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  • 1.
    Håkansson, Peter Gladoic
    et al.
    Malmö University, Centre for Work Life and Evaluation Studies (CTA). Malmö University, Faculty of Education and Society (LS), Department of Society, Culture and Identity (SKI).
    Bejaković, Predrag
    Institute of Public Finance, Croatia.
    Can digital nomads solve the problem of tourist economy? The case of Croatian islands2023In: Eastern Journal of European Studies, ISSN 2068-651X, E-ISSN 2068-6633, Vol. 14, no Special Issue, p. 116-134Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many Croatian island municipalities depend on tourism, which provides income by usingnatural resources; however, traditional tourism is labour intensive and low-skilled whichleads to low wages and low possibilities to increase productivity. This paper aims toanalyse and discuss other possibilities than traditional tourist industry for the Croatianislands to develop. We will turn towards the concept of digital nomads to discuss if digitalnomads can be a solution for the Croatian islands. As a starting point, we use aconceptual model inspired by Harris and Todaro’s theoretical outline. We discuss thenew possibilities that digitalisation has opened for these islands. The digital economyhas made where and when work is performed less important. Thus, the lines betweenwork and non-work are blurred. Tourist industry must look ahead for new forms ofmobility and new kinds of work and non-work, which may bring positive exogenouseffects to the islands in the form of higher educational level, cultural activities, andpurchase power. Our main point is that turning towards attracting digital nomads can,to some extent, be a solution. 

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  • 2.
    Axelsson, Malin
    et al.
    Malmö University, Faculty of Education and Society (LS), Department of Society, Culture and Identity (SKI).
    Håkansson, Peter Gladoic
    Malmö University, Faculty of Education and Society (LS), Department of Society, Culture and Identity (SKI).
    Developing Career Management Skills in Vocational Education for Newly Arrived Immigrants2023In: The 1st work science meeting, Malmö University, Book of abstact / [ed] Sandra Jönsson, Malmö University, 2023Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this article is to investigate how newly arrived immigrants’ career learning is implemented and organized in an education reform that focus on work first. As a case,we chose to study the newly launched Combination Education. From this we specify these research questions: 1) How can career counselling support students career learning? 2)How does cooperation between the counsellors and teachers work? 3) Which are the organizational conditions for career learning? The method used was qualitative. First, we made 29 interviews with career counsellors from 22 different municipalities. These interviews were made over the web using the tool Zoom. In the second part, we made IRL visits to 5 municipalities and interviewed 31 persons, who worked as career counsellors, teachers, headmasters, operations managers, and coordinators. In a labour market paradigm that focus on workfare, incentives, and work first, less notice is given to the transition from school to work and the recruitment practice. In such a labour market paradigm, career learning may be devalued. By using a Program Theory framework and setting up the Program Logic for the education programme, we found its critical points.These are 1) when the student applies to the Combination Education, and 2) when the student ends Combination Education and make the transition to work life. To make sustainable career choices, the individual need to have Career Management Skills (CMS), and to develop CMS, the student must have had the opportunity to develop his or hercareer learning. Further, to develop career learning in a wider and broader sense, the cooperation of different professional groups is needed. This cooperation must have organizational and structural conditions, and not depend on individuals. As several other studies and government reports have noticed (e.g., Parliamentary Committee on Education 2018; Swedish Schools Inspectorate 2013) the governing and management of career guidance and counselling (CGC) is weak, and the career counsellor often left alone and isolated. When it comes to Combination Education, we found that managing documents are rare, which shows a lack of interest from the managing level in the municipality.

  • 3.
    Håkansson, Peter Gladoic
    Malmö University, Faculty of Education and Society (LS), Department of Society, Culture and Identity (SKI).
    Folkhögskolans möjligheter till klassresa: Jonas Söderqvist, Social rörlighet i en socialt rörig tid2023In: Historisk Tidskrift, ISSN 0345-469X, E-ISSN 2002-4827, Vol. 143, no 3, p. 458-464Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 4.
    Håkansson, Peter Gladoic
    et al.
    Malmö University, Faculty of Education and Society (LS), Department of Society, Culture and Identity (SKI).
    Karlsson, Tobias
    Department of Economic History, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    La Mela, Matti
    Department of ALM and Department of Business Studies, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Running out of time: using job ads to analyse the demand for messengers in the twentieth century2023In: Scandinavian Economic History Review, ISSN 0358-5522, E-ISSN 1750-2837, Vol. 71, no 3, p. 299-318Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Youth labour remained important well into the twentieth century, although it is often elusive in traditional sources. In this article, we investigate messengers – a category of occupational titles, including errand and office boys, which is thought of as youth jobs. We sketch the long-term development of the occupation by making use of digitised Swedish daily newspapers and discuss demand-side, supply-side and institutional factors for the disappearance of the occupation. Our investigation suggests that the messenger jobs reached their peak around 1945 and thereafter decreased to low levels in the 1960s. We find that employers looking for messengers were large organisations that needed in-house help with deliveries and simple office tasks. These employers originally aimed at young men aged 15–17 years. The minimum age requirement was not loosened over time; instead, employers began to announce for older workers. We interpret this as employers’ adapting to a situation where the supply of young messengers had decreased. Employers made their ads appealing by emphasising good working conditions and career prospects, indicating that there was still a demand for messengers despite the changing times.

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  • 5.
    Axelsson, Malin
    et al.
    Malmö University, Faculty of Education and Society (LS), Department of Society, Culture and Identity (SKI).
    Håkansson, Peter Gladoic
    Malmö University, Faculty of Education and Society (LS), Department of Society, Culture and Identity (SKI). Malmö University, Centre for Work Life and Evaluation Studies (CTA).
    Studie- och yrkesvägledning i kombinationsutbildning. Del 2.: Avrapportering av ett forskningsuppdrag2023Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Som en konsekvens av, och i linje med, den nya arbetslinjen som växte fram i början av det nya milleniet blev utgångspunkten för kombinationsutbildning att nyanländas etablering i samhället och på arbetsmarknaden ska öka. Utbildningsformen har således en tydlig koppling till arbetsmarknaden. Att göra ett väl övervägt studie- och yrkesval kräver en god kunskap om arbetsmarknaden, vilket kan tillgodoses genom generell vägledning och arbetsmarknadsorientering.I denna studie har vi undersökt vägledningens roll i kombinationsutbildning. En slutsats är att en fungerande och hållbar vägledning kräver organisatoriska förutsättningar och en genomtänkt styrning. Den generella vägledningen bygger på en samverkan mellan olika yrkesgrupper, men även samverkan måste få organisatoriska förutsättningar och rätt styrning. Det kan handla om att strategiska dokument formuleras av kommunledningen (SYV-plan), att yrkesvägledarna placeras tillsammans med den pedagogiska verksamheten, eller att olika yrkesgrupper får i uppdrag att tillsammans utveckla moment med inriktning arbetslivsorientering och generell vägledning.

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  • 6.
    Håkansson, Peter Gladoic
    et al.
    Malmö University, Faculty of Education and Society (LS), Department of Society, Culture and Identity (SKI). Malmö University, Centre for Work Life and Evaluation Studies (CTA). Malmö University, Institute for Urban Research (IUR).
    Bejakovic, Predrag
    Institute of Public Finance, Zagreb, Croatia.
    The double-edged sword of the tourism economy: mobility and the quality of life on the croatian islands2023In: Preserving, evaluating and developing the Mediterranean / [ed] Jurcevic, K., Kaliterna Lipovcan, L., Medic, R., & Ramljak, O., Institute of Social Sciences Ivo Pilar, VERN’ University , 2023, p. 123-130Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many island municipalities depend upon the tourist industry, but this industry can be a double-edged sword. On the one hand, it provides a source of income to people in the region, using the natural resources they have. On the other hand, the low-skill services that are connected to tourism have low wages and productivity, and the possibilities of productivity increases are low. This article aimed to analyse the possibilities for economic development in the Croatian islands, using a conceptual model inspired by Harris and Todaro’s theoretical outline (Harris & Todaro, 1970; Todaro, 1969). We analysed 18 municipalities located on the islands. The conceptual model classified municipalities by three criteria: unemployment rate, employment growth, and wage. We found 18 island municipalities that have low unemployment, high employment growth, but still low wages, which is a contradiction in neo-classical economic theory. However, it can be explained by the existence of amenities and the tourist industry being low-skilled and therefore having a low wage level. We used population data to analyse demographic trends and the propensity to move from these municipalities. Regardless of the high quality of life on islands, employment possibilities are very limited, particularly for persons with tertiary educational attainment. Therefore, in the past, people born on islands have had to seek education and employment on the mainland. However, telework and digital nomadism have dramatically changed the situation. With digitalisation and flexible work, there are new possibilities for the islands to attract people to both work and spend leisure time. This has led to a number of issues, not least the question of taxation.

  • 7.
    Håkansson, Peter Gladoic
    et al.
    Malmö University, Faculty of Education and Society (LS), Department of Society, Culture and Identity (SKI).
    Palm, Peter
    Malmö University, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), Department of Urban Studies (US).
    A Theoretical Framework for Housing Conveyances on National Markets2022In: The Routledge Companion to International Housing Markets / [ed] Magnus Andersson, Peter Palm, Helena Bohman, Béatrice Balivet, Omokolade Akinsomi, London: Routledge, 2022Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    As the property market becomes more global, so too have certain differences between national property markets become apparent. The role of institutions has long been acknowledged within economic theory. It is safe to say that today there is a joint view among most institutionalists that institutions can be divided into those that are formal (laws, rules, etc.) and those that are informal (norms, religion, etc.). Institutions derive from historical heritage and are encapsulated and coded with information of past experiences and therefore are historically context specific. Transaction cost theory highlights how exchange is accompanied by several different costs. In conclusion, institutions involving both formal and informal activities surround the property market. However, the formal aspect of institutions is particularly important for property conveyances, as homes to a large extent have been transformed into economic concepts.

  • 8.
    Gladoic Håkansson, Peter
    et al.
    Malmö University, Faculty of Education and Society (LS), Department of Society, Culture and Identity (SKI).
    Kranjčević, Jasenka
    Institute for Tourism: Zagreb, Zagreb, HR.
    Croatia2022In: The Routledge Companion to International Housing Markets / [ed] Magnus Andersson, Peter Palm, Helena Bohman, Béatrice Balivet, Omokolade Akinsomi, London: Routledge, 2022, 1, p. 94-102Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    From 2012 to 2017, around 540,000 transactions were realized on the real estate market in Croatia, with the sale of real estate as the most common transaction from 2012 to 2017. In terms of apartment prices, Croatia is divided into three geographic areas: the Adriatic, the continental part, and the city of Zagreb. In the real estate market in 2019, around 112,000 transactions were realized, which, when compared with 2018, represents a growth of 6.5%. The real estate market in Croatia is regulated by four basic laws and two ordinances. The Law on Ownership and Other Real Rights. Croatia faces a number of challenges when it comes to the real estate market. Transaction costs are essential, and these costs affect the real estate market and slow down mobility, which, in turn, affect the efficiency of the economy as a whole.

  • 9.
    Gladoic Håkansson, Peter
    et al.
    Malmö University, Faculty of Education and Society (LS), Department of Society, Culture and Identity (SKI). Malmö University, Centre for Work Life and Evaluation Studies (CTA).
    Ennerberg, Elin
    Malmö University, Faculty of Education and Society (LS), Department of Society, Culture and Identity (SKI).
    Introduktion: Om arbetets inkludering och exkludering2022In: Plats för vem?: Om arbetets inkludering och exkludering / [ed] Elin Ennerberg & Peter Gladoic Håkansson, Lund: Nordic Academic Press, 2022, p. 9-18Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 10.
    Håkansson, Peter Gladoic
    et al.
    Malmö University, Faculty of Education and Society (LS), Department of Society, Culture and Identity (SKI). Malmö University, Centre for Work Life and Evaluation Studies (CTA). Malmö University, Institute for Urban Research (IUR).
    Lundin, Johan A.
    Malmö University, Faculty of Education and Society (LS), Department of Society, Culture and Identity (SKI).
    Nätverkens betydelse: Invandrares väg in på den svenska arbetsmarknaden2022In: Plats för vem?: Om arbetets inkludering och exkludering / [ed] Elin Ennerberg & Peter Gladoic Håkansson, Lund: Nordic Academic Press, 2022, p. 43-66Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 11.
    Ennerberg, Elin
    et al.
    Malmö University, Faculty of Education and Society (LS), Department of Society, Culture and Identity (SKI).
    Gladoic Håkansson, PeterMalmö University, Faculty of Education and Society (LS), Department of Society, Culture and Identity (SKI). Malmö University, Centre for Work Life and Evaluation Studies (CTA).
    Plats för vem?: Om arbetets inkludering och exkludering2022Collection (editor) (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Arbetet har stor betydelse i de flesta människors liv. Ett jobb innebär, i bästa fall, en meningsfull sysselsättning och social samvaro. Exkludering från arbetsmarknad och arbetsliv har däremot motsatta, negativa effekter. I Plats för vem? diskuterar forskare inom arbetsvetenskap vid Malmö universitet inkludering i, och exkludering från, arbetslivet utifrån tre övergripande teman. I det första ligger fokus på vem som får och kan ta plats på arbetsmarknaden. Skribenterna resonerar kring detta genom att granska de varierande förutsättningar olika grupper av människor har att delta i arbetslivet. Bokens andra tema kretsar kring vilken roll plats och kompetens kan spela i förhållande till yrkesval, men författarna problematiserar också arbete som en central beståndsdel i människors liv. Det tredje temat fokuserar hur arbetssituationen kan påverkas av arbetsmiljö, relationer och organisationerpå arbetsplatsen.

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  • 12.
    Axelsson, Malin
    et al.
    Malmö University, Faculty of Education and Society (LS), Department of Society, Culture and Identity (SKI).
    Håkansson, Peter Gladoic
    Malmö University, Faculty of Education and Society (LS), Department of Society, Culture and Identity (SKI). Malmö University, Centre for Work Life and Evaluation Studies (CTA).
    Studie- och yrkesvägledning i kombinationsutbildning: Avrapportering av ett forskningsuppdrag2022Report (Other academic)
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  • 13.
    Håkansson, Peter Gladoic
    et al.
    Malmö University, Faculty of Education and Society (LS), Department of Society, Culture and Identity (SKI).
    Karpestam, Peter
    Malmö University, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), Department of Urban Studies (US).
    Genusgapet mellan stad och land ökar2021In: Svenska Dagbladet, no 2021-07-09, p. 1Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Det finns ett mansöverskott på landet och ett kvinnoöverskott i staden. Det behövs insatser för att jämna ut dessa skillnader, skriver Peter Gladoić Håkansson och Peter Karpestam som gjort en studie i ämnet.

  • 14.
    Brunnström, Pål
    et al.
    Malmö University, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), Department of Urban Studies (US). Malmö University, Institute for Urban Research (IUR). Malmö University, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), Institute for Studies in Malmö's history (IMH).
    Håkansson, Peter Gladoic
    Malmö University, Faculty of Education and Society (LS), Department of Society, Culture and Identity (SKI). Malmö University, Institute for Urban Research (IUR).
    Uppenberg, Carolina
    Ekonomisk-historiska institutionen, Lunds universitet.
    Migration and housing regimes in Sweden 1739–19822021In: Scandinavian Journal of History, ISSN 0346-8755, E-ISSN 1502-7716, Vol. 46, no 3, p. 353-382Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article aims to analyse the changes in migration regimes in Sweden over the period 1739–1982. We have chosen to divide this into four periods where each is characterized as a specific regime: the pre-industrial period (1739–1860), the laissez faire period (1860–1932), the rising ambitions period (1932–1951) and the Rehn-Meidner period (1951–1982). These four periods reveal different approaches held by the state regarding labour migration and housing. During the pre-industrial period, rules and regulations hindered mobility and aimed to keep the labour force in agriculture. During the laissez faire period, migration increased, but construction and housing was largely left to the market. During the rising ambitions period, a laissez faire approach was maintained towards migration, but both the government and non-profit organizations became increasingly involved in housing. During the Rehn-Meidner period, internal migration was stimulated, and in the course of ten years, one million homes were built with government support. The differences between the periods are not clear-cut. There were dual and contradictory ideas and policies during each period. This duality provides an important theoretical starting point for this study. Other significant starting points are the long-term perspective taken and the idea that these periods can be analysed as regimes. 

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  • 15.
    Bejaković, Predrag
    et al.
    Institute for Public Finance, Croatia.
    Gladoic Håkansson, Peter
    Malmö University, Faculty of Education and Society (LS), Department of Society, Culture and Identity (SKI).
    Platform Work as an Important New Form of Labour in Croatia2021In: Zagreb International Review of Economics and Business, ISSN 1331-5609, Vol. 24, no 2, p. 159-171Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recently, developments in digital technology have fuelled the emergence of online platforms that match the supply and demand of goods and services. In most European countries, platform work is still small, but it is strongly and rapidly developing. The types of work offered through platforms are ever-increasing, as are the challenges for existing regulatory frameworks. However, we still know very little about platform work, and there is a lack of understanding of the challenges regarding the working conditions and social protection of platform workers. Employers’ and employees’ organizations so far have no sharp solutions, and the Croatian government seems to prioritize other political issues. Although stakeholders are usually informed, the discussion about regulating platform employment and its possible widespread persistence has not started yet in the majority of EU countries. Particular attention in this paper is dedicated to the situation and determinants of platform work in Croatia.

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  • 16.
    Karpestam, Peter
    et al.
    Malmö University, Institute for Urban Research (IUR). Malmö University, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), Department of Urban Studies (US).
    Håkansson, Peter Gladoic
    Malmö University, Faculty of Education and Society (LS), Department of Society, Culture and Identity (SKI). Malmö University, Institute for Urban Research (IUR).
    Rural boys, urban girls?: The mystery of the diminishing urban-rural gender gap in Sweden2021In: Journal of Rural Studies, ISSN 0743-0167, E-ISSN 1873-1392, Vol. 86, p. 282-297Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In Sweden, there have been a surplus of men in rural areas and a surplus of women in urban areas for decades. However, the relative difference between rural and urban areas have decreased for about 70 years between the 1930s and the new millennium. We use two approaches to understand the decreasing regional gender gaps: 1. we decompose regional gender balance changes into the main components of population growth/decline i.e international net migration, internal net migration and net births. 2. We employ individual register data, estimate multinomial regressions every year 1991–2016 and analyse how the relationship between gender and the probability of moving from rural areas develops over time. We estimate separate regressions for Swedish-born and foreign-born. After controlling for traditional explanatory variables, we interpret the dichotomous gender variable as a measure of “gender norms”. The question is if we can spot gender norm trends that can help explain the decreasing regional gender gaps over time. We find that the development of net birth rates in rural areas explains the decreased gender gap between rural and urban areas since 1968 while net immigration and net internal migration have rather contributed to increasing regional gender gaps. Despite this, the multinomial regressions do not support changing relationships between gender and the probability to out-migrate from rural areas after 1990 for the Swedish-born. For foreign-born, we find evidence of decreased gender differences regarding the probability to leave rural areas. This contributes to an increased surplus of rural men because foreign-born men have an increased probability to stay in rural municipalities in comparison to women. In sum, we do not find that changing gender norms, for Swedish-born or foreign-born, can explain the decreasing gender gaps between rural and urban areas. In fact, for the foreign-born, we find the opposite.

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  • 17.
    Hedenus, Anna
    et al.
    University of Gothenburg.
    Backman, Christel
    University of Gothenburg.
    Håkansson, Peter
    Malmö University, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), Department of Urban Studies (US). Malmö University, Centre for Work Life and Evaluation Studies (CTA).
    Whom do you know? Recruiters’ motives for assessing jobseekers’ online networks2021In: International Journal of Human Resource Management, ISSN 0958-5192, E-ISSN 1466-4399, Vol. 32, no 8, p. 1754-1777Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Network recruitment has become an essential part of the modern labour market. However, there are significant research gaps: 1) the development of social media has been crucial to the growth of social networks, yet we know little about its influence on network recruitment; 2) studies on network recruitment generally focus on employees’ rather than employers’ perspectives; 3) the context of most research is the US labour market, which then identifies a need for contributions relating to other countries. The aim of this study is to analyse and discuss recruiters’ use of SNS to evaluate the networks of potential candidates. To understand how and why recruiters assess online networks, we used qualitative data from a Swedish study. Our analysis showed that recruiters search the internet either to find information that helps them ascertain the candidate as trustworthy, or to evaluate the candidate’s social capital through the size and composition of their networks. For certain job positions especially, active management of one’s online networks thus becomes crucial. Finally, this study illustrates how network connections may undermine rather than build trust, and thereby challenges a belief in the positive impact of networks.

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  • 18.
    Sjölander, Jens
    et al.
    Malmö University, Joint University Administration and Services.
    Håkansson, Peter Gladoic
    Malmö University, Faculty of Education and Society (LS), Department of Society, Culture and Identity (SKI).
    Engagemang, fri tid och drömmen om delaktighet: rapport från ett följeforskningsprojekt om Malmö stads lovsatsning2020Report (Other academic)
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  • 19.
    Håkansson, Peter Gladoic
    et al.
    Malmö University, Faculty of Education and Society (LS), Department of Society, Culture and Identity (SKI). Malmö University, Institute for Urban Research (IUR).
    Bejakovic, Predrag
    Institute for Public Finance, Zagreb, Croatia.
    Labour market resilience, bottlenecks and spatial mobility in Croatia2020In: Eastern Journal of European Studies, ISSN 2068-651X, E-ISSN 2068-6633, Vol. 11, no 2, p. 5-25Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    After the Great Recession, unemployment rose quickly. During 2013–2014, Croatia noticed unemployment rates above 17%, which were way over the EU 28 average. Today, Croatia instead experiences bottlenecks on the labour market: Job vacancies are increasingly lacking suitable skilled candidates. Thus, the Croatian labour market adapts badly to both recession and to a booming economy; namely, the Croatian labour market has low resilience. An economy with high labour market resilience can benefit from a booming economy, while an economy with the opposite faces wage inflation and loss of competitiveness. This article aims to analyse and discuss the role of labour mobility in reducing labour market bottlenecks and thereby increasing labour market resilience in Croatia. The method is tentative, and we use secondary, national, and international data and previous studies and findings. As we will show, the government has acknowledged skill shortages, and there are some (minor) reforms dealing with them. However, the connection between spatial mobility and labour market resilience in Croatia has not been noticed. Herein lies the novelty of this article. In this study, we find that Croatia has very low residential mobility, which we believe explains Croatia’s low labour market resilience. Croatia’s low mobility can be explained by tradition as well as by high transaction costs of moving. Our policy recommendations are (1) to lower transaction costs and simplify the moving process and (2) to increase occupational mobility through lifelong education and adult learning.

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  • 20.
    Håkansson, Peter Gladoic
    Malmö University, Faculty of Education and Society (LS), Department of Society, Culture and Identity (SKI).
    MILSA 2.3: Hälsa och hälsorelaterade faktorer bland nyanlända barn och ungdomar2020Report (Other academic)
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  • 21.
    Andersson, Magnus
    et al.
    Malmö University, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), Department of Urban Studies (US). United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, United States.
    Håkansson, Peter Gladoic
    Malmö University, Faculty of Education and Society (LS), Department of Society, Culture and Identity (SKI).
    Thorsen, Inge
    Western Norway University of Applied Sciences, Norway.
    Centralization and Urbanization Tendencies in Norway2019In: Investigating Spatial Inequalities: Mobility, Housing and Employment in Scandinavia and South-East Europe / [ed] Peter Gladoic Håkansson, Helena Bohman, Emerald Group Publishing Limited, 2019, p. 31-54Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter examines observed regional inequalities and centralization tendencies in Norway. Small, rural, municipalities experienced a favourable population development from 1970 to the mid-1980s. After this, the percentage population growth has been strongest in the largest municipalities/cities, and this tendency has accelerated during the last 10-15 years. Data post-1970 strongly support the reasonable hypothesis that population growth is positively related to centrality. The major source of changes lies within the labour market regions, whereas the changes between the regions are modest. Jobs have not become more centralized than households over the period. A conceptual model is developed, offering a useful taxonomy of municipalities in three dimensions: the unemployment rate, the employment growth, and housing prices. This provides a classification that contributes to clarify the changes in the urban-rural divide. The discussion demonstrates that distinguishing between different categories is important, since different explanations of centralization and regional disparities call for different menus of policy instruments. We study the relationship between population growth, unemployment rates, and employment growth in Norwegian municipalities, to distinguish between disequilibrium and equilibrium explanations of the situation in regional labour markets. At a national level our results indicate that neoclassical adjustments dominate weakly over amenity-based mechanisms. However, results from many regions support the hypothesis that amenitybased adjustments are dominant for municipalities within a labour market region. One possible explanation is that the diversity in job opportunities is considered as an amenity. A thicker labour market is better fit to meet the demand of workers with specific qualifications.

  • 22.
    Håkansson, Peter
    et al.
    Malmö University, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), Department of Urban Studies (US).
    Nilsson, Anders
    Department of Economic History, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Getting a job when times are bad: recruitment practices in Sweden before, during and after the Great Recession2019In: Scandinavian Economic History Review, ISSN 0358-5522, E-ISSN 1750-2837, Vol. 67, no 2, p. 132-153Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Research on recruitment shows that networks matter and are effective as search channels. The aim of this article is to analyse how recruitment practices varies over time, and specifically, how it has varied before, during, and after the Great Recession 2008–2009. The findings are that recruitment practices change both in the short term, in relation to labour supply, which we can call a cyclical effect, but also in accordance to a long-term, structural effects. Informal recruitment practices, such as recruitment through ‘friends and acquaintances’ and ‘employer made contact’, seem to increase during bad times. In the long run, the recruitment practices ‘direct application’, ‘friends and acquaintances’ and ‘formal private’ increase in relation to recruitment through the Swedish Public Employment Agency (SPEA). A reason for this may be that the labour market in the new knowledge economy demands a heterogenic workforce with high demands on non-cognitive skills and customisation. Here the new network recruitment practices seem to fit in.

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  • 23.
    Bohman, Helena
    et al.
    Malmö University, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), Department of Urban Studies (US). K2, The Swedish Knowledge Centre for Public Transport.
    Håkansson, Peter Gladoic
    Malmö University, Faculty of Education and Society (LS), Department of Society, Culture and Identity (SKI).
    Thorsen, Inge
    Western Norway University of Applied Sciences, Norway.
    Introduction: Spatial Inequalities in the Age of Rapid Technological Advances2019In: Investigating Spatial Inequalities: Mobility, Housing and Employment in Scandinavia and South-East Europe / [ed] Peter Gladoic Håkansson, Helena Bohman, Emerald Group Publishing Limited, 2019, p. 1-14Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 24.
    Håkansson, Peter Gladoic
    et al.
    Malmö University, Faculty of Education and Society (LS), Department of Society, Culture and Identity (SKI).
    Bohman, HelenaMalmö University, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), Department of Urban Studies (US).
    Investigating Spatial Inequalities: Mobility, Housing and Employment in Scandinavia and South-East Europe2019Collection (editor) (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Seen as one explanation for the election of Trump, Brexit and the surge of a right-wing movement across Europe, spatial inequality has become an increasingly relevant topic. Offering in-depth perspectives on factors such as local labour markets, housing and mobility, this book investigates centralization tendencies in Scandinavia and South East Europe that help shape regional development and act as a catalyst to creating regional inequalities. Joining scholars from four countries, this book provides a micro-examination of the development of regional inequalities in four geographically peripheral countries which represent different ends of the income spectrum, contain both EU and non-EU members and reflect differing levels of economic development. Divided into three sub-themes, the sections in turn discuss the topics of spatial divergence and labour market development, housing and institutional perspectives, and finally mobility, migration and commuting.

  • 25.
    Håkansson, Peter Gladoic
    et al.
    Malmö University, Faculty of Education and Society (LS), Department of Society, Culture and Identity (SKI). Malmö University, Malmö Institute for Studies of Migration, Diversity and Welfare (MIM).
    Zdravkovic, Slobodan
    Malmö University, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Care Science (VV). Malmö University, Malmö Institute for Studies of Migration, Diversity and Welfare (MIM).
    Kvantitativa studier bland nyanlända ungdomar och ensamkommande: Tillvägagångssätt och utmaningar2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Det finns ett flertal tillfällen då det är svårt att hitta respondenter via traditionella register eller insamlingsmetoder. Att undersöka nyanlända ungdomars hälsa är ett sådant tillfälle. Projektet MILSA 2.0 är en forskningsbaserad stöd- och utvecklingsplattform och ett av projektets mål har varit att utveckla metoder för att samla in kunskap om nyanländas hälsa. I delprojektet MILSA 2.3 undersöks barn och ungdomars hälsosituation framförallt med fokus på social kapital, riskbeteenden och framtidstro. Den metod som utvecklades i projektet byggde på att samla in enkätsvar via skolorna i Skånes kommuner. Metoden förutsatte ett nära samarbete med kontaktpersoner i kommunerna. Enkäterna var översatta av MILSA-projektet till arabiska, dari och pashto, men även en version på svenska erbjöds respondenterna. Trots vissa brister utifrån ett traditionellt obundet slumpmässigt urval (OSU), menar vi att urvalet kan svara på frågor som vi inte annars hade kunnat få svar på. Vi bör naturligtvis vara medvetna om de brister som finns i urvalet, men samtidigt kan det bidra till ny kunskap om en grupp där det finns väldigt begränsat med data. För framtida studier av liknande grupper bör mer resurser avsättas för ett närmare samarbete med kommunerna och studien måste tydligare förankras med skolor och kommuner utifrån den metod som ska användas.

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  • 26.
    Håkansson, Peter G.
    et al.
    Malmö University, Faculty of Education and Society (LS), Department of Society, Culture and Identity (SKI).
    Andersson, Magnus
    Malmö University, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), Department of Urban Studies (US). United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, United States.
    Regional Inequalities in Sweden 1985-20142019In: Investigating Spatial Inequalities: Mobility, Housing and Employment in Scandinavia and South-East Europe / [ed] Peter Gladoic Håkansson, Helena Bohman, Emerald Group Publishing Limited, 2019, p. 17-30Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this chapter is to investigate regional inequality and centralization tendencies in Sweden. For this, we use official data from Statistics Sweden on house prices and employment. The data is on the municipality level and covers the period 1985-2014. The research question then becomes, in relation to employment and house prices, which municipalities have gained and which have lost during this period? The time period has been divided into three subperiods that reflect different phases in the process of economic structural change. Two major economic crises are used to signal the end and the start of new structural phases in the Swedish economy. The study uses two dimensions of local economy: employment rates and house prices in municipalities in relation to the national mean. The results indicate increasing divergence between Swedish municipalities over the period. However, the magnitude of the divergence differs within the studied period. Particularly, when it comes to house prices, the third subperiod (2009-2014) shows increasing divergence between Stockholm and Gothenburg in relation to Malmö and the rest of country. Further, when we study the two dimensions simultaneously in accordance with our model, the number of municipalities with above-national-mean employment rates and house prices decreases over time. In the last period, 2009-2014, municipalities with means above the national mean are concentrated in urban agglomerations mainly located close to Sweden’s three largest cities.

  • 27.
    Bengtsson, Bo
    et al.
    Malmö University, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), Department of Urban Studies (US). Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Håkansson, Peter G.
    Malmö University, Faculty of Education and Society (LS), Department of Society, Culture and Identity (SKI).
    Karpestam, Peter
    Malmö University, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), Department of Urban Studies (US).
    Residential Mobility and Housing Policy: Continuity and Change in the Swedish Housing Regime2019In: Investigating Spatial Inequalities: Mobility, Housing and Employment in Scandinavia and South-East Europe / [ed] Peter Gladoic Håkansson, Helena Bohman, Emerald Group Publishing Limited, 2019, p. 139-158Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Transaction costs, responsive housing supply, rent controls, tenant protection, and access to credit affect residential mobility these different parts of housing policy are included in what has been defined as housing regimes, which embrace regulations, laws, norms, and ideology as well as economic factors. In this chapter, we investigate how these regimes change by using institutional theories of path dependence. We use Sweden as an example and study three Swedish housing market reforms during the past decades that may have affected residential mobility, each related to one of the main institutional pillars of housing provision: tenure legislation, taxation, and finance. More precisely, we study the development of the rental regulation since the late 1960s, the tax reform in 1991, and the new reforms on mortgages since 2010. What caused these reforms? What were the main mechanisms behind them, and why did they occur at the time they did? We argue, besides affecting residential mobility, these reforms have the common feature of including interesting elements of path dependence and forming critical junctures that have led the development on to a new path. Institutions of tenure legislation, housing finance, and taxation are often claimed to have effects on residential mobility. Although they are seldom designed with the explicit aim of supporting (or counteracting) residential mobility, they may sometimes do so as more or less unintended consequences.

  • 28.
    Håkansson, Peter Gladoic
    Malmö University, Faculty of Education and Society (LS), Department of Society, Culture and Identity (SKI).
    Riskbeteende och framtidstro bland nyanlända barn och ungdomar i Skåne2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Vi vet sedan länge att det finns ett antal beteenden som påverkar individens hälsa på lång sikt. Bland dessa brukar rökning, alkoholbruk, narkotikaanvändning, fysisk inaktivitet samt dåliga matvanor räknas. Vi vet även sedan tidigare att det finns faktorer som kan öka eller minska sannolikheten att hamna i ett sådant beteende. Vad vi däremot har ganska lite kunskap om är huruvida ungdomars traumatiska upplevelser som en flykt innebär, ökar sannolikheten att hamna i ett riskbeteende, samt hur dessa nyanlända ungdomar står rustade med risk- och skyddsfaktorer. Syftet med detta working paper är dels att skatta riskbeteenden utifrån ett antal risk- och skyddsfaktorer, dels att jämföra dessa beteenden och faktorer mellan nyanlända ungdomar och ungdomar som är inrikesfödda och utrikesfödda. Resultaten visar att de nyanlända ungdomarna använder mindre alkohol än inrikes- och utrikesfödda ungdomar, men har sämre matvanor och motionerar i betydligt lägre omfattning. När det gäller rökning och narkotika finns inga signifikanta skillnader. När det gäller risk- och skyddsfaktorer är de nyanlända ungdomarna sämre rustade. De bor oftare utan föräldrar, de bor trängre, de har färre vänner att anförtro sig till, de finner oftare det svårt att vända sig till en vuxen med sina problem och de har mer sällan varit med i någon förening. Däremot ser de lika ljust på framtiden som de inrikesfödda och utrikesfödda ungdomarna.

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  • 29.
    Håkansson, Peter Gladoic
    Malmö University, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), Department of Urban Studies (US).
    Socialt kapital bland nyanlända barn och ungdomar i Skåne2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Nyanlända barn och ungdomar står inför en mängd utmaningar i sitt nya hemland och tillgången till socialt kapital är en av dem, inte minst då tillgången till socialt kapital visat sig få allt större betydelse för t.ex. möjligheten att få arbete eller bostad. Socialt kapital har även visat sig ha ett samband med individens hälsa. Syftet med denna studie är att undersöka socialt kapital bland nyanlända barn och ungdomar. Studien bygger på data som samlades in med hjälp av en enkät via kommunerna i Skåne våren och sensommaren 2018 (MILSA-enkäten). Som referensgrupp till studiegruppen ”nyanlända” användes Region Skånes Folkhälsoenkät till barn och ungdomar som samlades in 2016. Genom att dela upp detta urval i ”svenskfödda” och ”utrikesfödda” får vi två relevanta grupper att mäta MILSA-enkätens resultat mot. Resultaten från studien visar att nyanlända barn och ungdomar har lägre tillit till människor i allmänhet (generell tillit) och färre nära vänner (anknytande socialt kapital). Nyanlända barn och ungdomar har även lägre hälsa, men när hänsyn tas till skillnader i socialt kapital, försvinner skillnaderna.

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  • 30.
    Bohman, Helena
    et al.
    Malmö University, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), Department of Urban Studies (US). K2, The Swedish Knowledge Centre for Public Transport.
    Håkansson, Peter G.
    Malmö University, Faculty of Education and Society (LS), Department of Society, Culture and Identity (SKI).
    Nestic, Danijel
    Institute of Economics, Zagreb, Croatia.
    Molnar, Dejan
    University of Belgrade, Serbia.
    Spatial Inequality in Croatia and Serbia2019In: Investigating Spatial Inequalities: Mobility, Housing and Employment in Scandinavia and South-East Europe / [ed] Peter Gladoic Håkansson, Helena Bohman, Emerald Group Publishing Limited, 2019, p. 55-70Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The chapter aims to explore the size and evolution of spatial inequality in Croatia and Serbia with emphasis on labour market developments. The analysis focuses on municipalities (LAU 2 level) in both countries to explore patterns of change in the labour market. We estimate spatial inequality based on the distribution of population, employment, unemployment rates, and wages. We find that regions with major cities in both countries are leading in the recovery from the recent recession, while rural areas are lagging behind. Further, there is a durable trend of both population and job concentration in the capital city area, or in urban areas generally.

  • 31.
    Zdravkovic, Slobodan
    et al.
    Malmö University, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Care Science (VV).
    Mangrio, Elisabeth
    Malmö University, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Care Science (VV). Malmö University, Malmö Institute for Studies of Migration, Diversity and Welfare (MIM).
    Håkansson, Peter
    Malmö University, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), Department of Urban Studies (US).
    Westerling, Ragnar
    Uppsala Univ, Dept Publ Hlth & Caring Sci, Uppsala, Sweden; Cty Adm Board Skåne, K Carlzen Unit Estab & Integrat, Malmo, Sweden.
    A support platform for migration and health (MILSA 2.0), Sweden2018In: European Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1101-1262, E-ISSN 1464-360X, Vol. 28, p. 472-472Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Solid health is a prerequisite for successful inclusion and participation in support systems for recently arrived migrants’ (RAM) i.e. refugees. The society support system may vary depending on the age of RAM but is equally important for an effective start of the establishing process. Understanding health needs of RAM in different phases of establishing is essential as such knowledge is central for the supporting system. Methods: MILSA 2.0 consists of five studies targeting various health aspects. The focus is depicted into an early phase of establishment as well as following the period after the mandatory process. The platform addresses health issues of families with children as well as various health aspects of Arabic speaking adult RAM soon after arrival to Sweden. Also, it focuses on RAM adolescents in relation to risk behavior, social capital and confidence as well as on health issues in adult RAM after the formal establishment process. The platform also illuminates an extended support system of civic and health communication both in time as well as lecturing environment primarily targeting social capital, coherence and self-efficacy. Results: MILSA 2.0 addresses different phases of an establishing process in Sweden. Several health and health related factors are addressed such as self-rated health, social capital, trust, physical activity, sexual and reproductive health and living conditions. The extended civic and health communication addresses increased program hours as well as new program environments such as libraries, museums, and workplaces. Conclusions: These five studies reveals health related knowledge in different aspects of the establishing process as well as it develops several questionnaires and reveals methodological aspects. The platform focuses on both adolescent and adult RAM during and after the mandatory public support system including both the recipients of the support as well as the supporting actors. Key messages: - MILSA 2.0 develops questionnaires and determines health related concerns both during and after the mandatory establishing process. - MILSA 2.0 evaluates the effect of a policy change regarding standard procedures of civic and health communication.

  • 32.
    Rämgård, Margareta
    et al.
    Malmö University, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Care Science (VV).
    Håkansson, Peter
    Malmö University, Faculty of Education and Society (LS), Department of Society, Culture and Identity (SKI).
    Björk, Josefin
    Malmö University, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), Department of Urban Studies (US).
    Det sociala sammanhanget: om Finsam MittSkånes arbete mot utanförskap2018Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Finsam MittSkåne (där kommunerna Eslöv, Hörby och Höör ingår) har mellan åren 2012–2017 initierat och drivit ett flertal stora samverkansinsatser. I denna bok beskrivs tre av dessa insatser. Det som dessa tre insatser haft gemensamt är dels att de syftat till att öka graden av självförsörjning bland deltagarna, dels att de alla utgått från ett salutogent perspektiv. I detta perspektiv har det sociala sammanhanget och känslan av sammanhang haft särskilt stor betydelse. Malmö universitet har under flera år haft olika uppdrag för Finsam MittSkåne att studera, kartlägga och följa upp dessa insatser. Denna bok sammanfattar de erfarenheter som de olika rapporterna beskriver, men den ger även en djupare teoretisk bakgrund som inte beskrivits i rapporterna.

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  • 33.
    Håkansson, Peter
    et al.
    Malmö University, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), Department of Urban Studies (US). Malmö University, Centre for Work Life and Evaluation Studies (CTA).
    Nilsson Mohammadi, Robert
    Malmö University, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), Department of Urban Studies (US). Malmö University, Centre for Work Life and Evaluation Studies (CTA).
    Folkhögskolornas verksamhet för nyanlända2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Flyktingmottagandet under hösten 2015 satte stora delar av samhället under hård press. Folkbildningens organisationer klev då in som en viktig aktör, och har sedan dess utvidgat sitt arbete med nyanlända genom utbildningar som Etableringskurs på folkhögskola, Svenska från dag 1 och Vardagssvenska. Den här kartläggningen ger en bild av vad folkhögskolorna i Skåne gör för nyanlända, hur de gör det och hur arbetet har utvecklats över tid. Kartläggningen utgår ifrån Överenskommelsen mellan folkbildningen i Skåne och Region Skåne (2016-11-11), som behandlar folkbildningens och regionens samverkan för Skånes utveckling. Rapporten svarar på frågeställningarna: • Hur har processen sett ut? Vad har hänt över tid? • Hur arbetar folkhögskolorna med nyanlända? • Vad erbjuder folkhögskolorna som syftar till integration? • På vilket sätt arbetar folkhögskolorna med kulturaktivitet mot gruppen? Hur motiverar man det? Rapporten bygger på en datainsamling i tre steg: förberedande studiebesök, en enkät och kvalitativa intervjuer. Kartläggningen har också sammanställt och kommenterat data från Folkbildningsrådet. Studiebesöken gav insikter i folkhögskolornas arbete med nyanlända och hjälpte oss att formulera frågorna i den enkät vi skickade ut till samtliga folkhögskolor i Skåne. Enkäten ger en bild av vilka kurser folkhögskolorna erbjuder som riktar sig till nyanlända, vad dessa kurser innehåller och hur mycket. De kvalitativa intervjuerna ger information om hur personal som är inblandad i vissa av dessa kurser uppfattar sina uppgifter och hur de berättar om vad som har hänt över tid. De viktigaste resultaten är: Verksamheterna riktade till nyanlända tog fart 2014. Etableringskurs på folkhögskola är den största av kurserna. Svenska från dag 1, som fick stora regeringsanslag under 2015 och 2016, ligger på andra plats. Studiemotiverande folkhögskolekurs med språkstöd finns på vissa platser som en möjlighet för dem som bedöms stå särskilt långt från arbetsmarknaden. Folkhögskolornas internat har använts som bland annat internat, eller för den kommunalt finansierade verksamheten Folkhögskolespåret. Flera folkhögskolor har fått betygsrätt i Svenska för invandrare (SFI). Traditionella undervisningsformer dominerar. Undervisning i klassrummet är den vanligaste aktiviteten, även om studiebesök på exempelvis arbetsplatser, folkbibliotek och konsthallar också förekommer. Kulturkonsumtion är vanligare än kulturskapande. Undervisningen innehåller framför allt kulturkonsumerande aktiviteter, såsom gå på teater eller se på konst. Aktiviteter som gör deltagarna till kulturskapare förekommer mer sällan. Folkbildningens pedagogik och folkhögskolornas institutionella miljöer uppfattas som verkningssamma. Folkbildningens holistiska inställning till människan, samt det explorativa förhållningssättet till lärande beskrivs i intervjuerna som välanpassat för arbetet med nyanlända. Även folkhögskolornas institutionella miljö, präglad av möten mellan människor med olika bakgrunder och ambitioner, beskrivs som verksam. Folkbildningen utjämnar och ger egenmakt, bland annat genom att skapa tillträde till nätverk och släppa in i offentliga rum såsom folkbibliotek. I folkhögskolornas verksamheter upplöses kategorin nyanländ. I folkhögskolemiljön blir de nyanlända människor som arbetar med det som just nu är svårt i livet, liksom många andra av folkhögskolornas deltagare gör. Med andra ord upplöses kategorin ”nyanländ” i någon av de större kategorierna ”deltagare” eller ”människor”. Vissa bruk av kulturbegreppet har återinfört gränsdragningar mellan föreställda kulturella gemenskaper. Medan folkbildningens idéer och praktiker synes upplösa kategorin nyanländ, sorterar vissa bruk av kulturbegreppet deltagarna i kulturellt åtskilda grupper. Folkbildningen beskrivs som en svensk institution och som en förmedlare av svensk kultur, medan de nyanlända deltagarna kan ses som bärare av sina olika kulturer.

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  • 34.
    Bengtsson, Bo
    et al.
    Malmö University, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), Department of Urban Studies (US).
    Håkansson, Peter
    Malmö University, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), Department of Urban Studies (US).
    Karpestam, Peter
    Malmö University, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), Department of Urban Studies (US).
    Housing Regimes and Labour Market Mobility2018Conference paper (Other academic)
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  • 35.
    Håkansson, Peter
    et al.
    Malmö University, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), Department of Urban Studies (US). Malmö University, Centre for Work Life and Evaluation Studies (CTA).
    Karlsson, Tobias
    Lund Univ, Ekon Hist Inst, Lund, Sweden.
    På spaning efter springpojken: Ungdomsjobb och sociala nätverk vid sekelskiftet 19002018In: Historisk Tidskrift, ISSN 0345-469X, E-ISSN 2002-4827, Vol. 138, no 1, p. 33-62Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    During the decades around 1900 increasing numbers of young men and women in Sweden worked as errand boys and girls. There are diverging ideas in the literature of what these jobs actually meant. Some scholars regard them as the starting point of a future career, others as ”dead-end jobs”. This article investigates and discusses the errand boy job with regard to recruitment and career prospects. Drawing on theories of social capital and social networks, we analyze three volumes of workers’ memories published by the Nordic Museum, namely: workers in commerce, municipal workers and workers in the woodworking industry. The informants in our sample typically entered the labour market in the late nineteenth and early twentieth century. Our study reveals the diversity of experiences of young people in the labour market. We find examples of family-based recruitment (strong ties) among municipal workers and in the woodworking industry, but not among commercial workers. Compared to apprenticeships, young men could be attracted to working as errand boys by higher wages. The errand boy job content could include learning and we find examples of mobility into and from apprenticeships. In the studied setting, the position as errand boy was hardly a dead-end job. The reviewed evidence instead suggests that errand boys could form networks that were useful in their future careers.

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  • 36.
    Håkansson, Peter
    Malmö University, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), Department of Urban Studies (US).
    Recension av doktorsavhandling: Ämnade för restaurangarbete? - Om politisk styrning och lågutbildade ungdomars väg fram till arbetsmarknadens tröskel av Jack Lainpelto2018In: Arbetsmarknad & Arbetsliv, ISSN 1400-9692, E-ISSN 2002-343X, Vol. 1-2, no 24, p. 106-109Article, book review (Other academic)
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  • 37.
    Håkansson, Peter
    Malmö University, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), Department of Urban Studies (US).
    Unga som varken jobbar eller studerar i Sverige och Europa2018In: Barn- och ungdomsvetenskap: Grundläggande perspektiv / [ed] Thomas Johansson, Emma Sorbring, Liber, 2018, p. 544-557Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 38.
    Håkansson, Peter
    et al.
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), Department of Urban Studies (US).
    Andersson, Magnus
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), Department of Urban Studies (US).
    Institutional and structural change: effects on employment and house prices on local markets in Sweden 1985–20142017In: Book of Proceedings 6th Malmö Real Estate Research Conference, Malmö University, Department of Urban studies, Real Estate Unit , 2017, p. 225-243Conference paper (Refereed)
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  • 39.
    Håkansson, Peter
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), Department of Urban Studies (US). Malmö högskola, Centre for Work Life and Evaluation Studies (CTA). Department of Education, Communication and Learning, University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Marginalized Masculinities and Exclusion in the New Low-Skill Service Sector in Sweden2017In: Marginalized Masculinities: Contexts, Continuities and Change / [ed] Chris Haywood, Thomas Johansson, Routledge, 2017, p. 67-82Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter analyses low-skill service jobs in Sweden from a gender perspective. It then examines marginalization of masculinity by studying how the transformation from an industrial economy to a service- and knowledge-based economy has changed the labour market. Masculine work has been socially constructed as being dangerous, hard, dirty and sweaty, all of which has created a strong working identity. Low-skill service jobs include lower wages and more insecure employment contracts than the manual, industrial work that was available previously; however, it is often the only employment available for both men and for women. Dual labour market theory describes the labour market as dual and segmented. To analyse the gendered labour market from this theoretical perspective gives valuable contribution to understanding the polarized service sector. The data from Statistics Sweden show that male participation in high-touch jobs has actually increased in the country, both in absolute terms and in relation to the increase with its female counterpart. 

  • 40.
    Languilaire, Jean-Charles Emile
    et al.
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), Department of Urban Studies (US). Malmö högskola, Centre for Work Life and Evaluation Studies (CTA).
    Muhonen, Tuija
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), Department of Urban Studies (US). Malmö högskola, Centre for Work Life and Evaluation Studies (CTA).
    Berthelsen, Hanne
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Odontology (OD).
    Håkansson, Peter
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), Department of Urban Studies (US). Malmö högskola, Centre for Work Life and Evaluation Studies (CTA).
    Lundsten, Jonas
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), Department of Urban Studies (US). Malmö högskola, Centre for Work Life and Evaluation Studies (CTA).
    Witmer, Hope
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), Department of Urban Studies (US). Malmö högskola, Centre for Work Life and Evaluation Studies (CTA).
    Missing voices on meaningful relationships in time and space2017In: Community, Work and Family, ISSN 1366-8803, E-ISSN 1469-3615, Vol. 20, no 1, p. 1-3Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 41.
    Håkansson, Peter
    et al.
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), Department of Urban Studies (US). Malmö högskola, Centre for Work Life and Evaluation Studies (CTA).
    Tovatt, Caroline
    School of Social Sciences, Södertörn University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Networks and labor market entry: a historical perspective2017In: Labor history, ISSN 0023-656X, E-ISSN 1469-9702, Vol. 58, no 1, p. 67-90Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper discusses how recruitment practices have changed over time. Networks and contacts are more important today for labor market entry than was the case in the latter half of the twentieth century. There may be two explanations for this: the short-run explanation and the long-run explanation. The short-run explanation derives from fluctuations in unemployment. When unemployment is high, competition for every vacancy is tougher and networks become more important for the job seeker. This has been the case in Sweden since 1991, when unemployment increased to new levels not experienced since the 1930s. In the long run, there has been a change in recruitment practices due to institutional change. A clear pattern is that the importance of social networks has increased, while the significance of public institutions (i.e. the Public Employment Service) has decreased.

  • 42.
    Herz, Marcus
    et al.
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Social Work (SA). Malmö högskola, Centre for Work Life and Evaluation Studies (CTA).
    Håkansson, Peter
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), Department of Urban Studies (US). Malmö högskola, Centre for Work Life and Evaluation Studies (CTA).
    Utvärdering av Oden. Delrapport 3: Samverkan2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Malmö högskolas uppdrag var att undersöka vilka ungdomar som tar del av insatsen, om insatsen når sina mål samt analysera hur de olika samverkansparterna upplever samverkan med Oden. Verksamhetsstatistiken visar att Oden når en mycket hög grad av måluppfyllelse. Även i jämförelse med andra projekt framstår Oden som ett lyckat projekt, även om det är svårt att jämföra projekt då de alla har olika förutsättningar. Dock pekar även verksamhetsstatistiken på en annan sak, som även har uppmärksammats tidigare, nämligen att en mycket stor andel av deltagarna är män. Vi är medvetna om att handläggarna uppmärksammat detta och att ett nytt initiativ startats (Freja) och det ska bli intressant att se vilken betydelse detta får. Dock har vårt uppdrag här inte varit att följa Freja och vi kan därför inte heller uttala oss om Frejas resultat. Varför har Oden så hög måluppfyllnad? I en tidigare uppföljning uppmärksammades att Oden inte har någon ”bortre parantes”. Deltagarna är alltså i Oden tills de av någon anledning flyttar till en annan kommun eller av annan anledning slutar. Det betyder att många deltagare har varit länge i Oden. Den genomsnittliga tiden som deltagare befinner sig i Oden har ökat, då vi jämför med den tidigare utvärderingen. Det finns även en ökad spridning, jämfört med tidigare. Detta visar det i den senare perioden finns fler som befinner sig längre period i Oden, men även fler som är där kortare. Trots sina goda resultat finns det, som i alla projekt, en del utmaningar att tänka på inför framtida arbete i Odens eller någon annans regi. Projektformen har visserligen fördelar, som att det kan innebära en ökad flexibilitet och en möjlighet att pröva nya arbetssätt. Men, projektifieringen av denna typ av arbete är i sig en utmaning; att bedriva tidsbegränsade projekt för ett långsiktigt socialt förändringsarbete innebär per definition en motsättning. Projektifieringen medför en kortsiktighet och många gånger en otydlighet. Det hänger delvis ihop med att det ofta finns flera projekt, både kommunala, kommunövergripande och frivilliga, som riktar sig till samma eller en liknande målgrupp. Detta brukar betyda en otydlighet både för den personal (dvs. samverkansparter) som ska använda sig av projektet och de deltagare projektet riktar sig till. Det är detta som samverkansparterna i denna rapport ger uttryck för. Ibland kan det också innebära olika villkor för olika deltagare, det har dock inte framkommit bland samverkansparterna i denna rapport. En annan viktig utmaning, som hänger ihop med projektifieringen, är den personbundenhet som blir tydlig när samverkansparterna i utvärderingen talar om Oden. För några av dem tycks personalen i Oden vara viktigare än projektet Oden. I sig är det inget problem, inte heller är det särskilt konstigt. En av få saker som går att peka på som fungerande i socialt förändringsarbete är relationsbyggande arbete, därför blir naturligtvis också personalen så viktig både för de som ska remittera någon till Oden och för deltagarna. Å ena sidan går det att hävda att Oden ger sin personal möjligheten att arbeta nära och långsiktigt med de personer som remitteras dit och med de olika myndigheternas personal, å andra sidan innebär personbundenheten som uppstår av det arbetet också en sårbarhet. Det kan innebära att det kan vara svårt att upprätthålla samma goda resultat om människor slutar eller om Odenliknande verksamheter skulle spridas och implementeras på andra platser. Det finns också anledning att tro att det inte är säkert att samma arbete kan utföras om projektet skulle permanentas eftersom det ofta innebär mindre flexibilitet och ibland också ökade krav på ”effektivitet” eller anpassning till en specifik styrmodell som ”evidensbasering” eller New Public Management. Samverkan mellan myndigheterna och de olika kontaktpersonerna tycks fungera relativt väl. De flesta känner till Oden och vet vart de kan vända sig. Samtidigt är frågan om samverkan följer samma mönster avseende personbundenheten. Det är i första hand samverkan mellan personer inom kommunen eller mellan kommuner som fungerar väl, däremot tycks det inte vara lika fast förankrat på respektive arbetsplats. Slutligen finns det en fråga all form av socialt, socialpedagogiskt eller socialt förändringsarbete bör fråga sig. Hur kommer det sig att det krävs projekt för att arbeta med denna typ av arbete? Hur kommer det sig exempelvis att en handläggare på försörjningsstöd inte har utrymme i sin tjänst för att arbeta med socialt förändringsarbete utan att det arbetet behöver läggas över på ett projekt? I Odens fall finns det vissa svar på de frågorna. När små kommuner kan ha svårt att själva bära alla olika former av verksamheter som krävs finns det ett behov av samordning. Men, trots detta, finns det anledning att ställa frågan i vilken grad detta bör ingå i ordinarie verksamheter eller ligga utanför dem, och i så fall vilka vinster eller förluster de olika organisationsformerna innebär.

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  • 43.
    Håkansson, Peter
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), Department of Urban Studies (US). Malmö högskola, Centre for Work Life and Evaluation Studies (CTA).
    "Finnas för alla medborgare…”: utvärderingsrapport om det mångkulturella perspektivet inom utbildningen Skydd mot olyckor (SMO)2016Report (Other academic)
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  • 44.
    Håkansson, Peter
    et al.
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), Department of Urban Studies (US). Malmö högskola, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), Institute for Studies in Malmö's history (IMH).
    Björk, Fredrik
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), Department of Urban Studies (US). Malmö högskola, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), Institute for Studies in Malmö's history (IMH).
    Brunnström, Pål
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), Department of Urban Studies (US). Malmö högskola, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), Institute for Studies in Malmö's history (IMH).
    Lindholm, Tommy
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), Department of Urban Studies (US). Malmö högskola, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), Institute for Studies in Malmö's history (IMH).
    Lundberg, Susanna
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Health and Society (HS).
    Ristilammi, Per-Markku
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), Department of Urban Studies (US). Malmö högskola, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), Institute for Studies in Malmö's history (IMH).
    New voices in the narratives of the city2016Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A collection of city walks showing the history of Malmö has been translated into Arabic, and 19 Arabic speaking guides have been trained to show the city to an audience of visitors and residents. The Institute of the History of Malmö is planning a research project regarding what happens to the city’s narratives when new narrators and a new audience receive them, in a language that is new to the context. In the first part of the project we have interviewed guides about their role in narrating the history of the city, why they chose to be part of the project and what they what to achieve by guiding. Malmö is not today, and has never been, a homogenous city. The last few decades this has become a central part of the city’s identity. Although housing segregation is just as important as in other cities, people seem to feel that the segregation of public space is less obvious here. This contributes to a sense of “us” that includes differences on many levels, a complex and heterogeneous identity that this project seeks to contribute to. The research project accompanying the translated guided walks will take particular interest in three points: 1) How do the narratives change when new narrators and a new audience take them on? The guides’ and the audience’s relation to Malmö, their social and cultural references and relations to various collectives in the city will affect the narratives, we want to know how. 2) How do the narratives change by being linguistically translated from the language involved in the creation of the place to a language with other frames of reference? 3) How are the new narratives brbrought back and allowed to affect the hegemonic narratives of the city?

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  • 45.
    Håkansson, Peter
    et al.
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), Department of Urban Studies (US).
    Söderman, Johan
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Education and Society (LS), Department of Children, Youth and Society (BUS).
    The Non-Denominational Church as Fertile Soil: Musical Enculturation and Interests to Play Musical Instruments2016In: Finnish Journal of Music Education, ISSN 1239-3908, Vol. 19, no 2, p. 17-29Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 46.
    Håkansson, Peter
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), Department of Urban Studies (US). Malmö högskola, Centre for Work Life and Evaluation Studies (CTA).
    Utvärdering av Oden. Delrapport 2: Deltagare, aktiviteter, metoder2016Report (Other academic)
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  • 47.
    Håkansson, Peter
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), Department of Urban Studies (US).
    Folkbildningen och det sociala kapitalet2015In: Educare, ISSN 1653-1868, E-ISSN 2004-5190, no 1, p. 31-51Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article investigates how bridging social capital can be created in the study associations’ activities. It is specifically bridging social capital that has positive effects on society because it boosts economic activity and shapes general trust. The study is built on interviews with study associations’ representatives and a developed conceptual model of bonding and bridging social capital where these categories are placed in two different dimensions. In the strongest definition of bonding social capital we find groups that are homogenous and who knows each other well. In the corresponding definition of bridging social capital we find groups that are heterogeneous and that know each other less well. A hybrid between these two can be groups that are homogenous, but know each other less well. A conclusion from the interview is that the study associations’ activities exist in all of these definitions. However, the creation of homogenous groups takes place more or less “natural”. The creation of heterogeneous groups, on the other hand, needs a force or a decision from the outside. Here the study association can play a major role.

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  • 48.
    Håkansson, Peter
    et al.
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), Department of Urban Studies (US).
    Witmer, Hope
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), Department of Urban Studies (US).
    Social media and trust: a systematic literature review2015In: Journal of Business and Economics, ISSN 2155-7950, Vol. 6, no 3, p. 517-524Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The role of trust has long been acknowledged among economists and political scientists. It is often argued that high levels of trust among people help promote democratization, economic activity, well-performing institutions and low levels of violence. Social media has been identified as a significant vehicle in fostering social connections however the depth and significance of these connections to the creation of trust has not been well developed. According to Robert Putnam trust derives from reciprocity that is learned only in cooperation with others. Putnam is skeptical of a positive relationship between trust and digitalized social media. According to Uslaner trust is a moral issue established by family relationships early in life and therefore use of social media has no impact on creating trust. This paper is a structured literature review. The aim is to investigate if trust can be created by connections on digitalized social media. Eight articles emphasized a positive relationship between social media and trust; two articles claimed no relationship between trust and social media. We did not find any studies claiming there is a negative relation between social media and trust.

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  • 49.
    Håkansson, Peter
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), Department of Urban Studies (US).
    Kan socialt kapital formeras i studieförbunden?2014In: Årsbok om folkbildning 2013: Forskning & utveckling / [ed] Stellan Boozon, Krister Hansson, Maj-Britt Imnander, Tove Bergquist, Föreningen för folkbildningsforskning , 2014, p. 131-145Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 50.
    Håkansson, Peter
    et al.
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), Department of Urban Studies (US).
    Harding, Tobias
    Kulturprogrammens betydelse för deltagarna: utvärdering 2 av studieförbundens kulturprogram2014Report (Other academic)
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