Natl Lab, 1 Cyclotron Rd, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA..
    Zhao, Cheng
    Ecole Polytech Fed Lausanne EPFL, Observ Sauverny, Lab Astrophys, Inst Phys, CH-1290 Versoix, Switzerland..
    Zheng, Zheng
    Univ Utah, Dept Phys & Astron, 115 South 1400 East, Salt Lake City, UT 84112 USA.;Chinese Acad Sci, Natl Astron Observ China, 20A Datun Rd, Beijing 100012, Peoples R China..
    Zhu, Kai
    Chinese Acad Sci, Natl Astron Observ China, 20A Datun Rd, Beijing 100012, Peoples R China..
    The Seventeenth Data Release of the Sloan Digital Sky Surveys: Complete Release of MaNGA, MaStar, and APOGEE-2 Data2022In: Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series, ISSN 0067-0049, E-ISSN 1538-4365, Vol. 259, no 2, article id 35Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper documents the seventeenth data release (DR17) from the Sloan Digital Sky Surveys; the fifth and final release from the fourth phase (SDSS-IV). DR17 contains the complete release of the Mapping Nearby Galaxies at Apache Point Observatory (MaNGA) survey, which reached its goal of surveying over 10,000 nearby galaxies. The complete release of the MaNGA Stellar Library accompanies this data, providing observations of almost 30,000 stars through the MaNGA instrument during bright time. DR17 also contains the complete release of the Apache Point Observatory Galactic Evolution Experiment 2 survey that publicly releases infrared spectra of over 650,000 stars. The main sample from the Extended Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (eBOSS), as well as the subsurvey Time Domain Spectroscopic Survey data were fully released in DR16. New single-fiber optical spectroscopy released in DR17 is from the SPectroscipic IDentification of ERosita Survey subsurvey and the eBOSS-RM program. Along with the primary data sets, DR17 includes 25 new or updated value-added catalogs. This paper concludes the release of SDSS-IV survey data. SDSS continues into its fifth phase with observations already underway for the Milky Way Mapper, Local Volume Mapper, and Black Hole Mapper surveys.

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  • 29.
    Hasselquist, Sten
    et al.
    Univ Utah, Dept Phys Astron, Salt Lake City, UT 84112 USA..
    Hayes, Christian R.
    Univ Washington, Dept Astron, Seattle, WA 98195 USA..
    Lian, Jianhui
    Univ Utah, Dept Phys Astron, Salt Lake City, UT 84112 USA..
    Weinberg, David H.
    Ohio State Univ, Dept Astron, 140 W 18th Ave, Columbus, OH 43210 USA.;Ohio State Univ, Dept Astron, 140 W 18th Ave, Columbus, OH 43210 USA.;Ohio State Univ, Ctr Cosmol & AstroParticle Phys, 140 W 18th Ave, Columbus, OH 43210 USA..
    Zasowski, Gail
    Univ Utah, Dept Phys Astron, Salt Lake City, UT 84112 USA..
    Horta, Danny
    Liverpool John Moores Univ, Astrophys Res Inst, IC2,Liverpool Sci Pk,146 Brownlow Hill, Liverpool, Merseyside L3 5RF, England..
    Beaton, Rachael
    Princeton Univ, Dept Astrophys Sci, 4 Ivy Lane, Princeton, NJ 08544 USA..
    Feuillet, Diane K.
    Lund Observ, Dept Astron & Theoret Phys, Box 43, SE-22100 Lund, Sweden..
    Garro, Elisa R.
    Univ Andres Bello, Fac Ciencias Exactas, Dept Ciencias Fis, Fernandez Concha 700, Santiago, Chile..
    Gallart, Carme
    IAC, E-38205 Tenerife, Spain.;ULL, Dept Astrofis, E-38206 Tenerife, Spain..
    Smith, Verne V.
    Natl Opt Astron Observ, 950 North Cherry Ave, Tucson, AZ 85719 USA..
    Holtzman, Jon A.
    New Mexico State Univ, Dept Astron, Las Cruces, NM 88003 USA..
    Minniti, Dante
    Univ Andres Bello, Fac Ciencias Exactas, Dept Ciencias Fis, Fernandez Concha 700, Santiago, Chile.;Vatican Observ, Albano Laziale, Vatican..
    Lacerna, Ivan
    Univ Atacama, Inst Astron & Ciencias Planetarias, Copayapu 485, Copiapo, Chile.;Millennium Inst Astrophys, Nuncio Monsenor Sotero Sanz 100,Of 104, Santiago, Chile..
    Shetrone, Matthew
    Lick Observ, Mt Hamilton, CA USA..
    Jönsson, Henrik
    Malmö University, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS), Department of Materials Science and Applied Mathematics (MTM).
    Cioni, Maria-Rosa L.
    Leibniz Inst Astrophys Potsdam, Sternwarte 16, D-14482 Potsdam, Germany..
    Fillingham, Sean P.
    Univ Washington, Dept Astron, Seattle, WA 98195 USA..
    Cunha, Katia
    Univ Arizona, Steward Observ, Tucson, AZ 85719 USA.;Observ Nacl, BR-20921400 Rio De Janeiro, RJ, Brazil..
    O'Connell, Robert
    Univ Virginia, Dept Astron, Charlottesville, VA 22903 USA..
    Fernandez-Trincado, Jose G.
    Univ Atacama, Inst Astron & Ciencias Planetarias, Copayapu 485, Copiapo, Chile.;Univ Catolica Norte, Inst Astron, Av Angamos 0610, Antofagasta, Chile..
    Munoz, Ricardo R.
    Univ Chile, Dept Astron, Camino Observ 1515, Santiago, Chile..
    Schiavon, Ricardo
    Liverpool John Moores Univ, Astrophys Res Inst, IC2,Liverpool Sci Pk,146 Brownlow Hill, Liverpool, Merseyside L3 5RF, England..
    Almeida, Andres
    Univ La Serena, Inst Invest Multidisciplinario Ciencia & Tecnol, Ave Raul Bitran S-N, La Serena, Chile..
    Anguiano, Borja
    Univ Virginia, Dept Astron, Charlottesville, VA 22903 USA..
    Beers, Timothy C.
    Univ Notre Dame, Dept Phys, Notre Dame, IN 46556 USA.;Univ Notre Dame, JINA Ctr Evolut Elements, Notre Dame, IN 46556 USA..
    Bizyaev, Dmitry
    Apache Point Observ, Sunspot, NM 88349 USA.;New Mexico State Univ, Sunspot, NM 88349 USA.;Moscow MV Lomonosov State Univ, Sternberg Astron Inst, Moscow 119992, Russia..
    Brownstein, Joel R.
    Univ Utah, Dept Phys Astron, Salt Lake City, UT 84112 USA..
    Cohen, Roger E.
    Space Telescope Sci Inst, 3700 San Martin Dr, Baltimore, MD 21218 USA..
    Frinchaboy, Peter
    Texas Christian Univ, Dept Phys & Astron, Ft Worth, TX 76129 USA..
    Garcia-Hernandez, D. A.
    IAC, E-38205 Tenerife, Spain.;ULL, Dept Astrofis, E-38206 Tenerife, Spain..
    Geisler, Doug
    Univ La Serena, Inst Invest Multidisciplinario Ciencia & Tecnol, Ave Raul Bitran S-N, La Serena, Chile.;Univ Concepcion, Dept Astron, Casilla 160-C, Concepcion, Chile.;Univ La Serena, Fac Ciencias, Dept Fis & Astron, Av Juan Cisternas 1200, La Serena, Chile..
    Lane, Richard R.
    Univ Catolica Norte, Inst Astron, Av Angamos 0610, Antofagasta, Chile.;Univ Bernardo OHiggins, Ctr Invest Astron, Ave Viel 1497, Santiago, Chile..
    Majewski, Steven R.
    Univ Virginia, Dept Astron, Charlottesville, VA 22903 USA..
    Nidever, David L.
    Montana State Univ, Dept Phys, POB 173840, Bozeman, MT 59717 USA..
    Nitschelm, Christian
    Univ Antofagasta, Ctr Astron CITEVA, Ave Angamos 601, Antofagasta 1270300, Chile..
    Povick, Joshua
    Montana State Univ, Dept Phys, POB 173840, Bozeman, MT 59717 USA..
    Price-Whelan, Adrian
    Flatiron Inst, Ctr Computat Astrophys, 162 5th Ave, New York, NY 10010 USA..
    Roman-Lopes, Alexandre
    Lick Observ, Mt Hamilton, CA USA.;Univ La Serena, Fac Ciencias, Dept Fis & Astron, Av Juan Cisternas 1200, La Serena, Chile..
    Rosado, Margarita
    Univ Nacl Autonoma Mexico, Inst Astron, AP 70-264, Mexico City 04510, DF, Mexico..
    Sobeck, Jennifer
    Univ Washington, Dept Astron, Seattle, WA 98195 USA..
    Stringfellow, Guy
    Univ Colorado, Dept Astrophys & Planetary Sci, Ctr Astrophys & Space Astron, Boulder, CO 80309 USA..
    Valenzuela, Octavio
    Univ Nacl Autonoma Mexico, Inst Astron, AP 70-264, Mexico City 04510, DF, Mexico..
    Villanova, Sandro
    Univ Concepcion, Dept Astron, Casilla 160-C, Concepcion, Chile..
    Vincenzo, Fiorenzo
    Ohio State Univ, Dept Astron, 140 W 18th Ave, Columbus, OH 43210 USA..
    APOGEE Chemical Abundance Patterns of the Massive Milky Way Satellites2021In: Astrophysical Journal, ISSN 0004-637X, E-ISSN 1538-4357, Vol. 923, no 2, article id 172Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The SDSS-IV Apache Point Observatory Galactic Evolution Experiment (APOGEE) survey has obtained high-resolution spectra for thousands of red giant stars distributed among the massive satellite galaxies of the Milky Way (MW): the Large and Small Magellanic Clouds (LMC/SMC), the Sagittarius Dwarf Galaxy (Sgr), Fornax (Fnx), and the now fully disrupted Gaia Sausage/Enceladus (GSE) system. We present and analyze the APOGEE chemical abundance patterns of each galaxy to draw robust conclusions about their star formation histories, by quantifying the relative abundance trends of multiple elements (C, N, O, Mg, Al, Si, Ca, Fe, Ni, and Ce), as well as by fitting chemical evolution models to the [alpha/Fe]-[Fe/H] abundance plane for each galaxy. Results show that the chemical signatures of the starburst in the Magellanic Clouds (MCs) observed by Nidever et al. in the alpha-element abundances extend to C+N, Al, and Ni, with the major burst in the SMC occurring some 3-4 Gyr before the burst in the LMC. We find that Sgr and Fnx also exhibit chemical abundance patterns suggestive of secondary star formation epochs, but these events were weaker and earlier (similar to 5-7 Gyr ago) than those observed in the MCs. There is no chemical evidence of a second starburst in GSE, but this galaxy shows the strongest initial star formation as compared to the other four galaxies. All dwarf galaxies had greater relative contributions of AGB stars to their enrichment than the MW. Comparing and contrasting these chemical patterns highlight the importance of galaxy environment on its chemical evolution.

  • 30.
    Heiter, U.
    et al.
    Observational Astrophysics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Uppsala University, Box 516, Uppsala, 75120, Sweden.
    Lind, K.
    Department of Astronomy, Stockholm University, AlbaNova, Roslagstullbacken 21, Stockholm, 10691, Sweden.
    Bergemann, M.
    Max-Planck Institut für Astronomie (MPIA), Königstuhl 17, Heidelberg, 69117, Germany.
    Asplund, M.
    Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Australian National University, Cotter Road, Weston Creek, 2611, ACT, Australia.
    Mikolaitis, S.
    Institute of Theoretical Physics and Astronomy, Vilnius University, Saulėtekio av. 3, Vilnius, 10257, Lithuania.
    Barklem, P. S.
    Observational Astrophysics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Uppsala University, Box 516, Uppsala, 75120, Sweden.
    Masseron, T.
    Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, La Laguna, Tenerife, 38205, Spain; Departamento de Astrofísica, Universidad de la Laguna, La Laguna, Tenerife, 38206, Spain.
    de Laverny, P.
    Université Côte d'Azur, Observatoire de la Côte d'Azur, CNRS, Laboratoire Lagrange, Blvd de l'Observatoire, Nice, 06304, France.
    Magrini, L.
    INAF-Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri, Largo E. Fermi 5, Florence, 50125, Italy.
    Edvardsson, B.
    Observational Astrophysics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Uppsala University, Box 516, Uppsala, 75120, Sweden.
    Jönsson, H.
    Malmö University, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS), Department of Materials Science and Applied Mathematics (MTM). Lund Observatory, Department of Astronomy and Theoretical Physics, Lund University, Box 43, Lund, 22100, Sweden.
    Pickering, J. C.
    Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College London, London, SW72BW, United Kingdom.
    Ryde, N.
    Lund Observatory, Department of Astronomy and Theoretical Physics, Lund University, Box 43, Lund, 22100, Sweden.
    Aran, A. Bayo
    Instituto de Física y Astronomiá, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Valparaíso, Av. Gran Bretanã 1111, Casilla, Valparaíso, 5030, Chile; Núcleo Milenio de Formación Planetaria-NPF, Universidad de Valparaíso, Av. Gran Bretanã 1111, Valparaíso, Chile.
    Bensby, T.
    Lund Observatory, Department of Astronomy and Theoretical Physics, Lund University, Box 43, Lund, 22100, Sweden.
    Casey, A. R.
    Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge, CB30HA, United Kingdom; School of Physics and Astronomy, Monash University, Wellington Rd, Clayton, 3800, VIC, Australia; Center of Excellence for Astrophysics in Three Dimensions (ASTRO-3D), Australia.
    Feltzing, S.
    Lund Observatory, Department of Astronomy and Theoretical Physics, Lund University, Box 43, Lund, 22100, Sweden.
    Jofre, P.
    Núcleo de Astronomiá, Facultad de Ingenieriá, Universidad Diego Portales, Av. Ejército 441, Santiago, Chile.
    Korn, A. J.
    Observational Astrophysics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Uppsala University, Box 516, Uppsala, 75120, Sweden.
    Pancino, E.
    INAF-Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri, Largo E. Fermi 5, Florence, 50125, Italy; Space Science Data Center, Agenzia Spaziale Italiana, Via del Politecnico, s.n.c., Roma, 00133, Italy.
    Damiani, F.
    INAF, Osservatorio Astronomico di Palermo, Piazza del Parlamento 1, Palermo, 90134, Italy.
    Lanzafame, A.
    Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Sezione Astrofisica, Universitá di Catania, Via S. Sofia 78, Catania, 95123, Italy.
    Lardo, C.
    Laboratoire d'Astrophysique, Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL), Observatoire de Sauverny, Versoix, 1290, Switzerland.
    Monaco, L.
    Departamento de Ciencias Fisicas, Universidad Andres Bello, Fernandez Concha 700, Las Condes, Santiago, Chile.
    Morbidelli, L.
    INAF-Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri, Largo E. Fermi 5, Florence, 50125, Italy.
    Smiljanic, R.
    Nicolaus Copernicus Astronomical Center, Polish Academy of Sciences, ul. Bartycka 18, Warsaw, 00-716, Poland.
    Worley, C.
    Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge, CB30HA, United Kingdom.
    Zaggia, S.
    INAF-Padova Observatory, Vicolo dell'Osservatorio 5, Padova, 35122, Italy.
    Randich, S.
    INAF-Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri, Largo E. Fermi 5, Florence, 50125, Italy.
    Gilmore, G. F.
    Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge, CB30HA, United Kingdom.
    Atomic data for the Gaia-ESO Survey2021In: Astronomy and Astrophysics, ISSN 0004-6361, E-ISSN 1432-0746, Vol. 645, article id A106Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Context. We describe the atomic and molecular data that were used for the abundance analyses of FGK-type stars carried out within the Gaia-ESO Public Spectroscopic Survey in the years 2012 to 2019. The Gaia-ESO Survey is one among several current and future stellar spectroscopic surveys producing abundances for Milky-Way stars on an industrial scale.Aims. We present an unprecedented effort to create a homogeneous common line list, which was used by several abundance analysis groups using different radiative transfer codes to calculate synthetic spectra and equivalent widths. The atomic data are accompanied by quality indicators and detailed references to the sources. The atomic and molecular data are made publicly available at the CDS.Methods. In general, experimental transition probabilities were preferred but theoretical values were also used. Astrophysical gf-values were avoided due to the model-dependence of such a procedure. For elements whose lines are significantly affected by a hyperfine structure or isotopic splitting, a concerted effort has been made to collate the necessary data for the individual line components. Synthetic stellar spectra calculated for the Sun and Arcturus were used to assess the blending properties of the lines. We also performed adetailed investigation of available data for line broadening due to collisions with neutral hydrogen atoms.Results. Among a subset of over 1300 lines of 35 elements in the wavelength ranges from 475 to 685 nm and from 850 to 895 nm, we identified about 200 lines of 24 species which have accurate gf-values and are free of blends in the spectra of the Sun and Arcturus. For the broadening due to collisions with neutral hydrogen, we recommend data based on Anstee-Barklem-O'Mara theory, where possible. We recommend avoiding lines of neutral species for which these are not available. Theoretical broadening data by R.L. Kurucz should be used for ScII, TiII, and YII lines; additionally, for ionised rare-earth species, the Unsold approximation with an enhancement factor of 1.5 for the line width can be used.Conclusions. The line list has proven to be a useful tool for abundance determinations based on the spectra obtained within the Gaia-ESO Survey, as well as other spectroscopic projects. Accuracies below 0.2 dex are regularly achieved, where part of the uncertainties are due to differences in the employed analysis methods. Desirable improvements in atomic data were identified for a number of species, most importantly AlI, SI, and CrII, but also NaI, SiI, CaII, and NiI.

  • 31.
    Geisler, D.
    et al.
    Univ Concepcion, Dept Astron, Casilla 160-C, Concepcion, Chile.;Univ La Serena, Inst Invest Multidisciplinario Ciencia & Tecnol, Ave Raul Bitran S-N, La Serena, Chile.;Univ La Serena, Fac Ciencias, Dept Astron, Av Juan Cisternas 1200, La Serena, Chile..
    Villanova, S.
    Univ Concepcion, Dept Astron, Casilla 160-C, Concepcion, Chile..
    O'Connell, J. E.
    Univ Concepcion, Dept Astron, Casilla 160-C, Concepcion, Chile..
    Cohen, R. E.
    Space Telescope Sci Inst, 3700 San Martin Dr, Baltimore, MD 21218 USA..
    Moni Bidin, C.
    Univ Catolica Norte, Inst Astron, Av Angamos 0610, Antofagasta, Chile..
    Fernandez-Trincado, J. G.
    Univ Catolica Norte, Inst Astron, Av Angamos 0610, Antofagasta, Chile.;Univ Atacama, Inst Astron & Ciencias Planetarias, Copayapu 485, Copiapo, Chile..
    Munoz, C.
    Univ Concepcion, Dept Astron, Casilla 160-C, Concepcion, Chile.;Univ La Serena, Inst Invest Multidisciplinario Ciencia & Tecnol, Ave Raul Bitran S-N, La Serena, Chile.;Univ La Serena, Fac Ciencias, Dept Astron, Av Juan Cisternas 1200, La Serena, Chile..
    Minniti, D.
    Millennium Inst Astrophys, Santiago, Chile.;Univ Andres Bello, Fac Ciencias Exactas, Dept Ciencias Fis, Fernandez Concha 700, Santiago, Chile.;Vatican Observ, I-00120 Vatican City, Vatican..
    Zoccali, M.
    Millennium Inst Astrophys, Santiago, Chile.;Pontificia Univ Catolica Chile, Inst Astrofis, Av Vicuna Mackenna 4860, Santiago 7820436, Chile..
    Rojas-Arriagada, A.
    Millennium Inst Astrophys, Santiago, Chile.;Pontificia Univ Catolica Chile, Inst Astrofis, Av Vicuna Mackenna 4860, Santiago 7820436, Chile..
    Ramos, R. Contreras
    Millennium Inst Astrophys, Santiago, Chile.;Pontificia Univ Catolica Chile, Inst Astrofis, Av Vicuna Mackenna 4860, Santiago 7820436, Chile..
    Catelan, M.
    Millennium Inst Astrophys, Santiago, Chile.;Pontificia Univ Catolica Chile, Inst Astrofis, Av Vicuna Mackenna 4860, Santiago 7820436, Chile.;Pontificia Univ Catolica Chile, Ctr Astroingn, Av Vicuna Mackenna 4860, Santiago 7820436, Chile..
    Mauro, F.
    Univ Catolica Norte, Inst Astron, Av Angamos 0610, Antofagasta, Chile..
    Cortes, C.
    Millennium Inst Astrophys, Santiago, Chile.;Univ Metropolitana Educ, Dept Fis, Fac Ciencias Basicas, Av Jose Pedro Alessandri 774, Santiago 7760197, Chile..
    Ferreira Lopes, C. E.
    Natl Inst Space Res INPE MCTI, Av Astronautas 1758, BR-12227010 Sao Jose Dos Campos, SP, Brazil..
    Arentsen, A.
    Univ Strasbourg, Observ Astron Strasbourg, CNRS, UMR 7550, F-67000 Strasbourg, France..
    Starkenburg, E.
    Leibniz Inst Astrophys Potsdam AIP, Sternwarte 16, D-14482 Potsdam, Germany.;Univ Groningen, Kapteyn Astron Inst, Landleven 12, NL-9747 AD Groningen, Netherlands..
    Martin, N. F.
    Univ Strasbourg, Observ Astron Strasbourg, CNRS, UMR 7550, F-67000 Strasbourg, France.;Max Planck Inst Astron, Konigstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Tang, B.
    Sun Yat Sen Univ, Sch Phys & Astron, Zhuhai 519082, Peoples R China..
    Parisi, C.
    Univ Nacl Cordoba, Observ Astron, Laprida 854,X5000BGR, Cordoba, Argentina.;UNC, Inst Astron Teor & Expt, CONICET, Laprida 854,X5000BGR, Cordoba, Argentina..
    Alonso-Garcia, J.
    Millennium Inst Astrophys, Santiago, Chile.;Univ Antofagasta, Ctr Astron CITEVA, Av Angamos 601, Antofagasta, Chile..
    Gran, F.
    Millennium Inst Astrophys, Santiago, Chile.;Pontificia Univ Catolica Chile, Inst Astrofis, Av Vicuna Mackenna 4860, Santiago 7820436, Chile.;ESO Vitacura, Alonso de Cordova 3107, Santiago, Chile..
    Cunha, K.
    Univ Arizona, Steward Observ, 933 North Cherry Ave, Tucson, AZ 85721 USA.;Observ Nacl, Rua Gen Jose Cristino 77, BR-20921400 Rio De Janeiro, RJ, Brazil..
    Smith, V
    Natl Opt Astron Observ, 950 North Cherry Ave, Tucson, AZ 85719 USA..
    Majewski, S. R.
    Univ Virginia, Dept Astron, Charlottesville, VA 22904 USA..
    Jönsson, Henrik
    Malmö University, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS), Department of Materials Science and Applied Mathematics (MTM).
    Garcia-Hernandez, D. A.
    Inst Astrofis Canarias IAC, Tenerife 38205, Spain.;Univ La Laguna ULL, Dept Astrofis, Tenerife 38206, Spain..
    Horta, D.
    Liverpool John Moores Univ, Astrophys Res Inst, 146 Brownlow Hill, Liverpool L3 5RF, Merseyside, England..
    Meszaros, S.
    Eotvos Lorand Univ, Gothard Astrophys Observ, Szent Imre H St 112, H-9700 Szombathely, Hungary.;MTA ELTE Exoplanet Res Grp, Szombathely, Hungary..
    Monaco, L.
    Univ Andres Bello, Fac Ciencias Exactas, Dept Ciencias Fis, Fernandez Concha 700, Santiago, Chile..
    Monachesi, A.
    Univ La Serena, Inst Invest Multidisciplinario Ciencia & Tecnol, Ave Raul Bitran S-N, La Serena, Chile.;Univ La Serena, Fac Ciencias, Dept Astron, Av Juan Cisternas 1200, La Serena, Chile..
    Munoz, R. R.
    Univ Chile, Dept Astron, Camino Observ 1515, Santiago, Chile..
    Brownstein, J.
    Univ Utah, Dept Phys & Astron, 115 S 1400 E, Salt Lake City, UT 84112 USA..
    Beers, T. C.
    Univ Notre Dame, Dept Phys, Notre Dame, IN 46556 USA.;Univ Notre Dame, JINA Ctr Evolut Elements, Notre Dame, IN 46556 USA..
    Lane, R. R.
    Univ Bernardo O Higgins, Ctr Invest Astron, Ave Viel 1497, Santiago, Chile..
    Barbuy, B.
    Univ Sao Paulo, IAG, Rua Matao 1226,Cidade Univ, BR-05508900 Sao Paulo, Brazil..
    Sobeck, J.
    Univ Washington, Dept Astron, Seattle, WA 98195 USA..
    Henao, L.
    Univ Concepcion, Dept Astron, Casilla 160-C, Concepcion, Chile..
    Gonzalez-Diaz, D.
    Univ Catolica Norte, Inst Astron, Av Angamos 0610, Antofagasta, Chile.;Univ Antioquia, Inst Fis, Calle 70,52-21, Medellin, Colombia..
    Miranda, R. E.
    Univ Catolica Norte, Inst Astron, Av Angamos 0610, Antofagasta, Chile..
    Reinarz, Y.
    Univ Catolica Norte, Inst Astron, Av Angamos 0610, Antofagasta, Chile..
    Santander, T. A.
    Univ Catolica Norte, Inst Astron, Av Angamos 0610, Antofagasta, Chile..
    CAPOS: The bulge Cluster APOgee Survey I. Overview and initial ASPCAP results2021In: Astronomy and Astrophysics, ISSN 0004-6361, E-ISSN 1432-0746, Vol. 652, article id A157Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Context. Bulge globular clusters (BGCs) are exceptional tracers of the formation and chemodynamical evolution of this oldest Galactic component. However, until now, observational difficulties have prevented us from taking full advantage of these powerful Galactic archeological tools. Aims. CAPOS, the bulge Cluster APOgee Survey, addresses this key topic by observing a large number of BGCs, most of which have only been poorly studied previously. Even their most basic parameters, such as metallicity, [alpha/Fe], and radial velocity, are generally very uncertain. We aim to obtain accurate mean values for these parameters, as well as abundances for a number of other elements, and explore multiple populations. In this first paper, we describe the CAPOS project and present initial results for seven BGCs. Methods. CAPOS uses the APOGEE-2S spectrograph observing in the H band to penetrate obscuring dust toward the bulge. For this initial paper, we use abundances derived from ASPCAP, the APOGEE pipeline. Results. We derive mean [Fe/H] values of -0.85 +/- 0.04 (Terzan 2), -1.40 +/- 0.05 (Terzan 4), -1.20 +/- 0.10 (HP 1), -1.40 +/- 0.07 (Terzan 9), -1.07 +/- 0.09 (Djorg 2), -1.06 +/- 0.06 (NGC 6540), and -1.11 +/- 0.04 (NGC 6642) from three to ten stars per cluster. We determine mean abundances for eleven other elements plus the mean [alpha/Fe] and radial velocity. CAPOS clusters significantly increase the sample of well-studied Main Bulge globular clusters (GCs) and also extend them to lower metallicity. We reinforce the finding that Main Bulge and Main Disk GCs, formed in situ, have [Si/Fe] abundances slightly higher than their accreted counterparts at the same metallicity. We investigate multiple populations and find our clusters generally follow the light-element (anti)correlation trends of previous studies of GCs of similar metallicity. We finally explore the abundances of the iron-peak elements Mn and Ni and compare their trends with field populations. Conclusions. CAPOS is proving to be an unprecedented resource for greatly improving our knowledge of the formation and evolution of BGCs and the bulge itself.

  • 32.
    Meszaros, Szabolcs
    et al.
    Eotvos Lorand Univ, Gothard Astrophys Observ, Szent Imre H St 112, H-9700 Szombathely, Hungary.;MTA ELTE Exoplanet Res Grp, Szombathely, Hungary..
    Masseron, Thomas
    Inst Astrofis Canarias IAC, E-38205 Tenerife, Spain.;Univ La Laguna ULL, Dept Astrofis, E-38206 Tenerife, Spain..
    Fernandez-Trincado, Jose G.
    Univ Atacama, Inst Astron & Ciencias Planetarias, Copayapu 485, Copiapo, Chile.;Univ Bernardo OHiggins, Ctr Invest Astron, Ave Viel 1497, Santiago, Chile..
    Garcia-Hernandez, D. A.
    Inst Astrofis Canarias IAC, E-38205 Tenerife, Spain.;Univ La Laguna ULL, Dept Astrofis, E-38206 Tenerife, Spain..
    Szigeti, Laszlo
    Eotvos Lorand Univ, Gothard Astrophys Observ, Szent Imre H St 112, H-9700 Szombathely, Hungary.;MTA ELTE Exoplanet Res Grp, Szombathely, Hungary..
    Cunha, Katia
    Univ Arizona, Steward Observ, 933 North Cherry Ave, Tucson, AZ 85721 USA.;Observ Nacl, BR-20921400 Sao Cristovao, RJ, Brazil..
    Shetrone, Matthew
    Univ Texas Austin, McDonald Observ, Ft Davis, TX 79734 USA..
    Smith, Verne V.
    NOIRLab, Tucson, AZ 85719 USA..
    Beaton, Rachael L.
    Carnegie Observ, 813 Santa Barbara St, Pasadena, CA 91101 USA..
    Beers, Timothy C.
    Univ Notre Dame, Dept Phys, Notre Dame, IN 46556 USA.;Univ Notre Dame, JINA Ctr Evolut Elements, Notre Dame, IN 46556 USA..
    Brownstein, Joel R.
    Univ Utah, Dept Phys & Astron, Salt Lake City, UT 84112 USA..
    Geisler, Doug
    Univ Concepcion, Dept Astron, Casilla 160-C, Concepcion, Chile.;Univ La Serena, Inst Invest Multidisciplinario Ciencia & Tecnol, Ave Raul Bitran S-N, La Serena, Chile.;Univ La Serena, Fac Ciencias, Dept Astron, Av Juan Cisternas 1200, La Serena, Chile..
    Hayes, Christian R.
    Univ Washington, Dept Astron, Box 351580, Seattle, WA 98195 USA..
    Jönsson, Henrik
    Malmö University, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS), Department of Materials Science and Applied Mathematics (MTM).
    Lane, Richard R.
    Univ Bernardo OHiggins, Ctr Invest Astron, Ave Viel 1497, Santiago, Chile..
    Majewski, Steven R.
    Univ Virginia, Dept Astron, Charlottesville, VA 22904 USA..
    Minniti, Dante
    Univ Andres Bello, Fac Ciencias Exactas, Dept Ciencias Fis, Av Fernandez Concha 700, Santiago 7591538, Chile.;Millennium Inst Astrophys, Av Vicuna Mackenna 4860, Santiago 7820436, Chile.;Vatican Observ, V-00120 Vatican City, Vatican..
    Munoz, Ricardo R.
    Univ Utah, Dept Phys & Astron, Salt Lake City, UT 84112 USA..
    Nitschelm, Christian
    Univ Antofagasta, Ctr Astron CITEVA, Ave Angamos 601, Antofagasta 1270300, Chile..
    Roman-Lopes, Alexandre
    Univ La Serena, Inst Invest Multidisciplinario Ciencia & Tecnol, Ave Raul Bitran S-N, La Serena, Chile..
    Zamora, Olga
    Inst Astrofis Canarias IAC, E-38205 Tenerife, Spain.;Univ La Laguna ULL, Dept Astrofis, E-38206 Tenerife, Spain..
    Homogeneous analysis of globular clusters from the APOGEE survey with the BACCHUS code - III. omega Cen2021In: Monthly notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, ISSN 0035-8711, E-ISSN 1365-2966, Vol. 505, no 2, p. 1645-1660Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We study the multiple populations of omega Cen by using the abundances of Fe, C, N, O, Mg, Al, Si, K, Ca, and Ce from the high-resolution, high signal-to-noise (S/N > 70) spectra of 982 red giant stars observed by the SDSS-IV/APOGEE-2 survey. We find that the shape of the Al-Mg and N-C anticorrelations changes as a function of metallicity, continuous for the metal-poor groups, but bimodal (or unimodal) at high metallicities. There are four Fe populations, similarly to previous literature findings, but we find seven populations based on Fe, Al, and Mg abundances. The evolution of Al in omega Cen is compared to its evolution in the Milky Way and in five representative globular clusters. We find that the distribution of Al in metal-rich stars of omega Cen closely follows what is observed in the Galaxy. Other alpha-elements and C, N, O, and Ce are also compared to the Milky Way, and significantly elevated abundances are observed over what is found in the thick disc for almost all elements. However, we also find some stars with high metallicity and low [Al/Fe], suggesting that omega Cen could be the remnant core of a dwarf galaxy, but the existence of these peculiar stars needs an independent confirmation. We also confirm the increase in the sum of CNO as a function of metallicity previously reported in the literature and find that the [C/N] ratio appears to show opposite correlations between Al-poor and Al-rich stars as a function of metallicity.

  • 33.
    Nikakhtar, Farnik
    et al.
    Univ Penn, Dept Phys & Astron, 209 S 33rd St, Philadelphia, PA 19104 USA..
    Sanderson, Robyn E.
    Univ Penn, Dept Phys & Astron, 209 S 33rd St, Philadelphia, PA 19104 USA.;Flatiron Inst, Ctr Computat Astrophys, 162 5th Ave, New York, NY 10010 USA..
    Wetzel, Andrew
    Univ Calif Davis, Dept Phys & Astron, Davis, CA 95616 USA..
    Loebman, Sarah
    Univ Calif Davis, Dept Phys & Astron, Davis, CA 95616 USA.;Univ Calif Merced, Dept Phys, 5200 North Lake Rd, Merced, CA 95343 USA..
    Sharma, Sanjib
    Univ Sydney, Sch Phys, Sydney Inst Astron, A28, Sydney, NSW 2006, Australia.;Ctr Excellence Astrophys Three Dimens ASTRO 3D, Canberra, ACT, Australia..
    Beaton, Rachael
    Princeton Univ, Dept Astrophys Sci, 4 Ivy Lane, Princeton, NJ 08544 USA.;Observ Carnegie Inst Sci, 813 Santa Barbara St, Pasadena, CA 91101 USA..
    Mackereth, J. Ted
    Univ Toronto, Canadian Inst Theoret Astrophys, 60 St George St, Toronto, ON M5S 3H8, Canada.;Univ Toronto, Dunlap Inst Astron & Astrophys, 50 St George St, Toronto, ON M5S 3H4, Canada..
    Poovelil, Vijith Jacob
    Univ Utah, Dept Phys & Astron, Salt Lake City, UT 84112 USA..
    Zasowski, Gail
    Univ Utah, Dept Phys & Astron, Salt Lake City, UT 84112 USA..
    Bonaca, Ana
    Ctr Astrophys Harvard & Smithsonian, 60 Garden St, Cambridge, MA 02138 USA..
    Martell, Sarah
    Ctr Excellence Astrophys Three Dimens ASTRO 3D, Canberra, ACT, Australia.;UNSW, Sch Phys, Sydney, NSW 2052, Australia..
    Jönsson, Henrik
    Malmö University, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS), Department of Materials Science and Applied Mathematics (MTM).
    Faucher-Giguere, Claude-Andre
    Northwestern Univ, Dept Phys & Astron, 2145 Sheridan Rd, Evanston, IL 60208 USA.;Northwestern Univ, CIERA, 2145 Sheridan Rd, Evanston, IL 60208 USA..
    New Families in our Solar Neighborhood: Applying Gaussian Mixture Models for Objective Classification of Structures in the Milky Way and in Simulations2021In: Astrophysical Journal, ISSN 0004-637X, E-ISSN 1538-4357, Vol. 921, no 2, article id 106Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The standard picture of galaxy formation motivates the decomposition of the Milky Way into 3-4 stellar populations with distinct kinematic and elemental abundance distributions: the thin disk, thick disk, bulge, and stellar halo. To test this idea, we construct a Gaussian mixture model (GMM) for both simulated and observed stars in the solar neighborhood, using measured velocities and iron abundances (i.e., an augmented Toomre diagram) as the distributions to be decomposed. We compare results for the Gaia-APOGEE DR16 crossmatch catalog of the solar neighborhood with those from a suite of synthetic Gaia-APOGEE crossmatches constructed from FIRE-2 cosmological simulations of Milky Way mass galaxies. We find that in both the synthetic and real data, the best-fit GMM uses five independent components, some of whose properties resemble the standard populations predicted by galaxy formation theory. Two components can be identified unambiguously as the thin disk and another as the halo. However, instead of a single counterpart to the thick disk, there are three intermediate components with different age and alpha abundance distributions (although these data are not used to construct the model). We use decompositions of the synthetic data to show that the classified components indeed correspond to stars with different origins. By analogy with the simulated data, we show that our mixture model of the real Gaia-APOGEE crossmatch distinguishes the following components: (1) a classic thin disk of young stars on circular orbits (46%), (2) thin disk stars heated by interactions with satellites (22%), (3, 4) two components representing the velocity asymmetry of the alpha-enhanced thick disk (27%), and (5) a stellar halo consistent with early, massive accretion (4%).

  • 34.
    Smith, Verne V.
    et al.
    NSFs NOIRLab, 950 N Cherry Ave, Tucson, AZ 85719 USA..
    Bizyaev, Dmitry
    Apache Point Observ, Sunspot, NM 88349 USA.;New Mexico State Univ, Sunspot, NM 88349 USA.;Moscow MV Lomonosov State Univ, Sternberg Astron Inst, Moscow 119992, Russia..
    Cunha, Katia
    Univ Arizona, Steward Observ, Dept Astron, Tucson, AZ 85721 USA.;MCTI, Observ Nacl, Rio De Janeiro, Brazil..
    Shetrone, Matthew D.
    Univ Texas Austin, McDonald Observ, Austin, TX 78712 USA.;Univ Texas Austin, Dept Astron, RLM 15308, Austin, TX 78712 USA..
    Souto, Diogo
    Univ Fed Sergipe, Sao Cristovao, Brazil..
    Allende Prieto, Carlos
    Inst Astroffs Canarias IAC, E-38205 Tenerife, Spain.;Univ La Laguna ULL, Dept Astrofis, E-38206 Tenerife, Spain..
    Masseron, Thomas
    Inst Astroffs Canarias IAC, E-38205 Tenerife, Spain.;Univ La Laguna ULL, Dept Astrofis, E-38206 Tenerife, Spain..
    Meszaros, Szabolcs
    Eotvos Lorand Univ, Gothard Astrophys Observ, Szent Imre H St 112, H-9700 Szombathely, Hungary.;MTA ELTE Exoplanet Res Grp, Szombathely, Hungary..
    Jönsson, Henrik
    Malmö University, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS), Department of Materials Science and Applied Mathematics (MTM). Lund Univ, Dept Astron & Theoret Phys, Lund Observ, Box 43, SE-22100 Lund, Sweden..
    Hasselquist, Sten
    Univ Utah, Dept Phys & Astron, Salt Lake City, UT 84112 USA..
    Osorio, Yeisson
    Inst Astroffs Canarias IAC, E-38205 Tenerife, Spain.;Univ La Laguna ULL, Dept Astrofis, E-38206 Tenerife, Spain..
    Garcia-Hernandez, D. A.
    Inst Astroffs Canarias IAC, E-38205 Tenerife, Spain.;Univ La Laguna ULL, Dept Astrofis, E-38206 Tenerife, Spain..
    Plez, Bertrand
    Univ Montpellier, CNRS, LUPM, UMR 5299, F-34095 Montpellier, France..
    Beaton, Rachael L.
    Princeton Univ, Dept Astrophys Sci, 4 Ivy Lane, Princeton, NJ 08544 USA..
    Holtzman, Jon
    New Mexico State Univ, Astron Dept, Las Cruces, NM 88003 USA..
    Majewski, Steven R.
    Univ Virginia, Dept Astron, POB 400325, Charlottesville, VA 22904 USA..
    Stringfellow, Guy S.
    Univ Colorado, Ctr Astrophys & Space Astron, Dept Astrophys & Planetary Sci, Boulder, CO 80309 USA..
    Sobeck, Jennifer
    Univ Washington, Dept Astron, Box 351580, Seattle, WA 98195 USA..
    The APOGEE Data Release 16 Spectral Line List2021In: Astronomical Journal, ISSN 0004-6256, E-ISSN 1538-3881, Vol. 161, no 6, article id 254Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The updated H-band spectral-line list (from lambda 15000-17000) adopted by the Apache Point Observatory Galactic Evolution Experiment (APOGEE) for the SDSS-IV Data Release 16 (DR16) is presented in this work. The APOGEE line list is a combination of atomic and molecular lines, with data drawn from laboratory, theoretical, and astrophysical sources. Oscillator strengths and damping constants are adjusted using high signal-to-noise, high-resolution spectra of the Sun, and alpha Boo (Arcturus), as "standard stars." Updates to the DR16 line list, as compared to the previous DR14 version, include the addition of molecular H2O and FeH lines, as well as a much larger (by a factor of similar to 4) atomic line list, including a significantly greater number of transitions with hyperfine splitting. More recent references and line lists for the crucial molecules, CO and OH, as well as for C-2 and SiH, are also included. In contrast to DR14, DR16 contains measurable lines from the heavy neutron-capture elements cerium (as Ce ii), neodymium (as Nd ii), and ytterbium (as Yb ii), as well as one line from rubidium (as Rb i), which may be detectable in a small fraction of APOGEE red giants.

  • 35.
    Griffith, Emily
    et al.
    The Department of Astronomy and Center of Cosmology and AstroParticle Physics, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210, USA.
    Weinberg, David H.
    The Department of Astronomy and Center of Cosmology and AstroParticle Physics, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210, USA.
    Johnson, Jennifer A.
    The Department of Astronomy and Center of Cosmology and AstroParticle Physics, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210, USA.
    Beaton, Rachael
    The Carnegie Observatories, 813 Santa Barbara Street, Pasadena, CA 91101, USA.
    Garcia-Hernandez, D. A.
    Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias (IAC), E-38205 La Laguna, Tenerife, Spain; Universidad de La Laguna (ULL), Departamento de Astrofísica, E-38206 La Laguna, Tenerife, Spain.
    Hasselquist, Sten
    Department of Physics & Astronomy, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT 84112, USA.
    Holtzman, Jon
    Department of Astronomy, New Mexico State University, Las Cruces, NM 88003, USA.
    Johnson, James W.
    The Department of Astronomy and Center of Cosmology and AstroParticle Physics, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210, USA.
    Jönsson, Henrik
    Malmö University, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS), Department of Materials Science and Applied Mathematics (MTM). Lund Observatory, Department of Astronomy and Theoretical Physics, Lund University, Box 43, SE-22100 Lund, Sweden.
    Lane, Richard R.
    Instituto de Astronomía y Ciencias Planetarias de Atacama, Universidad de Atacama, Copayapu 485, Copiapó, Chile.
    Nataf, David M.
    Center for Astrophysical Sciences and Department of Physics and Astronomy, The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21218, USA.
    Roman-Lopes, Alexandre
    Departamento de Astronomía, Universidad de La Serena—Av. Juan Cisternas, 1200 North, La Serena, Chile.
    The Similarity of Abundance Ratio Trends and Nucleosynthetic Patterns in the Milky Way Disk and Bulge2021In: Astrophysical Journal, ISSN 0004-637X, E-ISSN 1538-4357, Vol. 909, no 1, article id 77Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We compare abundance ratio trends in a sample of similar to 11,000 Milky Way bulge stars (R-GC < 3 kpc) from the Apache Point Observatory Galactic Evolution Experiment (APOGEE) to those of APOGEE stars in the Galactic disk (5 kpc < R-GC < 11 kpc). We divide each sample into low-Ia (high-[Mg/Fe]) and high-Ia (low-[Mg/Fe]) populations, and in each population, we examine the median trends of [X/Mg] versus [Mg/H] for elements X = Fe, O, Na, Al, Si, P, S, K, Ca, V, Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, and Ce. To remove small systematic trends of APOGEE abundances with stellar log(g), we resample the disk stars to match the log(g) distributions of the bulge data. After doing so, we find nearly identical median trends for low-Ia disk and bulge stars for all elements. High-Ia trends are similar for most elements, with noticeable (0.05-0.1 dex) differences for Mn, Na, and Co. The close agreement of abundance trends (with typical differences less than or similar to 0.03 dex) implies that similar nucleosynthetic processes enriched bulge and disk stars despite the different star formation histories and physical conditions of these regions. For example, we infer that differences in the high-mass slope of the stellar initial mass function between disk and bulge must have been less than or similar to 0.30. This agreement, and the generally small scatter about the median sequences, means that one can predict all of a bulge star's APOGEE abundances with good accuracy knowing only its measured [Mg/Fe] and [Mg/H] and the observed trends of disk stars.

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  • 36.
    Jönsson, Henrik
    et al.
    Malmö University, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS), Department of Materials Science and Applied Mathematics (MTM). Lund Observatory, Department of Astronomy and Theoretical Physics, Lund University, Box 43, Lund, SE-22100, Sweden.
    Holtzman, Jon A.
    New Mexico State University, Las Cruces, 88003, NM, United States.
    Prieto, Carlos Allende
    Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias (IAC), La Laguna, Tenerife, E-38205, Spain; Universidad de la Laguna, Dpto. Astrofísica, La Laguna, Tenerife, E-38206, Spain.
    Cunha, Katia
    Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, 85721-0065, AZ, United States; Observatório Nacional, Rua General José Cristino, 77, São Cristóvão, RJ, Rio de Janeiro, 20921-400, Brazil.
    Garcia-Hernandez, D. A.
    Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias (IAC), La Laguna, Tenerife, E-38205, Spain; Universidad de la Laguna, Dpto. Astrofísica, La Laguna, Tenerife, E-38206, Spain.
    Hasselquist, Sten
    Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, 84112, UT, United States.
    Masseron, Thomas
    Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias (IAC), La Laguna, Tenerife, E-38205, Spain; Universidad de la Laguna, Dpto. Astrofísica, La Laguna, Tenerife, E-38206, Spain.
    Osorio, Yeisson
    Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias (IAC), La Laguna, Tenerife, E-38205, Spain; Universidad de la Laguna, Dpto. Astrofísica, La Laguna, Tenerife, E-38206, Spain.
    Shetrone, Matthew
    University of Texas at Austin, McDonald Observatory, Fort Davis, 79734, TX, United States.
    Smith, Verne
    National Optical Astronomy Observatory, 950 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, 85719, AZ, United States.
    Stringfellow, Guy S.
    Center for Astrophysics and Space Astronomy, Department of Astrophysical and Planetary Sciences, University of Colorado, Boulder, 80309-0389, CO, United States.
    Bizyaev, Dmitry
    Apache Point Observatory and New Mexico State University, PO Box 59, Sunspot, 88349-0059, NM, United States; Sternberg Astronomical Institute, Moscow State University, Moscow, Russian Federation.
    Edvardsson, Bengt
    Theoretical Astrophysics, Division of Astronomy and Space Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Uppsala University, Box 516, Uppsala, SE-751 20, Sweden.
    Majewski, Steven R.
    Department of Astronomy, University of Virginia, P.O. Box 400325, Charlottesville, 22904-4325, VA, United States.
    Meszaros, Szabolcs
    ELTE Eötvös Loránd University, Gothard Astrophysical Observatory, Szent Imre h. st. 112, Szombathely, 9700, Hungary, MTA-ELTE Exoplanet Research Group, Szent Imre h. st. 112, Szombathely, 9700, Hungary.
    Souto, Diogo
    Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal de Sergipe, Av. Marechal Rondon, S/N, São Cristóvão, SE, 49000-000, Brazil; Observatório Nacional/MCTIC, R. Gen. José Cristino, 77, Rio de Janeiro, 20921-400, Brazil.
    Zamora, Olga
    Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias (IAC), La Laguna, Tenerife, E-38205, Spain; Universidad de la Laguna, Dpto. Astrofísica, La Laguna, Tenerife, E-38206, Spain.
    Beaton, Rachael L.
    Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, 4 Ivy Lane, Princeton, 08544, NJ, United States; Observatories of the Carnegie Institution for Science, 813 Santa Barbara Street, Pasadena, 91101, CA, United States.
    Bovy, Jo
    David A. Dunlap Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Toronto, 50 St. George Street, Toronto, M5S 3H4, ON, Canada; Dunlap Institute for Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Toronto, 50 St. George Street, Toronto, M5S 3H4, ON, Canada.
    Donor, John
    Department of Physics and Astronomy, Texas Christian University, TCU Box 298840, Fort Worth, 76129, TX, United States.
    Pinsonneault, Marc H.
    Department of Astronomy, Ohio State University, 140 West 18th Avenue, Columbus, 43210, OH, United States.
    Poovelil, Vijith Jacob
    Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, 84112, UT, United States.
    Sobeck, Jennifer
    Department of Astronomy, University of Washington, Box 351580, Seattle, 98195, WA, United States.
    APOGEE Data and Spectral Analysis from SDSS Data Release 16: Seven Years of Observations Including First Results from APOGEE-South2020In: Astronomical Journal, ISSN 0004-6256, E-ISSN 1538-3881, Vol. 160, no 3, article id 120Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The spectral analysis and data products in Data Release 16 (DR16; 2019 December) from the high-resolution near-infrared Apache Point Observatory Galactic Evolution Experiment (APOGEE)-2/Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS)-IV survey are described. Compared to the previous APOGEE data release (DR14; 2017 July), APOGEE DR16 includes about 200,000 new stellar spectra, of which 100,000 are from a new southern APOGEE instrument mounted on the 2.5 m du Pont telescope at Las Campanas Observatory in Chile. DR16 includes all data taken up to 2018 August, including data released in previous data releases. All of the data have been re-reduced and re-analyzed using the latest pipelines, resulting in a total of 473,307 spectra of 437,445 stars. Changes to the analysis methods for this release include, but are not limited to, the use of MARCS model atmospheres for calculation of the entire main grid of synthetic spectra used in the analysis, a new method for filling "holes" in the grids due to unconverged model atmospheres, and a new scheme for continuum normalization. Abundances of the neutron-capture element Ce are included for the first time. A new scheme for estimating uncertainties of the derived quantities using stars with multiple observations has been applied, and calibrated values of surface gravities for dwarf stars are now supplied. Compared to DR14, the radial velocities derived for this release more closely match those in the Gaia DR2 database, and a clear improvement in the spectral analysis of the coolest giants can be seen. The reduced spectra as well as the result of the analysis can be downloaded using links provided on the SDSS DR16 web page.

  • 37.
    Ryde, Nils
    et al.
    Lund Univ, Dept Astron & Theoret Phys, Lund Observ, Box 43, SE-22100 Lund, Sweden..
    Jönsson, Henrik
    Malmö University, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS), Department of Materials Science and Applied Mathematics (MTM). Lund Univ, Dept Astron & Theoret Phys, Lund Observ, Box 43, SE-22100 Lund, Sweden..
    Mace, Gregory
    Univ Texas Austin, Dept Astron, RLM 15308, Austin, TX 78712 USA.;Univ Texas Austin, McDonald Observ, Austin, TX 78712 USA..
    Cunha, Katia
    Observ Nacl San CristOvao, Rio De Janeiro, Brazil.;Univ Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85719 USA..
    Spitoni, Emanuele
    Aarhus Univ, Stellar Astrophys Ctr, Dept Phys & Astron, Ny Munkegade 120, DK-8000 Aarhus C, Denmark..
    Afsar, Melike
    Ege Univ, Dept Astron & Space Sci, TR-35100 Izmir, Turkey..
    Jaffe, Daniel
    Univ Texas Austin, Dept Astron, RLM 15308, Austin, TX 78712 USA.;Univ Texas Austin, McDonald Observ, Austin, TX 78712 USA..
    Forsberg, Rebecca
    Lund Univ, Dept Astron & Theoret Phys, Lund Observ, Box 43, SE-22100 Lund, Sweden..
    Kaplan, Kyle F.
    Univ Space Res Assoc, SOFIA Sci Ctr, NASA, Ames Res Ctr, MS 232-12, Moffett Field, CA 94035 USA..
    Kidder, Benjamin T.
    Univ Texas Austin, Dept Astron, RLM 15308, Austin, TX 78712 USA.;Univ Texas Austin, McDonald Observ, Austin, TX 78712 USA..
    Lee, Jae-Joon
    Korea Astron & Space Sci Inst, 776 Daedeok Daero, Daejeon 34055, South Korea..
    Oh, Heeyoung
    Univ Texas Austin, Dept Astron, RLM 15308, Austin, TX 78712 USA.;Korea Astron & Space Sci Inst, 776 Daedeok Daero, Daejeon 34055, South Korea..
    Smith, Verne V.
    Natl Opt Astron Observ, Tucson, AZ 85719 USA..
    Sneden, Christopher
    Univ Texas Austin, Dept Astron, RLM 15308, Austin, TX 78712 USA.;Univ Texas Austin, McDonald Observ, Austin, TX 78712 USA..
    Sokal, Kimberly R.
    Univ Texas Austin, Dept Astron, RLM 15308, Austin, TX 78712 USA.;Univ Texas Austin, McDonald Observ, Austin, TX 78712 USA..
    Strickland, Emily
    Univ Texas Austin, Dept Astron, RLM 15308, Austin, TX 78712 USA.;Univ Texas Austin, McDonald Observ, Austin, TX 78712 USA..
    Thorsbro, Brian
    Lund Univ, Dept Astron & Theoret Phys, Lund Observ, Box 43, SE-22100 Lund, Sweden..
    Fluorine in the Solar Neighborhood: The Need for Several Cosmic Sources2020In: Astrophysical Journal, ISSN 0004-637X, E-ISSN 1538-4357, Vol. 893, no 1, article id 37Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The cosmic origin of fluorine is still not well constrained. Several nucleosynthetic channels at different phases of stellar evolution have been suggested, but these must be constrained by observations. For this, the fluorine abundance trend with metallicity spanning a wide range is required. Our aim is to determine stellar abundances of fluorine for -1.1 < [Fe H] < +0.4. We determine the abundances from HF lines in infrared K-band spectra ( 2.3 mm) of cool giants, observed with the IGRINS and Phoenix high-resolution spectrographs. We derive accurate stellar parameters for all our observed K giants, which is important as the HF lines are very temperaturesensitive. We find that [F/Fe] is flat as a function of metallicity at [ F/Fe]0, but increases as the metallicity increases. The fluorine slope shows a clear secondary behavior in this metallicity range. We also find that the [F/ Ce] ratio is relatively flat for -0.6 < [Fe H] < 0, and that for two metal-poor ([Fe H] < - 0.8), s-process element-enhanced giants, we do not detect an elevated fluorine abundance. We interpret all of these observational constraints as indications that several major processes are at play for the cosmic budget of fluorine over time: from those in massive stars at low metallicities, through the asymptotic giant branch star contribution at -0.6 < [Fe H] < 0, to processes with increasing yields with metallicity at supersolar metallicities. The origins of the latter, and whether or not Wolf-Rayet stars and/or novae could contribute at supersolar metallicities, is currently not known. To quantify these observational results, theoretical modeling is required. More observations in the metal-poor region are required to clarify the processes there.

  • 38.