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  • 1.
    Chrysoulakis, Alberto P.
    et al.
    Malmö University, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Criminology (KR).
    Ivert, Anna-Karin
    Malmö University, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Criminology (KR).
    Torstensson Levander, Marie
    Malmö University, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Criminology (KR).
    From structural time use to situational rule-breaking: Analysing adolescents’ time use and the person-setting interaction2023In: European Journal of Criminology, ISSN 1477-3708, E-ISSN 1741-2609, Vol. 20, no 6, p. 1804-1828Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    While unsupervised and unstructured socialising with peers is associated with delinquency, less is known about to what extent it fits within adolescents’ daily routine activities; that is, their general, structural time use. Furthermore, research informed by the situational action theory shows that unstructured socialising increases the probability of rule-breaking acts more for individuals with higher crime propensity. Hence, structural time use might explain patterns of unstructured socialising, and crime propensity might explain why some are at an increased risk of committing rule-breaking acts during such situations. The present study aims to connect these three aspects and examine: (i) how adolescents tend to structure their time use, (ii) if their structural time use differentially places them in unstructured socialising, and (iii) whether some adolescents during unstructured socialising run an elevated risk of committing rule-breaking acts due to their morality (as part of their crime propensity) while also taking their structural time use into account. Using a sample of 512 adolescents (age 16) in Sweden, time use and morality are analysed using latent class analysis based on space-time budget data and a self-report questionnaire. Multilevel linear probability models are utilised to examine how rule-breaking acts result from an interaction between an individual’s morality and unstructured socialising, also taking structural time use into account. Results show that the likelihood of unstructured socialising in private but not in public is different across identified latent classes. Adolescents, in general, run an elevated risk of rule-breaking acts during unstructured socialising, irrespective of structural time use. In this study, these acts consist mainly of alcohol consumption. However, the risk is higher for adolescents with lower morality. Adolescents’ time use may account for a general pattern of delinquency, but accounting for rule-breaking acts requires knowledge of the interaction between person and setting.

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  • 2.
    Chrysoulakis, Alberto P.
    et al.
    Malmö University, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Criminology (KR).
    Gerell, Manne
    Malmö University, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Criminology (KR).
    Kartläggning av öppna drogscener: Kortrapport från nollmätningen2023Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna kortrapport innehåller beskrivande analyser av nollmätningen som har genomförts inom ramen för projektet ”Öppna drogscener”, vilket är en del av samverkansöverenskommelsen ”Skåne tillsammans mot narkotika” . Representanter från kommun och polis i sex skånska kommuner har tillsammans identifierat en geografiskt avgränsad plats som de bedömer som en öppen drogscen. Det vill säga en plats där narkotika säljs och brukas offentligt och som myndigheter och allmänheten uppfattar som problematisk . Tillsammans ska kommun och polis kartlägga och analysera problembilden, implementera en passande insats vilket sedan ska följas upp. Följande kortrapport är en del av denna process. Analyserna i rapporten baseras på anmälda brott mellan åren 2018-2021 och på intervjuer med nyckelinformanter som genomfördes under perioden november-december 2022. Nollmätningen ligger till grund för en jämförelse som kommer att genomföras efter att insatserna har implementerat för att undersöka om det har skett någon förändring. Utöver att jämföra platserna med sig själva över tid kommer också jämförelser mot andra platser i kommuner som inte varit en del av projektet att genomföras. Detta för att undersöka om kontrollplatserna har haft en liknande förändring som insatsplatserna. 

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    Öppna drogscener: nollmätning
  • 3.
    Magnusson, Mia-Maria
    et al.
    Malmö University, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Criminology (KR).
    Chrysoulakis, Alberto P.
    Malmö University, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Criminology (KR).
    Lekare, Andreas
    Spatial patterns.
    Spatial patterns of gun seizures, shootings and open drug scenes in Stockholm.2023In: The Stockholm Criminology Symposium, Stockholm, June 12-14, 2023., Stockholm: The Swedish National Council for Crime Prevention (Brå) , 2023Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    There is a surge in gun violence in Sweden. Prior research has shown how these expressions of violence tend to be concentrated in space. For instance, there is an increased risk of a shooting occurring in close proximity to a prior shooting in the three largest cities in Sweden, especially at open drug scenes (ODS) in socially disadvantaged areas. Furthermore, prior research has found a clear spatial connection between shootings and the presence of ODS in Stockholm. However, less is known about the patterns of gun seizures. How does spatial patterns of gun seizures overlap with shootings and the presence of ODS and how can these be used to advance police practice? Such questions are important to add nuance to the overarching view on “gun violence”. The present study aims to explore the questions by converging three types of data drawn from the Stockholm region: one on gun seizures, one on gun incidents and another on the presence of ODS. With the use of spatial data analyses, we learn whether there are systematic differences in the patterns of gun seizures, gun incidents and the presence of ODS. The importance of nuanced data and how the results can be used by the police in their strategic work is discussed. The results may advance both police activities towards gang criminality and future research on gun violence.

  • 4.
    Chrysoulakis, Alberto P.
    Malmö University, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Criminology (KR).
    Morality, delinquent peer association, and criminogenic exposure: (How) does change predict change?2022In: European Journal of Criminology, ISSN 1477-3708, E-ISSN 1741-2609, Vol. 19, no 2, p. 282-303, article id 1477370819896216Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    According to the Situational Action Theory, stronger morality inhibits the perception of alternatives to law-breaking action, thus lessening the probability of crime and delinquency. Research indicates that morality might be affected by delinquent peer association and in turn affect criminogenic exposure. This article studies how morality develops during late adolescence using data from the longitudinal project Malmo Individual and Neighbourhood Development Study. Using linear growth modelling, the study finds that a decrease in morality is associated with a simultaneous increase in delinquency peer association. No change in criminogenic exposure was detected. The results are discussed alongside theoretical and methodological implications.

  • 5.
    Chrysoulakis, Alberto P.
    Malmö University, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Criminology (KR).
    Situational sources of rule-breaking acts: an analytic criminology approach2022Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Criminology has long been divided by mainly focusing on people’s propensities to commit crimes, on the one hand, and environmental characteristics conducive to crime, on the other. Such a division must be bridged to advance knowledge about why some people, but not others, commit rule-breaking acts in some environments but not in others. Furthermore, explanations require causal mechanisms explaining how the outcome, a rule-breaking act, is produced. Analytic Criminology offers a general framework for how to theoretically and empirically structure the study of crime. It does so by connecting macro- and micro-levels – structuring the convergence of certain people in certain places – through a mechanistic account. Within this framework, the situational action theory (SAT) proposes a causal mechanism explaining how said convergence triggers the perception-choice process: a rule-breaking act must first be perceived to be subsequently chosen. The main drivers during this process are the person’s crime propensity and the criminogeneity of the behaviour setting. Identifying the central components also enables the theorising of changes in crime involvement, which is the subject of the developmental ecological action (DEA) model of SAT. Drawing on data from the longitudinal project Malmö Individual and Neighbourhood Development Study, this thesis aimed to test SAT and its DEA model, thus bridging said division. It did so through four studies with specific reference to adolescents’ crime propensity, exposure to criminogenic settings, their convergence, and finally, change over time. Study I and study II investigated adolescents’ time use and connections to rule-breaking. The former examined how adolescents spend time in unsupervised and unstructured socialising with peers, during which hours of the day, in which neighbourhoods, and what level of collective efficacy the neighbourhoods have. Study II focused on adolescents’ routine activities and how they differentially place adolescents in unstructured socialising. Furthermore, it tested whether adolescents with higher crime propensity run a higher probability of reporting a rule-breaking act during unstructured socialising irrespective of their routine activities. Study III extended the situational analysis by investigating how adolescents form rule-breaking intentions in randomised scenarios depending on their morality, self-control, and the setting characteristics (varying in level of motivation and deterrence). Study IV applied a developmental perspective to key theoretical constructs derived from the DEA model, focusing on how morality, peer delinquency, and unstructured socialising change, and how the change in each is related to change in the others. Together, the studies found that adolescents with different levels of crime propensity are differently exposed to criminogenic settings but that such exposure simultaneously increases the probability of rule-breaking more for adolescents with higher crime propensity. In sum, the studies have bridged the person–place division in different ways by being rooted in a mechanistic account of rule-breaking, which is proposed as a way forward for criminology as a discipline. 

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  • 6.
    Chrysoulakis, Alberto P.
    et al.
    Malmö University, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Criminology (KR).
    Ivert, A-K
    Torstensson Levander, M
    The when, where and who of unstructured socialising: associations to crime propensity, collective efficacy and delinquency2022Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 7.
    Chrysoulakis, Alberto
    Malmö University, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Criminology (KR).
    Testing the Situational Action Theory’s perception-choice process using randomized scenarios2019Conference paper (Other academic)
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  • 8.
    Chrysoulakis, Alberto
    Malmö University, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Criminology (KR).
    The Situational Action Theory’s ‘Perception-Choice Process’: A Bayesian Application On Randomized Vignettes2019Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    According to the Situational Action Theory, the “perception-choice process” is the explicit mechanism explaining how the interaction between an individual and a setting might render in a rule-breaking act. One way of studying the process has been through a randomized vignette approach. Prior research has generally found that crime prone individuals assessing criminogenic settings are more likely to choose rule-breaking alternatives. However, less is known if this association also holds when comparing an individual with him-/herself over two time points. Using data from the longitudinal project Malmö Individual and Neighbourhood Development Study (a replication of PADS+), this study examines if individuals who report stability [or change] in level of crime propensity also report stability [or change] in the assessment of vignettes. Furthermore, scholars have recently challenged the view that self-reported accounts of attitudes do not generalize to actual behaviour, proposing a Bayesian approach. This study follows the suggestions, and results are discussed against a backdrop of theoretical implications.

  • 9.
    Chrysoulakis, Alberto
    Malmö University, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Criminology (KR).
    Peers, activity fields, and moral development2018Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Within the field of criminology, the Situational Action Theory has gained increased attention. It is a theory aiming to explain moral rule breaking in general, and criminal acts in particular, through the interaction between an individual and the immediate environment in which she finds herself. This interaction initiates a perception-choice process. According to the theory, what inhibit or enable us to see crimes as action alternatives is our sense of what is right or wrong to do in certain situations – our morality. Given the theoretical importance placed on morality in the explanation of crime, this work aims to study matters of moral development. Analyses are based on a longitudinal sample of individuals moving through adolescence; an important period in life considering changes occurring at the time. As the adolescents’ autonomy tends to grow, so does the impact of peers. More specifically, the aim is to study interindividual differences in intraindividual change by looking closer at the relationship between changes in delinquent peer association and criminogenic exposure on the one hand, and changes in morality on the other. This is done through a series of linear growth models. The sample is derived from the Swedish longitudinal project Malmö Individual and Neighbourhood Development Study (MINDS), and is comprised of 386 adolescents participating in three waves of data collection (at ages 15-16, 16-17, and 18-19). Results indicate that morality by and large decreases over time, and that this decrease is homogenous for the sample (i.e. no significant variance). Neither is there any significant correlation between initial level of morality and subsequent change. Results also indicate that a higher initial level of morality is significantly associated with a higher increase of delinquency amongst peers over time (but that higher initial levels of delinquent peer association is not significantly associated with subsequent change in morality). Furthermore, an increasing rate of delinquency amongst the adolescents’ peers over time is associated with a decreasing rate of morality, and a decreasing rate of criminogenic exposure is associated with a decreasing rate of morality. This moral change is to be discussed within a methodological and criminological framework.

  • 10.
    Chrysoulakis, Alberto
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Criminology (KR).
    A longitudinal test of the interaction between person and setting in the explanation of violent behavior2017In: The Stockholm Criminology Symposium 2017;Program and Abstracts, The Swedish National Council for Crime Prevention (BRÅ). , 2017, p. 144-144Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Based on Situational Action Theory (SAT) the overall aim is to study the interaction between individual factors (morality and ability to exercise self-control) and the moral of settings in which they interact. Furthermore, to examine similarities and differences between male and female adolescents. Data is derived from the longitudinal project Malmö Individual and Neighbourhood Development Study (MINDS). Approximately 500 adolescents from a cohort of children born 1995, residing in Malmö year 2007, have been studied. Three waves of data are used, from when the adolescents were between 15-19 years of age, rendering a sample of almost 400 adolescents. The longitudinal interactions are tested via structural equation models, and the results discussed against theoretical implications as well as implications regarding criminal behaviour.

  • 11.
    Chrysoulakis, Alberto
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Criminology (KR).
    Deconstructing collective efficacy: does social cohesion and shared expectations for control originate from the same characteristics?2014In: The Stockholm Criminology Symposium 2014: Program and Abstracts, The Swedish National Council for Crime Prevention (BRÅ). , 2014, p. 167-167Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A respectable amount of studies focusing on neighborhood effects on crime and disorder has consistently found and consolidated collective efficacy as a central mediator explaining variations across neighborhoods. It is a theoretical notion based upon two mechanisms (social cohesion and shared expectations for control) where it is hypothesized that the residents' willingness to intervene for the common good of the neighborhood, relies on the level of shared values amongst neighbors. Informal social control is thus theorized to be endorsed in neighborhoods characterized by social cohesion .Together these two theoretical building blocks form collective efficacy which is furthermore argued to be impeded or hindered in neighborhoods characterized by for instance concentrated disadvantage, higher immigrant concentration, and residential instability. At the individual level instead, levels of collective efficacy is correlated with levels of SES, homeownership, age, and mobility. However, findings suggest that these characteristics vary across cultural contexts. This study sets out to test the two mechanisms social cohesion and informal social control separately with the aim of investigating if they originate or are derived from the same social and structural characteristics. Using data from the fear of crime survey conducted in Malmö (Sweden) in 2012 (n=4195), 104 urban neighborhoods form the basis for separate models each controlling for neighborhood as well as individual characteristics. The results will be discussed against the theoretical backdrop of collective efficacy and if the effects it has on fear of crime and victimization necessarily stems from an integrative notion of the two mechanisms/concepts. Practical policy implications will furthermore be discussed as will matters for further research.

  • 12.
    Chrysoulakis, Alberto
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Criminology (KR).
    Delinquency abstention: the importance of morality and peers2014In: 14th Annual Conference of the European Society of Criminology Criminology of Europe: Inspiration by Diversity: Book of abstracts, European Society of Criminology , 2014, p. 464-464Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The scientific focus of criminological research has since long been on criminal and antisocial behaviour. However, a group of individuals reporting that they have never engaged in delinquent behaviour (delinquency abstainers) have consistently been identified and until only recently not rendered much scientific interest. It has by some been proposed that delinquency abstention is a result of individuals being excluded from peer groups due to undesired characteristics (e.g. high sense of moral beliefs), although this notion is contested. Morality has by others instead been perceived as having a direct effect on abstention, which is the hypothesis tested in this study. It does so by comparing delinquency abstainers to low- frequency non-abstainers with regards to moral belief, delinquent peer association, and time spent unsupervised with peers, and furthermore examines the effects across gender. Logistic regressions were run to examine direct and mediating effects using data from the longitudinal project Malmö Individual and Neighbourhood Developmental Study (MINDS). Results indicate that strong moral beliefs have a direct effect on abstention and that this effect is not mediated by delinquent peer association. Associating with delinquent peers did in turn predict non-abstention but spending time unsupervised with peers did neither predict abstention nor delinquency. Some gender differences found points towards stronger morality amongst females and that the effect of morality for males depends on peer association. Morality should therefore not be perceived as an undesirable characteristic which excludes individuals from peer groups but rather as an important factor in the inhibition of delinquency.

  • 13.
    Chrysoulakis, Alberto P.
    Malmö University, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Criminology (KR).
    Intention to act: testing the interaction between morality and self-control using randomised scenariosIn: Article in journal (Refereed)
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