Malmö University Publications
Change search
Refine search result
1 - 29 of 29
CiteExportLink to result list
Permanent link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf
Rows per page
  • 5
  • 10
  • 20
  • 50
  • 100
  • 250
Sort
  • Standard (Relevance)
  • Author A-Ö
  • Author Ö-A
  • Title A-Ö
  • Title Ö-A
  • Publication type A-Ö
  • Publication type Ö-A
  • Issued (Oldest first)
  • Issued (Newest first)
  • Created (Oldest first)
  • Created (Newest first)
  • Last updated (Oldest first)
  • Last updated (Newest first)
  • Disputation date (earliest first)
  • Disputation date (latest first)
  • Standard (Relevance)
  • Author A-Ö
  • Author Ö-A
  • Title A-Ö
  • Title Ö-A
  • Publication type A-Ö
  • Publication type Ö-A
  • Issued (Oldest first)
  • Issued (Newest first)
  • Created (Oldest first)
  • Created (Newest first)
  • Last updated (Oldest first)
  • Last updated (Newest first)
  • Disputation date (earliest first)
  • Disputation date (latest first)
Select
The maximal number of hits you can export is 250. When you want to export more records please use the Create feeds function.
  • 1.
    Bååth, Jonas
    et al.
    Lund University.
    Nordgren, Johan
    Malmö University, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Social Work (SA). Malmö University, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), People, Places and Prevention.
    Trip Reports - Exploring the experience of psychedelic intoxication2022In: Routledge Handbook of Intoxicants and Intoxication / [ed] Geoffrey Hunt, Tamar Antin, Vibeke Asmussen Frank, London: Routledge, 2022, p. 328-341Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Experiences of intoxication elude scientific research because of their immediate and ‘inner’ nature for the intoxicated individual. In this chapter, we show how ‘trip reports’ – reports of psychedelic intoxication – from online drug information forums and libraries allow for further understanding the experience of psychedelic intoxication from LSD, DMT and psilocybin by examining psychonauts’ (i.e., recreational psychedelic users) own understandings. Methods: The chapter draws on textual ethnography to analyze the trip rapports, approaching the reports as ‘native’ texts that allow for understanding constructions, conventions and practices of intoxication among participants in online psychonaut culture. We reviewed approximately 100 reports from three online drug information forums and libraries: Bluelight, Erowid and Shroomery. By focusing on nine of these reports, we demonstrate how they can be used to analyze psychedelic intoxication. Results: Our analysis shows how psychonauts construct their experiences by combining the context of psychedelic intoxication with inner aspects. The context refers to psychosocial factors of the psychonaut, such as expectations, and their material and social surroundings, such as interior design and other people present during intoxication. The inner experience refers to the arguably psychologically internal reactions and experiences of intoxicating effects, and how the psychonauts narrate them. Conclusions: Our findings show that intoxication follows observable patterns which may best be unraveled by approaching it as structured experience. Yet, the structure of these experiences is not necessarily framed in mystic or religious ways, suggesting that trip reports may complement current research on psychedelic intoxication that approaches it as religious or mystic experiences. Moreover, we suggest that further research should examine the systematics of context and inner experience of psychedelic intoxication which might aide the development of better methods for harm reduction and the study of the therapeutic potential of psychedelics.

  • 2.
    Houborg, Esben
    et al.
    Aarhus University, Denmark.
    Richert, Torkel
    Malmö University, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Social Work (SA). Malmö University, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), People, Places and Prevention.
    Nordgren, Johan
    Malmö University, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Social Work (SA). Malmö University, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), People, Places and Prevention.
    Bancroft, Morgan
    Aarhus University, Denmark.
    Hesse, Morten
    Aarhus University, Denmark.
    Et sund eller et ocean?: Ligheder og forskelle på stofbrugeres hverdagsliv på de to sider af Øresund2022In: Byen og Rusmidlerne: Oplevelser, konflikter og regulering / [ed] Houborg, Esben; Kammersgaard, Tobias; Bach, Jonas; Bancroft, Morgan, Aarhus: Aarhus Universitetsforlag, 2022Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 3.
    Isberg, Elisabeth
    et al.
    Maria Malmö, Malmö stad, Malmö, Sweden.
    Nordgren, Johan
    Malmö University, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Social Work (SA).
    Being a parent of a teenager with illicit drug use - a qualitative interview study2023In: Drugs: education prevention and policy, ISSN 0968-7637, E-ISSN 1465-3370, p. 1-10Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Parents of teenagers who use illicit drugs experience a high degree of family burden and mental health issues but have received little attention in research. the aim of this study was to gain new knowledge of the situation of parents of teenage children with drug use.

    Method: Fifteen semi-structured qualitative interviews were conducted with parents who received support or treatment with their teenagers at outpatient treatment clinics in sweden. the data was analyzed with thematic textual analysis.

    Results: Based on scheff ’s theory of emotions, four central themes were identified in the parents’ experiences: parental strategies, shame, coping with stress, and communication as a protective factor. Parents had a heavy family burden and reported problem-focused and emotion-focused behaviors which created shame, impaired communication between parent and child, and a lack of trust. shame may shape the parents’ discomfort in seeking help from relatives and professional support.

    Conclusions: clinical practice should pay attention to the impact of shame, behavior patterns as vulnerabilities and protective factors, and how communication and understanding can be developed. We argue that scheff ’s theory of emotions is useful to understand parents in crisis and that its concepts may be of use if applied in family support.

  • 4. Kassim, Saba
    et al.
    Dalsania, Asha
    Nordgren, Johan
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Social Work (SA).
    Klein, Axel
    Hulbert, Josh
    Before the ban: an exploratory study of a local khat market in East London, U.K2015In: Harm Reduction Journal, E-ISSN 1477-7517, Vol. 12, no 19, article id 19Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background Khat is a green leaf with amphetamine-like effects. It is primarily used among people in Africa, the Middle East and in the diaspora communities from these countries. Prior to the prohibition of khat in the UK on 24 June 2014, there was almost no information available on key aspects of the local khat market. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in 2012 using snowball sampling, Privileged Access Interviewing and area mapping in order to identify khat sale establishments. Data was collected via face-to-face interviews using mixed methods for data collection. This included information about the establishments selling khat, khat pricing and its use among different ethnic minority groups, in addition to the potential sale of khat to children and risk assessment (e.g. use of pesticides on khat). Results Five out of seven sellers identified agreed to participate. Sellers described their khat sale establishments as ‘community centres’ which included, for example, a restaurant basement. The sellers’ history of selling khat ranged between 1–15 years and khat’s sale took place between 2pm-10pm. Miraa (e.g. Lara) from Kenya was the most popularly used khat variety, sold in pre-wrapped bundles of approximately 250 g costing £3 each and delivered four days a week. Harari (e.g. Owdi) from Ethiopia was sold in 200 g, 400 g and 1 kg bundles, priced between £5 and £20 and delivered two days a week. The primary benefit of khat use was reported to be social interaction. The customers were predominantly adult males of Somali origin. Most sellers claimed a self-imposed ban on sales to children under 18 years old. Khat bundles had no labelling describing variety or weight and sellers had no knowledge of the use of pesticides on khat and did not advertise the risks associated with khat use. Conclusions Khat selling establishments were businesses that did not adhere to trade standards regulations (e.g. labelling khat bundles). They claimed to provide a community service (facilitating social interaction) to their predominately Somali customers. Without a better understanding of the dynamics of the khat market there is a risk that both health and social needs of the vulnerable populations involved in the market continue to go unaddressed. Future research should track changes in the now illicit khat market in order to evaluate the social and public health implications following the recent changes to the current UK regulatory environment regarding khat.

    Download full text (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 5.
    Liahaugen Flensburg, Olivia
    et al.
    Malmö University, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Social Work (SA).
    Johnson, Björn
    Malmö University, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Social Work (SA).
    Nordgren, Johan
    Malmö University, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Social Work (SA).
    Richert, Torkel
    Malmö University, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Social Work (SA).
    Svensson, Bengt
    Malmö University, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Social Work (SA).
    "Something wasn't right"-parents of children with drug problems looking back at how the troubles first began2022In: Drugs: education prevention and policy, ISSN 0968-7637, E-ISSN 1465-3370, Vol. 29, no 3, p. 255-264Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study we analyze how parents of adult children with drug use problems view the initial stages of identifying their children's troubles as a severe drug problem. We focus on the parents' accounts of the discovery process by identifying significant events in the parents' narratives through 'the micro-politics of trouble'. The study is based on an analysis of 32 semi-structured interviews with parents of adult children (aged 18+) with drug problems. Four themes emerged from the parents' narratives: (1) the first signs of a problem, (2) drug problem or teenage defiance? (3) the awakening, (4) a passing phase. The different themes show how the parents' interpretations of the situation influence their definitions and thus their actions. Early signs and indicators of something being wrong do not initially result in parents framing the situation as problematic as they are perceived as everyday concerns and dealt with as such. Our focus on the initial phase of the problem definition process and how this affects the parents may provide a better understanding of the parents' situation and needs for support. This may be of use to professionals in the fields of social work and drug treatment who meet these parents and may have a role to play in the development of support measures that can improve their situation.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 6. Mensen, Vincent T.
    et al.
    Vreeker, Annabel
    Nordgren, Johan
    Malmö University, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Social Work (SA).
    Atkinson, Amanda
    de la Torre, Rafael
    Faré, Magi
    Ramaekers, Johannes G.
    Brunt, Tibor M.
    Psychopathological symptoms associated with synthetic cannabinoid use: a comparison with natural cannabis2019In: Psychopharmacology, ISSN 0033-3158, E-ISSN 1432-2072, Vol. 236, no 9, p. 2677-2685Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Synthetic cannabinoids (SCs) are a class of new psychoactive substances that have been rapidly evolving around the world throughout recent years. Many different synthetic cannabinoid analogues are on the consumer market and sold under misleading names, like Bspice^ or Bincense.^ A limited number of studies have reported serious health effects associated with SC use. In this study, we compared clinical and subclinical psychopathological symptoms associated with SC use and natural cannabis (NC) use. Methods: A convenience sample of 367 NC and SC users was recruited online, including four validated psychometric questionnaires: The Drug Use Disorders Identification Test (DUDIT), Insomnia Severity Index (ISI), Altman Mania Scale (Altman), and Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI). The two groups were compared with analysis of variance (ANOVA) and covariance (ANCOVA), chi2 tests, and logistic regression when appropriate. Results: The SC user group did not differ in age from the NC user group (27.7 years), but contained less females (21% and 30%, respectively). SC users scored higher than NC users on all used psychometric measures, indicating a higher likelihood of drug abuse, sleep problems, (hypo)manic symptoms, and the nine dimensions comprising the BSI, somatization, obsessivecompulsive behavior, interpersonal sensitivity, depression, anxiety, hostility, phobic anxiety, paranoid ideation, and psychoticism. Odds ratios (95% CI) for the SC user group vs NC user group were, respectively, drug dependence 3.56 (1.77–7.16), (severe) insomnia 5.01 (2.10–11.92), (hypo-)mania 5.18 (2.04–13.14), and BSI psychopathology 5.21 (2.96–9.17). Discussion: This study shows that SC use is associated with increased mental health symptomatology compared to NC use.

    Download full text (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 7.
    Nordgren, Johan
    Malmö University, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Social Work (SA).
    Bland hallucinationer, mardrömmar och ångestattacker2020In: Alkohol & Narkotika, ISSN 0345-0732, Vol. 114, no 4, p. 10-13Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 8.
    Nordgren, Johan
    Malmö University, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Social Work (SA). Malmö University, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), People, Places and Prevention.
    Ethnified intoxication – khat use and the Somali community in Sweden2022In: Routledge Handbook of Intoxicants and Intoxication / [ed] Geoffrey Hunt, Tamar Antin, Vibeke Asmussen Frank, London: Routledge, 2022, p. 400-411Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Khat is a psychoactive plant with stimulant qualities that is a legal commodity in several nations on the Arabian Peninsula and in East Africa. However, khat is also used in diaspora settings in Europe and North America, where it is a criminalized substance and surrounded with controversy. This chapter focuses on khat use and its association with the Somali community in Sweden to analyze a case of ethnified intoxication.

    Methods: I carried out 16 qualitative semi-structured interviews with representatives from Somali civil society organizations in Malmö, Sweden and analyzed the material with an abductive approach.

    Results: The interviewees resisted a common stereotyping of the Somali minority as a homogenous problematic ethnic collective burdened by khat use. They discussed both problematic and positive aspects of khat use and differentiated between khat use and khat abuse. Overall, the interviewees constructed the solutions to problematic khat use less in relation to the drug itself or to ethnicity and culture, and more to the socioeconomic situations of the users in a diaspora setting.

    Conclusion: The association between khat use and Somali ethnicity and culture was resisted by the interviewees, but it also meant that they engaged in ethnic boundary-making since khat use has been thoroughly ethnified in Sweden. I suggest that reflection by scholars and practitioners is needed to avoid overly simplified explanations of khat use, and that historical cases of drug scares about the intoxicant use of ethnic and other minorities should inform current practices and policies.

  • 9.
    Nordgren, Johan
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Social Work (SA).
    Fenomenet "missbruk bland invandrare" inom välfärdsinstitutionerna2017In: Alkohol & Narkotika, ISSN 0345-0732, no 2, p. 6-8Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Etnicitet, kultur och nationellt ursprung blir lätt förklaringar till missbruksproblem bland personer som invandrat till Sverige. Risken är att ”den missbrukande invandraren” laddas med föreställningar om beteende och moral, skriver Johan Nordgren från Malmö högskola och kommenterar även dagens diskussion om ensamkommande flyktingar.

  • 10.
    Nordgren, Johan
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Social Work (SA).
    ”Han havde arbejdet for en gruppe terrorister”: Om växten kat som islamiseringsagent och yttre/inre hot i Danmark och Sverige2014In: Gränsløs : tidskrift för studier av Öresundsregionens historia, kultur och samhällsliv, ISSN 2001-4961, no 3, p. 45-58Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    I denna artikel analyseras diskursen om växtdrogen kat i Danmark och Sverige. Det empiriska materialet består av artiklar i svensk och dansk dagspress. Det samlade intrycket är att den narkotikaklassade växten kat framhålls som ett stort hot mot säkerheten i de två länderna, framförallt när handeln och smugglingen kopplas till islamistisk terrorism. På så sätt sker en tydlig demonisering av kat och växten framstår som en synnerligen ”god fiende”, det vill säga den yttre fiende som hela samhället kan enas emot (Christie & Bruun 1985). Här är det alltså inte bara tal om narkotikan som farlig och samhällsförstörande, det handlar också om konstruktioner av en ”etnifierad” och ”exotifierad” drog vars flöde över nationalstatliga gränser sammanstrålar till ett exceptionellt hot – islamistisk terrorism understödd av organiserad narkotikabrottslighet med globala tentakler.

    Download full text (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 11.
    Nordgren, Johan
    Malmö University, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Social Work (SA).
    “It’s not only Somalis who chew”: Talking through and talking back to khat use discourses in Swedish–Somali organisations2018In: Drugs: education prevention and policy, ISSN 0968-7637, E-ISSN 1465-3370, Vol. 25, no 6, p. 500-510Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The psychoactive plant khat has been “made ethnic” in Sweden, as dominant discourses have constructed its use as being exclusive to the Somali ethnic minority. The aim of this article is to analyse how representatives of Swedish–Somali civil society organisations talked through and talked back to dominant discourses about khat use. Sixteen semi-structured interviews were conducted with organisation representatives, and the material was analysed within a multi-perspectival discourse analysis framework. The interviewees described khat use as a social problem, but also acknowledged that it can offer users social support. They viewed khat use to be more common among people of Somali background living in Sweden, but tended to view associations between khat use and the Somali ethnic minority as stigmatising. Khat was commonly compared to alcohol, and those who use khat in problematic ways were described as comparable to “alcoholics” or “junkies”. Interventions based on cultural competence were not suggested, as khat use was seen as related to socio-economic marginalisation. The interviewees’ resistance to making khat use an ethnic problem is notable, and suggests a more complex and nuanced view of dominant discourses about khat use in the West. It also suggests problematic and stigmatising effects of one-dimensionally associating certain drugs to specific ethnic categories.

  • 12.
    Nordgren, Johan
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Social Work (SA).
    Khat: et socialt problem i kulturel forklædning2015In: STOF : Tidskrift for stofmisbrugsområdet, ISSN 1397-338X, no 25, p. 72-73Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 13.
    Nordgren, Johan
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Social Work (SA).
    Making drugs ethnic: Khat and minority drug use in Sweden2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this dissertation is to study how discourses and problem representations have made some drugs and some forms of drug use into “ethnic problems” in Sweden and in Scandinavia. The primary example of such a process discussed in the dissertation concerns the use of the psychoactive and criminalized plant khat. The activity of associating a drug with ethnic minorities is defined in the dissertation as “making drugs ethnic”. By making drugs ethnic, Scandinavian welfare state institutions treat certain psychoactive substances and their users as primarily ethnic rather than as social or medical problems. Processes of making drugs ethnic thus have implications for social work practice, since understandings and proposed solutions to “drug abuse among immigrants” have been based largely on notions of ethnic or cultural difference. It has frequently been proposed that problematic khat use can be solved by increased use of “cultural competence” within social work and drug treatment institutions. This development is discussed in the dissertation as an over-emphasis of ethnicity and culture, and notions underlying this development are problematized. The dissertation contains four articles. The first analyzes discourses about khat use in Swedish daily newspapers during the period between 1986 and 2012. The article focuses on people who spoke out against khat use in the media, an activity which is described as moral entrepreneurship. Khat use was described as a “Somali” problem and as a serious threat to the Somali immigrant “community” in Sweden. The second article analyzes khat use discourses as presented in official reports evaluating projects against khat use in the Scandinavian countries. In these reports, khat use was described as causing unemployment, lack of integration and relationship problems among Somali immigrants, and the main proposed solution to the “problem” of khat use was cultural competence. The “Somali community” was positioned as in part responsible for reducing khat use, and there was a tendency to over-emphasize cultural explanations for problematic khat use. Article three takes a broader view of the notion of “drug abuse among immigrants”, a phenomenon that emerged in Sweden during the late 1980s and was in focus during the 1990s in drug treatment, social work and government contexts. There was an attempt to make the “drug-abusing immigrant” into a specific kind of client or patient in knowledge production initiatives. “Immigrants” were seen as introducing new drugs and ways of using them, creating an intermingling of drug use patterns, and being extraordinarily vulnerable. The fourth article analyzes discourses about khat expressed by persons who were active in Somali ethno-national civil society organizations in Sweden, interviewed during fieldwork carried out between 2014 and 2016. The impetus for this study was to analyze how those representatives viewed the dis-cursive association between the ethnic group they represent, and khat use. The interviewees both talked through and “talked back” to dominant discourses about khat use. Khat use was described as a problem, but khat was also seen as a drug that could be both used and “abused”. The interviewees used discourses more related to use of drugs in general, rather than about ethnicity and culture. They were aware of khat having been made ethnic, and rejected this association.

    Download full text (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 14.
    Nordgren, Johan
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Social Work (SA).
    Making Up the ‘‘Drug-Abusing Immigrant’’: Knowledge Production in Swedish Social Work and Drug Treatment Contexts, 1960s–20112017In: Contemporary Drug Problems, ISSN 0091-4509, E-ISSN 2163-1808, Vol. 44, no 1, p. 49-68Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In social work, drug treatment, and government contexts in Sweden, numerous attempts have been made to construct a new kind of client and patient: the ‘‘drug-abusing immigrant.’’ I trace these developments from the 1960s to 2011 through an analysis of publications about ‘‘drug abuse among immigrants.’’ The empirical material consists of a broad range of publications produced on this topic in social work, drug treatment, and government contexts both nationally and in local municipal settings. I use Hacking’s analytical approach to ‘‘making up people’’ as a way of analyzing how knowledge pro- duction resulted in certain descriptions of the kind of client/patient categorized as a ‘‘drug-abusing immigrant.’’ Four themes were central to discussions of this kind: the introduction of new drugs and ways of using them by immigrants, the intermingling of ethnic drug use patterns, the need to target Iranians in relation to opiate use, and descriptions of drug-using immigrants as vulnerable. Drug use among immigrants was a phenomenon mainly discussed at local levels of social work and drug treatment and did not develop into a national political problem. It seems that a perceived rapid increase in immigration in Sweden during the mid-1980s acted as a catalyst for the focus on ‘‘drug abuse among immigrants.’’ The ‘‘drug-abusing immigrant’’ category should be seen as an administrative category and the process of making it up as ultimately a ‘‘failed’’ one. The category was not adopted by those so categorized and subsequently declined in use during the 2000s. A recent focus on drug use among ‘‘unaccompanied minors’’ might be seen as a new attempt to make up certain immigrants as a specific kind of ‘‘drug abuser.’’

  • 15.
    Nordgren, Johan
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Social Work (SA).
    Omsvängning inom Hazelden2013In: Alkohol & Narkotika, ISSN 0345-0732, Vol. 107, no 4, p. 28-30Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 16.
    Nordgren, Johan
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Social Work (SA).
    Targeting khat or targeting Somalis?: A discourse analysis of project evaluations on khat abuse among Somali immigrants in Scandinavia2015In: Nordic Studies on Alcohol and Drugs, ISSN 1455-0725, E-ISSN 1458-6126, Vol. 32, no 4, p. 375-394Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND – In Denmark, Norway and Sweden, the use of the psychoactive plant khat is widely seen as a social and health problem exclusively affecting the Somali immigrant population. Several projects by governmental and municipal bodies and agencies have been initiated to reduce khat use and abuse within this target population. AIM – This article analyses the khat abuse discourse as it is presented in evaluation reports describing projects initiated by the social services to reduce khat abuse. METHODS – Six publicly available and formally evaluated khat projects conducted in the Scandinavian countries were found, and these evaluation reports were subjected to a Foucauldian discourse analysis. The “What’s the problem represented to be?” approach was used to generate questions, which were then applied to the material. RESULTS & CONCLUSIONS – The problem of khat abuse is represented to be that it is the cause of unemployment, lack of integration and relationship issues among Somali immigrants. The analysis shows that the notion of cultural competence is used instrumentally to govern the target population and that the Somali immigrant group is exclusively targeted. This instrumental use of cultural competence partly places the onus on the “Somali community” itself to reduce khat use, which may engender stigmatisation of Somali immigrants in general. The author maintains that an overreliance on cultural explanations overlooks socioeconomic issues and that the focus should be on potentially problematic patterns of khat use rather than Somali immigrants in general.

    Download full text (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 17.
    Nordgren, Johan
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Social Work (SA).
    The moral entrepreneurship of anti-khat campaigners in Sweden: a critical discourse analysis2013In: Drugs and alcohol today, ISSN 1745-9265, E-ISSN 2042-8359, Vol. 13, no 1, p. 20-27Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – This article aims to analyse the discourse about khat in the Swedish newspaper media and to present the concept of moral entrepreneurship as a useful analytical tool for understanding mobilisation against khat use in the Somali diaspora. Design/methodology/approach – The material analysed consists of daily newspaper articles about khat published between 1986 and 2012. The method of analysis is inspired by the critical discourse analysis framework developed by Norman Fairclough. Drawing on Howard S. Becker's concept of moral entrepreneur, the article focuses on anti-khat campaigners who speak out against khat in the media. These are often representatives from Somali voluntary associations or organisations, who sometimes employ moral entrepreneurship. The article discusses these actors' role in framing khat use as a tangible threat to the Somali community in Sweden. Findings – When employing moral entrepreneurship, anti-khat campaigners spread a certain type of knowledge about khat that is presented to the general public via the media. The key issues that repeatedly are of concern are how khat destroys Somali families and how the use might spread to other groups. In this manner khat use is constructed as a threat to Somali social cohesion. The knowledge produced could potentially influence policy makers to introduce stricter punishments for possession, sale and use of khat, thereby possibly increasing stigma and marginalisation in relation to the Somali immigrant community. Originality/value – The literature about khat has pointed to the centrality of Somali organisations mobilising against khat in the diaspora. This article presents moral entrepreneurship as a theoretical tool to further the understanding of the mobilisation against khat and its use.

    Download full text (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 18.
    Nordgren, Johan
    et al.
    Malmö University, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Social Work (SA).
    Hallin, Per-Olof
    Malmö University, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), Department of Urban Studies (US).
    Tykesson, Mona
    Nilsson, Jerry
    Malmö University, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), Department of Urban Studies (US).
    Guldåker, Nicklas
    Hembesök som brandförebyggande arbete2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Hembesök är en arbetsmetod som används av flera räddningstjänster i Sverige. Samtidigt finns det få utvärderingar av hur den fungerar och dess effekter. Denna rapports syfte är att genom kvantitativa och kvalitativa studier ge förslag på olika utvärderingsmetoder för räddningstjänsters hembesöksverksamhet. Utgångspunkten tas i Räddningstjänstens Syds arbete med hembesök vilket därmed utgör en empirisk bas. Den kvantitativa analysen inriktas mot att mäta brandförekomst före och efter hembesök. Ur metodsynpunkt har det visat sig vara svårt att hitta tillförlitliga statistiska metoder. Den metod som har använts i denna rapport är chi2-test. Resultaten visar att det är i delområden där det brinner mycket som hembesök ger störst effekt. I områden där det brinner lite verkar hembesök ge ingen eller liten effekt. Det är i första hand antalet hembesök i ett område som ger effekt och inte andelen hushåll som nås. En stor del av minskningen utgörs av anlagda bränder. Den kvalitativa studien visar bl.a. att informatörernas motivation att genomföra hembesök skiljer sig åt men genomförs med professionalitet även om man inte alltid upplever arbetsuppgiften som meningsfull. Det kan finnas en konflikt mellan de kvantitativa mål som sätts upp för antalet besök och kvalitén på de möten som sker med de boende. Att vara med i planering och utvärdering av hembesök kan påverka motivationen positivt. Det är även viktigt att återkoppla hur statistiken som samlas in används. Intervjupersonerna påpekade svårigheter med att nå dem som bäst behöver information. Många boende är inte hemma eller öppnar inte dörren. De som nås har ofta redan en bra brandskyddsförmåga. Fastighetsägare ser räddningstjänstens hembesök som ett bra komplement till sitt eget systematiska brandskyddsarbete. I rapporten ges exempel på möjliga kvantitativa och kvalitativa utvärderingsmetoder.

    Download full text (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 19.
    Nordgren, Johan
    et al.
    Malmö University, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Social Work (SA). Malmö University, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), Department of Urban Studies (US). Malmö University, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), People, Places and Prevention.
    Monwell, Bodil
    Department of Social Work, Jönköping University, Jönköping, Sweden.
    Johnson, Björn
    School of Social Work, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Gunnarsson, Nina Veetnisha
    Department of Social Work, Jönköping University, Jönköping, Sweden.
    Johansson Capusan, Andrea
    Center for Social and Afective Neuroscience, Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Healthcare staff’s perspectives on long-acting injectable buprenorphine treatment: a qualitative interview study2024In: Addiction science & clinical practice, ISSN 1940-0632, E-ISSN 1940-0640, Vol. 19, no 1, article id 25Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Long-acting injectable buprenorphine (LAIB) formulations are a novel treatment approach in opioid agonist treatment (OAT), which provide patients with a steady dose administered weekly or monthly and thus reduce the need for frequent clinic visits. Several studies have analyzed patient experiences of LAIB but the perspective of OAT staff is unknown. This study aimed to explore how healthcare staff working in OAT clinics in Sweden perceive and manage treatment with LAIB.

    Methods: Individual qualitative interviews were conducted with OAT physicians (n = 10) in tandem with nine focus group sessions with OAT nurses and other staff categories (n = 41). The data was analyzed with thematic text analysis.

    Results: Five central themes were identified in the data: (1) advantages and disadvantages of LAIB, (2) patient categories that may or may not need LAIB, (3) patients’ degrees of medication choice, (4) keeping tabs, control and treatment alliance, and (5) LAIB’s impact on risk and enabling environments in OAT. Overall staff found more advantages than disadvantages with LAIB and considered that patients with ongoing substance use and low adherence were most likely to benefit from LAIB. However, less frequent visits were viewed as problematic in terms of developing a treatment alliance and being able to keep tabs on patients’ clinical status. Clinics differed regarding patients' degrees of choice in medication, which varied from limited to extensive. LAIB affected both risk and enabling environments in OAT.

    Conclusions: LAIB may strengthen the enabling environment in OAT for some patients by reducing clinic visits, exposure to risk environments, and the pressure to divert medication. A continued discussion about the prerequisites and rationale for LAIB implementation is needed in policy and practice.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 20.
    Nordgren, Johan
    et al.
    Malmö University, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), Department of Urban Studies (US). Malmö University, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Social Work (SA).
    Per-Olof, Hallin
    Utvärdering av Räddningstjänsten i samarbete med kidsen2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Ett fåtal räddningstjänstförbund i Sverige arbetar med preventiva insatser och program riktade till ungdomar som är i olika typer av svårigheter. Räddningstjänsten Syd bedriver sedan 2010 ett sådant program med namnet Räddningstjänsten i samarbete med kidsen, RISK. Denna utvärderingsrapport presenterar resultaten av en processutvärdering av denna verksamhet med syftet att utvärdera programmets målsättningar och arbetssätt, ta tillvara de erfarenheter och kunskaper som finns hos de inblandade aktörerna samt att synliggöra det sociala arbete som Räddningstjänsten Syd utför. Utvärderingen genomfördes med kvalitativa metoder i form av intervjuer, deltagande observation samt analys av dokument. Utvärderingen har framförallt studerat programmets målsättningar och arbetssätt och uttalar sig inte om vilka kvantitativa effekter RISK har för de ungdomar som deltar. Slutsatserna av utvärderingen är att RISK välfungerande exempel på hur räddningstjänster kan arbeta med socialt förebyggande program. RISK är ett ambitiöst program med tanke på de personella resurser som läggs på programmet samt dess omfattning i tid över ett helt år. De övergripande utmaningarna som programmet behöver arbeta med handlar om målsättningarna för RISK, att tydliggöra målgruppen, samverkan med skolorna samt uppföljning av deltagande ungdomar, både de som har genomgått hela programmet och de som väljer att hoppa av. I rapporten presenteras ett antal rekommendationer kring hur arbetet med RISK kan utvecklas i framtiden. Några av programmets framgångsfaktorer består i mentorernas socialpedagogiska kompetenser, engagemang och höga motivationsgrad, vilka bidrar till att skapa sociala band och förtroende mellan ungdomarna och räddningstjänstpersonal. Samverkan med externa aktörer i samband med programmets aktiviteter bidrar till ett innehållsrikt program som förmedlar viktiga kunskaper till ungdomarna. RISK utgör också ett organisatoriskt lärande för Räddningstjänsten Syd, som får en nära och tydlig inblick i hur ungdomarnas livssituationer ser ut.

    Download full text (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 21.
    Nordgren, Johan
    et al.
    Malmö University, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Social Work (SA).
    Richert, Torkel
    Malmö University, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Social Work (SA).
    ‘A free position in midfield' – a qualitative study of faith-based social work with people who use drugs in Sweden2024In: European Journal of Social Work, ISSN 1369-1457, E-ISSN 1468-2664, Vol. 27, no 2, p. 401-412Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many faith-based organisations (FBOs) provide social work services to marginalised groups in need of care such as people who use drugs (PWUD), but little is known about how diaconal or faith-based social work with PWUD is carried out and how staff view their work. The aim of this study was to explore how social work with PWUD within FBOs in Sweden is conducted. This study is based on semi-structured qualitative interviews with 14 employees at a range of churches in Sweden. The empirical material was analysed with qualitative textual analysis. FBO staff channeled a personal calling to offer services through their organisations and found PWUD be in need mainly of emergency support. Staff engaged in boundary work such as differentiating between activities conducted at the church premises or on the streets. Staff accompanied clients to meetings with publicly funded welfare services to the benefit of the clients, and they appreciated their free role compared to social services staff. FBOs mainly act as stabilisers in relation to official public welfare services. The role of prophetic diaconal work aiming at social justice was limited and clients’ emergency needs were in focus, which indicates that FBOs in Sweden mainly complement welfare state services.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 22.
    Nordgren, Johan
    et al.
    Malmö University, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Social Work (SA).
    Richert, Torkel
    Malmö University, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Social Work (SA).
    Risk environments of people who use drugs during the Covid-19 pandemic: the view of social workers and health care professionals in Sweden2022In: Drugs: education prevention and policy, ISSN 0968-7637, E-ISSN 1465-3370, Vol. 29, no 3, p. 297-307Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Although research is emerging on how the Covid-19 pandemic has affected people who use drugs (PWUD), there is a lack of studies focusing on professionals' views on Covid-19 related risks and consequences for this group. The aim of this study was to analyze how social workers and health care professionals in the city of Malmö, Sweden viewed the effects of the Covid-19 pandemic on PWUD risk environments. We used a mixed methods approach including an online survey with social workers and three qualitative focus group sessions with social workers and health care professionals working with PWUD. The professionals defined PWUD as an especially vulnerable group that had difficulty protecting themselves from contracting Covid-19, and who risked severe consequences if infected. They described risks relating to lifestyle and marginalization, limited health literacy, and health-related problems. Reported consequences of the pandemic included reduced access to treatment and support, social isolation, anxiety, and increased drug use. Factors at both micro and meso levels of risk environments seemed to contribute to a particular vulnerability for PWUD during the Covid-19 pandemic. It is important to learn from this development in order to provide better support to at-risk groups in future crises.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 23.
    Nordgren, Johan
    et al.
    Malmö University, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Social Work (SA).
    Richert, Torkel
    Malmö University, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Social Work (SA).
    Stallwitz, Anke
    Department of Social Work, Protestant University of Applied Sciences Freiburg.
    Police officers’ attitudes and practices toward harm reduction services in Sweden: a qualitative study2022In: International journal of drug policy, ISSN 0955-3959, E-ISSN 1873-4758, Vol. 104, p. 1-8, article id 103672Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Since the 1980s, Swedish drug policy has combined a restrictive zero tolerance approach with the vision of a “drug-free society”. However, in recent years, access to harm reduction services has increased through local initiatives and new national guidelines. The possible success of these services may be affected in part by police drug law enforcement. The aim of this study was to explore how Swedish police officers act toward and view harm reduction services in a national drug policy setting of zero tolerance toward drug use.

    Methods

    Applying a qualitative research design, we conducted 19 in-depth interviews with police officers who worked with drug law enforcement in Malmö. We conducted a qualitative textual analysis of the data.

    Results

    Officers largely supported harm reduction services and refrained from overtly enforcing drug laws in their vicinity. Officers engaged in boundary work that assigned the responsibility of care of marginalized people who use drugs (PWUD) to the health care system, while including policing of drug market problems, young PWUD and dealers in their own jurisdiction. Opioid substitution treatment was seen as positive, although diversion of medicines was pointed out as a problem. Needle exchange programs were seen as offering important public health services and a no-go zone for the police. Several officers wanted to carry naloxone on duty but requested more information about its use.

    Conclusion

    The general support among police officers for harm reduction services is an indication of a changing drug policy landscape in Sweden. Drug policy should take police officers’ views into consideration and there is a need for collaboration between police and harm reduction services. Further research should focus on how the police conduct boundary work since police actions may impact on the success of harm reduction services.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 24.
    Nordgren, Johan
    et al.
    Malmö University, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Social Work (SA). Malmö University, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), People, Places and Prevention.
    Richert, Torkel
    Malmö University, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Social Work (SA). Malmö University, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), People, Places and Prevention.
    Svensson, Bengt
    Malmö University, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Social Work (SA). Malmö University, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), People, Places and Prevention.
    Johnson, Björn
    Malmö University, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Social Work (SA). Malmö University, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), People, Places and Prevention.
    Say No and Close the Door?: Codependency Troubles among Parents of Adult Children with Drug Problems in Sweden2020In: Journal of Family Issues, ISSN 0192-513X, E-ISSN 1552-5481, Vol. 41, no 5, p. 567-588Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Codependency is a term used to describe a range of behaviors among persons who are affected by the problematic drug use of family members. This article analyzes how 32 Swedish parents of adult children with drug problems talked about and understood codependency. The sociology of trouble was used as a theoretical framework and three significant themes were identified in the interviews. The parents spoke about how they defined codependency troubles, how they discovered codependency, and how they set boundaries for their children. The parents talked about their situations as highly distressing, and third-party troubleshooters defined their troubles and problems as codependency. The parents generally rejected the advice to “close the door” on their children and engaged in a range of remedial actions. The analytical focus of this study on the identification, definition, and remedial actions of parents gives valuable insights into family disruptions related to drug problems.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 25.
    Nordgren, Johan
    et al.
    Malmö University, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Social Work (SA).
    Tiberg, Fredrik
    Malmö University, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Social Work (SA).
    Between street and digital capital? A qualitative study of judicial sentencing of persons convicted of online drug dealing in Sweden2023In: Drugs, Habits and Social Policy, ISSN 2752-6739, Vol. 24, no 3, p. 162-176Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose

    Drug sales facilitated through digital communication on the surface web and on darknet cryptomarkets have increased during the past two decades. This has resulted in an increase in drug law enforcement efforts to combat these markets and a subsequent increase in judicial sentencing of people selling drugs online. The aim of this study was to analyze how Swedish courts describe sentenced sellers and how the courts apply case law.

    Design/methodology/approach

    The empirical material consists of 71 sentencing documents produced by Swedish courts in cases of online drug selling between January 1, 2010 and January 1, 2020. In total, 99 sentenced persons occur in the documents. Using a qualitative research design, the authors analyzed the material through thematic text analysis.

    Findings

    Overall, in their descriptions of online drug sale operations, the courts’ characterizations of the concepts of street capital and digital capital show a dichotomy. These forms of capital are situationally described as both aggravating and mitigating aspects in the application of case law, indicating that it may be fruitful to view both street and digital capital as resources used on contemporary drug markets in general.

    Originality/value

    Very little research exists into how judicial systems describe and perceive the developing phenomenon of online drug sales. Using a relatively large sample from a decade of sentencing, the authors provide an analysis of how Swedish courts view and valuate capital forms in the online drugs trade.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 26.
    Richert, Torkel
    et al.
    Malmö University, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Social Work (SA).
    Nordgren, Johan
    Malmö University, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Social Work (SA).
    Social work with people who use drugs during the Covid-19 pandemic: A mixed methods study2022In: Nordic Social Work Research, ISSN 2156-857X, E-ISSN 2156-8588, p. 1-14Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Measures to control the spread of Covid-19 are challenging social work practice in terms of difficulties to deliver services to vulnerable groups. The aim of this study was to investigate how the Covid-19 pandemic affected social work with people who use drugs regarding ways of working, quality of work, accessibility, and staff motivation. A mixed methods approach was used which included an online survey (n = 81), and three qualitative focus group sessions with social workers in the field of addiction. We analysed the quantitative data through frequency calculations, cross tabulations and Pearson’s χ2 test, and the qualitative data with qualitative textual analysis. The demand for physical distancing challenged important principles of social work such as social closeness, trust and accessibility, and led to a difficult work environment and fewer opportunities to conduct high quality social work, as well as a reduced likelihood of vulnerable clients receiving adequate assistance. Altered practices concerning client meetings negatively affected assessments, working alliances as well as motivation and energy in social work practice. Social workers on the frontline became the ‘last outpost’ when other services shut down, and ‘digital bridges’ between clients and other social workers. Social workers faced a difficult trade-off between protecting themselves and clients from the risk of infection and providing support to a vulnerable group. There were also examples of new practices and lessons learned, for example, the introduction of ‘walks and talks’ with clients and an increased knowledge of how and when to use digital tools for communication.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 27.
    Richert, Torkel
    et al.
    Malmö University, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Social Work (SA).
    Stallwitz, Anke
    Department of Social Work, Protestant University of Applied Sciences Freiburg, Freiburg, Germany.
    Nordgren, Johan
    Malmö University, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Social Work (SA).
    Harm reduction social work with people who use drugs: a qualitative interview study with social workers in harm reduction services in Sweden2023In: Harm Reduction Journal, E-ISSN 1477-7517, Vol. 20, no 1, article id 146Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Social work with people who use drugs (PWUD) has traditionally focused on abstinence and rehabilitation. In recent years, harm reduction has gained an increasingly more important role in social work with PWUD, and social workers are key professionals in many harm reduction services. This study investigates how social workers in harm reduction services for PWUD in Sweden understand the concept of harm reduction and how it relates to goals of rehabilitation, and how they assess and deal with dilemmas and challenges in everyday work.

    Methods: The study is based on interviews with 22 social workers in harm reduction services for PWUD in the Scania region of Sweden. A thematic analysis in three steps was used in coding and processing the data.

    Results: The social workers pointed to similar values between social work and harm reduction and argued for combining the two fields to improve services for PWUD. Three overarching principles for Harm Reduction Social Work (HRSW) were developed based on the social workers accounts: (1) Harm reduction is a prerequisite for rather than a counterpoint to rehabilitation and recovery, (2) motivational work must be non-mandatory and based on the client's goals, (3) a holistic perspective is crucial for Harm Reduction Social Work. Challenges in doing HRSW concerned restrictive laws, policies, and guidelines, resistance from managers, difficulties in setting boundaries between client autonomy and life-saving interventions, and the risk of normalizing high-risk behaviors.

    Conclusions: We use the concept of Harm Reduction Social Work to show how social work with PWUD can have a primary focus on reducing harm and risks, while at the same time it involves a holistic perspective that facilitates motivation and change. The suggested principles of HRSW can provide guidance in practical social work with vulnerable PWUD. Social workers can have important roles in most harm reduction settings and may act to enable recovery.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 28.
    Stallwitz, Anke
    et al.
    Malmö University, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Social Work (SA). Department of Social Work, Protestant University of Applied Sciences Freiburg, Freiburg, Germany;Department of Social Work, Malmö University, Malmö, Sweden.
    Nordgren, Johan
    Malmö University, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Social Work (SA).
    Richert, Torkel
    Malmö University, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Social Work (SA).
    ‘Not having a real life’: psychosocial functions of using and selling drugs among young Afghan men who came to Sweden as unaccompanied minors2023In: Journal of ethnic and migration studies, ISSN 1369-183X, E-ISSN 1469-9451, p. 1-21Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Unaccompanied minors (UM) entering Europe face significant psychosocial challenges. Uncertain residence situations, marginalization during the asylum process, and low levels of support increase their risk of developing mental health and drug use issues. However, little is known about drug involvement (using and dealing) in this group. This is the first study to investigate drug involvement among young adults who entered Europe as UM from their subjective perspectives. We conducted qualitative interviews with 11 Afghan men who came to Sweden as UM in 2015/2016 and had experience of using and/or selling drugs, and analyzed the transcripts based on grounded theory. Drug initiation usually occurred after arrival in Sweden and was related to peer influence. Using and selling fulfilled specific psychosocial functions including self-medication and money-making. ‘Not having a real life’ (being excluded from school, employment, and many social activities) emerged as a central motive for drug involvement. By using or selling drugs, feelings of social belonging and control over one's own life could be experienced. Long, uncertain asylum processes and social exclusion exacerbate the risk of UM and former UM using or selling drugs. Policy and intervention measures must focus on providing this group with support, social inclusion, and meaningful activities.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 29.
    Tiberg, Fredrik
    et al.
    Malmö University, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Social Work (SA). People, Places and Prevention.
    Nordgren, Johan
    Malmö University, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Social Work (SA). People, Places and Prevention.
    Ordinary people, criminals, addicts and recreational users: Swedish court of law descriptions of persons sentenced for online drug purchases2022In: Nordic Studies on Alcohol and Drugs, ISSN 1455-0725, E-ISSN 1458-6126, Vol. 39, no 3, p. 225-239Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The aim of this study was to analyze how Swedish courts describe persons sentenced for purchasing illicit drugs online. Methods: Qualitative analysis of naturally occurring data through 201 sentences that included 248 individuals sentenced for having purchased drugs online between January 1 2010 and January 1 2020. Results: The analysis resulted in the construction of four ideal types regarding the described characteristics of the sentenced persons; the ordinary person, the recreational user, the addict and the criminal. The courts operate with a notable dichotomy between traditional drug markets and online drug markets, that can be understood in relation to descriptions of Bourdieusian capital forms, specifically street capital and digital capital. Conclusion: Descriptions relating to street capital were of larger interest to the courts compared to digital capital, although there were examples of when the courts argued that uses of digital capital should be viewed as an aggravating circumstance. The courts largely held a dichotomous view of online and offline drug markets that focus on street-based criminality, which may have implications for how emerging digital drug markets are responded to by drug law enforcement and judicial systems.

    Download full text (pdf)
    Ordinary people, criminals, addicts and recreational users
1 - 29 of 29
CiteExportLink to result list
Permanent link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf