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  • 1.
    Andersson, Mika
    Malmö University, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Criminology (KR).
    Hate crime victimization: consequences and interpretations2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The field of hate crime studies is a young one and as such it is characterized by a high proportion of explorative and inductive studies. This methodological approach is well founded when a field is unfolding as they often generate theoretical conclusions or assumptions. Since I began working with the present dissertation in 2013, I have observed an increased tendency towards deductive studies testing the conclusions and assumptions made by field pioneers. The present dissertation is part of this branch and has two primary aims; 1) to test field assumptions and 2) develop present theoretical frameworks on causes and consequences of hate crime.In Article 1, me and my co-author examine the assumption that hate crime victimization result in higher levels of fear in comparison to non-bias crime. The assumption is tested by comparing fear of crime, behavioral adaptations and place-based worry among students with an immigrant and/or national minority background. The results show that hate crime victims reported significantly higher levels of fear of crime in comparison to non-victims and non-bias victims. However, there were few significant differences in behavioral adaptations and place-based worry. From interviews with hate crime victims we learned that place-based worry is not primarily associated with the physical characteristics of a certain area, but geographical concentrations of racist attitudes. Moreover, the behavioral adaptations that the interview participants used to avoid future victimization were often based upon de-identification. From these results we can conclude that traditional measures of place-based worry and behavioral adaptations does not adequately capture consequences of hate crime.In Article 2, me and my co-authors examine the assumption that police reporting is lower among victims of hate crime that target more than one of their identity categories. Contrarily to the assumption, we find that victims of hate crime with multiple motives report their experiences to the police to a higher extent in comparison to victims of hate crime with single motives. We also found that participants with several intersecting group identities endowed with stigma were more likely to be targets of hate crime with multiple motives, but not more likely to experience repeat victimization. These results support the branch of intersectional theory holding that group belongings primarily influence the expressions of violence rather than the risk of being subjected to violence.In Article 3, me and my co-authors examine the assumption that hate targets the identity of the victim and thereby attack the core of the victim’s self. We found that hate crime targets a negative stereotype associated with the perceived identity of the victim. Consequently, interview participants did not regard hate crime as a direct attack on their selves as they did not identify with the negative stereotype. However, hate crime remain a violation of the self as it denies the victims self-representation. The results also showed that the meaning-making regarding hate crime victimization is reflexive as the participants used earlier experiences when assigning meaning to incidents. This process was also recursive as new incidents lead to re-interpretations of previous experiences. In sum, the participants developed and negotiated their experiences of hate crime over time.In Article 4, me and my co-authors examine the assumption that vicarious victims respond in similar ways as direct victims since hate crime signal the presence of threat beyond the initial victim, sometimes referred to as the in terrorem effect. We examine the in terrorem effect by comparing fear of crime between non-victims, vicarious victims of hate crime, and direct victims of hate crime in three communities; women, Muslims and sexual minorities. The results showed that direct victims were generally more afraid of crime in comparison to non-victims in all communities. Though not all differences were significant, the reaction pattern among non-victims, vicarious victims and direct victims in the studies commu-nities showed the pattern of a stair, with the lowest rates among non-victims and the highest rates among direct victims. These results thereby contradict the proposed pattern of the in terrorem effect in which vicarious victims and direct victims are held to react in similar ways.In sum, the results of the present dissertation call for a more complex understanding of both individual and community effects of hate crime. The theoretical development and integration in Chapter 3 along with the results of Articles 1-4 results in hypotheses for future research on causes and consequences of hate crime in Chapter 6.

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  • 2.
    Andersson, Mika
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Criminology (KR).
    Theoretical challenges in contemporary hate crime studies2016In: NSfK’s 58. Research Seminar 1. - 4. May 2016 in Bifröst, Iceland New challenges in criminology;can old theories be used to explain or understand new crimes? Report, Scandinavian Research Council for Criminology, 2016, p. 474-487Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The causes of criminal behaviour advocated by criminological theory have always been dependent on the definition of crime. The causal mechanisms assigned to criminal behaviour among these various perspectives differs due to their ontological positions; the causal order suggested by those who have defined crime as norm-breaking behaviour will naturally be of a different kind in comparison to those who suggest that crime is norm-conforming. Consequently, the potential explanatory capacity of traditional criminological theory with regard to the phenomenon of hate crime will depend upon the ontological position taken, consciously or unconsciously, in order to understand hate crime. Three different ontological positions within hate crime studies will be presented and used as a ground for discussing the applicability of classical criminological on hate crime.

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  • 3.
    Andersson, Mika
    et al.
    Malmö University, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Criminology (KR).
    Ivert, A-K
    Mellgren, C
    Does having friends with experiences of hate crime increase fear among women, sexual minorities, and Muslims?2018Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 4.
    Andersson, Mika
    et al.
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Criminology (KR).
    Ivert, Anna-Karin
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Criminology (KR).
    Mellgren, Caroline
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Criminology (KR).
    When there is more than one motive: A study on self-reported hate crime victimization among Swedish university students2017In: International Review of Victimology, ISSN 0269-7580, E-ISSN 2047-9433, Vol. 24, no 1, p. 67-81Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study examines experiences of hate crimes with multiple motives with a focus on policy and theory-related issues. The authors found that every fifth hate crime victim reports having experiences of multiple motives. These victims are more likely to report their victimization to the police in comparison to victims of hate crimes with single motives. The results also show that belonging to several socially vulnerable groups does not correlate with higher levels of repeat victimization. This is in contrast with intersectional theory as it would predict heightened levels of victimization among such individuals. Lastly, the results show that individuals who belong to more than one socially vulnerable group are more likely to experience hate crimes with multiple motives. Implications for policy and intersectional theory are discussed.

  • 5.
    Andersson, Mika
    et al.
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Criminology (KR).
    Mellgren, Caroline
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Criminology (KR).
    Anmälningsbenägenhet vid utsatthet för hatbrott2015In: Socialvetenskaplig tidskrift, ISSN 1104-1420, E-ISSN 2003-5624, Vol. 22, no 3-4, p. 283-301Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The tendency to report hate crime victimization There are indicators suggesting that the tendency to report hate crime victimization to the police is lower in comparison to crimes without such a motive. There are also reasons to believe that victims of hate crime base their cost-benefit analysis of whether to report on a unique set of factors that differ from other crime types. The present study compares report rates for hate crimes and crimes without a bias-motive among Swedish university students. Reasons from refraining from reporting are also examined though a thematic analysis. The results show that victims of hate crime report their victimization to a significantly lower extent than other victims. Those who refrain from reporting trivialize and normalize their experiences, find alternative solutions to handle their victimization, and/or have a low trust in the police.

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  • 6.
    Andersson, Mika
    et al.
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Criminology (KR).
    Mellgren, Caroline
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Criminology (KR).
    Consequences of bias-motivated victimization among Swedish university students with an immigrant or minority background2016In: The Irish Journal of Sociology, ISSN 0791-6035, E-ISSN 2050-5280, Vol. 24, no 2, p. 226-250Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present article examines the impact of racist and xenophobic victimisation among students with a minority and/or immigrant background in a Swedish context. We examine if racist and/or xenophobic victimisation result in 1) behavioral strategies applied to reduce victimisation risk, 2) a heightened level of fear and 3) if the motive in itself has an independent effect on the level of fear among victims. The study design combines survey data with interviews. The findings suggest that experiences of racist and/or xenophobic victimisation lead to higher levels of fear and that the motive in itself influences this relationship independently. We also found that certain behavioural strategies are developed in order to avoid victimisation.

  • 7.
    Andersson, Mika
    et al.
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Criminology (KR).
    Mellgren, Caroline
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Criminology (KR).
    Studenters utsatthet och upplevelser av hatbrott2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    I den här rapporten presenteras den första större kartläggningen av utsatthet och upplevelser av hatbrott bland studenter i Sverige. Undersökningen har genomförts inom projektet Utsatthet och upplevelser av hatbrott. Under 2013/14 genomfördes en enkätundersökning bland studenter vid Malmö högskola. Ungefär var femte av de nästan 3000 studenter som besvarade enkäten har någon gång utsatts för brott med koppling till sin bakgrund, religion, sexualitet, funktionsnedsättning, kön eller könsidentitet. Själva händelsen är ofta i fokus för diskussioner om hatbrott. Detta gäller diskussionen i media såväl som i offentlig statistik. Men själva händelsen utgör inte ensam fenomenet hatbrott. I rapporten läggs även fokus på det som händer efter händelsen; hur individen påverkas, bearbetar upplevelsen och hanterar den genom att anmäla, eller söka hjälp och stöd.

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  • 8.
    Andersson, Mika
    et al.
    Malmö University, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Criminology (KR).
    Mellgren, Caroline
    Malmö University, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Criminology (KR).
    Ivert, Anna-Karin
    Malmö University, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Criminology (KR).
    How victims conceptualize their experiences of hate crime2018Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the study is to provide thevictims’perspective to the contemporary conceptualization of hate crime.Much attention has been given to the interpretational frameworks of offenders, and although victims’ definitions of hate crime are sometimes mentioned in passing in interview studies, this has never been a primary subject of study.The present study applies phenomenological analysisto 28semi-structured interviews with victims of hate crime. The results show that the participants primarily apply meaning to their experiences in social groups and use previous experiences to guide their interpretations. While the conceptualization of victims largely concurs withtheory presented by the research community and special interest organizations, they diverge from how hate crime is contextualized in hate crime legislation.

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  • 9.
    Hagerlid, Mika
    Malmö University, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Criminology (KR).
    Att handleda och inkludera normbrytande doktorander2022In: Journal of Teaching and Learning in Higher Education (JoTL), E-ISSN 2004-4097, Vol. 3, no 2, p. 1-10Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    As higher education is increasingly democratized by broadened recruitment, we can observe a larger proportion of students and faculty who challenge the norms of maleness, heteronormativity and whiteness thathave long characterized academic spaces. In this article, I present previous research and preliminary resultsfrom an ongoing study about doctoral student’s reflections about and experiences of sexual harassment. Thedoctoral students describe that an inclusion in the academic environment is a prerequisite for counteractingharassment and opening career paths for norm-breaking doctoral students. Therefore, the aim of thispresentation of preliminary results is to explore how doctoral supervisors can work proactively to includenorm-breaking doctoral students. 

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  • 10.
    Hagerlid, Mika
    Malmö University, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Criminology (KR).
    Discursive Constructions of Race and Gender in Racial Hate Crime Targeting Women in Sweden2023In: NORA: Nordic Journal of Feminist and Gender Research, ISSN 0803-8740, E-ISSN 1502-394X, Vol. 31, no 1, p. 49-61Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Research and official statistics alike identify women from racial minoritiesas a high-risk group for racial hate crime. Still, the construction of womenin racial hate crime remains largely unstudied and the current knowledgeon racial hate crime against women can at best be described as fragmentary. Therefore, the aim of the present study is to explore the constructions ofrace and gender from the perspective of female victims of racial hatecrime. The study draws on intersectional theory and consists ofa discourse analysis based on nine interviews with women who havebeen targets of racial hate crime. The results show that the constructionof race in hate crimes targeting women differs distinctively from theconstruction of race in hate crimes targeting men. The female victims ofracial hate crime often find themselves entangled in racial power struggles between men: a power struggle in which men may show their statusvis-á-vis out-group men by sexually controlling or abusing women.Thereby, women’s bodies are used as a tool in racial status conflictsbetween groups of men, as identities, scripts, and stereotypes foundprimarily within conservatism and right-wing ideology are enacted onthe bodies of the victims.

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  • 11.
    Hagerlid, Mika
    Malmö University, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Criminology (KR).
    “If you dress like a whore you have to accept being treated like one”: An Interview Study About Women’s Experiencesof Misogynistic Hate Crime2023In: Critical Criminology, ISSN 1205-8629, E-ISSN 1572-9877, Vol. 31, no 3, p. 653-668Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The inclusion of gender in hate crime legislation has been the subject of scholarly debatesince the 1990s, but only a handful of empirical studies have focused on victims’ experiences of gender-bias hate crime. Therefore, misogynistic hate crimes are primarily discussed as a theoretical or legal category of events. In this study, the aim is instead to shedlight on how female victims defne, describe, and are afected by their experiences ofgender-bias hate crime. In doing so, the study contributes insights into misogynistic hatecrimes as lived experiences, rather than as an abstract legal or theoretical concept.

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  • 12.
    Hagerlid, Mika
    Malmö University, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Criminology (KR).
    Swedish Women’s Experiences of Misogynistic Hate Crimes: The Impact of Victimization on Fear of Crime2021In: Feminist Criminology, ISSN 1557-0851, E-ISSN 1557-086X, Vol. 16, no 4, p. 504-525Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The overall aim of this study is to fill a knowledge gap regarding misogynistic hate crimes, since only one previous study has focused on victims’ experiences. Drawing from a sample of 1,767 female students, the results show that women with experiences of misogynistic hate crimes are more likely to be subjected to sexual harassment, repeat victimization, and to have been targeted by strangers. They consistently report higher levels of fear of crime by comparison with both non-bias victims and non-victims. Finally, the results support the thesis that misogynistic hate crime, like other forms of hate crime, has a message effect.

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  • 13.
    Hagerlid, Mika
    et al.
    Malmö University, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Criminology (KR).
    Granström, Görel
    Umeå universitet, Juridiska institutionen.
    Hatbrott i rättsprocessen: En kunskapsöversikt om utvecklingen i Sverige 2002-20222023Report (Other academic)
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  • 14.
    Hagerlid, Mika
    et al.
    Malmö University, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Criminology (KR).
    Granström, Görel
    Department of Law, Umeå University.
    Hate Crime Investigation and Sentencing in Sweden: What Have We Learned in the Past 20 Years?2023In: European Journal on Criminal Policy and Research, ISSN 0928-1371, E-ISSN 1572-9869Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Twenty years ago, the Swedish National Council for Crime Prevention presented a report that highlighted serious problems with regard to identifying, investigating, and sentencing offenders for hate crimes. The same problems have also been described in international research from several other countries. Since then, several measures have been taken to remedy these problems, but it remains unknown whether these measures have been successful. The aim of the present study is therefore to trace developments over time, using Sweden as a case study, and to evaluate the extent to which the problems identified earlier have been remedied. The results show that the problems identified by the Swedish National Council for Crime Prevention still remain despite a continuous process of reform. Theoretical links and parallels to international research are discussed throughout the article.

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    Hate crime investigation and sentencing in Sweden
  • 15.
    Hagerlid, Mika
    et al.
    Malmö University, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Criminology (KR).
    Štulhofer, Aleksandar
    Department of Sociology, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, University of Zagreb, Zagreb, Croatia.
    Redert, Anita
    Research Department at Rutgers, Utrecht, The Netherlands.
    Jakić, Irma
    Department of Sociology, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, University of Zagreb, Zagreb, Croatia.
    Schoon, Wiebke
    Institute for Sex Research, Sexual Medicine and Forensic Psychiatry, University Medical Centre Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg, Germany.
    Westermann, Melina
    Department of Educational Science, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, University of Wuppertal, Wuppertal, Germany.
    Deverchin, Cynthia
    Institute for Family and Sexuality Studies, Department of Neurosciences, KU Leuven, Leuven, Belgium.
    de Graaf, Hanneke
    Research Department at Rutgers, Utrecht, The Netherlands.
    Janssen, Erick
    Institute for Family and Sexuality Studies, Department of Neurosciences, KU Leuven, Leuven, Belgium.
    Löfgren, Charlotta
    Malmö University, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Social Work (SA).
    Obstacles for identifying sexual harassment in academia: Insights from five European countries2023In: Sexuality Research & Social Policy, ISSN 1868-9884, E-ISSN 1553-6610Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction

    Experiences of sexual harassment are common among university students. At the same time, research shows that victims and bystanders find it difficult to determine when an incident meets the criteria for sexual harassment. The aim of this study therefore was to obtain a richer and deeper understanding of the obstacles that university students encounter in identifying sexual harassment in the academic environment.

    Methods

    Individual interviews and focus groups were conducted with a total of 85 students at the bachelor’s, master’s and doctoral level in five European countries (Belgium, Croatia, Germany, the Netherlands and Sweden) between 2020 and 2022. Thematic analysis was used to identify obstacles in identifying sexual harassment.

    Results

    The obstacles described by participants were found to fall into three main categories: (1) preconceived notions about what constitutes sexual harassment that did not necessarily concur with lived experiences, (2) navigating an often blurred or ambiguous line between acceptable and unacceptable behaviour and (3) the existence of competing interpretations of what had happened.

    Conclusions

    The results point to a gap between the participants’ lived experiences and their interpretations of them, which include difficulties positioning their experiences within their theoretical understanding of sexual harassment.

    Policy Implications

    Measures to counteract the obstacles faced by victims and bystanders in identifying sexual harassment in academia should target this cognitive gap, for instance by addressing the stereotypes that characterize preconceived notions about sexual harassment.

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  • 16.
    Mellgren, Caroline
    et al.
    Malmö University, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Criminology (KR).
    Andersson, Mika
    Malmö University, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Criminology (KR).
    Ivert, Anna-Karin
    Malmö University, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Criminology (KR).
    “It Happens All the Time”: Women’s Experiences and Normalization of Sexual Harassment in Public Space2018In: Women & Criminal Justice, ISSN 0897-4454, E-ISSN 1541-0323, Vol. 28, no 4, p. 262-281Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study explored the prevalence of sexual harassment, consequences of harassment, and reasons for not reporting these experiences through a survey among Swedish female university students (N = 1941). One fourth reported one or more incidents of sexual harassment during the 12 months period prior to the survey. Victims were more often younger and with Swedish-born parents compared with nonvictims. Victimization most frequently occurred at clubs or restaurants and the most frequently reported consequences were anger and worry about being victimized again. Few reported the incidents to the police making this, in part, an invisible problem.

  • 17.
    Mellgren, Caroline
    et al.
    Malmö University, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Criminology (KR).
    Hagerlid, Mika
    Malmö University, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Criminology (KR).
    Ivert, Anna-Karin
    Malmö University, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Criminology (KR).
    For Whom Does Hate Crime Hurt More? A Comparison of Consequences of Victimization Across Motives and Crime Types2021In: Journal of Interpersonal Violence, ISSN 0886-2605, E-ISSN 1552-6518, Vol. 36, no 3-4, p. NP1512-1536NPArticle in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Hate crimes have been found to have more severe consequences than other parallel crimes that were not motivated by the offenders’ hostility toward someone because of their real or perceived difference. Many countries today have hate crime laws that make it possible to increase the penalties for such crimes. The main critique against hate crime laws is that they punish thoughts. Instead, proponents of hate crime laws argue that sentence enhancement is justified because hate crimes cause greater harm. This study compares consequences of victimization across groups of victims to test for whom hate crimes hurt more. We analyzed data that were collected through questionnaires distributed to almost 3,000 students at Malmö University, Sweden, during 2013. The survey focused on students’ exposure to, and experiences of, hate crime. A series of separate logistic regression analyses were performed, which analyzed the likelihood for reporting consequences following a crime depending on crime type, perceived motive, repeat victimization, gender, and age. Analyzed as one victim group, victims of hate crime more often reported any of the consequences following a crime compared with victims of parallel non–hate-motivated crimes. And, overall victims of threat more often reported consequences compared with victims of sexual harassment and minor assault. However, all hate crime victim groups did not report more consequences than the non–hate crime victim group. The results provide grounds for questioning that hate crimes hurt the individual victim more. It seems that hate crimes do not hurt all more but hate crimes hurt some victims of some crimes more in some ways.

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