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  • 1.
    Bergström, Kamilla
    et al.
    Malmö högskola, Odontologiska fakulteten (OD).
    Berthelsen, Hanne
    Malmö högskola, Odontologiska fakulteten (OD).
    Hjalmers, Karin
    Malmö högskola, Odontologiska fakulteten (OD).
    Ordell, Sven
    Malmö högskola, Odontologiska fakulteten (OD).
    Söderfeldt, Björn
    Malmö högskola, Odontologiska fakulteten (OD).
    Organizational affiliation and overall job satisfaction among Danish and Swedish dentists2009Ingår i: Abstract book, 2009Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: Good work in dentistry concerns the manual skills as well as the patient relation. The ability to provide quality care in dentistry is not only dependent on individual resources but also on work organization, which can affect the job satisfaction. This study aims to describe dentists in different organizational settings in Sweden and Denmark and the relation to their overall job satisfaction. Materials and methods: In 2008, a questionnaire was sent to a random proportionally stratified sample of practicing dentists in Sweden (n=898) and Denmark (n=937). The study was approved by the Swedish regional ethical board. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was used on three items aiming to measure overall job satisfaction; (1) work fulfillment, (2) satisfaction with the work as a whole, and (3) the perception of having a good working life. Kruskal-Wallis tests were used to compare the overall job satisfaction between Swedish and Danish private and public practitioners. Results: The response rate was 68%, whereas 51% were Swedes and 49% Danes, 62% were women and 32% men. Further, 61% were private and 39% were public practitioners. PCA on the three items showed a one factor solution with 78% variance explained. The PCA was stable when splitting the sample as to gender and organizational affiliation. An index for overall job satisfaction was established, having a Cronbach’s alpha 0.86. The overall job satisfaction means (range 3-15) for the four subgroups were; Swedish public (11.0) and private (11.8) practitioners and Danish public (11.9) and private (11.8) practitioners. Statistically significant differences were found between the groups (P< 0.001). Conclusions: The average response rate was reasonably satisfactory. The PCA showed an index of overall job satisfaction as a measure of eudaimonic work life elements as well as more practical contentment with work. The initial results showed that Danish and Swedish dentists have a high overall job satisfaction. The Swedish public practitioners had the lowest overall job satisfaction compared to the other groups. The results are to be further analyzed as to more specific organizational differences. Funding: The Swedish Council for Working Life and Social Research, Malmö University, The Danish Dental Association.

  • 2.
    Bergström, Kamilla
    et al.
    Malmö högskola, Odontologiska fakulteten (OD).
    Berthelsen, Hanne
    Malmö högskola, Odontologiska fakulteten (OD).
    Hjalmers, Karin
    Malmö högskola, Odontologiska fakulteten (OD).
    Ordell, Sven
    Malmö högskola, Odontologiska fakulteten (OD).
    Söderfeldt, Björn
    Malmö högskola, Odontologiska fakulteten (OD).
    Sustainable working life in human service work2009Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 3.
    Bergström, Kamilla
    et al.
    Malmö högskola, Odontologiska fakulteten (OD).
    Söderfeldt, Björn
    Malmö högskola, Odontologiska fakulteten (OD).
    Berthelsen, Hanne
    Malmö högskola, Odontologiska fakulteten (OD).
    Hjalmers, Karin
    Malmö högskola, Odontologiska fakulteten (OD).
    EXPLORING POSITIVE PERCEPTIONS OF DENTAL WORK IN SWEDEN AND DENMARK2009Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: Dentistry is an example of human service work, involving cognitively, emotionally and technically demanding tasks. These tasks are potentially implicative of negative as well as positive personal effects. The aim was to study work enjoyment, satisfaction with work, and good working life, comparing Danish and Swedish general dental practitioners. Materials and methods: In 2008, a questionnaire was sent to a randomly selected sample of practicing dentists in Sweden (n=900) and Denmark (n=937). The study was approved by the Swedish regional ethical board. Distribution analysis and Mann-Whitney U test were used for comparison between the groups Swedes/Danes, private-/public practitioners, and dentists with/without management responsibility. Results: Response rate was 68%, whereas 51% were Swedes and 49% Danes. Sixty percent had management responsibility and 40% had not. Further, 58% were private and 37% were public practitioners. Frequency analysis showed that almost three fourths of the dentists experienced a high or a very high degree of (1) work enjoyment (73%), (2) of satisfaction with their work as a whole (72%) and (3) of a good working life (74%). The items (1) and (2) showed differences between all three groups: Danes, private practitioners and dentists with management responsibility scored higher than their counterparts (p≤0.05). Item (3) showed similar results (p≤0.05), except for the comparison Danes/Swedes, which was non-significant. Conclusions: The initial results corroborate that Danish and Swedish dentists have positive perceptions of their work. The differences between the three groups are to be further studied to track potential correlations promoting positive perceptions of work. Funding: The Swedish Council for Working Life and Social Research, Malmö University, The Danish Dental Association.

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  • 4.
    Bergström, Kamilla
    et al.
    Malmö högskola, Odontologiska fakulteten (OD).
    Söderfeldt, Björn
    Malmö högskola, Odontologiska fakulteten (OD).
    Berthelsen, Hanne
    Malmö högskola, Odontologiska fakulteten (OD).
    Hjalmers, Karin
    Malmö högskola, Odontologiska fakulteten (OD).
    Ordell, Sven
    Malmö högskola, Odontologiska fakulteten (OD).
    Overall job satisfaction among dentists in Sweden and Denmark: A comparative study, measuring positive aspects of work2010Ingår i: Acta Odontologica Scandinavica, ISSN 0001-6357, E-ISSN 1502-3850, Vol. 68, nr 6, s. 344-353Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective. Human service work differs from industrial work, which should be considered when organizing work. Previous research has shown organizational differences in the perceptions of work, often with a focus on negative aspects. The aim of this study was to analyse the overall job satisfaction among private- and public-practising dentists in Sweden and Denmark. This also implied a description of the questionnaire Swedish and Danish Dentists' Perceptions of Good Work about opportunities and positive and rewarding aspects of work. Material and methods. A questionnaire covering the multidimensional concept of good work was developed. A total of 1835 dentists randomly sampled from the dental associations were sent a questionnaire in November 2008. A special non-response study was performed. Principal components analysis (PCA) was used to create a measure of overall job satisfaction, comparing four organizational subgroups. Results. The average net response rate was 68% (n = 1226). The special non-response study of the Danish private practitioners showed more males, managers and dentists with more working hours than the respondents. PCA of three satisfaction questions showed a stable one-factor solution. There were differences in job satisfaction, with Danish public dentists ranked highest in overall job satisfaction and Swedish public dentists lowest. Conclusions. There were organizational differences in the perception of job satisfaction. Further analysis of how the human service is organized in the different groups is needed.

  • 5.
    Berthelsen, Hanne
    et al.
    Malmö högskola, Odontologiska fakulteten (OD).
    Hjalmers, Karin
    Malmö högskola, Odontologiska fakulteten (OD).
    "Good Work"2007Konferensbidrag (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 6.
    Berthelsen, Hanne
    et al.
    Malmö högskola, Odontologiska fakulteten (OD).
    Hjalmers, Karin
    Malmö högskola, Odontologiska fakulteten (OD).
    Bergström, Kamilla
    Malmö högskola, Odontologiska fakulteten (OD).
    Ordell, Sven
    Malmö högskola, Odontologiska fakulteten (OD).
    Söderfeldt, Björn
    Malmö högskola, Odontologiska fakulteten (OD).
    Rewarding aspects of the work as a general dental practitioner2008Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The psychosocial work environment in dentistry is well documented as demanding, but less is known of what makes dentists stay engaged. Aim.The aim was to explore the rewarding aspects of the work as general dental practitioner..Methods. A qualitative approach was used to ensure a deeper understanding of the subject as perceived by dentists working in the field. Among Danish and Swedish general dental practitioners, six informants were in 2007-08 selected step by step to obtain maximal variation of respondents as to country of origin, gender, age and clinical work experience. Semi-structured, in-depth interviews based on Kvale’s principles were performed in the mother tongue of the informants. The interviews were audio-recorded and later transcribed verbatim in the original language by the interviewers. Statements covering rewarding aspects of dentistry were used for systematic text condensation according to the principles of Giorgi’s phenomenological analysis, modified by Malterud following 4 steps: (1) reading all the material to obtain an overall impression, and bracketing preconceptions; (2) identifying units of meaning representing different rewarding aspects of good work, and coding for these aspects; (3) condensing and abstracting the meaning within each of the coded groups; and (4) summarizing the contents of each code group to generalize descriptions and concepts reflecting aspects of good work. The study was approved by The Regional Ethical Review Board in Lund, Sweden Results. The first overall impression of data was that the rewarding aspects of the work as a dentist emerged directly from the clinical encounter; from the relation with the patient and the opportunity for performing a high quality odontological handicraft. Next, the dentists described some basic conditions as their relations to workmates, peers and managers as well as how organisational values and conditions influenced the opportunities for achieving the perceived rewarding aspects from the clinical encounter.Conclusion. The results comprising the moral aspects as essential in the work as a dentist confirm Hasenfelds’ theory of Human Service Organizations. This implicates a need for developing work environmental models with internal as well as external rewards when dealing with human service organizations. Acknowledgements. The authors wish to acknowledge the Swedish Council for working life and social research for financial support.

  • 7.
    Berthelsen, Hanne
    et al.
    Malmö högskola, Odontologiska fakulteten (OD).
    Hjalmers, Karin
    Malmö högskola, Odontologiska fakulteten (OD).
    Hakanen, Jari
    Good work: the relations between social capital, influence at work and perceived quality of work2014Ingår i: The 8th Novo symposium Sustainable Health Care Production Systems, Department of Management Engineering, Technical University of Denmark , 2014, s. 15-15Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction A model for Good Work, understood as positive and rewarding aspects of work, has previously been developed based on interviews including dentists working under different organizational systems. An overall finding was that a positive work climate with trustful relations and professional freedom was found important for being able to carry out high quality work. The aim of this presentation is to assess whether the central part of this model can be corroborated empirically. Material and methods All staff employed at public dentistry in two counties in Sweden received an email with a personal login to an electronic questionnaire. After two reminders a response rate of 78% and 81% respectively was obtained including a total of 610 respondents. Data from non-managerial dental hygienists and dentists with direct patient contact in their work were included in the analyses (N=198). The analyses are preliminary as data from more organizations are in the process of being collected. A scale was developed for perceived quality of the work done at the clinic. This scale was used as the dependent variable in a multiple linear hierarchical regression model. Independent variables: county, a scale developed to measure social support in relation to patient-work in addition to scales from the Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire on horizontal trust, community at the workplace and influence. The study has been approved by the Regional Ethics Board in Southern Sweden and is funded by the Swedish Research Council for Health, Working Life and Welfare (FORTE). Results A significant difference in average for perceived quality of work was seen in relation to organization, but this difference disappeared in the final regression model. Being part of a work-related community, having trusted relations and a good support were all significantly associated with a positive assessment of the quality of work performed at the workplace, while influence did not contribute to further explanation. The final regression model explained 35% of the variance of the outcome. Conclusion The overall model for Good Work was corroborated concerning the relationship between social capital and valuation of quality of care.

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    FULLTEXT01
  • 8.
    Berthelsen, Hanne
    et al.
    Malmö högskola, Odontologiska fakulteten (OD).
    Hjalmers, Karin
    Malmö högskola, Odontologiska fakulteten (OD).
    Pejtersen, Jan Hyld
    Söderfeldt, Björn
    Malmö högskola, Odontologiska fakulteten (OD).
    Good Work for dentists - a qualitative analysis2010Ingår i: Community Dentistry and Oral Epidemiology, ISSN 0301-5661, E-ISSN 1600-0528, Vol. 38, nr 2, s. 159-170Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: This study explores dentists' perceptions of Good Work in the meaning of positive and rewarding aspects in their work in contrast to a traditional problem-centred focus on work life. Methods: Nine informants were selected among Danish and Swedish general dental practitioners to obtain variation as to country of origin, gender, age and clinical work experience. Semi-structured, in-depth interviews were audio-recorded and transcribed verbatim in the original language. Statements concerning positive aspects of work were used for systematic text condensation according to the principles of Giorgi's phenomenological analysis, as modified by Malterud, generalizing descriptions reflecting aspects of Good Work. Selection of participants continued until saturation of the emerging categories was achieved. Results: The core of Good Work emanates from the clinical encounter: from the relation with the patient and from the opportunity to carry out high quality odontological handicraft. Social relations at the workplace, as well as organizational values and conditions were perceived as influencing the opportunities to achieve the rewarding aspects from the clinical encounter. Conclusions: The results implicate a need for developing a work-environmental model with intrinsic as well as extrinsic rewards when dealing with human service organizations. At policy level it is necessary to address the professional culture.

  • 9.
    Berthelsen, Hanne
    et al.
    Malmö högskola, Odontologiska fakulteten (OD).
    Hjalmers, Karin
    Malmö högskola, Odontologiska fakulteten (OD).
    Söderfeldt, Björn
    Malmö högskola, Odontologiska fakulteten (OD).
    Collaboration among Danish dentists in private general practices2007Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Perceived social support is a central concept in classical stress models and is known to be important to health. Aim The aim of this study was to investigate to what extent Danish general dental practitioners support each other, in relation to background factors. Methods The study was a cross-sectional survey with a postal questionnaire sent to 300 dentists who were randomly selected members of the Danish Dental Association. Response rate was 80% after one reminder. Factor analyses of items describing collaboration among colleagues were performed. The extracted support factors were used as outcome variables in multiple regression analyses with background factors like age, gender, and work characteristics as independent variables. Results Two factors were extracted describing perceived support and were interpreted as emotional and practical support. The regression analyses with support as dependent variables gave the following main results (Model 1: R2=0.34; F=13.53 8/184; p≤0.000; Model 2: R2=0.24; F=8.50 8/184; p≤0.000): • Dentists from solo practices perceived significantly less emotional and practical support than dentists working in bigger units (p=0.002; p= 0.001); • The more time dentists spent with colleagues outside the clinical sphere, the more emotional support was perceived (p≤0.000). A parallel relation, but weaker was found for practical support (p=0.041); • Male dentists reported significantly less emotional support than their female colleagues (p=0.004). A similar gender difference was not found for practical support (p=0.843). • Being single in private life was associated with less perception of practical support compared to married dentists (p=0.044). Conclusion The study underlines the importance of structural and cultural conditions in work environment for the perception of social support from colleagues. Acknowledgements The study was financially supported by Telia and PFA.

  • 10.
    Berthelsen, Hanne
    et al.
    Malmö högskola, Odontologiska fakulteten (OD).
    Hjalmers, Karin
    Malmö högskola, Odontologiska fakulteten (OD).
    Söderfeldt, Björn
    Malmö högskola, Odontologiska fakulteten (OD).
    Perceived social support in relation to work among Danish general dental practitioners in private practices2008Ingår i: European Journal of Oral Sciences, ISSN 0909-8836, E-ISSN 1600-0722, Vol. 116, nr 2, s. 157-163Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Social support is an important phenomenon in the psychosocial work environment. The aim of this study was to assess the extent to which Danish general dental practitioners perceived support from colleagues and to relate perceived support to demographic and work related background factors. A questionnaire was sent to a random sample of 300 Danish dentists. The response rate was 80% after one reminder. Factor analyses and multiple regression analyses were carried out. The results showed that clinic size was the overall most important variable explaining perceived support among dentists. Gender differences were found in perceived emotional and practical support, and women perceived more emotional support (e.g. discussing problematic patients with peers) than their male colleagues. A similar gender difference was not found for the perception of practical support, such as helping each other in the event of falling behind schedule. Dentists from small and large practices did not differ in the extent of peer contact outside the clinical environment. This study emphasized the importance of the organizational setting for a professional and personal supportive psychosocial working environment in dentistry.

  • 11.
    Berthelsen, Hanne
    et al.
    Malmö högskola, Odontologiska fakulteten (OD).
    Pejtersen, Jan Hyld
    Hjalmers, Karin
    Malmö högskola, Odontologiska fakulteten (OD).
    Bergström, Kamilla
    Malmö högskola, Odontologiska fakulteten (OD).
    Söderfeldt, Björn
    Malmö högskola, Odontologiska fakulteten (OD).
    Work fulfilment in dentistry2008Ingår i: Abstract book, The Nordic Network NOVO, NOVO symposium, Espoo, Finland , 2008, s. 21-22Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The psychosocial work environment in dentistry is well documented as demanding, while less is known of what constitutes work fulfilment for dentists. Aim. The aim was to explore the rewarding aspects of the work as general dental practitioner. Methods. A qualitative approach was used to ensure a deeper understanding of the subject as perceived by dentists working in the field. Among Danish and Swedish general dental practitioners, eight informants were in 2007-08 selected step by step to obtain maximal variation of participants as to country of origin, gender, age and clinical work experience. Semi-structured, in-depth interviews based on Kvale’s principles were performed in the mother tongue of the informants. The interviews were audio-recorded and later transcribed verbatim in the original language by the interviewers. Statements covering rewarding aspects of dentistry were used for systematic text condensation according to the principles of Giorgi’s phenomenological analysis, following 4 steps as modified by Malterud: (1) reading all the material to obtain an overall impression, and bracketing preconceptions; (2) identifying units of meaning representing different rewarding aspects of good work, and coding for these aspects; (3) condensing and abstracting the meaning within each of the coded groups; and (4) summarizing the contents of each code group to generalize descriptions and concepts reflecting aspects of good work. The study was approved by The Regional Ethical Review Board in Lund, Sweden. Results. The first overall impression of data was that the rewarding aspects of the work as a dentist emerged directly from the clinical encounter: From the opportunity for performing a high quality odontological handicraft and from the relation with patients. It was formulated as an emotion of internal self satisfaction. Next, the dentists described some basic conditions as their relations to workmates, peers and managers as well as how organisational values and conditions influenced the opportunities for achieving the perceived rewarding aspects from the clinical encounter. Conclusion. The results comprising the moral aspects as essential in the work as a dentist support Hasenfelds’ theory of Human Service Organizations. This implicates a need for developing work environmental models with internal as well as external rewards when dealing with human service organizations. Acknowledgements. The authors wish to acknowledge the Swedish Council for working life and social research for financial support.

  • 12.
    Berthelsen, Hanne
    et al.
    Malmö högskola, Odontologiska fakulteten (OD).
    Söderfeldt, Björn
    Malmö högskola, Odontologiska fakulteten (OD).
    Bergström, Kamilla
    Malmö högskola, Odontologiska fakulteten (OD).
    Pejtersen, Jan Hyld
    Hjalmers, Karin
    Malmö högskola, Odontologiska fakulteten (OD).
    Ordell, Sven
    Malmö högskola, Odontologiska fakulteten (OD).
    Decision Authority among Dentists from Denmark and Sweden2009Ingår i: Abstract book, 2009Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: Karasek and Theorell define job control as the worker's control over work tasks and performance during the working day. This study aims to analyze differences in job control as decision authority over aspects of the work, among general dental practitioners from Denmark and Sweden. Materials and methods: In 2008, a questionnaire was sent to 1835 general dental practitioners, randomly selected from the dental associations in Sweden and Denmark (17% of the eligible population). The response rate was 68% after two reminders. Principal Components Analysis was applied to eight items about influence. Based on the resulting two factors, additive indices were established to measure decision authority: “influence on scheduling appointments” (2 items) and “general influence” (6 items). ANOVA with Tukey's HSD test was used for comparison between groups based on nationality and sector for dentists with/without managerial responsibility. For analyses without equal variances, Kruskal-Wallis test was applied. Results: Influence on scheduling appointments: In both Denmark and Sweden, dentists from the public sector reported lower influence on scheduling appointments than private practitioners (p≤0.01). Comparing dentists from the same sector showed no significant differences between the countries, neither after controlling for managerial responsibility. Dentists with managerial responsibility had higher influence than employed dentists (p≤0.001). Influence in general: For dentists without leadership tasks, similar patterns were seen. In contrast, Swedish dentists with managerial responsibility reported higher general influence than their Danish colleagues (p≤0.01). Independently of gender and nationality, private managers had higher general influence than their public counterpart (p≤0.01). Dentists with managerial responsibility had higher influence than employed dentists (p≤0.001). Conclusion and perspective: Differences in decision authority were found between general dental practitioners working in the public and the private sector in both countries. The results may reflect different management cultures as well as different structural organization of the work. In light of changes in demands made on health care professionals it is important to secure decision authority in order to keep work balance as well as quality in care. The authors wish to acknowledge the Swedish Council for Working Life and Social Research, Malmö University and The Danish Dental Association for financial support.

  • 13.
    Berthelsen, Hanne
    et al.
    Malmö högskola, Odontologiska fakulteten (OD).
    Söderfeldt, Björn
    Malmö högskola, Odontologiska fakulteten (OD).
    Harris, Rebecca
    Hyld Pejtersen, Jan
    Bergström, Kamilla
    Malmö högskola, Odontologiska fakulteten (OD).
    Hjalmers, Karin
    Malmö högskola, Odontologiska fakulteten (OD).
    Ordell, Sven
    Malmö högskola, Odontologiska fakulteten (OD).
    Collegial Support and Community with Trust in Swedish and Danish dentistry2011Ingår i: Acta Odontologica Scandinavica, ISSN 0001-6357, E-ISSN 1502-3850, Vol. 69, nr 6, s. 343-354Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives. The aim of the study was to better understand the associations between work factors and professional support among dentists (Collegial Support) as well as the sense of being part of a work community characterized by trust (Community with Trust). Methods. A questionnaire was sent to 1835 general dental practitioners, randomly selected from the members of dental associations in Sweden and Denmark in 2008. The response rate was 68%. Two models with the outcome variables Collegial Support and being part of a Community with Trust were built using multiple hierarchical linear regression. Demographic background factors, work factors, managerial factors and factors relating to objectives and to values characterizing climate of the practice were all introduced as blocks into the models. Results. A different pattern emerged for Collegial Support than for Community with Trust, indicating different underlying mechanisms. The main results were: (I) Female, married/cohabitant, collegial network outside the practice, common breaks, formalized managerial education of leader and a climate characterized by professional values, which were positively associated with Collegial Support, while number of years as a dentist and being managerially responsible were negatively associated. (II) Common breaks, decision authority and a climate characterized by professional values were positively associated with Community with Trust. Conclusion. A professionally-oriented practice climate and having common breaks at work were strongly associated with both outcome variables. The study underlined the importance of managing dentistry in a way which respects the professional ethos of dentists.

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    FULLTEXT01
  • 14.
    Berthelsen, Hanne
    et al.
    Malmö högskola, Odontologiska fakulteten (OD).
    Söderfeldt, Björn
    Malmö högskola, Odontologiska fakulteten (OD).
    Pejtersen, Jan Hyld
    Hjalmers, Karin
    Malmö högskola, Odontologiska fakulteten (OD).
    Bergström, Kamilla
    Malmö högskola, Odontologiska fakulteten (OD).
    DECISION AUTHORITY AMONG DENTISTS FROM DENMARK AND SWEDEN2009Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: Karasek and Theorell define job control as the worker's control over work tasks and performance during the working day. This study aims to analyze differences in job control as decision authority over aspects of the work, among general dental practitioners from Denmark and Sweden. Materials and methods: In 2008, a questionnaire was sent to 1835 general dental practitioners, randomly selected from the dental associations in Sweden and Denmark (17% of the eligible population). The response rate was 68% after two reminders. Principal Components Analysis was applied to eight items about influence. Based on the resulting two factors, additive indices were established to measure decision authority: “influence on scheduling appointments” (2 items) and “general influence” (6 items). ANOVA with Tukey's HSD test was used for comparison between groups based on nationality and sector for dentists with/without managerial responsibility. For analyses without equal variances, Kruskal-Wallis test was applied. Results: Influence on scheduling appointments: In both Denmark and Sweden, dentists from the public sector reported lower influence on scheduling appointments than private practitioners (p≤0.01). Comparing dentists from the same sector showed no significant differences between the countries, neither after controlling for managerial responsibility. Dentists with managerial responsibility had higher influence than employed dentists (p≤0.001). Influence in general: For dentists without leadership tasks, similar patterns were seen. In contrast, Swedish dentists with managerial responsibility reported higher general influence than their Danish colleagues (p≤0.01). Independently of gender and nationality, private managers had higher general influence than their public counterpart (p≤0.01). Dentists with managerial responsibility had higher influence than employed dentists (p≤0.001). Conclusions: Differences in decision authority were found between general dental practitioners working in the public and the private sector in both countries. The results may reflect different management cultures as well as different structural organization of the work. The authors wish to acknowledge the Swedish Council for Working Life and Social Research, Malmö University and The Danish Dental Association for financial support.

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    fulltext
  • 15.
    Hjalmers, Karin
    Malmö högskola, Odontologiska fakulteten (OD).
    Good work for dentists: ideal and reality for female unpromoted general practice dentists in a region of Sweden2006Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Kvinnliga obefordrade allmäntandläkare i Folktandvården utgör cirka en fjärdedel av alla yrkesverksamma tandläkare i Sverige. Enligt många rapporter har denna grupp en besvärlig psykosocial arbetssituation. Målet med denna avhandling var att: - Beskriva den självuppfattade hälsan för dessa allmäntandläkare i jämförelse med andra med likartad arbetssituation. - Analysera deras uppfattning om stöd i jämförelse med andra grupper. - Beskriva hur de uppfattade det "goda arbetet", dvs ett arbete som är både hälsosamt och socialt ansvarstagande, samt beskriva om det fanns en skillnad mellan deras ideal och derasverklighet gällande ett gott arbete. - Analysera mönster i två faktorer av det goda arbetet för tandläkare, nämligen en moralfaktor och en karriärfaktor. Postenkäter skickades 2000 till alla kvinnliga obefordrade allmäntandläkare i Folktandvården i en svensk region. Svarsfrekvensen var 94%. Resultaten visade att: - Tandläkarna mådde dåligt, sämre än övriga jämförda grupper. - De fick lite stöd från ledningen. - Det förekom få interkollegiala kontakter. - Det fanns inga tvärsnittssamband mellan kollegiala nätverk och stöd, men den kvalitativa undersökningen visade att kollegiala nätverk uppfattades positivt. - Det fanns en stor skillnad mellan det som tandläkarna uppfattade som ett idealiskt gott arbete och den verklighet de befann sig i. Den största skillnaden mellan ideal och verklighet fanns i bristen på inflytande. - Tre faktorer av det goda arbetet kunde konstateras, nämligen moral-, karriär- och arbetsmiljöfaktorerna. Tandläkarna upplevde att den moraliska aspekten av arbetet var allra viktigast. Detta bekräftar att tandläkarna upplevde sitt yrke som först och främst ett människovårdande yrke. Sammanfattningsvis fanns det allvarliga arbetsmiljöproblem bland tandläkarna. Tandläkarna mådde dåligt och upplevde stor brist på inflytande över viktiga frågor. Det förekom få interkollegiala kontakter, men kollegiala nätverk uppfattades positivt. De fick lite stöd från ledningen, vilket pekade på en svaghet i relationen mellan arbetsgivarna och de kvinnliga obefordrade allmäntandläkarna. Tre komponenter av det goda arbetet kunde konstateras, varav den moraliska komponenten både var den viktigaste och uppvisade den största skillnaden mellan ideal och verklighet. Sålunda värderade tandläkarna den moraliska delen av arbetet högst, vilket bekräftar att tandvård primärt är ett människovårdande yrke och inte ett industriellt yrke. De tandläkare med högst engagemang upplevde de största skillnaderna. Organisationen har följaktligen misslyckats med att övertyga eller engagera de tandläkare som den borde engagera, dvs de med det största engagemanget. Vägen till attförbättra de kvinnliga allmäntandläkarnas arbetssituation bör vara genom ökat inflytande och ökat stöd för att på så sätt överbrygga skillnaden mellan ideal och verklighet.

  • 16.
    Hjalmers, Karin
    Malmö högskola, Odontologiska fakulteten (OD).
    Ideal kontra verklighet: kvinnliga tandläkares yrkesliv har kartlagts2007Ingår i: Tandläkartidningen, ISSN 0039-6982, nr 6, s. 50-52Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Kvinnliga obefordrade allmäntandläkare i folktandvården utgör cirka en fjärdedel av alla yrkesverksamma tandläkare i Sverige. Enligt tidigare rapporter har gruppen en besvärlig arbetssituation. Fokus för denna avhandling var att studera deras psykosociala arbetssituation. Avhandlingen utgår från teorier om människovårdande organisationer (Human service organizations) men innehåller också element om krav/kontroll, effort/reward samt teorier om det goda arbetet. Syftet med avhandlingen var att undersöka hur obefordrade kvinnliga allmäntandläkare uppfattar ett "gott arbete", det vill säga ett hälsosamt och socialt ansvarstagande arbete - ett arbete som är bra för både tandläkare och patienter, samt att identifiera positiva aspekter på tandläkaryrket som kan bidra till att tandläkare mår bra och som gör att de vill och kan stanna i arbetet ett helt yrkesliv.

  • 17.
    Hjalmers, Karin
    Malmö högskola, Odontologiska fakulteten (OD).
    Organizational ergonomics: reflections and guidelines2010Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract of oral presentation.

  • 18.
    Hjalmers, Karin
    et al.
    Malmö högskola, Odontologiska fakulteten (OD).
    Berthelsen, Hanne
    Malmö högskola, Odontologiska fakulteten (OD).
    Söderfeldt, Björn
    Malmö högskola, Odontologiska fakulteten (OD).
    Goda relationer och kvalitet viktigast för arbetsglädjen2010Ingår i: Tandläkartidningen, ISSN 0039-6982, nr 12, s. 74-76Artikel i tidskrift (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [sv]

    Goda patientrelationer och möjlighet att utföra kvalitetsarbete i en bra arbetsmiljö. Det är viktigast för att tandläkare ska känna arbetsglädje, visar en studie på avdelningen för samhällsodontologi vid odontologiska fakulteten i Malmö.

  • 19.
    Hjalmers, Karin
    et al.
    Malmö högskola, Odontologiska fakulteten (OD).
    Söderfeldt, Björn
    Malmö högskola, Odontologiska fakulteten (OD).
    Axtelius, Björn
    Malmö högskola, Odontologiska fakulteten (OD).
    Healthy work for female unpromoted general practice dentists2004Ingår i: Acta Odontologica Scandinavica, ISSN 0001-6357, E-ISSN 1502-3850, Vol. 62, nr 2, s. 107-110Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This study describes how female unpromoted general practice dentists (GPDs) in a region in Sweden perceived “healthy work”, i.e. their image of the dimensions that the dentistry profession should contain if it is to be really healthy work. The study also investigates whether there is a gulf between ideal and reality for this group. All unpromoted GPDs within the Public Dental Health Service’s general practice in a region in Sweden received a questionnaire, and 94% responded. The data were collected during July and August 2000 and the question about healthy work was taken from work environment studies. A principal components analysis was performed. Three factors explaining more than half the variance (53%), forming three well defined vector clusters: 1) a factor for moral values and possibilities for skill discretion, i.e. properties specific for human services, 2) a factor for career development and 3) a factor for work environment. We found that factor 1 alone explained a greater proportion of the variance (28%) for the respondents. The main results were that the female unpromoted GPDs emphasized free and intellectually stimulating work and that the gulf between the ideal and the reality was wide, especially concerning the dentist’s influence on important decisions. A salutogenetic approach built on good communication and democracy at work, and based on freedom and the employees’ influence, could bring ideal and reality closer.

  • 20.
    Hjalmers, Karin
    et al.
    Malmö högskola, Odontologiska fakulteten (OD).
    Söderfeldt, Björn
    Malmö högskola, Odontologiska fakulteten (OD).
    Axtelius, Björn
    Malmö högskola, Odontologiska fakulteten (OD).
    Moral values and career: Factors shaping the image of healthy work for female dentists2006Ingår i: Acta Odontologica Scandinavica, ISSN 0001-6357, E-ISSN 1502-3850, Vol. 64, nr 5, s. 255-261Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective. Female unpromoted general practice dentists (GPDs) constitute about one-quarter of all dentists in Sweden. These female dentists suffer from many problems relating to their psychosocial working conditions. There are wide discrepancies between their perception of the ideal job situation and reality. Previously, three factors were found to constitute the ideal job situation. The aim of this study was to analyze patterns in two of these factors, i.e. the moral and the career factors, for understanding how ideal circumstances are conceived, i.e. how ‘‘good work’’ for the dentists could be obtained. Material and Methods. In the year 2000, all female unpromoted GPDs (183 persons) within the Public Dental Health Service (PDHS) in a region in Sweden received a questionnaire; response rate 94%. Four multiple regression models were constructed for two factors of good work and for the differences between the ideal job situation and reality concerning these factors. Results. In all models, the explained variance was high. Those dentists who were committed to moral issues perceived large differences between the ideal and reality concerning moral values. Dentists committed to career issues experienced large differences between the ideal and reality concerning career development. Those dentists - about 60% - who would not want to be a dentist if they were to choose today, perceived large discrepancies concerning moral and career issues. Conclusions. The PDHS organization has failed to convince or engage those whom it ought to engage, that is those with the highest level of commitment. Dentists’ emphasis on moral values confirms the character of dentistry as primarily a human service work.

  • 21.
    Hjalmers, Karin
    et al.
    Malmö högskola, Odontologiska fakulteten (OD).
    Söderfeldt, Björn
    Malmö högskola, Odontologiska fakulteten (OD).
    Axtelius, Björn
    Malmö högskola, Odontologiska fakulteten (OD).
    Psychosomatic symptoms among female unpromoted general practice dentists2003Ingår i: Swedish Dental Journal, ISSN 0347-9994, Vol. 27, nr 1, s. 35-41Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Unpromoted female general practice dentists have a working situation with hard work conditions. The aim of the present study was to describe the perceived health for unpromoted female general practice dentists in comparison with others laving a somewhat similar working situation. Questionnaires were sent to all unpromoted female general practice dentists (n=183) within the Public Dental Health Service in a region in Sweden. The response rate was 94%. Comparisons have been done with personnel in the Social Insurance Organization in Sweden and Children Clinics in the Public Health Care in a region in Sweden. The dentists in this study suffered from many physical and mental troubles and also linked them to the working situation. They reported high prevalences of tiredness (70%) and back, neck and shoulder pain (76%) and related these symptoms to the job situation in 83% and 95%, respectively. The study showed statistically significant differences (p < 0.0001) in the comparison between all the samples that were investigated. In conclusion, the results show problems concerning self-perceived health for the unpromoted female dentists. We have shown that they are feeling unhealthy, worse than other high-risk-groups in a human service working situation, and they suffer from a multitude of problems also connected to their working environment.

  • 22.
    Hjalmers, Karin
    et al.
    Malmö högskola, Odontologiska fakulteten (OD).
    Söderfeldt, Björn
    Malmö högskola, Odontologiska fakulteten (OD).
    Axtelius, Björn
    Malmö högskola, Odontologiska fakulteten (OD).
    Kronström, Mats
    Network participation for unpromoted female dentists in relation to psychosocial support2004Ingår i: Acta Odontologica Scandinavica, ISSN 0001-6357, E-ISSN 1502-3850, Vol. 62, nr 3, s. 158-162Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Studies have shown that female unpromoted general practice (GP) dentists have a taxing work situation with many problems related to their psychosocial work environment. This study aims to describe 1) the participation for this group in organized network activity (support groups) in a region in Sweden, 2) the sense of support with comparison to another organization and to a nationwide sample of GP dentists, and 3) the covariation of network participation with support. All unpromoted female dentists within the Public Dental Health Service (PDHS) in a region in Sweden received a questionnaire, and 94% re-sponded. Those participating in network activity ≥ 4 times a year constituted 12% of the respondents. The co-operation between colleagues was lower than in the nationwide sample. The experienced support from the organization PDHS was weak. It was not possible to explain why the female unpromoted GP dentists participated ≥ 4 times a year, but the female dentists who felt lonely in their work were to a higher degree participants in a network. Almost nine out of ten reported being strengthened by the network both as a person and in the professional role. The female dentist was three times more likely to participate in a network if she had a male head of the clinic. In conclusion, the main results are the paucity of intercolleague contact and the lack of association between support and network participation. The many affirmative comments indicated though, that network participation might be a good coping strategy for unpromoted female GP dentists.

  • 23.
    Ordell, Sven
    et al.
    Malmö högskola, Odontologiska fakulteten (OD).
    Söderfeldt, Björn
    Malmö högskola, Odontologiska fakulteten (OD).
    Hjalmers, Karin
    Malmö högskola, Odontologiska fakulteten (OD).
    Berthelsen, Hanne
    Malmö högskola, Odontologiska fakulteten (OD).
    Bergström, Kamilla
    Malmö högskola, Odontologiska fakulteten (OD).
    Organization and overall job satisfaction among publicly employed, salaried dentists in Sweden and Denmark2013Ingår i: Acta Odontologica Scandinavica, ISSN 0001-6357, E-ISSN 1502-3850, Vol. 71, nr 6, s. 1443-1452Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract Background. In Sweden and Denmark, clinical dentistry is changing and public dentistry is in transition towards more market orientation. Dentists' overall job satisfaction is important for how public dentistry can fulfil the new expectations from patients, the public and politicians. Objectives. The aim of this study was to investigate what organizational factors were important for publicly employed salaried dentists' overall job satisfaction. Methods. A random sample of active, general dental practitioners (private and publicly employed) was selected in Denmark and in Sweden, and they received a postal questionnaire. The number of questionnaires was 1835 and the response rate was 68% (n = 1226). This study analysed only the publicly employed dentists. The sampling frame for the Swedish dentists was 431, response rate 68.9% (n = 297) and for the Danish ones 194, response rate 81.9% (n = 159). Multivariate regression was used with overall job satisfaction as a dependent variable. Results. Common organizational variables were important. The used model explained between 32% (Sweden) and 39% (Denmark) of the variance in overall job satisfaction. The only significant individual factor was less job satisfaction for Swedish dentists born outside Sweden. An organizational climate characterized by a focus on professional values was associated with job satisfaction in both countries. Among the Swedish dentists, number of colleagues and degree of influence were also important and among the Danish ones sufficient time for patients. Conclusions. Organizational factors had an impact on salaried publicly employed dentists' overall job satisfaction in both countries. The findings may have implications for other Human Service Organizations with employed professionals.

  • 24. Pilgård, Göran
    et al.
    Hjalmers, Karin
    Malmö högskola, Odontologiska fakulteten (OD).
    Söderfeldt, Björn
    Malmö högskola, Odontologiska fakulteten (OD).
    Rosenquist, Jan
    Values about good work for Swedish oral surgeons and general practice dentists2006Ingår i: Community Dental Health, ISSN 0265-539X, Vol. 23, nr 3Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim Dentists in the Public Dental Health Service (PDHS) in Sweden seem to have a larger discrepancy between ideal and reality with regard to good work than do other academic groups in Sweden. [ Aronsson G, Bejerot E, Härenstam A. Public Personnel Management 1999;28:197-215., Hjalmers K, Söderfeldt B, Axtelius B. Acta Odontol Scand 2004;62:107-10.] This study investigates how oral surgeons and female general practice dentists (GPDs), two groups in the PDHS, perceived good work, both in an ideal world and in reality, as well as to compare if there was a discrepancy between the two. Methods A questionnaire containing twelve items about good work (Aronsson 1999) was sent to the oral surgeons and to the female GPDs. There were 106 oral surgeons from 22 oral and maxillofacial surgery (OMFS) clinics in Sweden. Of them, 90% responded to the questionnaire. The GPDs were 183 female dentists without any managerial position, working in one region in Sweden. Of them, 94% responded to the questionnaire. Results The oral surgeons and the GPDs rated highest the following two criteria: The job should be intellectually stimulating (91% of both the oral surgeons and the GPDs considered this as very important) and the job should provide opportunities to have an influence on important decisions (82% and 85% of the oral surgeons and the GPDs, respectively, considered this as very important). Opportunity for career advancement was more important for the oral surgeons and this was the only criterion, where the gap between ideal and reality was wider for the oral surgeons than it was for the GPDs. Conclusions The main result was that the criteria for an ideal work situation among the oral surgeons corresponded to those among the female GPDs. For all aspects but one, however, the discrepancy between ideal and reality with regard to good work was wider for the female GPDs. Acknowledgements: Supported by FoU-centre in Southern Älvsborg County, Sweden.

  • 25.
    Pilgård, Göran
    et al.
    Malmö högskola, Odontologiska fakulteten (OD). Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Borås Hospital, SwedeN; Folktandvården Västra Götaland, SE-504 55 Borås, Ekenäsgatan 15, plan 7, Sweden.
    Söderfeldt, Björn
    Malmö högskola, Odontologiska fakulteten (OD).
    Hjalmers, Karin
    Malmö högskola, Odontologiska fakulteten (OD).
    Rosenquist, Jan
    Malmö högskola, Odontologiska fakulteten (OD).
    Dimensions of good work for employees in oral and maxillofacial surgery in Sweden2007Ingår i: Swedish Dental Journal, ISSN 0347-9994, Vol. 31, nr 3, s. 147-154Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The aims of this study were to describe how the employees of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery (OMFS) clinics in Sweden perceive "good work", i.e. their image of the good dimensions that the profession should contain and to investigate if there is a discrepancy between ideal and reality for this group. The study was based on a questionnaire with 67 questions, related to quality management at the clinic, health and the content of good work in two sections, one with the headline "defines good work" and the other "fulfilled 'in my present work' ". Each section was subdivided into 12 parts covering aspects of good work. The maxillo-facial surgeons rated "intellectually stimulating work" as most important (91%), and the "hazard-free work environment" as least important (48%). The nurses rated "stimulating fellowship" as most important (84%), and the "opportunity for career advancement" as least important (27%). The percentage unit differences between the ideal and the reality were largest for the item "the work provides opportunities to have an influence on important decisions". Maxillo-facial surgeons had the greatest differences for that question and nurses had the greatest differences in "the work is well paid". A principal components analysis was performed and three factors explained more than half of the variance (52%). The factors were interpreted as (1) aiming at moral values and possibilities for skill discretion, as (2) career development, and as (3) work environment. The employees of OMFS clinics in Sweden emphasized free, influential, and intellectually stimulating work, but the discrepancy between ideal.

  • 26.
    Pilgård, Göran
    et al.
    Malmö högskola, Odontologiska fakulteten (OD).
    Söderfeldt, Björn
    Malmö högskola, Odontologiska fakulteten (OD).
    Hjalmers, Karin
    Malmö högskola, Odontologiska fakulteten (OD).
    Rosenquist, Jan
    Malmö högskola, Odontologiska fakulteten (OD).
    Psychosocial work environment related health in Swedish oral and maxillofacial surgery in comparison with other human service workers2008Ingår i: Swedish Dental Journal, ISSN 0347-9994, Vol. 32, nr 1, s. 27-34Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The aims of this study were to describe how the employees of OMFS clinics in Sweden perceive their health, to compare with female unpromoted general practice dentists and other human service groups and to explore the dimensionality of the health measure. Data were collected by way of a questionnaire with 67 questions, related to quality management at the clinic, working situation, questions about the content of “good work”, the connection between physical environment and health, emphasis on physical environment. 22 clinics with 297 employees responded, 65 % of the clinics and 86 % of the employees. The results showed that employees of OMFS clinics in Sweden perceived their health as rather problematic. In comparison, the present study group placed itself between general practice dentists and other human service groups as to their health. Three factors explained more than half of the variance of symptoms. They were interpreted as (1) psychosomatic troubles, (2) somatic troubles, and (3) muscle and joint troubles. These factors were almost the same as previously reported, confirming the basic dimensionality of the question battery. This study has shown that OMFS employees are feeling unhealthy, but no worse than other high-risk-groups in human service working situation and better than female general practice dentists. The women among OMFS employees felt worse than the men. Three factors of symptoms could be established, i.e. psychosomatic troubles, somatic troubles, and muscle and joint troubles.

  • 27.
    Pilgård, Göran
    et al.
    Malmö högskola, Odontologiska fakulteten (OD). Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Borås Hospital, Sweden; Folktandvården Västra Götaland, SE-504 55 Borås, Ekenäsgatan 15, plan 7, Sweden.
    Söderfeldt, Björn
    Malmö högskola, Odontologiska fakulteten (OD).
    Hjalmers, Karin
    Malmö högskola, Odontologiska fakulteten (OD).
    Rosenquist, Jan
    Malmö högskola, Odontologiska fakulteten (OD).
    Work environment factors affecting quality work in Swedish oral and maxillofacial surgery2008Ingår i: Swedish Dental Journal, ISSN 0347-9994, Vol. 32, nr 3, s. 149-155Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to investigate how work environment influenced attitudes to and knowledge of quality among employees of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery (OMFS) clinics in Sweden. Data were collected with a questionnaire of 67 questions, related to quality management at the clinic, working situation, content of “good work”, physical environment and health. 22 clinics with 297 employees responded, 65 % of the clinics and 86 % of the employees. A multiple regression analysis with the dependent variable “Attitude towards quality work” showed that only “work environment” (p=0.010) revealed a significant association (p<0.05). The personnel will have a more favourable attitude to quality work if they regard work environment to be important. Dental nurses and assistant nurses had more than four times more knowledge of the used quality management system than had the maxillo-facial surgeons. Women had nearly four times more knowledge of quality management than men. Clinic size was important, with better knowledge of quality management in bigger clinics. Soft demands were defined as demands for “flexibility, creativity, quality, service, engagement/commitment and ability to work together, and competence”. Hard demands included economy as important, and emphasis on efficiency and productivity. There was a weak association with knowledge of quality management systems if soft demands increased, but negative if hard demands increased. In conclusion, mainly work environment was of significance for the attitude towards quality work among the employees of OMFS clinics in Sweden. Profession, gender, clinic size, and the hard demands were significantly associated with knowledge of the quality management system used.

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