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  • 1.
    Caggiani, Leonardo
    et al.
    Polytechnic University of Bari, Italy.
    Camporeale, Rosalia
    Lund University.
    Hamidi, Zahra
    Malmö universitet, Fakulteten för kultur och samhälle (KS), Institutionen för Urbana Studier (US).
    Zhao, Chunli
    Lund University.
    Evaluating the Efficiency of Bike-Sharing Stations with Data Envelopment Analysis2021Ingår i: Sustainability, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 13, nr 2, artikel-id 881Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper focuses on the efficiency evaluation of bike-sharing systems (BSSs) and develops an approach based on data envelopment analysis (DEA) to support the decisions regarding the performance evaluation of BSS stations. The proposed methodology is applied and tested for the Malmobybike BSS in Malmo, Sweden. This was done by employing spatial analyses and data about the BSS usage trends as well as taking into account transport, land use, and socioeconomic context of the case study. The results of the application demonstrate consistency with the literature and highlight meaningful associations between the station relative efficiency and the urban context. More specifically, the paper provides in-depth knowledge about the preprocessing data, selection of input and output variables, and the underlying analytical approach to be potentially applied to other cases and urban contexts. Overall, the DEA-based methodology presented in this study could assist decision-makers and planners with developing operational strategies for planning and management of BSS stations and networks.

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  • 2.
    Hamidi, Zahra
    Malmö universitet, Fakulteten för kultur och samhälle (KS), Institutionen för Urbana Studier (US). K2 – The Swedish Knowledge Centre for Public Transport.
    Decomposing cycling potentials employing the motility framework2021Ingår i: Journal of Transport Geography, ISSN 0966-6923, E-ISSN 1873-1236, Vol. 91, artikel-id 102984Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The concept of motility, mobility capital, has been put forward to understand mobility from a more holistic perspective through incorporating subjective and objective as well as material and non-material aspects in the examination of individuals? mobility potentials. In this paper, building on a survey study in the two munici-palities of Malmo? and Gothenburg in Sweden, I developed a quantitative operationalization of motility in relation to cycling and employed GIS-based and statistical analyses to identify a set of appropriate indicators to measure the three dimensions of cycling motility namely access, competence, and appropriation. The analyses reveal three operational dimensions underlying the process of appropriating cycling to carry out daily trips. More specifically, individuals? perceptions of the functional and social suitability of cycling and its compatibility with their principles and values seem to be significant for the appropriation of a bike as a daily travel mode. Alto-gether, the findings support that the quantitative operationalization of cycling motility can deepen our under-standing of the factors shaping individuals? cycling potentials and practices, hence offering valuable insights into the development of successful cycling interventions that create material and nonmaterial infrastructure, com-petences, and positive representations necessary for the appropriation of cycling.

  • 3.
    Hamidi, Zahra
    Malmö universitet, Fakulteten för kultur och samhälle (KS), Institutionen för Urbana Studier (US).
    Examining Inequalities in Cycling Motility: A Pathway Towards Cycling Justice2023Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Realizing the environmental and social benefits of cycling requires effective policies that deliver increased and inclusive cycling. This thesis aims to contribute to the development of such policies by providing insights into what could make cycling achievable for more diverse social groups through engaging with theoretical perspectives from transport geography, the mobilities paradigm and social justice. In doing so the thesis examines the various elements that constitute an individual’s potential to use a bicycle and the connected inequalities.

    The thesis employs conceptions of accessibility and motility in combination with measures of inequality to examine the socio-spatial inequalities in cycling potentials. The first paper designs a new composite indicator based on Theil’s index of inequality and accessibility measures to study inequalities in bike-and-ride opportunities in Malmö. The second paper develops a quantitative operationalization of cycling motility by applying GIS-based and statistical analyses to empirical data collected using a survey study. Specifically, cycling motility is operationalized along three dimensions of access, competence, and appropriation. This is done by measuring cycling-related material and nonmaterial, as well as objective and subjective factors related to individuals and their social, cultural, and geographical environment.

    The subsequent papers put the concept of cycling motility in practice. The third paper builds on the approach developed in the second paper and examines inequalities in the cycling motility across different social groups from the three-dimensional justice lens of Nancy Fraser. Finally, the fourth paper provides insights into the relationships between individuals’ cycling motility and their realized mobility. The empirical findings highlight that such relationships vary across three urban contexts of Malmö, Gothenburg, and Beijing. Overall, the findings support that the operationalization of cycling motility is useful for studying individuals’ cycling potentials and capturing the connected between-individual differences, thereby helpful for development of policies that could realize the social and environmental potentials of cycling.

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  • 4.
    Hamidi, Zahra
    Malmö universitet, Fakulteten för kultur och samhälle (KS), Institutionen för Urbana Studier (US).
    Thinking about Uneven Cycling Motility in a Social Justice Frame2023Manuskript (preprint) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The positive benefits of cycling cannot be realized in the absence of inclusive policies that improve cycling possibilities for all in society and effectively increase cycling. A more comprehensive understanding of the factors shaping individuals’ potential to cycle and the way the vary across social groups could provide valuable insights to support crafting such policies that could make cycling accessible for more diverse groups in society. Employing the motility framework this study examines the inequalities in cycling potential among individuals living in the municipalities of Gothenburg and Malmö in Sweden. Moreover, it adopts Nancy Fraser’s three-dimensional justice lens to explore the links between social groups’ differences in terms of cycling motility and sources of injustice in cycling practices and policies. The findings indicate that age and income are associated with significant variations in all three dimensions of cycling motility (i.e., access portfolio, competence, and appropriation). Additionally, the significant inequalities observed among the social groups in terms of cycling motility indicators could be traced to broader injustices in society – namely maldistribution, misrecognition, and misrepresentation. The paper argues that justice in cycling motility requires recognizing the diversity of needs and preferences, redistributing cycling-related resources, and including more voices in planning and decisionmaking.

  • 5.
    Hamidi, Zahra
    et al.
    Malmö universitet, Fakulteten för kultur och samhälle (KS), Institutionen för Urbana Studier (US). Department of Civil Environmental and Building Engineering and Chemistry (DICATECh), Polytechnic University of Bari, Italy.
    Camporeale, Rosalia
    Department of Technology and Society, Lund University, Lund, Sweden; Department of Civil Environmental and Building Engineering and Chemistry (DICATECh), Polytechnic University of Bari, Italy.
    Caggiani, Leonardo
    K2 – The Swedish Knowledge Centre for Public Transport, Lund, Sweden.
    Inequalities in access to bike-and-ride opportunities: Findings for the city of Malmö2019Ingår i: Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, ISSN 0965-8564, E-ISSN 1879-2375, Vol. 130, s. 673-688Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Intermodality or combining more than one transport mode during a single trip has been put forward to facilitate a modal shift from private car to more environmentally friendly modes such as public transport, cycling or walking. Bike-and-ride – that is, integrating cycling and public transport in one trip – is an attractive combination, as cycling as an active and clean mode is faster than walking and more affordable and flexible than other alternative modes of transport. Using cycling as a feeder mode to public transport could potentially allow people to reach more opportunities and improve their mobility, and ultimately, their well-being. Therefore, it is relevant to investigate the inequalities in access to bike-and-ride options across population groups.

    In this context, we suggest assessing the inequalities in bicycle access to the main transport hubs of a city by developing a composite indicator based on accessibility measures and the Theil index of inequality. This indicator captures the role of both private and public bikes – part of a Bike Sharing System (BSS) – in accessing the existing public transport system. The novelty of our approach lies in bringing the distributional justice perspective in the accessibility evaluation of transport and analysing the inequalities within and between any arbitrarily defined population groups. Moreover, in addition to travel time by bike, this accessibility measure incorporates a series of bike-related features, such as the typology of bike lanes (separated from or shared with roads), the presence of a BSS in the network, and bike facilities (e.g., parking racks) in transport hubs.

    The proposed methodology is applied to a real case study of the city of Malmö, Sweden, to prove its efficacy and usefulness. In particular, we examine how the level of bicycle access to the major public transport destination (including train stations and regional bus hubs) varies across the population. While considering the contextual properties of the city of Malmö, the inequalities are analysed in relation to spatial dimension and social background of the population, it is possible to extend the proposed analysis by including further features of the population, such as income or gender, and apply the same approach to different contexts.

  • 6.
    Hamidi, Zahra
    et al.
    Malmö universitet, Fakulteten för kultur och samhälle (KS), Institutionen för Urbana Studier (US).
    Zhao, Chunli
    Lund University.
    Shaping sustainable travel behaviour: Attitude, skills, and access all matter2020Ingår i: Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment, ISSN 1361-9209, E-ISSN 1879-2340, Vol. 88, artikel-id 102566Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Drawing on the conceptualisation of motility as the capacity to be mobile, this paper employs statistical and GIS-based analyses to explore the associations between travel mode choice and mobility-related attitudes, skills and opportunities to access transport modes. The study builds on survey data and spatial data from three urban contexts of Beijing, Gothenburg and Malmo to analyse both individual-level and contextual factors influencing sustainable travel behaviour. The results indicate that despite varying contexts, the three dimensions of attitude, skills and access significantly explain individuals' travel behaviour and their choice to travel by public transport, bicycle or car. Among the studied travel modes, cycling appears to be a competitive mode when the travel distances are within 5 km. In all three urban contexts, individuals who have greater environmental awareness are more likely to travel by public transport or cycling if the physical conditions facilitate using these modes. Good access to public transport is likely to increase the usage of both cycling and public transport and reduce car use. Favourable conditions for cycling within 2 km and 5 km radius can positively encourage people to use a bicycle as a feeder mode for public transport. Overall, our findings demonstrate that for mobility policies to increase individuals' motility in relation to sustainable travel modes and encourage a travel behaviour shift towards using alternatives to cars, planners need to take more holistic approaches and design policies that deal with the three motility dimensions in an integrated manner and avoid focusing on a single dimension in isolation.

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