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  • 1.
    Farley, Samuel
    et al.
    Univ Sheffield, Management Sch, Sheffield, England..
    Cowen Forssell, Rebecka
    Malmö University, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), Department of Urban Studies (US). Malmö University, Centre for Work Life and Evaluation Studies (CTA).
    Holm, Kristoffer
    Malmö University, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), Department of Urban Studies (US).
    Berthelsen, Hanne
    Malmö University, Faculty of Odontology (OD).
    Predictors of work-related cyberaggression in a random sample of the Swedish working population2024In: International Journal of Workplace Health Management, ISSN 1753-8351, E-ISSN 1753-836X, Vol. 17, no 1, p. 57-71Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: With greater numbers of employees using computer-mediated communication, cyberaggression is becoming a more pressing problem for employees and their organizations. However, while a growing body of research illustrates its harmful effects, little is known about the factors that drive its occurrence. The authors therefore sought to identify factors that increase the risk of cyberaggression among employees.

    Design/methodology/approach: A random sample of the Swedish working population (N = 11,556) was surveyed via Statistics Sweden (SCB), which produced a final sample of N = 2,847 (response rate = 24.6%).

    Findings: Logistic regression analysis showed that emotionally demanding work, availability expectations, low perceived work quality, public sector work and being in a managerial position were related to higher levels of experienced cyberaggression. In addition, exploratory analyses indicated that some of these factors were more strongly related to cyberaggression enacted by organizational insiders compared to organizational outsiders.

    Originality/value: Together, the authors' findings suggest that situational factors are stronger antecedents of cyberaggression victimization than personal factors. This has implications for organizations, as practical steps can be taken to reduce cyberaggression among employees.

  • 2.
    Holm, Kristoffer
    et al.
    Malmö University, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), Department of Urban Studies (US). Malmö University, Centre for Work Life and Evaluation Studies (CTA).
    Cowen Forssell, Rebecka
    Malmö University, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), Department of Urban Studies (US). Malmö University, Centre for Work Life and Evaluation Studies (CTA).
    Jönsson, Sandra
    Malmö University, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), Department of Urban Studies (US). Malmö University, Centre for Work Life and Evaluation Studies (CTA).
    Preliminära effekter av en arbetsplatsintervention som syftar till att främja hövlighet och respekt i organisationer2023In: Program och abstrakt: FALF 2023 Arbetets gränser, Historiska institutionen, Lunds universitet , 2023, p. 58-Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 3.
    Holm, Kristoffer
    et al.
    Malmö University, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), Department of Urban Studies (US). Malmö University, Centre for Work Life and Evaluation Studies (CTA).
    Cowen Forssell, Rebecka
    Malmö University, Centre for Work Life and Evaluation Studies (CTA). Malmö University, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), Department of Urban Studies (US).
    Jönsson, Sandra
    Malmö University, Centre for Work Life and Evaluation Studies (CTA). Malmö University, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), Department of Urban Studies (US).
    Utveckling och tillämpning av en evidensbaserad metod för att främja hövlighet i organisationer: En projektöversikt och resultat från en pilotstudie2022In: Konferens FALF 2022 13–15 juni Kiruna Framtidens arbete – arbetets framtid: Book of abstracts, 2022Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Inledning

    Internationell forskning har under de senaste åren visat att ohövliga beteenden i arbetslivet är en tydlig källa till stress, knutet till negativa konsekvenser för både individer och organisationer (Schilpzand m fl., 2016). Ohövliga beteenden kan beskrivas som både avsiktliga och oavsiktliga lågintensiva negativa beteenden som bryter mot normer för respekt på arbetsplatsen (Andersson & Pearson, 1999), t ex nedlåtande kommentarer, att inte bli lyssnad till, eller ett nonchalant eller avfärdande bemötande från kollegor (Cortina m fl., 2013). Ohövlighet skiljer sig från grövre typer av kränkningar, som arbetsplatsmobbning, genom att det har en lägre intensitet, och att intentionen bakom beteendet är mer tvetydig (Leiter m fl., 2015).

    Forskning har även visat att ohövliga beteenden är vanligt förekommande på den svenska arbetsmarknaden (Torkelson m fl., 2016). En svensk avhandling visade nyligen att vittnen till ohövliga beteenden har en ökad tendens att själv utöva ohövliga beteenden mot andra, och att ohövlighet kan knytas till arbetsplatsens kultur (Holm, 2021). Trots att ohövliga beteenden är vanligt förekommande och riskerar att spridas, har relativt få systematiska insatser utvecklats för att förebygga och motverka ohövliga beteenden i arbetslivet. Ett undantag är den amerikanska interventionsmodellen Civility, Respect and Engagement in the Workplace (CREW), som utvecklats specifikt för att främja hövlighet och respekt i bemötandet mellan kollegor inom den amerikanska sjukvården (Osatuke m fl., 2009; 2013). CREW har utvärderats i par studier, där insatsen visat på effekter som en ökad nivå av hövliga beteenden över tid, mindre ohövlighet, ökad tillit till ledningen, ökad arbetstillfredsställelse och mindre frånvaro (Osatuke m fl., 2009; Leiter m fl., 2011). Förändringen av rapporterad hövlighet visade även på en trend som fortsatte att utvecklas i positiv riktning ett år efter insatsen avslutats (Leiter m fl., 2012).

    Det saknas däremot fortfarande kunskap om vilka faktorer (organisatoriskt och socialt) som leder till en positiv förändring, och hur effektiv insatsen är utanför sjukvården, såväl som i andra nationella kontexter. Det finns därför ett behov av att vidareutveckla interventionen, pröva den på den svenska arbetsmarknaden, och identifiera vilka faktorer som får metoden att fungera. Med bakgrund av detta pågår ett forskningsprojekt som syftar till att utveckla och implementera en hövlighetsinsats i ett antal olika organisationer, som präglas av olika förutsättningar, styrning, målbilder, och arbetsformer. Detta för att möjliggöra en utvärdering av insatsens gångbarhet i olika organisatoriska kontexter.

     

    Syfte

    Projektet har två huvudsakliga syften. Det första syftet är att utveckla och implementera en hövlighetsintervention, och undersöka om förändringen av beteenden och arbetsrelaterad hälsa påverkar, eller påverkas av, den organisatoriska och sociala arbetsmiljön. Projektet syftar även till att, utifrån interventionens resultat, sammanställa ett metodstöd med konkreta riktlinjer för hur organisationer kan arbeta preventivt mot kränkande särbehandling och ohälsa.

     

    Metod

    Insatsen kommer att genomföras som en workshopserie med arbetsgrupper under sex månaders tid, och jämföras med kontrollgrupper i samma verksamheter. Projektet tillämpar en väntliste-kontroll-design, vilket innebär att personer som ingår i kontrollgruppen också erbjuds möjlighet att delta i insatsen när insatsgruppen slutfört sin workshopserie. 

    Insatsen består av diskussionsmoment under månadsvisa träffar med fokus på kommunikation och socialt klimat på arbetsplatsen. Insatsen tar utgångspunkt i individernas egna erfarenheter, där de är aktiva agenter i processen. Arbetsgrupperna bidrar därmed genom att identifiera vad de ser som hövligt, och sätter själva mål för hövlighet som utgår från gruppens delade upplevelser av vad hövlighet är (Osatuke m fl., 2009). 

    Totalt planeras insatsen att genomföras i fem organisationer. Det rör sig om två större förvaltningar i Malmö stad som bedriver människobehandlande arbete, såväl som förskoleverksamheter, en organisation med kulturarbetare, och ett privat företag med tekniskt orienterat arbete. För att utvärdera insatsen genomförs enkäter före, direkt efter, och sex månader efter insatsen. Uppföljande intervjuer kommer även att genomföras med medverkande i insatsen. 

     

    Resultat

    Under våren 2022 genomförs en pilotstudie för att pröva ut det frågeformulär som planeras att användas i projektet. Pilotdata kommer att samlas in från ett bekvämlighetsurval av yrkesverksamma individer. Resultat kring frågeformulärets psykometriska egenskaper, såväl som samband mellan hövlighet/ohövlighet, normer kring hövlighet, och social arbetsmiljö kommer att presenteras. Initiala resultat från pilotstudien kring samband mellan hövlighet, ohövlighet, normer och den sociala arbetsmiljön förväntas generera viktig kunskap om vilka potentiella effekter insatsen kan komma att resultera i.

     

    Finansiering

    Projektet finansieras av AFA försäkring (dnr 210121).

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  • 4.
    Holm, Kristoffer
    et al.
    Malmö University, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), Department of Urban Studies (US). Malmö University, Centre for Work Life and Evaluation Studies (CTA).
    Cowen Forssell, Rebecka
    Malmö University, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), Department of Urban Studies (US). Malmö University, Centre for Work Life and Evaluation Studies (CTA).
    Jönsson, Sandra
    Malmö University, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), Department of Urban Studies (US). Malmö University, Centre for Work Life and Evaluation Studies (CTA).
    Björk, Josefin
    Malmö University, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), Department of Urban Studies (US). Malmö University, Centre for Work Life and Evaluation Studies (CTA).
    Testing the effects of an intervention aimed to increase civility in Swedish workplaces2023In: The future is now - the changing world of work: Book of abstracts, 2023Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Research goals and why the work was worth doing

    Over the past two decades, research has demonstrated that workplace incivility is a ubiquitous work environment issue, which can have deleterious consequences for both individuals and organizations (Schilpzand et al., 2016; Cortina et al., 2017). Workplace incivility refers to low-intensity rude behavior in the workplace (Andersson & Pearson, 1999). The effects of incivility can be far-reaching, as it may spread in the workplace (Foulk et al., 2016; Holm et al., 2021). 

    One promising avenue to address incivility has been the use of civility interventions. Actively promoting civility in the workplace may reduce the risk for incivility, and increase civility and respect (Leiter et al., 2011; 2012). However, recent research has shown less consistent results of civility interventions when applied in other cultural contexts than North America (e.g., Sawada et al., 2021), or in other workplaces than hospitals (e.g., Grantham, 2019). More information is therefore needed on the effects of implementing civility interventions in the workplace, particularly exploring mechanisms and moderators in the intervention process. The aim of the present study is to test the effects of an intervention aimed to increase civility in Swedish workplaces.

     

    Theoretical background

    The present study is based on the principles developed in the Civility, Respect and Engagement in the Workplace (CREW) intervention (Osatuke et al., 2013).  CREW was developed by the United States Department of Veteran Affairs in 2005. CREW was a culture-based workplace intervention promoting civility in the workplace in the departments’ VA-hospitals, with documented successful outcomes (Osatuke et al., 2009). Two research studies tested the effect of the CREW intervention in hospitals in North America, showing both short- and long-term effects of the intervention on workplace behavior, attitudes, and absence (Leiter et al., 2011; 2012). However, little is still known about how civility interventions operate in other contexts than hospitals, and which mechanisms or boundary conditions that influence the impact of civility interventions.  

     

    Design/Methodology/Approach/Intervention

    The present study has a quasi-experimental waitlist-control design. Participating workplaces are assigned to one of two conditions, an intervention condition or waitlist. The intervention group participates in a series of monthly workshops during the period of September 2022 – January 2023. The workshops address topics such as workplace culture, with the aim to promote workplace civility and reduce the risk of workplace incivility. The waitlist serves as the control group. Pre- and post-surveys are conducted to investigate possible effects of the intervention on measures of workplace (in)civility, norms for civility, social work environment factors, as well as work-related well-being. 

     

    Results (expected)

    Baseline survey data have currently been gathered from about 200 individuals across 13 workplaces in a Swedish municipality. The intervention group is currently undergoing the workshop series. The follow up post-survey is planned for January of 2023. When post-measures have been completed, possible change in measures of workplace civility, norms for civility, and workplace incivility will be explored. Change in social work environment factors, as well as work-related well-being, will also be explored. The intervention is expected to result in increased civility and norms for civility, as well as reduced incivility over time. 

     

    Limitations

    Workplaces were not assigned to the intervention or control condition via cluster randomization. Instead, it was based on practical aspects such as feasibility and scheduling in the participating organizations. Moreover, the follow-up measure is carried out only a few weeks after completion of the final workshop. Possible effects on behavior or well-being may take longer time to develop. Lastly, the measures are self-reported by participants.

     

    Conclusions – research and or practical implications/Originality/Value

    Results from the post-measure surveys will be presented at the congress. The originality of the project lies in exploring the effects of an updated version of a civility intervention, in a context outside of hospital settings in North America. The study will also provide information about potential mechanisms and moderators involved in the intervention process. Practically, the knowledge that results from the study could be of use in future attempts to improve the social work environment in workplaces by working with the workplace culture.

     

    Relevance to the Congress Theme

    The study is relevant to several of the congress themes, e.g. 6. Group dynamics, 8. Organizational design and development, 15. Stress and dysfunction, and 18. Well-being.

     

    Relevant UN SDGs

    Goal 3. Good health and well-being

    Goal 8. Decent work and economic growth

  • 5.
    Holm, Kristoffer
    et al.
    Malmö University, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), Department of Urban Studies (US). Malmö University, Centre for Work Life and Evaluation Studies (CTA).
    Jönsson, Sandra
    Malmö University, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), Department of Urban Studies (US). Malmö University, Centre for Work Life and Evaluation Studies (CTA).
    Muhonen, Tuija
    Malmö University, Centre for Work Life and Evaluation Studies (CTA). Malmö University, Faculty of Education and Society (LS), Department of School Development and Leadership (SOL).
    Can Job Demands and Job Resources Predict Bystander Behaviour in Workplace Bullying? A Longitudinal Study2023In: International Journal of Bullying Prevention, ISSN 2523-3653Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Bystanders can affect workplace bullying by engaging in active or passive behaviours. However, there is a knowledge gapregarding how perceived work environment factors relate to bystander behaviour. The study aim was to investigate how job demands, and job resources are associated with bystander behaviour in workplace bullying. An online questionnaire wasdistributed to a sample of health care workers at two time points. Longitudinal data were obtained from 1144 respondents. Cross-lagged panel models were used to investigate associations between job demands, job resources, and bystander behaviours over time. The results showed that social support was positively related to active behaviours, whereas influence at work was negatively related to both active and passive behaviours. Perceived illegitimate tasks were negatively related to active and positively related to passive behaviours, whereas emotional demands had an unanticipated opposite pattern of relationships. The findings provide new information about how factors in the organisational and social work environment are associated with active and passive bystander behaviours in workplace bullying. Specifically, the results expand current understanding of workplace bullying by relating bystander behaviour to the organisational context.

  • 6.
    Holm, Kristoffer
    et al.
    Malmö University, Centre for Work Life and Evaluation Studies (CTA). Malmö University, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), Department of Urban Studies (US).
    Jönsson, Sandra
    Malmö University, Centre for Work Life and Evaluation Studies (CTA). Malmö University, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), Department of Urban Studies (US).
    Muhonen, Tuija
    Malmö University, Faculty of Education and Society (LS), Department of School Development and Leadership (SOL). Malmö University, Centre for Work Life and Evaluation Studies (CTA).
    How are witnessed workplace bullying and bystander roles related to perceived care quality, work engagement, and turnover intentions in the healthcare sector?: A longitudinal study2023In: International Journal of Nursing Studies, ISSN 0020-7489, E-ISSN 1873-491X, Vol. 138, article id 104429Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BackgroundWorkplace bullying is widespread in the healthcare sector and the negative effects are well known. However, less attention has been paid to bystanders who witness bullying in the workplace. Bystanders can affect the bullying process by engaging in active, passive, or destructive behaviors. There is a need to study work-related and organizational consequences of witnessing bullying and bystander behaviors.ObjectiveThe aim was to explore how witnessed workplace bullying and bystander behaviors are associated with work-related and organizational consequences, such as perceived quality of care, work engagement, and turnover intentions, among healthcare workers over time.DesignLongitudinal design. An online questionnaire was administered twice over the course of six months.Setting(s)Employees in the healthcare sector in Sweden, such as physicians, nurses, and assistant nurses, responded to the questionnaire.Participants1144 participants provided longitudinal data.MethodsStructural equation modeling was used to explore the associations between witnessed bullying, bystander behavior, work-related and organizational factors over time.ResultsWitnessed workplace bullying (B = − 0.18, 95 % CI [− 0.23 to − 0.12]) and the bystander outsider role (B = − 0.24, 95 % CI [− 0.29 to − 0.19]) were statistically significantly related to a decrease in perceived quality of care. Work engagement was statistically significantly predicted by all three bystander roles over time; positively by the defender role (B = 0.11, 95 % CI [0.05–0.17]), and negatively by the outsider role (B = − 0.23, 95 % CI [− 0.29 to − 0.16]), and the assistant role (B = − 0.32, 95 % CI [− 0.41 to − 0.24]). The outsider role (B = 0.12, 95 % CI [0.02–0.22]), the assistant role (B = 0.17, 95 % CI [0.03–0.30]), and witnessed workplace bullying (B = 0.18, 95 % CI [0.08–0.29]), all positively predicted increased turnover intentions at a subsequent time point.ConclusionsIn addition to the direct negative impact workplace bullying has on those targeted by it, witnessing bullying and taking different bystander roles can have work-related and organizational consequences by influencing perceived care quality, employees' work engagement, and their intention to leave the organization.

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  • 7.
    Holm, Kristoffer
    et al.
    Malmö University, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), Department of Urban Studies (US). Malmö University, Centre for Work Life and Evaluation Studies (CTA).
    Jönsson, Sandra
    Malmö University, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), Department of Urban Studies (US). Malmö University, Centre for Work Life and Evaluation Studies (CTA).
    Muhonen, Tuija
    Malmö University, Centre for Work Life and Evaluation Studies (CTA). Malmö University, Faculty of Education and Society (LS), Department of School Development and Leadership (SOL).
    Witnessing Workplace Bullying: Antecedents and Consequences related to the Organizational Context of the Health Care Sector2022In: 13th International Association on Workplace Bullying and Harassment Conference, September 20-24, 2022, Book of Abstracts, 2022, p. 87-88Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background and Aims

    Workplace bullying is a severe global problem that affect individuals, organizations and society (e.g. Salin & Notelears, 2020). Studies have indicated that workplace bullying is more prevalent in health care than in other sectors. According to a recent systematic review of bullying among health care employees, up to one in four health care professionals are exposed to bullying regularly (Lever et al., 2018).

    There has been a growing interest in the area of bystanders of workplace bullying (Coyne et al. 2017), but the role of the bystander, and research focusing on understanding the rationale for bystander behavior, remains an important area of investigation (Thompson et al., 2020). Specifically, additional research is needed in order to achieve a deeper understanding of the connection between the organizational context and bystanders’ behavior. Consequently, the aim of this study is to investigate how different organizational factors relate to bystanders’ behavior in a bullying situation.

    In order to analyze the organizational context in relation to workplace bullying and bystanders’ behavior, the Job Demands-Resources theory (JD-R; Bakker & Demerouti, 2017), and the theory of Psychosocial Safety Climate (PSC; Dollard & Bakker, 2010) form the theoretical framework for the study.

    Design/Methodology

    The present study is a quantitative survey study conducted in the health care sector, with physicians, nurses and assistant nurses as participants. Longitudinal data have been collected through questionnaires at two occasions, about six months apart (N = 1144 responded at both t1 and t2). Demographic questions, as well as scales from the Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire (COPSOQ II; Pejtersen et al., 2010), and measures of bystander behavior in response to witnessed bullying (Salmivalli et al., 1996; 2011), were included in the survey at both time points. Longitudinal structural equation modelling was conducted to investigate associations between psychosocial factors and bystander behavior over time.

    Results

    Results indicated that PSC was positively associated with bystanders’ reports of defending the victim. Social support from coworkers, social community at work and perceived illegitimate tasks predicted constructive, passive, and destructive bystander behaviors in expected directions. Conversely, influence, as well as quantitative and emotional demands were counterintuitively related to bystander behaviors over time.

    Practical Implications

    It is predicted that the health care sector will have a substantial need for staff in the future, while many of the current employees, especially nurses, leave their occupation. Providing a good work environment will be one of the key issues in order to attract, recruit and retain staff in the future. The study generates knowledge that creates opportunities for managers and organizations to work preventively, and increases their ability to understand and handle different types of bullying situations from both the victim’s and witnesses’ perspective.

    Originality/Value

    This study adds knowledge to the area of bystander behavior in the health care sector, by relating bystander behavior to the organizational context.

  • 8.
    Holm, Kristoffer
    et al.
    Malmö University, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), Department of Urban Studies (US). Malmö University, Centre for Work Life and Evaluation Studies (CTA).
    Torkelson, Eva
    Lunds Universitet.
    Bäckström, Martin
    Lunds Universitet.
    Coping with workplace incivility in the foodservice industry2023In: Journal of Human Resources in Hospitality & Tourism, ISSN 1533-2845, E-ISSN 1533-2853, Vol. 22, no 3, p. 489-512Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the study was to explore employees’ appraisals and coping responses to workplace incivility in the foodservice industry. Five group interviews with foodservice workers were conducted. 13 different types of experienced or witnessed incivility were identified. Positive-benign, irrelevant, and negative appraisals were found, as well as four major coping themes. These were active, passive, and proactive coping as well as reappraisal, encompassing twelve forms of coping behaviors. Additionally, workplace incivility was described as a daily stressor which can be expressed as a part of the workplace culture in the foodservice industry.

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  • 9.
    Holm, Kristoffer
    et al.
    Malmö University, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), Department of Urban Studies (US). Malmö University, Centre for Work Life and Evaluation Studies (CTA).
    Torkelson, Eva
    Department of Psychology, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Bäckström, Martin
    Department of Psychology, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Workplace incivility as a risk factor for workplace bullying and psychological well-being: a longitudinal study of targets and bystanders in a sample of swedish engineers2022In: BMC Psychology, E-ISSN 2050-7283, Vol. 10, no 1, p. 1-14, article id 299Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The aim of the present study is to explore whether (experienced and witnessed) workplace incivility is a risk factor for (experienced and witnessed) workplace bullying. An additional aim is to explore whether experienced workplace incivility is associated with psychological well-being above and beyond the influence of (experienced and witnessed) workplace bullying on well-being.

    Methods: A survey was distributed via e-mail to a panel of Swedish engineers. The survey was administered at three time points over one year. In total, N = 1005 engineers responded to the survey. Of these, N = 341 responded to more than one survey, providing longitudinal data. N = 111 responded to all three surveys.

    Results: The results showed that the likelihood of being targeted by workplace bullying was higher for those who had previously experienced incivility, even when taking previous bullying exposure into account. There was also partial support for a higher likelihood of witnessing bullying at a later time point for those that had previously witnessed incivility. Additionally, the results showed that experienced workplace incivility was negatively related to psychological well-being over time, even when controlling for previous levels of experienced and witnessed workplace bullying and well-being. However, this result was only found over one of the two time lags.

    Conclusion: The findings of the present study suggests that workplace incivility can be a risk factor for future bullying. In addition, the findings suggest that experienced workplace incivility exerts a unique negative effect on psychological well-being, even when accounting for exposure to workplace bullying. 

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  • 10.
    Jungert, Tomas
    et al.
    Lunds Universitet.
    Holm, Kristoffer
    Malmö University, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), Department of Urban Studies (US). Malmö University, Centre for Work Life and Evaluation Studies (CTA).
    Workplace incivility and bystanders’ helping intentions2022In: International Journal of Conflict Management, ISSN 1044-4068, E-ISSN 1758-8545, Vol. 33, no 2, p. 273-290Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose

    Using observational and experimental designs, the purpose of this study was to explore if the power relation between the offender and the victim of incivility and the level of perceived severity of the incivility were associated with bystanders’ intentions to help when witnessing workplace incivility.

    Design/methodology/approach

    In Study 1, 160 participants completed a questionnaire where they described a recent uncivil incident they had witnessed, and completed measures of perceived severity and measures of their behavioural response as bystanders. In Study 2, 183 participants were randomised to read one of two vignettes (a manager being uncivil towards a subordinate or vice versa), and completed measures of perceived severity and of their motivation to intervene. The authors investigated whether the power relation between perpetrator and victim, and the perceived severity of the uncivil exchange, were associated with prosocial bystander behaviours in Study 1 and with motivation to defend the victim of incivility in Study 2.

    Findings

    Higher perpetrator power was significantly associated with the incident being perceived as more severe, and higher perpetrator power was directly related to greater tendency to confront, and lower tendency to avoid, the perpetrator. Perpetrator power was indirectly associated with social support according to the perceived severity. A supervisor acting in an uncivil manner was rated as more severe than a subordinate acting in such a way. Perceived severity mediated the relationship between perpetrator power and the witness’s introjected, identified and intrinsic motivation to intervene.

    Originality/value

    This study extends previous work by investigating how the perpetrator’s power influences both the bystander’s prosocial behaviour and their motivation to defend the victim. Furthermore, previous research has not considered how perceptions of severity might mediate the relationship between power, behaviour and motivation.

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  • 11.
    Sinclair, Samantha
    et al.
    Institutionen för psykologi, Linnéuniversitetet.
    Nilsson, Artur
    Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Linköping University, Linköping; Sweden Department of Psychosocial Science, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway.
    Holm, Kristoffer
    Malmö University, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), Department of Urban Studies (US). Malmö University, Centre for Work Life and Evaluation Studies (CTA).
    The role of political fit and self-censorship at work for job satisfaction, social belonging, burnout, and turnover intentions2024In: Current Psychology, ISSN 1046-1310, E-ISSN 1936-4733Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We examined whether employees (N = 710) who experience low levels of political fit and who self-censor their political opinions at work, are more likely to display lower job satisfaction and perceived social community, and higher turnover intentions, burnout, and fear of social isolation. The results largely confirmed these associations and showed that the associations between perceived political fit and job satisfaction, social community, turnover intentions, and burnout were statistically mediated by willingness to self-censor. This suggests that employees who experience lower levels of person-organization fit with regards to their political ideology have a higher tendency to censure themselves, which is negatively related to their well-being, perceived social belonging, and job satisfaction. Furthermore, we found that the willingness to self-censor political opinions at work was slightly higher on average among those who were politically to the left, female, younger, and less educated. The findings point to the complexity of navigating political ideologies in the workplace.

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