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  • 1.
    Fernandez, Christian
    Malmö University, Malmö Institute for Studies of Migration, Diversity and Welfare (MIM). Malmö University, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), Department of Global Political Studies (GPS).
    Neighboring Countries, Worlds Apart?: Explaining the Swedish-Danish Difference in Immigration-Integration Policy2022Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Over the last couple of decades, Sweden and Denmark have come to symbolize opposite policy positions on immigration and integration; the former liberal, tolerant and multicultural, the latter restrictive, nationalist and assimilationist. The marked difference between two otherwise similar countries has puzzled comparative researchers and area specialists for more than two decades. In this paper, a series of well-known but seldom compared explanations are reviewed to gain a fuller and more multifaceted understanding of why Sweden and Denmark became so different. The explanations are divided into four main approaches with different foci: the electorate, the media, the political parties and national models. The paper ends with a short conclusion, highlighting what each of the explanations contributes to a fuller understanding of the difference, and a short note on the possible convergence of the countries post-2015. 

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  • 2.
    Fernandez, Christian
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), Department of Global Political Studies (GPS).
    The Challenge of Multiculturalismv: Political Philosophy and the Question of Diversity2013In: Challenging Multiculturalism: European Models of Diversity, Edinburgh University Press, 2013, p. 52-72Chapter in book (Other academic)
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  • 3.
    Fernandez, Christian
    Malmö University, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), Department of Global Political Studies (GPS).
    The unbearable lightness of being Swedish? On the ideological thinness of a liberal citizenship regime2019In: Ethnicities, ISSN 1468-7968, E-ISSN 1741-2706, Vol. 19, no 4, p. 674-692Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of this article is twofold. Firstly, I seek to improve understanding of Swedish citizenship by highlighting the particular traits of an open yet largely instrumental (non-sentimental) membership policy, which existing theories have not been able to fully account for. I argue that the liberal openness of Swedish citizenship should be attributed not only to a liberal ideology of pluralism and equality, but to a fairly administrative, sterile and pragmatic conception of citizenship that is largely dissociated from existing conceptions of nationhood, integration and societal membership. Secondly, and related to the first, I take issue with the widespread yet implicit theoretical notion of citizenship being defined by shared conceptions of the national demos. I argue that this connection varies and that it is significantly closer and stronger in some cases than in others, regardless of its lenience towards an ethnic or civic, monist or pluralist conception of the nation. While newer, post-national theories of citizenship offer valuable insights into the reshaping of citizenship, they systematically underestimate and, consequently, fail to account for the enduring differences between and idiosyncrasies of national citizenship regimes. To better capture this neglected dimension of the citizenship-nationhood nexus, I propose a distinction between ideologically thin and thick citizenship, with Sweden serving as an example of the first.

  • 4.
    Fernandez, Christian
    et al.
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), Department of Global Political Studies (GPS).
    Jensen, Kristian Kriegbaum
    Department of Political Science, Aarhus University, Aarhus, Denmark.
    The civic integrationist turn in Danish and Swedish school politics.2017In: Comparative Migration Studies, ISSN 2214-8590, E-ISSN 2214-594X, Vol. 5, no 5Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The civic integrationist turn usually refers to the stricter requirements for residence and citizenship that many states have implemented since the late 1990's. But what of other policy spheres that are essential for the formation of citizens? Is there a civic turn in school policy? And does it follow the pattern of residence and citizenship? This article addresses these questions through a comparative study of the EU's allegedly strictest and most liberal immigration regimes, Denmark and Sweden, respectively. The analysis shows a growing concern with citizenship education in both countries, yet with different styles and content. Citizenship education in Denmark concentrates on reproducing a historically derived core of cultural values and knowledge to which minorities are expected to assimilate, while the Swedish model subscribes to a pluralist view that stresses mutual adaptation and intercultural tolerance. Despite claims to the contrary, the analysis shows that Sweden too has experienced a civic turn.

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  • 5.
    Fernández, Christian
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), Department of Global Political Studies (GPS).
    Citizenship Education and Liberalism: A State of the Debate Analysis 1990-20102011In: Studies in Philosophy and Education, ISSN 0039-3746, E-ISSN 1573-191X, Vol. 30, no 4, p. 363-384Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    What kind of citizenship education, if any, should schools in liberal societies promote? And what ends is such education supposed to serve? Over the last decades a respectable body of literature has emerged to address these and related issues. In this state of the debate analysis we examine a sample of journal articles dealing with these very issues spanning a twenty-year period with the aim to analyse debate patterns and developments in the research field. We first carry out a qualitative analysis where we design a two-dimensional theoretical framework in order to systematise the various liberal debate positions, and make us able to study their justifications, internal tensions and engagements with other positions. In the ensuing quantitative leg of the study we carry out a quantitative bibliometric analysis where we weigh the importance of specific scholars. We finally discuss possible merits and flaws in the research field, as evidenced in and by the analysis.

  • 6.
    Fernández, Christian
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), Department of Global Political Studies (GPS).
    Education and Diversity: Two Stories of a Liberal Dilemma2010In: Public Affairs Quarterly, ISSN 0887-0373, E-ISSN 2152-0542, Vol. 24, no 4, p. 279-296Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In a famous U.S. court case from 1972, Wisconsin v. Yoder (406 U.S. 205), three families, members of the Old Order Amish religion and the Conservative Amish Mennonite Church, were taken to court by the State of Wisconsin. By removing their children from school at the age of fourteen, the parents of the three families had refused to obey the state’s mandatory school enrollment law that compels children to stay in school until the age of sixteen. Further education in common schools would present their children with too much exposure to the “evil world,” they argued. The parents were convicted by the state of violating Wisconsin’s compulsory school attendance law. The case went all the way to the U.S. Supreme Court, which held that high school attendance constituted a “serious barrier to the integration of the Amish child into the Amish religious community” and that the Wisconsin compulsory school attendance law did “interfere with the freedom of the Defendants to act in accordance with their sincere religious belief” (Wisconsin v. Yoder 1972, pp. 212­225). The court ruled in favor of the three Amish families, albeit not unanimously.

  • 7.
    Fernández, Christian
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), Department of Global Political Studies (GPS).
    Liberaliseringen av svensk skolpolitik: en positionsbestämning2012In: Statsvetenskaplig Tidskrift, ISSN 0039-0747, Vol. 114, no 2, p. 241-270Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    In the public and academic debate, the liberalization of Swedish school policy is often equated with privatization and - to a lesser degree - differentiation. The first is associated with the rapid growth of a semi-private free school sector, driven by slogans such as freedom of choice, cost-efficiency, parental influence and market competition. The second is associated with the decentralization of power and goaloriented governance, aiming to achieve a variegated and flexible school system that is better equipped to meet individual needs, interests and preferences. The article examines this widespread conception of the liberalization of Swedish school policy. More precisely, the objective is to position central school policy developments over the last two decades in the liberal field through a tripartite typology. I argue that the mainstream conception exaggerates the privatization type of liberalization, while neglecting another, less visible but very influential type—namely universalization.

  • 8.
    Fernández, Christian
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), Department of Global Political Studies (GPS).
    One out of three: immigrant New York in the twenty-first century2015In: Ethnic and Racial Studies, ISSN 0141-9870, E-ISSN 1466-4356, Vol. 38, no 3, p. 485-487Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 9.
    Fernández, Christian
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), Department of Global Political Studies (GPS).
    Patriots in the Making? Migrants, Citizens and Demos Building in the European Union2012In: Journal of International Migration and Integration, ISSN 1488-3473, E-ISSN 1874-6365, Vol. 13, no 2, p. 147-163Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Almost 20 years ago, Jürgen Habermas launched the idea of constitutional patriotism as a proposed solution to the tension between citizenship and national identity in the European Union. Since then, constitutional patriotism has remained a key concept in debates on European Union (EU) citizenship and democracy. This article, as so many before it, scrutinizes the meaning and viability of the concept. Unlike most others, however, it focuses less on the content of the concept and more on the subjects to which it is assumed/supposed to apply. I argue, firstly, that constitutional patriotism is not a viable or even desirable ideal for the European demos in its totality. The potential patriots of the EU are not the large majority of European Union citizens who live in their home country but migrants from other member states and nonmember states who are foreigners in their host countries. Secondly and accordingly, I argue that advancing constitutional patriotism means improving the status of foreign nationals in general and third-country nationals in particular. Connecting the acquisition of EU citizenship to domicile as opposed to member state nationality is one venue for such improvement. I discuss what this could imply and defend it as a means of building a truly European demos.

  • 10.
    Fernández, Christian
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), Department of Global Political Studies (GPS).
    Together but Apart, Equal but Different: On the Claims for Toleration in Multicultural Societies2009In: On behalf of others: the psychology of care in a global world / [ed] Sarah Scuzzarello, Catarina Kinnvall, Kristen R Monroe, Oxford University Press, 2009, p. 35-60Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 11.
    Fernández, Christian
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), Department of Global Political Studies (GPS).
    Toleration in the 21st Century: A Revised Liberal Defense2008In: CFE Working Papers, ISSN 1403-6754, no 34, p. 1-30Article in journal (Other academic)
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  • 12.
    Fernández, Christian
    et al.
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), Department of Global Political Studies (GPS).
    Hellström, Anders
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), Department of Global Political Studies (GPS).
    Bevelander, Pieter
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), Department of Global Political Studies (GPS).
    Att bli medborgare, att vara medmänniska2011In: Vägar till medborgarskap / [ed] Pieter Bevelander, Christian Fernández, Anders Hellström, Arkiv förlag & tidskrift, 2011, p. 143-166Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 13.
    Fernández, Christian
    et al.
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), Department of Global Political Studies (GPS).
    Spång, Mikael
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), Department of Global Political Studies (GPS).
    Folket som politiskt subjekt2010In: Fronesis, ISSN 1404-2614, no 34, p. 20-40Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 14.
    Hellström, Anders
    et al.
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), Department of Global Political Studies (GPS).
    Fernández, Christian
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), Department of Global Political Studies (GPS).
    Bevelander, Pieter
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), Department of Global Political Studies (GPS).
    Vägar till medborgarskap2011In: Vägar till medborgarskap / [ed] Pieter Bevelander, Christian Fernández, Anders Hellström, Arkiv förlag & tidskrift, 2011, p. 9-28Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 15.
    Jensen, Kristian Kriegbaum
    et al.
    Department of Political Science, Aarhus University, Aarhus, Denmark.
    Fernandez, Christian
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), Department of Global Political Studies (GPS).
    Brochmann, Grete
    Department of Sociology and Human Geography, Oslo University, Oslo, Norway.
    Nationhood and Scandinavian naturalization politics: varieties of the civic turn2017In: Citizenship Studies, ISSN 1362-1025, E-ISSN 1469-3593, Vol. 21, no 5, p. 606-624Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The neighboring countries of Denmark, Sweden, and Norway represent three very similar societies that differ markedly with respect to naturalization policy. While the general trend of a civic turn has brought about some of Europe's strictest residence and citizenship requirements in Denmark, it has left the liberal Swedish policy largely untouched and the Norwegian somewhere in between the other two. How might such divergence in otherwise very similar societies be explained? This article investigates the role different conceptions of nationhood have played. It is argued that different conceptions of nationhood have mattered, but that the national differences have less to do with the normative content of nationhood than with how politicians tend to conceive of the integration process that newcomers must commit to in order to develop a strong sense of national belonging.

  • 16. Sundström, Mikael
    et al.
    Fernández, Christian
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), Department of Global Political Studies (GPS).
    Citizenship education and diversity in liberal societies: Theory and policy in a comparative perspective2013In: Education, Citizenship and Social Justice, ISSN 1746-1979, E-ISSN 1746-1987, Vol. 8, no 2, p. 103-117Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Citizenship education is a popular and contested phenomenon in liberal democratic societies. It is difficult to imagine a school system that does not contribute to the preservation and improvement of society through education of democratic, responsible and tolerant citizens. On the contrary, the execution of such education is full of caveats, controversy and resistance. This special issue examines the inherent tensions of citizenship education in a variety of national contexts (France, England, Sweden and Quebec) and from several theoretical and empirical perspectives. In this introductory article, we present an overview of the debates on citizenship education in academia and the media and propose a conceptual framework for the categorisation and comparison of the diversity of practices that relate to citizenship education. This model is then used to guide a brief presentation of the remaining articles in the special issue.

1 - 16 of 16
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