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  • 1.
    Allen, P Danny
    et al.
    Division of Imaging Science and Biomedical Engineering, University of Manchester, Institute of Science and Technology, Manchester, UK.
    Graham, Jim
    Division of Imaging Science and Biomedical Engineering, University of Manchester, Institute of Science and Technology, Manchester, UK.
    Farnell, Damian J
    School of Medicine, University of Manchester, Institute of Science and Technology, Manchester, UK; University of Liverpool, Liverpool, UK.
    Harrison, Elizabeth J
    Division of Imaging Science and Biomedical Engineering, University of Manchester, Institute of Science and Technology, Manchester, UK.
    Jacobs, Reinhilde
    Oral Imaging Centre, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Leuven, Belgium.
    Nicopolou-Karayianni, Kety
    Dental School, University of Athens (NKUA), Athens, Greece.
    Lindh, Christina
    Malmö högskola, Odontologiska fakulteten (OD).
    van der Stelt, Paul F
    Horner, Keith
    School of Dentistry, University of Manchester, Institute of Science and Technology, Manchester, UK.
    Devlin, Hugh
    School of Dentistry, University of Manchester, Institute of Science and Technology, Manchester, UK.
    Detecting reduced bone mineral density from dental radiographs using statistical shape models2007Ingår i: IEEE transactions on information technology in biomedicine, ISSN 1089-7771, E-ISSN 1558-0032, Vol. 11, nr 6, s. 601-610Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We describe a novel method of estimating reduced bone mineral density (BMD) from dental panoramic tomograms (DPTs), which show the entire mandible. Careful expert width measurement of the inferior mandibular cortex has been shown to be predictive of BMD in hip and spine osteopenia and osteoporosis. We have implemented a method of automatic measurement of the width by active shape model search, using as training data 132 DPTs of female subjects whose BMD has been established by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. We demonstrate that widths measured after fully automatic search are significantly correlated with BMD, and exhibit less variability than manual measurements made by different experts. The correlation is highest towards the lateral region of the mandible, in a position different from that previously employed for manual width measurement. An receiver-operator characterstic (ROC) analysis for identifying osteopenia (T < -1: BMD more than one standard deviation below that of young healthy females) gives an area under curve (AUC) value of 0.64. Using a minimal interaction to initiate active shape model (ASM) search, the measurement can be made at the optimum region of the mandible, resulting in an AUC value of 0.71. Using an independent test set, AUC for detection of osteoporosis (T < -2.5) is 0.81.

  • 2.
    Al-Okshi, Ayman
    et al.
    Malmö högskola, Odontologiska fakulteten (OD).
    Lindh, Christina
    Malmö högskola, Odontologiska fakulteten (OD).
    Salé, Hanna
    Malmö högskola, Odontologiska fakulteten (OD).
    Gunnarsson, Mikael
    Rohlin, Madeleine
    Malmö högskola, Odontologiska fakulteten (OD).
    Effective dose of cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) of the facial skeleton: a systematic review2015Ingår i: British Journal of Radiology, ISSN 0007-1285, E-ISSN 1748-880X, Vol. 88, nr 1045, artikel-id 20140658Artikel, forskningsöversikt (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: To estimate effective dose of cone beam CT (CBCT) of the facial skeleton with focus on measurement methods and scanning protocols. Methods: A systematic review, which adhered to the preferred reporting items for systematic reviews (PRISMA) Statement, of the literature up to April 2014 was conducted. Data sources included MEDLINE®, The Cochrane Library and Web of Science. A model was developed to underpin data extraction from 38 included studies. Results: Technical specifications of the CBCT units were insufficiently described. Heterogeneity in measurement methods and scanning protocols between studies made comparisons of effective doses of different CBCT units and scanning protocols difficult. Few studies related doses to image quality. Reported effective dose varied across studies, ranging between 9.7 and 197.0 mSv for field of views (FOVs) with height #5cm, between 3.9 and 674.0 mSv for FOVs of heights 5.1–10.0 cm and between 8.8 and 1073.0 mSv for FOVs .10 cm. There was an inconsistency regarding reported effective dose of studies of the same CBCT unit with the same FOV dimensions. Conclusion: The review reveals a need for studies on radiation dosages related to image quality. Reporting quality of future studies has to be improved to facilitate comparison of effective doses obtained from examinations with different CBCT units and scanning protocols. A model with minimum data set on important parameters based on this observation is proposed. Advances in knowledge: Data important when estimating effective dose were insufficiently reported in most studies. A model with minimum data based on this observation is proposed. Few studies related effective dose to image quality.

  • 3.
    Al-Okshi, Ayman
    et al.
    Malmö högskola, Odontologiska fakulteten (OD).
    Nilsson, M.
    Malmö högskola, Odontologiska fakulteten (OD).
    Petersson, A.
    Malmö högskola, Odontologiska fakulteten (OD).
    Wiese, M.
    Lindh, Christina
    Malmö högskola, Odontologiska fakulteten (OD).
    Using GafChromic film to estimate the effective dose from dental cone beam CT and panoramic radiography2013Ingår i: Dento-Maxillo-Facial Radiology, ISSN 0250-832X, E-ISSN 1476-542X, Vol. 42, nr 7, artikel-id 20120343Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: To demonstrate the feasibility of GafChromic(®) XR-QA2 (ISP Corp., Wayne, NJ) as a dosemeter when performing measurements of the effective dose from three cone beam CT (CBCT) units and to compare the doses from examinations of three common dental clinical situations. A second aim was to compare the radiation doses for three digital panoramic units with the doses for the CBCT units. METHODS: The CBCT units used were Veraviewepocs 3De(®) (J Morita MFG Corp., Kyoto, Japan), ProMax(®) 3D (Planmeca, Helsinki, Finland) and NewTom VGi(®) (Quantitative Radiology, Verona, Italy). GafChromic XR-QA2 films were placed between the selected layers of the head and neck of a tissue-equivalent human skull (RANDO(®) phantom; The Phantom Laboratory, Salem, NY). The exposure parameters were set using the automatic exposure control function of the units. Depending on the availability, medium and smaller field of view (FOV) scanning modes were used. The effective dose was estimated using the 2007 International Commission on Radiological Protection formalism. RESULTS: The lowest effective dose of a CBCT unit was observed for ProMax 3D, FOV 4 × 5 cm (10 μSv), the highest for NewTom VGi, FOV 8 × 8 cm-high resolution (129 μSv). The range of effective doses for digital panoramic machines measured was 8-14 μSv. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates the feasibility of using radiochromic films for dental CBCT and panoramic dosimetry.

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  • 4.
    Al-Okshi, Ayman
    et al.
    Malmö universitet, Odontologiska fakulteten (OD). Department of Oral Medicine and Radiology, Faculty of Dentistry, Sebha University, Sebha, Libyan Arab Jamahiriya.
    Paulsson, Liselotte
    Malmö universitet, Odontologiska fakulteten (OD).
    Rohlin, Madeleine
    Malmö universitet, Odontologiska fakulteten (OD).
    Ebrahim, Eman
    Malmö universitet, Odontologiska fakulteten (OD). Department of Orthodontics, Faculty of Dentistry, Sebha University, Sebha, Libyan Arab Jamahiriya.
    Lindh, Christina
    Malmö universitet, Odontologiska fakulteten (OD).
    Measurability and reliability of assessments of root length and marginal bone level in cone beam CT and intraoral radiography: a study of adolescents2019Ingår i: Dento-Maxillo-Facial Radiology, ISSN 0250-832X, E-ISSN 1476-542X, Vol. 48, nr 5, s. 1-9, artikel-id 20180368Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: To evaluate measurability and reliability of measurements of root length and marginal bone level in CBCT, periapical (PA) and bitewing (BW) radiographs. Methods: CBCT of both jaws, PA of maxillary incisors and posterior BW radiographs of 10 adolescents (mean age 13.4) were selected. The radiographs comprised part of the baseline examinations of a trial of orthodontic treatment. Six raters assessed measurability and measured root length and marginal bone level. Three raters repeated their assessments. Measurability was expressed as frequency of interpretable sites and reliability as intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). Results: Measurability was 100 % in CBCT and 95 % in PA of maxillary incisors for root length measurements. For marginal bone level, measurability was 100 % in CBCT, 76 % in PA and 86 % in posterior BW. Mean ICC for interrater reliability for root length measurements in CBCT was 0.88 (range 0.27-0.96 among different teeth) and 0.69 in PA of maxillary incisors. For marginal bone level measurements, mean ICC was 0.4 in CBCT, 0.38 in PA of maxillary incisors and 0.4 in posterior BW. Intrarater reliability varied among methods, root length or marginal bone level and among raters, except for root length measurements in CBCT, which presented high reliability (above 0.8) for all raters. Conclusions: As measurability and reliability were high for root length measurements in CBCT, this may be the method of choice for scientific analyses in orthodontics. For clinical praxis, we recommend PA following the "as low as diagnostically acceptable" principle, as clinical decisions seem to be influenced only when severe root resorption occurs.

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  • 5.
    Al-Okshi, Ayman
    et al.
    Malmö högskola, Odontologiska fakulteten (OD). Department of Oral Medicine and Radiology, Faculty of Dentistry, Sebha University, Sebha, Libya.
    Theodorakou, Chrysoula
    Christie Medical Physics and Engineering, The Christie NHS Foundation Trust, Manchester Academic Health Science Centre, Manchester, UK.
    Lindh, Christina
    Malmö högskola, Odontologiska fakulteten (OD).
    Dose optimization for assessment of periodontal structures in cone beam CT examinations2016Ingår i: Dento-Maxillo-Facial Radiology, ISSN 0250-832X, E-ISSN 1476-542X, Vol. 46, nr 3, artikel-id 20160311Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVES: To investigate the relationship between dose and image quality for a dedicated dental CBCT scanner using different scanning protocols and to set up an optimal imaging protocol for assessment of periodontal structures. METHODS: Radiation dose and image quality measurements were made using 3D Accuitomo 170 (J. Morita, Kyoto, Japan) dental CBCT scanner. The SedentexCT IQ phantom was used to investigate the relationship between contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) and dose-area product. Subjective image quality assessment was achieved using a small adult skull phantom for the same range of exposure settings. Five independent observers assessed the images for three anatomical landmarks using a three-point visual grade analysis. RESULTS: When correlating the CNR of each scanning protocol to the exposure parameters used to obtain it, CNR decreased as these parameters decreased, especially current-exposure time product. When correlating to subjective image quality, the CNR level remained acceptable when 5 mA and 17.5 s or greater was selected and 80 kV could be used without compromising the CNR. CONCLUSIONS: For a dedicated CBCT unit, changing the rotation angle from 360 degrees to 180 degrees degrades image quality. By altering tube potential and current for the 360 degrees rotation protocol, assessment of periodontal structures can be performed with a smaller dose without substantially affecting visualization.

  • 6. Bergkvist, G
    et al.
    Lindh, Christina
    Malmö högskola, Odontologiska fakulteten (OD).
    Sahlholm, S
    Immediate loading of implants with interim fixed prostheses in edentulous maxillas and mandibles. A 2 year prospective clinical and radiological follow-up2009Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Background and aim: An increasing number of studies show that one-stage surgery and immediate loading of implants, in both edentulous mandibles and maxillae, is a treatment alternative with success rates comparable with two stage-surgery and conventional loading. Furthermore, the development of new implant surfaces has shortened the healing time after implant placement. Such a new surface texture is the sand-blasted, large-grit and acid-etched, active surface (SLActive). Using implants with a shortened healing period is presumably advantageous when immediate loading implants. The aim of the study was to prospectively evaluate the survival rate of splinted and immediately loaded SLActive implants in edentulous mandibles and maxillae after 2 years of loading. Materials and methods Thirty-three patients (mean age 70 yr) with 23 edentulous maxillae and 14 edentulous mandibles received 6 implants each in maxillae and 5 in mandibles respectively, and an implant-supported fixed interim prosthesis within 24 hours after surgery. After a mean healing time of 15 weeks the patients received a permanent screw-retained implant supported fixed prosthesis. A total of 204 Straumann Standard Plus SLActive implants were placed. Bone quality and jaw shape were classified according to Lekholm and Zarb (1985). Implant stability was measured with Resonance Frequency Analysis at placement, after 2, 4 and 8 weeks and at the one year follow-up. Implant rotational stability was measured with a torque control device at placement and after one year. Radiological examinations and assessments were made at implant installation and after one and two years. Results Mean marginal bone level at baseline for implants placed in maxillae were measured at a point 1.74 (SD 0.94) apical of the reference point (the implant shoulder) and in mandibles 1.73 (SD 1.23). Change in mean marginal bone level from baseline to the 1-year follow-up was 1.18 mm (SD 0.98) in maxillae and 1.15 (SD 1.23) in mandibles. For almost 80% of the implant surfaces marginal bone loss was ≤ 1 mm. The cumulative implant survival rate was 100% after one and two years respectively. Conclusion Straumann Standard Plus SLActive implants immediately loaded within 24 hours, in combination with fixed cross-arch prostheses, had successful survival rate and is a viable treatment alternative.

  • 7.
    Bergkvist, Göran
    et al.
    Implantatctr, Kneippgatan 4, SE-60236 Norrköping, Sweden.
    Koh, Kwang-Joon
    Chonbuk Natl Univ, Sch Dent, Dept Oral & Maxillofacial Radiol, Jeonju, South Korea.
    Sahlholm, Sten
    Linköping Univ Hosp, Dept Oral & Maxillofacial Surg, S-58185 Linköping, Sweden.
    Klintström, Eva
    Linköping Univ Hosp, Dept Radiol, S-58185 Linköping, Sweden.
    Lindh, Christina
    Malmö högskola, Odontologiska fakulteten (OD).
    Bone density at implant sites and its relationship to assessment of bone quality and treatment outcome2010Ingår i: International Journal of Oral & Maxillofacial Implants, ISSN 0882-2786, E-ISSN 1942-4434, Vol. 25, nr 2, s. 321-328Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    PURPOSE: To investigate the relationship between bone mineral density (BMD) before implant placement, implant stability measures at implant placement, and marginal bone loss of immediately loaded implants after 1 year in situ. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Consecutively recruited patients received Straumann SLActive implants loaded with fixed provisional prostheses within 24 hours. BMD was measured from computed tomographic images before implant placement. Alveolar bone quality was assessed during surgery. Implant stability-both rotational and as measured with resonance frequency analysis-and marginal bone height were assessed at implant placement and after 1 year. The Pearson correlation coefficient was used to calculate correlations, and significance was considered when P < .05. RESULTS: Twenty-one patients received 137 implants (87 in maxillae and 50 in mandibles). BMD was significantly correlated with bone quality classification in both arches (P < .001). Mean BMD was also significantly correlated with stability values (P < .001). Mean marginal bone loss at implant surfaces differed, but not significantly, at the 1-year follow-up, regardless of BMD values (P = .086) and measured stability (rotational stability P = .34, resonance frequency analysis P = .43) at implant placement. CONCLUSION: Within the limits of this study, it can be concluded that computed tomographic examination can be used as a preoperative method to assess jawbone density before implant placement, since density values correlate with prevailing methods of measuring implant stability. However, in the short time perspective of 1 year, there were no differences in survival rates or changes in marginal bone level between implants placed in bone tissue of different density.

  • 8. Bergkvist, Göran
    et al.
    Nilner, Krister
    Malmö högskola, Odontologiska fakulteten (OD).
    Sahlholm, Sten
    Karlsson, Ulf
    Lindh, Christina
    Malmö högskola, Odontologiska fakulteten (OD).
    Immediate loading of implants in the edentulous maxilla: use of an interim fixed prosthesis followed by a permanent fixed prosthesis: a 32-month prospective radiological and clinical study2009Ingår i: Clinical Implant Dentistry and Related Research, ISSN 1523-0899, E-ISSN 1708-8208, Vol. 11, nr 1, s. 1-10Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to prospectively evaluate the survival rate of splinted and immediately loaded Straumann sandblasted, large-grit, acid-etched, solid-screw dental implants in the edentulous maxilla after 32 months of loading. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty-eight patients (mean age 63 years) with edentulous maxillae received 168 implants (six each) and an implant-supported fixed interim prosthesis within 24 hours after surgery. After a mean healing time of 15 weeks, the patients received permanent screw-retained prostheses. Clinical and radiological examinations were made at implant placement and after 8, 20, and 32 months of loading. All permanent prostheses were removed at the 32-month follow-up; implant stability was checked with a torque device, and the implant stability quotient was determined with resonance frequency analysis. RESULTS: Mean marginal bone loss from baseline to 8 months after loading was 1.6 mm (SD 1.16; p = .094), from 8 to 20 months 0.41 mm (SD 0.63; p = .094), and from 20 to 32 months 0.08 mm (SD 0.49; p = .039). The 32-month cumulative survival rate was 98.2%. CONCLUSIONS: The 32-month survival of solid-screw implants - immediately loaded within 24 hours after placement - was similar to survival rates reported for solid-screw implants with conventional loading. Immediate loading and splinting of implants in the edentulous maxilla is a viable treatment alternative.

  • 9.
    Bergkvist, Göran
    et al.
    Implantatcentrum, SE-602 36 Norrköping, Kneippgatan 4, Sweden.
    Sahlholm, Sten
    Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, University Hospital, Linköping, Sweden.
    Karlsson, Ulf
    Department of Prosthetic Dentistry, Public Dental Service, Norrköping, Sweden.
    Nilner, Krister
    Malmö högskola, Odontologiska fakulteten (OD).
    Lindh, Christina
    Malmö högskola, Odontologiska fakulteten (OD).
    Immediately Loaded Implants Supporting Fixed Prostheses in the Edentulous Maxilla: A Preliminary Clinical and Radiologic Report2005Ingår i: International Journal of Oral & Maxillofacial Implants, ISSN 0882-2786, E-ISSN 1942-4434, Vol. 20, nr 3, s. 399-405Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    PURPOSE: To evaluate the survival rate of immediately loaded ITI sand-blasted, large-grit, acid-etched (SLA) solid-screw dental implants in the edentulous maxilla after 8 months of loading. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty-eight patients (mean age 63 years) with edentulous maxillae each received 6 implants and 1 implant-supported fixed provisional prosthesis within 24 hours after surgery. After a mean healing time of 15 weeks, the patient received a definitive, screw-retained, implant-supported fixed prosthesis. A total of 168 implants were placed. Clinical parameters were registered after 1 month of loading with the implant-supported fixed prostheses as well as 8 months after implant placement. Radiologic examinations and assessments were made at implant placement and after 8 months. RESULTS: The mean marginal bone level at implant placement was 1.6 mm (range 0 to 5.1; SD 1.1) apical of the reference point (the implant shoulder). The mean marginal bone level at the 8-month follow-up was 3.2 mm (range 0.4 to 5.9; SD 1.1) apical of the reference point. Three implants failed during the healing period. DISCUSSION: The improved results in the present study might be a result of the positive effect of splinting the implants immediately after placement. CON-CLUSION: ITI SLA solid-screw implants immediately loaded (ie, loaded within 24 hours of placement) and supporting fixed prostheses had successful survival rates after 8 months. The present results constitute a solid baseline for future follow-up studies.

  • 10. Bergkvist, Göran
    et al.
    Sahlholm, Sten
    Nilner, Krister
    Malmö högskola, Odontologiska fakulteten (OD).
    Lindh, Christina
    Malmö högskola, Odontologiska fakulteten (OD).
    Implant-supported Fixed Prostheses in the Edentulous Maxilla. A 2-year Clinical and Radiological Follow-up of Treatment with Non-submerged ITI Implants2004Ingår i: Clinical Oral Implants Research, ISSN 0905-7161, E-ISSN 1600-0501, Vol. 15, nr 3, s. 351-359Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the survival rate of non-submerged solid-screw ITI dental implants with a rough (titanium plasma sprayed, TPS) surface in the edentulous maxilla after 1 and 2 years of loading. MATERIAL AND METHOD: Twentyfive patients (mean age 64 years) with edentulous upper jaws received five-seven implants and, after a mean healing time of 6.9 months, screw-retained implant-supported fixed prostheses. A total of 146 ITI solid screw TPS implants were inserted. The diameter of 56% of the implants was smaller (3.3 mm) than the standard (4.1 mm) and the diameter of the rest (44%) was standard. The bone quantity of the majority of the patients was low and the bone quality poor. Clinical parameters were registered at baseline and at two annual follow-ups. Radiological examinations and assessments were also made at these times. RESULTS: Mean marginal bone level at baseline was measured at a point 4.52 mm (range 1.45-7.70, SD 1.2) apical of the reference point. Mean bone loss from baseline to 1 year of loading was 0.24 mm (SD 0.9, P=0.002) and from 1 year to 2 years of loading 0.15 mm (SD 0.4, P<0.001). Five implants failed, four of which were early failures prior to loading. One implant failed shortly after bridge installation. The cumulative survival rate was 96.6% after 1 and 2 years. CONCLUSION: ITI TPS solid-screw implants in combination with fixed prostheses had successful survival rates and were found to be a viable treatment alternative in the edentulous maxilla.

  • 11. Brown, J.
    et al.
    Jacobs, R.
    Levring Jäghagen, E.
    Lindh, Christina
    Malmö högskola, Odontologiska fakulteten (OD).
    Baksi, G.
    Schulze, D.
    Schulze, R.
    Basic training requirements for the use of dental CBCT by dentists: a position paper prepared by the European Academy of DentoMaxilloFacial Radiology2014Ingår i: Dento-Maxillo-Facial Radiology, ISSN 0250-832X, E-ISSN 1476-542X, Vol. 43, nr 1, artikel-id 20130291Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Cone beam CT (CBCT) is a relatively new imaging modality, which is now widely available to dentists for examining hard tissues in the dental and maxillofacial regions. CBCT gives a three-dimensional depiction of anatomy and pathology, which is similar to medical CT and uses doses generally higher than those used in conventional dental imaging. The European Academy of DentoMaxilloFacial Radiology recognizes that dentists receive training in two-dimensional dental imaging as undergraduates, but most of them have received little or no training in the application and interpretation of cross-sectional three-dimensional imaging. This document identifies the roles of dentists involved in the use of CBCT, examines the training requirements for the justification, acquisition and interpretation of CBCT imaging and makes recommendations for further training of dentists in Europe who intend to be involved in any aspect of CBCT imaging. Two levels of training are recognized. Level 1 is intended to train dentists who prescribe CBCT imaging, such that they may request appropriately and understand the resultant reported images. Level 2 is intended to train to a more advanced level and covers the understanding and skills needed to justify, carry out and interpret a CBCT examination. These recommendations are not intended to create specialists in CBCT imaging but to offer guidance on the training of all dentists to enable the safe use of CBCT in the dentoalveolar region.

  • 12.
    Christell, Helena
    et al.
    Malmö universitet, Odontologiska fakulteten (OD).
    Birch, Stephen
    Centre for Health Economics and Policy Analysis, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON, Canada; School of Community Based Medicine, University of Manchester, Manchester, UK.
    Bondemark, Lars
    Malmö universitet, Odontologiska fakulteten (OD).
    Horner, Keith
    Division of Dentistry, School of Medical Sciences, University of Manchester, Manchester, UK.
    Lindh, Christina
    Malmö universitet, Odontologiska fakulteten (OD).
    The impact of Cone Beam CT on financial costs and orthodontists' treatment decisions in the management of maxillary canines with eruption disturbance2018Ingår i: European Journal of Orthodontics, ISSN 0141-5387, E-ISSN 1460-2210, nr 1, s. 65-73Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Examination with Cone Beam CT (CBCT) is common for localizing maxillary canines with eruption disturbance. The benefits and costs of these examinations are unclear. Objectives: To measure: 1. the proportion of orthodontists' treatment decisions that were different based on intraoral and panoramic radiography (M1) compared with CBCT and panoramic radiography (M2); and 2. the costs of producing different treatment plans, regarding patients with maxillary canines with eruption disturbance. Subjects and methods: Orthodontists participated in a web-based survey and were randomly assigned to denote treatment decisions and the level of confidence in this decision for four patient cases presented with M1 or M2 at two occasions for the same patient case. Results: One hundred and twelve orthodontists made 445 assessments based on M1 and M2, respectively. Twenty-four per cent of the treatment decisions were different depending on which method the raters had access to, whereof one case differed significantly from all other cases. The mean total cost per examination was €99.84 using M1 and €134.37 using M2, resulting in an incremental cost per examination of €34.53 for M2. Limitations: Benefits in terms of number of different treatment decisions must be considered as an intermediate outcome for the effectiveness of a diagnostic method and should be interpreted with caution. Conclusions: For the patient cases presented in this study, most treatment decisions were the same irrespective of radiological method. Accordingly, this study does not support routine use of CBCT regarding patients with maxillary canine with eruption disturbance.

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  • 13.
    Christell, Helena
    et al.
    Malmö högskola, Odontologiska fakulteten (OD).
    Birch, Stephen
    Hedesiu, Mihaela
    Horner, Keith
    Ivanauskaité, Deimante
    Nackaerts, Olivia
    Rohlin, Madeleine
    Malmö högskola, Odontologiska fakulteten (OD).
    Lindh, Christina
    Malmö högskola, Odontologiska fakulteten (OD).
    SEDENTEXCT consortium,
    Variation in costs of cone beam CT examinations among health care systems2012Ingår i: Dento-Maxillo-Facial Radiology, ISSN 0250-832X, E-ISSN 1476-542X, Vol. 41, nr 7, s. 571-577Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: To analyse the costs of cone beam CT (CBCT) in different healthcare systems for patients with different clinical conditions. Methods: Costs were calculated for CBCT performed in Cluj (Romania), Leuven (Belgium), Malmö (Sweden) and Vilnius (Lithuania) on patients with (i) a maxillary canine with eruption disturbance, (ii) an area with tooth loss prior to implant treatment or (iii) a lower wisdom tooth planned for removal. The costs were calculated using an approach based on the identification, measurement and valuation of all resources used in the delivery of the service that combined direct costs (capital equipment, accommodation, labour) with indirect costs (patients’ and accompanying persons’ time, ‘‘out of pocket’’ costs for examination fee and visits). Results: The estimates for direct and indirect costs varied among the healthcare systems, being highest in Malmö and lowest in Leuven. Variation in direct costs was mainly owing to different capital costs for the CBCT equipment arising from differences in purchase prices (range J148 000–227 000). Variation in indirect costs were mainly owing to examination fees (range J0–102.02). Conclusions: Cost analysis provides an important input for economic evaluations of diagnostic methods in different healthcare systems and for planning of service delivery. Additionally, it enables decision-makers to separate variations in costs between systems into those due to external influences and those due to policy decisions. A cost evaluation of a dental radiographic method cannot be generalized from one healthcare system to another, but must take into account these specific circumstances.

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  • 14.
    Christell, Helena
    et al.
    Malmö högskola, Odontologiska fakulteten (OD).
    Birch, Stephen
    Horner, Keith
    Lindh, Christina
    Malmö högskola, Odontologiska fakulteten (OD).
    Rohlin, Madeleine
    Malmö högskola, Odontologiska fakulteten (OD).
    Economic evaluation of diagnostic methods used in dentistry: a systematic review2014Ingår i: Journal of Dentistry, ISSN 0300-5712, E-ISSN 1879-176X, Vol. 42, nr 11, s. 1361-1371Artikel, forskningsöversikt (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVES: To review the literature of economic evaluations regarding diagnostic methods used in dentistry. DATA SOURCES: Four databases (MEDLINE, Web of Science, The Cochrane library, the NHS Economic Evaluation Database) were searched for studies, complemented by hand search, until February 2013. STUDY SELECTION: Two authors independently screened all titles or abstracts and then applied inclusion and exclusion criteria to select full-text publications published in English, which reported an economic evaluation comparing at least two alternative methods. Studies of diagnostic methods were assessed by four reviewers using a protocol based on the QUADAS tool regarding diagnostic methods and a check-list for economic evaluations. The results of the data extraction were summarized in a structured table and as a narrative description. RESULTS: From 476 identified full-text publications, 160 were considered to be economic evaluations. Only 12 studies (7%) were on diagnostic methods, whilst 78 studies (49%) were on prevention and 70 (40%) on treatment. Among studies on diagnostic methods, there was between-study heterogeneity methodologically, regarding the diagnostic method analysed and type of economic evaluation addressed. Generally, the choice of economic evaluation method was not justified and the perspective of the study not stated. Costing of diagnostic methods varied. CONCLUSIONS: A small body of literature addresses economic evaluation of diagnostic methods in dentistry. Thus, there is a need for studies from various perspectives with well defined research questions and measures of the cost and effectiveness. CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE: Economic resources in healthcare are finite. For diagnostic methods, an understanding of efficacy provides only part of the information needed for evidence-based practice. This study highlighted a paucity of economic evaluations of diagnostic methods used in dentistry, indicating that much of what we practise lacks sufficient evidence.

  • 15.
    Christell, Helena
    et al.
    Malmö högskola, Odontologiska fakulteten (OD).
    Birch, Stephen
    Horner, Keith
    Rohlin, Madeleine
    Malmö högskola, Odontologiska fakulteten (OD).
    Lindh, Christina
    Malmö högskola, Odontologiska fakulteten (OD).
    Economic evaluation in oral health care2009Ingår i: Programme and abstract book, 2009, s. 70-70, artikel-id O69Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction Economic evaluation attempts to weigh costs and effects of alternative interventions with the goal that available resources are used to achieve maximum benefits for patients in terms of health and quality of life. In emerging technologies this is particularly important to avoid inappropriate and excessive use. Objectives To analyse evidence on economic evaluation in oral health care, particularly on diagnostic imaging methods, by systematic review. Material and methods A search for literature was made starting with a hand made search according to the pearl growing model. This search strategy means that articles and relevant literature are retrieved by talking to renowned specialists in the subject area and by finding indexing and MeSH terms by looking at those articles and their reference lists. From seven articles indexing terms and MeSH terms were chosen and searches were made from PubMed, the Cochrane Library and Science Citations Index. The retrieved primary studies that according to the abstract contained a cost-effectiveness analysis were interpreted by two reviewers using a check-list for assessing economic evaluations (Drummond et al. 2005). Results The literature search yielded 258 titles and abstracts. Out of these, 93 studies were selected and read in full text. There was a vast heterogeneity in study design. No clear evidence was found. Methodology regarding the odontological part was acceptable in a few studies but the methodology for the economic evaluation was insufficient. Conclusions and discussion This review reveals a need for studies with improved quality in economic evaluation in oral health care. We will propose and discuss a model for economic evaluation of diagnostic methods that will contain information of how to (i) identify costs (ii) categorise costs and (iii) value costs. This model will be applied in the SEDENTEXCT project on Cone Beam Computed Tomography. Reference: Drummond MF, Sculpher MJ, Torrance GW, O´Brian BJ, Stoddart GL. Methods for the economic evaluation of health care programmes, Oxford, 2005, Oxford Medical Publications, 3rd ed. The research leading to these results has received funding from the European Atomic Energy Community’s Seventh Framework Programme FP7/2007-2011 under grant agreement no 212246 (SEDENTEXCT: Safety and Efficacy of a New and Emerging Dental X-ray Modality).

  • 16.
    Christell, Helena
    et al.
    Malmö högskola, Odontologiska fakulteten (OD).
    Birch, Stephen
    Horner, Keith
    Rohlin, Madeleine
    Malmö högskola, Odontologiska fakulteten (OD).
    Lindh, Christina
    Malmö högskola, Odontologiska fakulteten (OD).
    SEDENTEXCT consortium,
    A framework for costing diagnostic methods in oral health care: an application comparing a new imaging technology with the conventional approach for maxillary canines with eruption disturbances2012Ingår i: Community Dentistry and Oral Epidemiology, ISSN 0301-5661, E-ISSN 1600-0528, Vol. 40, nr 4, s. 351-361Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: The aims were (i) to propose a framework for costing diagnostic methods in oral health care and (ii) to illustrate the application of the framework to the radiographic examination of maxillary canines with eruption disturbances. Methods: The framework for costing, following Drummond et al.(2005), includes three elements: (i) identification of different resources used in producing and delivering the service, (ii) measurement of the amount of each resource required and (iii) valuation of the resources in monetary terms. Four data collection instruments were designed – a protocol for apportioning the cost of capital equipment to each diagnostic procedure, separate forms for recording consumable items, for the time of different health care providers used for a diagnostic examination and a patient survey for calculation of the total cost to the patient associated with the examination. The framework was applied to the radiographic examination of maxillary canines with eruption disturbances comparing two imaging methods: (i) a new method with cone beam computed tomography and panoramic radiography and (ii) a conventional method using intraoral and panoramic radiography. The primary analysis was performed from the perspective of the health care system. A separate analysis included patient costs with health care system costs to provide a societal perspective. Comparison of the two perspectives allows consideration of whether any costs savings to the health care system are generated at the expense of greater costs for patients and their families. Data for the cost-analysis were retrieved from 47 patients (mean age 14 years) referred to a department of radiology for examination of maxillary canines. Results:Application of the framework for costing allowed us to compare the resources used to perform examinations of the two methods. The mean total cost per examination for the new method was 128.38€ and 81.80€ for the conventional method, resulting in an incremental cost per examination of the new method of 46.58€. Conclusions: The application of the framework demonstrates the feasibility of measuring and comparing the total costs as well as the distribution of total costs between providers and patients for different approaches to this common examination.

  • 17.
    Christell, Helena
    et al.
    Malmö universitet, Odontologiska fakulteten (OD). Department of Radiology, Helsingborg Hospital, 251 87, Helsingborg, Sweden.
    Gullberg, Joanna
    Malmö universitet, Odontologiska fakulteten (OD).
    Nilsson, Kenneth
    Malmö universitet, Odontologiska fakulteten (OD).
    Olofsson, Sofia Heidari
    Malmö universitet, Odontologiska fakulteten (OD).
    Lindh, Christina
    Malmö universitet, Odontologiska fakulteten (OD).
    Davidson, Thomas
    Centre for Medical Technology Assessment, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Linköping University, 581 83 Linköping, Linköping, Sweden.
    Willingness to pay for osteoporosis risk assessment in primary dental care2019Ingår i: Health Economics Review, E-ISSN 2191-1991, Vol. 9, nr 1, artikel-id UNSP 14Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Fragility fracture related to osteoporosis among postmenopausal women is a significant cause of morbidity. The care and aftercare of these fractures are associated with substantial costs to society. A main problem is that many individuals suffer from osteoporosis without knowing it before a fracture happens. Dentists may have an important role in early identification of individuals with osteoporosis by assessment of dental radiographs already included in the dental examination. The aim of this study was therefore to investigate postmenopausal women's preferences for an osteoporosis risk assessment in primary dental care. Results: Most respondents (129 of 144 (90%)) were willing to pay for an osteoporosis risk assessment in primary dental care. The overall mean willingness to pay (WTP) including respondents that denoted none or zero WTP was 44.60 Euro (CI 95% 38.46-50.74 Euro) (median 34.75 Euro). A majority (80.6%) of the respondents that denoted WTP also gave a motivation for their answer. The two most common reasons denoted for being willing to pay for osteoporosis risk assessment were the importance of early diagnosis and preventive care to avoid fractures (41.0%) and the importance of knowledge of a risk of osteoporosis (26.4%). A majority of respondents (67.8%) considered it valuable if dental clinics would offer osteoporosis risk assessment. Conclusions: Postmenopausal women seem to find it valuable to be offered osteoporosis risk assessment in primary dental care and are willing to pay for such a risk assessment. From a societal perspective early diagnosis of osteoporosis by risk assessment in primary dental care could prevent osteoporotic related fractures and benefit women's health and quality of life, as well as have a major impact on the health-care budget in terms of cost-savings.

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  • 18.
    Christersson, Cecilia
    et al.
    Malmö högskola, Odontologiska fakulteten (OD).
    Bengmark, Daniel
    Malmö högskola, Odontologiska fakulteten (OD).
    Bengtsson, H.
    Lindh, Christina
    Malmö högskola, Odontologiska fakulteten (OD).
    Rohlin, Madeleine
    Malmö högskola, Odontologiska fakulteten (OD).
    A predictive model for alternative admission to dental education2015Ingår i: European journal of dental education, ISSN 1396-5883, E-ISSN 1600-0579, Vol. 19, nr 4, s. 251-258Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    AIM: To compare academic progress and performance of students admitted through two admission systems and to analyse the predictive power of different components in an alternative admission. SAMPLE AND METHODS: The subjects were students admitted to the dental programme at Malmö University, Sweden. The grade admission group was admitted on grades from secondary school (n = 126) and the alternative admission group via an alternative admission procedure (n = 157). The alternative admission procedure consisted of the following components: problem-solving matrices, spatial capacity tested with folding and tin models, manual dexterity, capacity for empathy and interview. Comparisons were made for academic progress (dropouts from the programme and study rate) and academic performance (examinations failed and outcomes of a comprehensive clinical examination). Spearman correlation was calculated for each component of the alternative admission procedure and academic progress as well as academic performance. Multivariate analyses were also carried out. RESULTS: Compared to the grade admission group, the alternative admission group presented lower rate of dropouts (3% vs. 20%, P < 0.001) and a larger proportion graduated within the expected time (88% vs. 60%, P < 0.01). There was no difference between the groups concerning academic performance. Capacity of empathy was correlated with study rate and outcomes of the clinical examination. The matrices predicted low proportion failed examinations and high students' self-assessments in the clinical examination. Predictive power of folding was limited and so was that of the interview. Manual dexterity was not correlated with academic progress or performance. CONCLUSIONS: Results support further development of admission selection criteria, particularly emphatic capacity that predicts important student academic achievements.

  • 19. de Oliveira, Rubelisa Candido
    et al.
    Leles, Cláudio Rodrigues
    Normanha, Leonardo Martins
    Lindh, Christina
    Malmö högskola, Odontologiska fakulteten (OD).
    Ribeiro-Rotta, Rejane Faria
    Assessments of trabecular bone density at implant sites on CT images2008Ingår i: Oral surgery, oral medicine, oral pathology, oral radiology, and endodontics, ISSN 1079-2104, E-ISSN 1528-395X, Vol. 105, nr 2, s. 231-238Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the association between trabecular bone density measurements of potential implant sites made on axial DICOM images (DentaCT software) and on the same images with eFilm workstation, to correlate bone densities in Hounsfield units (HU) with subjective classification, and to establish a quantitative scale for each bone quality class. STUDY DESIGN: Twenty-seven maxillary and 27 mandibular computed tomographic (CT) examinations of 75 potential implant sites were selected. Trabecular bone density was evaluated with DentaCT and eFilm. Bone quality was subjectively evaluated by 2 examiners. Descriptive statistics, between- and within-group comparison, correlation analysis, and Bland-Altman plot were used for data analysis. RESULTS: DentaCT measurements were higher than eFilm (P < .001). Bone type 2 was the most prevalent, and bone density was significantly reduced from bone types 1 to 4. Quantitative parameters ranged as follows: bone type 4 <200 HU, bone types 2 and 3 >200 to <400 HU, and bone type 1 >400 HU. CONCLUSION: Different qualities of bone can be found in any of the anatomical regions studied (anterior and posterior sites of maxilla and mandible), which confirms the importance of a site-specific bone tissue evaluation prior to implant installation.

  • 20. Devlin, Hugh
    et al.
    Allen, Philip D
    Graham, Jim
    Jacobs, Reinhilde
    Karayianni, Kety
    Lindh, Christina
    Malmö högskola, Odontologiska fakulteten (OD).
    van der Stelt, Paul F
    Harrison, Elizabeth
    Adams, Judith
    Pavitt, Susan
    Horner, Keith
    Automated osteoporosis risk assessment by dentists: a new pathway to diagnosis2007Ingår i: Bone, ISSN 8756-3282, E-ISSN 1873-2763, Vol. 40, nr 4, s. 835-842Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    General dental practitioners use a vast amount of panoramic radiography in their routine clinical work, but valuable information about patients' osteoporotic status is not collected. There are many reasons for this, but one of the prime reasons must be the disruption involved in clinical routine with lengthy manual radiographic assessment. We have developed computer software, based on active shape modeling that will automatically detect the mandibular cortex on panoramic radiographs, and then measure its width. Automatic or semi-automatic measurement of the cortical width will indicate the osteoporotic risk of the patient. The aim of our work was to assess the computer search technique's ability to measure the mandibular cortical width and to assess its potential for detection of osteoporosis of the hip, spine and femoral neck. Mandibular cortical width was measured using the manually initialized (semi-automatic) method and, when assessed for diagnosing osteoporosis at one of the three measurement sites, gave an area under the ROC curve (A(z))=0.816 (95% CI=0.784 to 0.845) and for the automatically initialized searches, A(z)=0.759 (95% CI=0.724 to 0.791). The difference between areas=0.057 (95% Confidence interval=0.025 to 0.089), p<0.0001. For diagnosing osteoporosis at the femoral neck, mandibular cortical width derived from the manually initialized fit gave an area under the ROC curve (A(z))=0.835 (95% CI=0.805 to 0.863) and for the automatically initialized searches A(z)=0.805 (95% CI=0.773 to 0.835). The difference in A(z) values between active shape modeling search methods=0.030 (95% CI=-0.010 to 0.070), and this was not significant, p=0.138. We concluded that measurement of mandibular cortical width using active shape modeling is capable of diagnosing skeletal osteoporosis with good diagnostic ability and repeatability. PMID: 17188590 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

  • 21. Devlin, Hugh
    et al.
    Allen, Philip
    Graham, Jim
    Jacobs, Reinhilde
    Nicopoulou-Karayianni, Katy
    Lindh, Christina
    Malmö högskola, Odontologiska fakulteten (OD).
    Marjanovic, Elizabeth
    Adams, Judith
    Pavitt, Susan
    van der Stelt, Paul F
    Horner, Keith
    The role of the dental surgeon in detecting osteoporosis: the OSTEODENT study2008Ingår i: British Dental Journal, ISSN 0007-0610, E-ISSN 1476-5373, Vol. 204, nr 10, artikel-id E16Artikel i tidskrift (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: To determine if thinning (<3 mm width) of the lower cortical border of the mandible on dental panoramic radiographs, as well as other clinical risk factors, may provide a useful diagnostic test for osteoporosis in young postmenopausal women. DESIGN: Six hundred and fifty-two subjects (age range 45-70 years) were involved in this multi-centre, cross-sectional study. SETTING: Patients were recruited from centres in Leuven (Belgium), Athens (Greece), Manchester (UK), and Malmo (Sweden). SUBJECTS AND METHODS: The subject's age, body weight, whether the patient took hormone replacement therapy or had a history of low trauma fracture were used to form a clinical osteoporosis risk assessment (the OSteoporosis Index of RISk or OSIRIS index). Each patient also received a dental panoramic radiographic examination. RESULTS: One hundred and forty subjects had osteoporosis involving at least one of the measurement sites (lumbar spine, femoral neck or total hip). Those with osteoporosis tended to have a low OSIRIS score and a thinned cortical mandibular border. The area under the ROC curve for using both cortical width and OSIRIS to predict osteoporosis was 0.90 (95% CI = 0.87 to 0.92). There was a significant improvement in the diagnostic ability of the combined OSIRIS and cortical width test over both tests applied separately (p <0.001). The cost effectiveness of the cortical width and OSIRIS model was improved by using a high specificity threshold rather than high sensitivity. However, this analysis ignores the costs associated with missed cases of osteoporosis. CONCLUSION: Dentists have a role to play in the detection and referral of patients at high risk of osteoporosis.

  • 22. Devlin, Hugh
    et al.
    Karayianni, Keti
    Mitsea, Anastasia
    Jacobs, Reinhilde
    Lindh, Christina
    Malmö högskola, Odontologiska fakulteten (OD).
    van der Stelt, Paul F
    Marjanovic, Elizabeth
    Adams, Judith
    Pavitt, Susan
    Horner, Keith
    Diagnosing osteoporosis by using dental panoramic radiographs: the OSTEODENT project2007Ingår i: Oral surgery, oral medicine, oral pathology, oral radiology, and endodontics, ISSN 1079-2104, E-ISSN 1528-395X, Vol. 104, nr 6, s. 821-828Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVES: Measurement of cortical thickness and subjective assessment of cortical porosity on panoramic radiographs are methods previously reported for diagnosing osteoporosis. The aims of this study were to determine the relative efficacy of the mandibular cortical index and cortical width in detecting osteoporosis, both alone and in combination, and to determine the optimal cortical width threshold for referral for additional osteoporosis investigation. STUDY DESIGN: Six hundred seventy-one postmenopausal women 45 to 70 years of age were recruited for this study. They received dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scans of the left hip and lumbar spine (L1 to L4), and dental panoramic radiographic examinations of the teeth and jaws. Three observers separately assessed the mandibular cortical width and porosity in the mental foramen region of the mandible. Cortical width was corrected for magnification errors. Chi-squared automatic interaction detection analysis (CHAID) software was used (SPSS AnswerTree, version 3.1, SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL). RESULTS: Chi-squared automatic interaction detection analysis showed that the cortical porosity was a poorer predictor of osteoporosis than mandibular cortical width. For the 3 observers, a mandibular cortical width of <3 mm provided diagnostic odds ratios of 6.51, 6.09, and 8.04. The test is therefore only recommended in triage screening of individuals by using radiographs made for purposes other than osteoporosis. CONCLUSION: When evaluating panoramic radiographs, only those patients with the thinnest mandibular cortices (i.e., <3 mm) should be referred for further osteoporosis investigation. PMID: 17428694 [PubMed - in process]

  • 23. Dias, Danilo R.
    et al.
    Leles, Claudio R.
    Lindh, Christina
    Malmö högskola, Odontologiska fakulteten (OD).
    Ribeiro-Rotta, Rejane F.
    The effect of marginal bone level changes on the stability of dental implants in a short-term evaluation2015Ingår i: Clinical Oral Implants Research, ISSN 0905-7161, E-ISSN 1600-0501, Vol. 26, nr 10, s. 1185-1190Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    ObjectivesTo evaluate whether changes in marginal bone level (MBL) around implants, in sites with different bone types, affect the over time implant stability measured by resonance frequency analysis (RFA). Material and methodsSeventy-eight implants were inserted into jawbones of 32 patients using a two-stage surgical protocol, and implant bone sites were grouped according to the Lekholm and Zarb bone classification. The implant stability quotient (ISQ) was measured by RFA at four time points: implant placement, uncovering, rehabilitation, and at 1-year follow-up after loading. The MBL was measured on periapical radiographs at uncovering and at 1-year follow-up. Percent change in bone level was calculated based on the difference between the implant length and height from the crestal bone level to the implant apex. Descriptive statistics, Pearson's correlation, and repeated-measures ANOVA were used for data analysis. ResultsSignificant improvement of ISQ was found between implant insertion and uncovering surgery (P<0.001), while no significant changes were detected throughout the remaining follow-up period. The greatest improvement of ISQ was observed for bone type 4, compared with the other groups (P<0.001). Percent change in bone level had no effect on longitudinal measures of ISQ (P=0.337). The ISQ difference between uncovering and 1year after loading was not correlated with percent change in bone level (r=0.16; P=0.157). ConclusionThere was increased implant stability after implant placement, but it was not affected by changes in marginal bone level during the first year of loading.

  • 24. Dias, Danilo Rocha
    et al.
    Leles, Claudio Rodrigues
    Batista, Aline Carvalho
    Lindh, Christina
    Malmö högskola, Odontologiska fakulteten (OD).
    Ribeiro-Rotta, Rejane Faria
    Agreement between histomorphometry and microcomputed tomography to assess bone microarchitecture of dental implant sites2015Ingår i: Clinical Implant Dentistry and Related Research, ISSN 1523-0899, E-ISSN 1708-8208, Vol. 17, nr 4, s. 732-741Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background:Histomorphometry and microcomputed tomography (microCT) have been used in implant studies but need better understanding before being used as equivalent methods. PurposeThe purpose of this study was to investigate the agreement between 2D (histomorphometry) and 3D (microCT) reference methods for assessing jawbone microarchitecture in vivo. Material and MethodsForty-four bone specimens from 32 patients were obtained during implant placement and examined by microCT, followed by hematoxylin-eosin staining and histomorphometric analysis. The morphometric parameters included bone volume density (BV/TV), bone surface fraction (BS/TV), bone surface density, trabecular thickness, trabecular number, and trabecular separation (Tb.Sp). Bland-Altman plots were used for pairwise agreement analysis between the equivalent 3D and 2D parameters, and complemented with Mountain plots. The association between the two methods was tested using Pearson's correlation followed by Passing-Bablok regression. ResultsSystematic bias was observed in all Bland-Altman and Mountain plots, including constant bias for BV/TV and Tb.Sp, and proportional bias for all other parameters. Significant correlation was found for BV/TV (r=0.80; p<.001) and BS/TV (r=0.44; p=.003), and the Passing-Bablok regression showed constant bias for BV/TV and proportional bias for BS/TV. ConclusionBecause of the poor agreement between measures obtained by histomorphometry and microCT, these methods should not be used interchangeably for jawbones.

  • 25.
    Dias, Danilo Rocha
    et al.
    Department of Oral Medicine, School of Dentistry, Federal University of Goias, Goiania, Goias, Brazil.
    Leles, Claudio Rodrigues
    Department of Prevention and Oral Rehabilitation, School of Dentistry, Federal University of Goias, Goiania, Goias, Brazil.
    Lindh, Christina
    Malmö högskola, Odontologiska fakulteten (OD).
    Ribeiro-Rotta, Rejane Faria
    Department of Oral Medicine, School of Dentistry, Federal University of Goias, Goiania, Goias, Brazil.
    Marginal bone level changes and implant stability after loading are not influenced by baseline microstructural bone characteristics: 1-year follow-up2016Ingår i: Clinical Oral Implants Research, ISSN 0905-7161, E-ISSN 1600-0501, Vol. 27, nr 10, s. 1212-1220Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    ObjectiveThe aim of this study was to investigate the influence of different bone tissue characteristics of implant sites on changes in marginal bone level and implant stability over time. Material and methodsOne hundred and one implants were inserted in 41 patients. Cortical bone thickness of the alveolar ridge was measured on computed tomography (CT) images. Histomorphometric and microtomographic analyses (microCT) were performed in bone specimens obtained by using a trephine bur, at first drilling. Implant stability quotient (ISQ) measured by resonance frequency analysis (RFA) was registered at implant insertion. Implant stability quotient was measured also at the stages of uncovering, loading and at the 1-year follow-up, when standardized periapical radiographs were taken to measure the marginal bone level (MBL). Descriptive statistics, Spearman's rho correlation and multiple linear regression were used for data analysis (P<0.05). ResultsComparison between groups of higher and lower values of ISQ changes and between groups of higher and lower values of MBL changes revealed no differences in histomorphometric and microtomographic parameters, according to non-parametric comparison tests, (P>0.05). Bivariate correlation also showed no association among these microstructural parameters and the outcomes evaluated. There was no correlation between cortical thickness and MBL changes (r=-0.029; P=0.832) and between cortical thickness and ISQ changes (r=0.145; P=0.292). ConclusionMicrostructural bone characteristics of implant sites have no effect on changes in marginal bone level and implant stability as measured by RFA. Bone morphology cannot predict implant treatment success over time.

  • 26. Fröberg, Kjell-Krister
    et al.
    Lindh, Christina
    Malmö högskola, Odontologiska fakulteten (OD).
    Ericsson, Ingvar
    Immediate loading of Branemark System Implants: a comparison between TiUnite and turned implants placed in the anterior mandible2006Ingår i: Clinical Implant Dentistry and Related Research, ISSN 1523-0899, E-ISSN 1708-8208, Vol. 8, nr 4, s. 187-197Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    PURPOSE: The aim of the present study was to compare the treatment outcome of TiUnite- and turned-surfaced Branemark System (Nobel Biocare AB, Goteborg, Sweden) implants when applying immediate loading of cross-arch designed fixed partial dentures in the anterior mandible. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fifteen patients with edentulous mandibles participated in the study. In one half of the jaw, between the exit of the nerve-vessel bundle and the midline, one type of implant was placed and in the remaining half the other type. The implants were loaded the day of surgery via a fixed, temporary supra-construction. Ten days later, the permanent one was screw retained to the implant pillars. RESULTS: The present 18-month clinical trial failed to demonstrate any differences regarding healing and cumulative success rate of an an-oxidized implant surface (TiUnite) and a turned (turned) one when implants in the anterior mandible were exposed to functional load within 24 hours after installation. CONCLUSION: A high predictability regarding the treatment outcome for immediately loaded Branemark implants in the anterior mandible was observed. Furthermore, no difference between the traditional turned and the an-oxidized implant surface (TiUnite) could be observed. However, it has to be stressed that all implants (irrespective of surface) were placed in the anterior mandible and also that all the patients demonstrated a high level of oral hygiene.

  • 27. Geraets, Wil G
    et al.
    Verheij, Johannes G
    van der Stelt, Paul F
    Lindh, Christina
    Malmö högskola, Odontologiska fakulteten (OD).
    Horner, Keith
    Nicopoulou-Karayianni, Kety
    Jacobs, Reinhilde
    Devlin, Hugh
    Osteoporosis and the general dental practitioner: reliability of some digital dental radiological measures2007Ingår i: Community Dentistry and Oral Epidemiology, ISSN 0301-5661, E-ISSN 1600-0528, Vol. 35, nr 6, s. 465-471Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVES: Dental radiographs are relatively inexpensive and are regularly made of a large fraction of the adult population; therefore, they represent an enormous potential as a screening tool for osteoporosis. Monitoring the population by means of dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), which is currently the most accepted method for diagnosing osteoporosis, involves enormous costs and facilities. In previous studies, it was shown that the radiographic trabecular pattern shows correlations with the bone mineral density (BMD) as measured by DXA. The objective of this study was to assess the reproducibility of the quantitative analysis of the trabecular pattern on dental radiographs. METHODS: Six regions of interest were selected manually on three digital radiographic images of 20 women. This process was performed 10 times resulting in 1200 image samples. For each image sample 26 parameters were measured. The reliability of the parameters was evaluated by means of Cronbach's alpha. RESULTS: Of the values of Cronbach's alpha 83% is at least 0.9 and 99% is at least 0.8. CONCLUSIONS: The measurements of the parameters used in this study are very reproducible. Therefore, the manual selection of the regions of interest does not introduce large amounts of noise. The imaging parameters potentially offer an accurate tool for the prediction of BMD values. PMID: 18039288 [PubMed - in process]

  • 28. Geraets, Wil G
    et al.
    Verheij, Johannes GC
    van der Stelt, Paul F
    Horner, Keith
    Lindh, Christina
    Malmö högskola, Odontologiska fakulteten (OD).
    Nicopoulou-Karayianni, Kety
    Jacobs, Reinhilde
    Harrison, Elizabeth
    Adams, Judith
    Devlin, Hugh
    Prediction of bone mineral density with dental radiographs2007Ingår i: Bone, ISSN 8756-3282, E-ISSN 1873-2763, Vol. 40, nr 5, s. 1217-1221Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    There is consensus to use the bone mineral density (BMD) for the operational definition of the degree of osteoporosis and the risk of osteoporotic fractures. Dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) is the common technique to determine BMD. Because of high costs and limited availability of DXA equipment it is worthwhile to look for alternative diagnostic techniques. As part of a larger study, the Osteodent project, we investigated if the trabecular pattern on dental radiographs can be used to predict BMD and to identify the subjects with osteoporosis and increased risk of osteoporotic fractures. In four clinical centers 671 women with an average age of 55 years were recruited. BMD values were measured by DXA equipment at the femoral neck, total hip, and spine. One panoramic and two intraoral radiographs were made. From 525 women a complete set of BMD values and radiographs was obtained. Four regions of interest on the radiographs were selected manually and then processed automatically. On all regions of interest mean and standard deviation of the gray values were measured and several features describing the shape of the binarized trabecular pattern. Multiple regression was used to predict BMD of total hip and spine by means of the radiographic measurements combined with age. It was found that age accounts for 10% of the variation in total hip BMD and 14% of the variation in spinal BMD. When all measurements on the dental radiographs are used the explained variation increases to 22% and 23%. The areas under the ROC curves are comparable to those of commonly used screening instruments for osteoporosis. It is concluded that prediction of DXA measurements of BMD by means of quantitative analysis of the trabecular pattern on dental radiographs is feasible. PMID: 17317351 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

  • 29.
    Geraets, Wil GM
    et al.
    Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, Academic Centre for Dentistry Amsterdam (ACTA), Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
    Verheij, Johannes GC
    Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, Academic Centre for Dentistry Amsterdam (ACTA), Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
    van der Stelt, Paul
    Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, Academic Centre for Dentistry Amsterdam (ACTA), Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
    Horner, Keith
    School of Dentistry, Department of Radiology, University of Manchester, UK.
    Lindh, Christina
    Malmö högskola, Odontologiska fakulteten (OD).
    Nicopoulou-Karayianni, Katy
    Department of Oral Diagnosis and Radiology, University of Athens, Greece.
    Jacobs, Reinhilde
    Oral Imaging Center, University of Leuven, Belgium.
    Marjanovic, Elizabeth
    Department of Imaging Science and Biomedical Engineering, University of Manchester, UK.
    Adams, Judith
    Department of Imaging Science and Biomedical Engineering, University of Manchester, UK.
    Devlin, Hugh
    School of Dentistry, Department of Radiology, University of Manchester, UK.
    Selecting regions of interest on intraoral radiographs for the prediction of bone mineral density2008Ingår i: Dento-Maxillo-Facial Radiology, ISSN 0250-832X, E-ISSN 1476-542X, Vol. 37, nr 7, s. 375-379Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVES: A previous study showed that the trabecular pattern on dental radiographs correlates with femoral and spinal bone mineral density (BMD). The objective of this study was to determine if the correlation is affected by the size and location of the region of interest (ROI). METHODS: In a European research project on osteoporosis, BMD was measured at the left hip and the lumbar spine of 525 women. From all subjects, intraoral radiographs were made of the premolar region in the upper and lower jaws. Two ROIs were indicated manually on each scanned image. The smallest region involved only trabecular bone and the largest also included parts of the neighbouring teeth. The ROIs were subjected to automatic image analysis, yielding 26 measurements per ROI. Stepwise linear regression was used to predict femoral and spinal BMD. RESULTS: Inner and outer regions predicted BMD equally well. The radiographs of lower and upper jaw also predicted BMD equally well. Combining inner and outer regions did not improve the prediction of femoral and spinal BMD, but combining lower and upper jaws did. CONCLUSIONS: This study shows that it is possible to include parts of neighbouring teeth in the ROI used to assess the trabecular pattern and predict BMD. This simplifies the process of selecting the ROIs because no efforts have to be made to exclude neighbouring teeth. Combining ROIs of lower and upper jaws significantly improves the prediction of BMD.

  • 30.
    Geraets, Wil
    et al.
    Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, Academic Centre for Dentistry Amsterdam (ACTA), Amsterdam, Netherlands.
    Lindh, Christina
    Malmö högskola, Odontologiska fakulteten (OD).
    Verheij, Hans
    Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, Academic Centre for Dentistry Amsterdam (ACTA), Amsterdam, Netherlands.
    Sparseness of the trabecular pattern on dental radiographs: visual assessment compared with semi-automated measurements2012Ingår i: British Journal of Radiology, ISSN 0007-1285, E-ISSN 1748-880X, Vol. 85, nr 1016, s. e455-e460Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract OBJECTIVE: In diagnostic imaging; human perception is the most prominent, yet least studied, source of error. A better understanding of image perception will help to improve diagnostic performance. This study focuses on the perception of coarseness of trabecular patterns on dental radiographs. Comparison of human vision with machine vision should yield knowledge on human perception. METHOD: In a study on identifying osteoporotic patients, dental radiographs were made from 505 post-menopausal women aged 45-70 years. Intra-oral radiographs of the lower and upper jaws were made. Five observers graded the trabecular pattern as dense, sparse or mixed. The five gradings were combined into a single averaged observer score per jaw. The radiographs were scanned and a region of interest (ROI) was indicated on each. The ROIs were processed with image analysis software measuring 25 image features. Pearson correlation and multiple linear regression were used to compare the averaged observer score with the image features. RESULTS: 14 image features correlated significantly with the observer judgement for both jaws. The strongest correlation was found for the average grey value in the ROI. Other features, describing that osteoporotic patients have fewer but bigger marrow spaces than controls, correlated less with the sparseness of the trabecular pattern than a rather crude measure for structure such as the average grey value. CONCLUSION: Human perception of the sparseness of trabecular patterns is based more on average grey values of the ROI than on geometric details within the ROI.

  • 31. Gomes de Oliveria, Rubelisa Candido
    et al.
    Leles, Cláudio Rodrigues
    Lindh, Christina
    Malmö högskola, Odontologiska fakulteten (OD).
    Ribeiro-Rotta, Rejane Faria
    Bone tissue microarchitectural characteristics at dental implant sites. Part I: Identification of clinical-related parameters2012Ingår i: Clinical Oral Implants Research, ISSN 0905-7161, E-ISSN 1600-0501, Vol. 23, nr 8, s. 981-986Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract Objective: To identify the characteristics of bone tissue microarchitecture by microCT at dental implant bone sites, describing them in terms of clinical parameters. Material and methods: Forty-six bone implant sites of the maxilla and mandible from 32 volunteers were evaluated by conventional radiographs and CT scans. During the installation of each implant, bone biopsies were removed using a trephine bur at the first drilling to prepare the socket implant. Each sample was evaluated by microCT and dimensional parameters measured. Results: Factor analysis summarized the microparameters into four components, which accounted for 92.8% of the total variance. The identified factors were (1) architecture - variables affecting 3D trabecular bone configuration and organization, (2) density - variables relating to surface/volume ratios and volume/volume ratios, (3) bulk - variables relating to the amount of bone and (4) spacing - variable related to the distance between trabeculae and the quantity and organization of marrow spaces. Conclusion: These four summarized factors correspond to clinical and radiographically recognizable parameters used for routine bone quality evaluation for implant treatment planning, which can potentially influence the primary stability of dental implants. The understanding of factors related to bone microarchitecture might reveal important aspects of its mechanical properties, essential for implant success. To cite this article: De Oliveira RCG, Leles CR, Lindh C, Ribeiro-Rotta RF. Bone tissue microarchitectural characteristics at dental implant sites. Part 1: Identification of clinical related parameters. Clin. Oral Impl. Res. xx, 2011; 000-000. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0501.2011.02243.x. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  • 32.
    Gullberg, Joanna
    et al.
    Malmö universitet, Odontologiska fakulteten (OD).
    Al-Okshi, Ayman
    Department of Oral Medicine and Radiology, Faculty of Dentistry, Sebha University, Sebha, Libya.
    Homar Asan, Dalia
    Malmö universitet, Odontologiska fakulteten (OD).
    Zainea, Anita
    Malmö universitet, Odontologiska fakulteten (OD).
    Sundh, Daniel
    Sahlgrenska Osteoporosis Centre, Department of Internal Medicine and Clinical Nutrition, Institute of Medicine, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Lorentzon, Mattias
    Sahlgrenska Osteoporosis Centre, Department of Internal Medicine and Clinical Nutrition, Institute of Medicine, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden; Region Västra Götaland, Department of Geriatric Medicine, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Mölndal, Sweden; Mary MacKillop Institute for Health Research, Australian Catholic University, Melbourne, VIC, Australia.
    Lindh, Christina
    Malmö universitet, Odontologiska fakulteten (OD).
    The challenge of applying digital image processing software on intraoral radiographs for osteoporosis risk assessment2021Ingår i: Dento-Maxillo-Facial Radiology, ISSN 0250-832X, E-ISSN 1476-542X, Vol. 51, nr 1, artikel-id 20210175Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to evaluate rater agreement and the accuracy of a semi-automated software and its fully automated tool for osteoporosis risk assessment in intraoral radiographs.

    METHODS: A total of 567 intraoral radiographs was selected retrospectively from women aged 75-80 years participating in a large population-based study (SUPERB) based in Gothenburg, Sweden. Five raters assessed participants' risk of osteoporosis in the intraoral radiographs using a semi-automated software. Assessments were repeated after 4 weeks on 121 radiographs (20%) randomly selected from the original 567. Radiographs were also assessed by the softwares' fully automated tool for analysis.

    RESULTS: Overall interrater agreement for the five raters was 0.37 (95% CI 0.32-0.41), and for the five raters with the fully automated tool included as 'sixth rater' the overall Kappa was 0.34 (0.30-0.38). Intrarater agreement varied from moderate to substantial according to the Landis and Koch interpretation scale. Diagnostic accuracy was calculated in relation to reference standard for osteoporosis diagnosis which is T-score values for spine, total hip and femoral neck and presented in form of sensitivities, specificities, predictive values, likelihood ratios and odds ratios. All raters' mean sensitivity, including the fully automated tool, was 40,4% (range 14,3%-57,6%). Corresponding values for specificity was 69,5% (range 59,7%-90,4%). The diagnostic odds ratios ranged between 1 and 2.7.

    CONCLUSION: The low diagnostic odds ratio and agreement between raters in osteoporosis risk assessment using the software for analysis of the trabecular pattern in intraoral radiographs shows that more work needs to be done to optimise the automation of trabecular pattern analysis in intraoral radiographs.

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  • 33.
    Gullberg, Joanna
    et al.
    Malmö universitet, Odontologiska fakulteten (OD).
    Lindh, Christina
    Malmö universitet, Odontologiska fakulteten (OD).
    Axtelius, Björn
    Malmö universitet, Odontologiska fakulteten (OD).
    Horner, Keith
    Division of Dentistry, School of Medical Sciences, University of Manchester, Manchester, UK.
    Devlin, Hugh
    Division of Dentistry, School of Medical Sciences, University of Manchester, Manchester, UK.
    Povlsen, Lene
    Unit for Health Promotion Research, University of Southern Denmark, Esbjerg, Denmark.
    Osteoporosis risk assessment in primary dental care-The attitudes of Swedish dentists, patients and medical specialists2020Ingår i: Gerodontology, ISSN 0734-0664, E-ISSN 1741-2358, Vol. 37, nr 2, s. 208-216Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective To explore and identify the attitudes of dentists, patients and medical specialists regarding implementation of osteoporosis risk assessment into Swedish primary dental care. Background Osteoporosis is a major health problem leading to fragility fractures. As shown in academic-based research, dental radiological examination can be used for osteoporosis risk assessment. A substantial number of patients undergo radiographic examinations in primary dental care each year, but little is known about implementation of osteoporosis risk assessment in this setting. Materials and methods A qualitative research approach using focus group discussions and manifest content analysis was applied. Five focus groups with dentists and representatives from patient support groups and a single individual interview with one medical specialist were included in the sample. Results From the manifest content analysis, three categories emerged: (a) barriers to change in practice, (b) benefits to change in practice, and (c) needs and requirements prior to change in practice. Most participants felt that there was insufficient knowledge of osteoporosis as well as a heavy existing workload. A concern was expressed about medical practitioners' willingness to take on responsibility for patients referred by dentists. Representatives from patient support groups highlighted a lack of knowledge about osteoporosis among both the general public and the medical professionals. Clear guidelines and improved communication channels between stakeholders would have to be established to ensure a smooth treatment path for patients. Conclusion Despite interest in osteoporosis risk assessment in primary dental care, there are political, workflow and educational barriers that must be overcome for successful implementation.

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  • 34.
    Gullberg, Joanna
    et al.
    Malmö universitet, Odontologiska fakulteten (OD).
    Sundh, Daniel
    University of Gothenburg.
    Johansson, Lisa
    University of Gothenburg; Sahlgrenska University Hospital.
    Isberg, Per-Erik
    Lund University.
    Lorentzon, Mattias
    University of Gothenburg; Sahlgrenska University Hospital; Australian Catholic University, Melbourne, Australia.
    Lindh, Christina
    Malmö universitet, Odontologiska fakulteten (OD).
    The outcome of an automated assessment of trabecular pattern in intraoral radiographs as a fracture risk predictor.2022Ingår i: Dento-Maxillo-Facial Radiology, ISSN 0250-832X, E-ISSN 1476-542X, Vol. 51, nr 5, artikel-id 20210483Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVES: This study aims to investigate if automated analyses of the trabecular pattern in intraoral radiographs independently contribute to fracture risk assessment when other risk factors incorporated in the Fracture Risk Assessment Tool (FRAX) are taken into account. A secondary aim is to explore the correlation between the automated trabecular pattern assessment in intraoral radiographs and Trabecular Bone Score (TBS).

    METHODS: A total of 567 intraoral radiographs from older females participating in a large population-based study (SUPERB) based in Gothenburg, Sweden, were selected to analyse trabecular pattern using semi-automated and fully automated software. Associations between trabecular pattern analysis and incident fractures were studied using Cox proportional hazard model, unadjusted and adjusted for FRAX risk factors (previous fracture, family history of hip fracture, smoking, corticosteroids, rheumatoid arthritis, without and with bone mineral density (BMD) of the femoral neck). In addition, the correlation between trabecular pattern analysis and TBS of the lumbar spine was investigated using Pearson correlation analysis.

    RESULTS: Neither the unadjusted nor the adjusted trabecular pattern analysis in intraoral radiographs was significantly associated with any fracture or major osteoporotic fracture (MOF). A weak correlation was found between semi-automated trabecular pattern analysis and TBS. No correlation was found between the fully automated trabecular pattern analysis and TBS.

    CONCLUSIONS: The present study shows that semi-automated and fully automated digital analyses of the trabecular pattern in intraoral radiographs do not contribute to fracture risk prediction. Furthermore, the study shows a weak correlation between semi-automated trabecular pattern analysis and TBS.

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  • 35. Horner, Keith
    et al.
    Allen, Philip
    Graham, Jim
    Jacobs, Reinhilde
    Boonen, Steven
    Pavitt, Susan
    Nackaerts, Olivia
    Marjanovic, Elizabeth
    Adams, Judith
    Karayianni, Kety
    Lindh, Christina
    Malmö högskola, Odontologiska fakulteten (OD).
    van der Stelt, Paul
    Devlin, Hugh
    The relationship between the OSTEODENT index and hip fracture risk assessment using FRAX2010Ingår i: Oral surgery, oral medicine, oral pathology, oral radiology, and endodontics, ISSN 1079-2104, E-ISSN 1528-395X, Vol. 110, nr 2, s. 243-249Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVES: The OSTEODENT index is a predicted probability of osteoporosis derived from a combination of an automated analysis of a dental panoramic radiograph and clinical information. This index has been proposed as a suitable case-finding tool for identification of subjects with osteoporosis in primary dental care; however, no data exist on the relationship between OSTEODENT index and fracture risk. The aims of this study were to assess the relationship between the OSTEODENT index and hip fracture risk as determined by FRAX and to compare the performance of the OSTEODENT index and FRAX (without femoral BMD data), in determining the need for intervention as recommended in UK national treatment guidance. STUDY DESIGN: The study was a retrospective analysis of data from 339 female subjects (mean age 55.3 years), from 2 centers: Manchester (UK) and Leuven (Belgium). Clinical information and femoral neck BMD were available for FRAX, and dental panoramic radiographic data and clinical information were available to calculate the OSTEODENT index. Subjects were classified into "treat" or "lifestyle advice and reassurance" categories using the National Osteoporosis Guideline Group (NOGG) threshold. RESULTS: The OSTEODENT index result was significantly related to the 10-year probability of hip fracture derived from the reference standard FRAX tool (Rs = 0.67, P < .0001); 84 patients (24.8%) were allocated to the "treat" category on the basis of FRAX and the UK national guidance. Using this "treatment/no treatment" classification as the reference standard, ROC analysis showed no significant difference between areas under the curves for the OSTEODENT index (0.815) and the 10-year probability of hip fracture derived from the FRAX index without BMD (0.825) when used as tests for determining therapeutic intervention. CONCLUSION: The results suggest that the OSTEODENT index has value in prediction of hip fracture risk. Prospective trials are needed to confirm this finding and to examine the feasibility for its use in primary dental care.

  • 36. Horner, Keith
    et al.
    Jonasson, Grethe
    Olsson, Peter
    Jacobs, Reinhilde
    Karayianni, Kety
    van der Stelt, Paul
    Adams, Judith
    Marjanovic, Elizabeth
    Pavitt, Sue
    Lindh, Christina
    Malmö högskola, Odontologiska fakulteten (OD).
    Rohlin, Madeleine
    Malmö högskola, Odontologiska fakulteten (OD).
    Devlin, Hugh
    The use of visual assessment of dental radiographs for identifying women at risk of having osteoporosis: the OSTEODENT project2008Ingår i: Oral surgery, oral medicine, oral pathology, oral radiology, and endodontics, ISSN 1079-2104, E-ISSN 1528-395X, Vol. 106, nr 2, s. 285-293Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to investigate the diagnostic accuracy of visual assessment of the trabecular pattern in intraoral periapical radiographs to identify female subjects at risk of having osteoporosis. STUDY DESIGN: Six hundred female subjects underwent intraoral periapical radiography of the maxillary and mandibular premolar region. Five observers assessed the trabecular pattern as dense, heterogeneous, or sparse, with the aid of reference images. All patients received a central dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) examination of the hip and lumbar spine. RESULTS: With sparse trabecular pattern as indicative of osteoporosis, mean specificity was high (91.6 for the upper jaw and 90.8 for the lower jaw) while the sensitivity was low (28.2 for the upper and lower jaw). The mean intraobserver agreement was comparable for radiographs of the upper and lower jaw (median kappa(w) 0.53 and 0.57, respectively). CONCLUSION: Visual assessment of the trabecular pattern in intraoral periapical radiographs of premolar regions is a potential method to identify women at risk of having osteoporosis.

  • 37. Horner, Keith
    et al.
    Karayianni, Kety
    Mitsea, Anastasia
    Berkas, Leonidas
    Mastoris, Michael
    Jacobs, Reinhilde
    van der Stelt, Paul
    Marjanovic, Elizabeth
    Adams, Judith
    Pavitt, Susan
    Lindh, Christina
    Malmö högskola, Odontologiska fakulteten (OD).
    Devlin, Hugh
    The mandibular cortex on radiographs as a tool for osteoporosis risk assessment: the OSTEODENT Project2007Ingår i: Journal of clinical densitometry, ISSN 1094-6950, E-ISSN 1559-0747, Vol. 10, nr 2, s. 138-146Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to measure the accuracy of porosity of the mandibular cortex on dental panoramic radiographs (DPRs) in diagnosis of osteoporosis, alone and in combination with a clinical risk index. Six hundred seventy-one women (45-70yr) were recruited in the study, and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry of the hip and lumbar spine was performed. A clinical index of osteoporosis risk (OSIRIS) and a DPR were obtained for each subject. The cortical appearance on the DPR was classified using the mandibular cortical index (MCI) by 5 observers. receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was performed with calculation of area under the ROC curve (AUC) and sensitivity and specificity at various thresholds. Complete data were available for 653 subjects, of whom 21.6% had osteoporosis. The AUC for OSIRIS was 0.838. When used alone as the diagnostic test, MCI AUC for the 5 observers ranged from 0.560 to 0.670, significantly less than OSIRIS. Intraobserver and interobserver repeatability of MCI assessment was inconsistent. We conclude that MCI has limited value for osteoporosis diagnosis, being most appropriate as a method of fortuitous case-finding. PMID: 17449308 [PubMed - in process]

  • 38. Ivanauskaite, Deimante
    et al.
    Lindh, Christina
    Malmö högskola, Odontologiska fakulteten (OD).
    Rangne, Klara
    Rohlin, Madeleine
    Malmö högskola, Odontologiska fakulteten (OD).
    Comparison between Scanora panoramic radiography and bitewing radiography in the assessment of marginal bone tissue2006Ingår i: Stomatologija, Baltic Dental and Maxillofacial Journal, ISSN 1392-8589, E-ISSN 1822-301X, Vol. 8, nr 1, s. 9-15Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVES: To compare panoramic radiographs made with the Scanora dental program and bitewing radiographs in the assessment of marginal bone tissue. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Panoramic and posterior bitewing radiographs were made for 96 consecutive patients. Six observers assessed marginal bone level, and five observers identified the presence or absence of vertical bone defects and furcation involvements. Observer agreement was calculated. RESULTS: Assessments of the marginal bone level with the two methods were identical for 57% of the sites. If a difference of one score was allowed, assessments for 95% of the sites were in agreement. Vertical bone defects and furcation involvement were detected with an agreement of 93%. Ranges of kappa indexes for intra-observer agreement on assessments of the marginal bone level were 0.37-0.46 in panoramic radiography and 0.31-0.55 in bitewing radiography. Ranges for agreement on detection of vertical bone defects were 0.52-0.63 and 0.47-0.56 and on detection of furcation involvements 0.64-0.79 and 0.66-0.77, respectively. The kappa index for inter-observer agreement on marginal bone level was 0.28 for panoramic and 0.29 for bitewing radiography. Corresponding figures for detection of vertical bone defects were 0.38 and 0.35 and for detection of furcation involvement 0.56 and 0.67. CONCLUSIONS: For those sites or teeth that are possible to assess, the diagnostic information available with Scanora panoramic radiography is comparable to that with bitewing radiography for marginal bone tissue. Therefore, Scanora dental panoramic radiography is a valuable diagnostic alternative in the primary examination of the periodontal status.

  • 39. Ivanauskaité, Deimante
    et al.
    Lindh, Christina
    Malmö högskola, Odontologiska fakulteten (OD).
    Rohlin, Madeleine
    Malmö högskola, Odontologiska fakulteten (OD).
    Observer performance based on marginal bone tissue visibility in Scanora panoramic radiography and posterior bitewing radiography2008Ingår i: Stomatologija, Baltic Dental and Maxillofacial Journal, ISSN 1392-8589, E-ISSN 1822-301X, Vol. 10, nr 1, s. 36-43Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVES: To evaluate image quality for marginal bone tissue assessment on panoramic radiographs taken with the Scanora dental programme and on posterior bitewing radiographs. METHODS: Panoramic and bitewing radiographs were taken of 96 patients. Six observers rated marginal bone level visibility as excellent, acceptable, or unacceptable. Five observers assessed image quality for detection of vertical bone defects and furcation involvements as acceptable or unacceptable. Observer agreement was calculated as overall agreement and kappa values. RESULTS: Image quality of 36% of the panoramic and 6% of the bitewing sites was rated unacceptable for marginal bone loss assessment in the maxillae while 8% of the panoramic and bitewing sites in the mandible were unacceptable. For detecting vertical bone defects, image quality was unacceptable at one-third of the maxillary sites and 5% of the mandibular sites on the panoramic radiographs. Detection of furcation involvement was acceptable at most sites on both types of radiographs. Kappa values for intra- and inter-observer agreement were higher for panoramic than for bitewing radiographs. The kappa value for marginal bone loss assessment by several observers was moderate (0.45) for panorama and fair (0.28) for bitewing radiography. Corresponding kappa values for detection of vertical bone defects were substantial (0.62) and fair (0.25). CONCLUSION: Image quality as evaluated by visual grading analysis is adequate for marginal bone tissue assessment in mandibular molar and premolar regions and unacceptable in maxillary molar and premolar regions on panoramic radiographs taken with the Scanora technique compared to bitewing radiography.

  • 40.
    Jansson, Henrik
    et al.
    Malmö högskola, Odontologiska fakulteten (OD).
    Lindh, Christina
    Malmö högskola, Odontologiska fakulteten (OD).
    Lindholm, Eero
    Groop, Leif
    Bratthall, Gunilla
    Type 2 diabetes and risk for periodontal disease: a role for dental health awareness2006Ingår i: Journal of Clinical Periodontology, ISSN 0303-6979, E-ISSN 1600-051X, Vol. 33, nr 6, s. 408-414Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Several studies have found correlations between diabetes and an increased prevalence of periodontitis. OBJECTIVE: To analyse, in a group of subjects with type 2 diabetes (T2D), (i) the association between medical characteristics and severe periodontal disease and (ii) dental care habits and knowledge of oral health. METHODS: One hundred and ninety-one subjects with T2D were examined. Based on assessment of marginal bone height in panoramic radiographs, two periodontal subgroups were identified: one periodontally diseased (PD+) and one periodontally healthy (PD-) group. All subjects completed a questionnaire about their medical and oral health. RESULTS: Twenty per cent of the subjects were classified as PD+. This was verified by clinical parameters. PD+ individuals had higher haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) levels (p=0.033) and higher prevalences of cardiovascular complications (p=0.012). They were also less likely to be of Scandinavian origin (p=0.028) and more likely to smoke (p<0.001) than the PD- group. The PD+ group rated their oral health as poor (p<0.0001) and believed that T2D had an influence on their oral status (p<0.0001). CONCLUSION: The best predictor for severe periodontal disease in subjects with T2D is smoking followed by HbA1c levels. T2D subjects should be informed about the increased risk for periodontal disease when suffering from T2D.

  • 41.
    Johansson, Kristina
    et al.
    Östersund Hospital.
    Lindh, Christina
    Malmö universitet, Odontologiska fakulteten (OD).
    Paulsson, Liselotte
    Malmö universitet, Odontologiska fakulteten (OD).
    Rohlin, Madeleine
    Malmö universitet, Odontologiska fakulteten (OD).
    A tool for assessment of risk of bias in studies of adverse effects of orthodontic treatment applied in a systematic review on external root resorption2021Ingår i: European Journal of Orthodontics, ISSN 0141-5387, E-ISSN 1460-2210, Vol. 43, nr 4, s. 457-466, artikel-id cjaa072Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Systematic reviews (SRs) are considered to provide reliable estimates, but flaws in designs, methods of monitoring effects, and outcomes have the potential to bias results. There are several tools for assessing risk of bias (RoB), most of them designed for SRs of beneficial effects. To our knowledge, there is no tool that is adapted specifically to assess RoB in studies of adverse effects associated with orthodontic treatment. To address this, the aim of this study was first to introduce a tool for assessment of RoB in studies of adverse effects associated with orthodontic treatment and, second, to apply it in an SR of external root resorption (ERR) associated with orthodontic treatment with fixed appliance.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: The approach with domains supported by signalling questions was used for the tool. Domains and signalling questions were tailored to the review questions of the SR of studies of ERR after orthodontic treatment using periapical radiography or cone beam computed tomography. Duplicate study selection, data extraction, and RoB assessment using the tool, followed by meta-analyses, were performed.

    RESULTS: Using the tool for the assessment of RoB identified shortcomings and report deficiencies of primary studies concerning the presentation of orthodontic treatment, identification of ERR, and analysis of outcomes. RoB assessment resulted in 12 of 32 studies read in full text being included. Reported severe ERR varied across studies between 2 and 14 per cent for all incisors and 10 and 29 per cent for maxillary incisors. Results of ERR related to patients' age and sex, orthodontic diagnosis, and treatment were contradictory. Quality of evidence evaluated by GRADE was low due to study limitations, imprecision, and inconsistency of study results.

    CONCLUSIONS: As the tool and its application highlight important issues to consider when planning, conducting, and reporting research, the tool may have a valuable role for quality enhancement of future studies of outcomes of orthodontic treatment. The tool may also serve for authors when planning SRs. Our SR identified a need for studies that use rigorous methodology and transparent reporting.

    REGISTRATION: PROSPERO (ID = CRD42018084725).

  • 42. Johansson, Lars-Åke
    et al.
    Isaksson, Sten
    Malmö högskola, Odontologiska fakulteten (OD).
    Adolfsson, Erik
    Lindh, Christina
    Malmö högskola, Odontologiska fakulteten (OD).
    Sennerby, Lars
    Bone Regeneration Using a Hollow Hydroxyapatite Space-Maintaining Device for Maxillary Sinus Floor Augmentation: A Clinical Pilot Study2012Ingår i: Clinical Implant Dentistry and Related Research, ISSN 1523-0899, E-ISSN 1708-8208, Vol. 14, nr 4, s. 575-584Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The mere lifting of the maxillary sinus membrane by implants protruding into the sinus cavity allows the establishment of a void space for blood clot and new bone formation. Purpose: To evaluate bone formation by using a spherical, hollow, and perforated hydroxyapatite space-maintaining device (HSMD) in a two-stage sinus lift procedure where residual alveolar bone height was

  • 43. Johansson, Lars-Åke
    et al.
    Isaksson, Sten
    Lindh, Christina
    Malmö högskola, Odontologiska fakulteten (OD).
    Becktor, Jonas P
    Malmö högskola, Odontologiska fakulteten (OD).
    Sennerby, Lars
    Maxillary sinus floor augmentation and simultaneous implant placement using locally harvested autogenous bone chips and bone debris: a prospective clinical study2010Ingår i: Journal of oral and maxillofacial surgery (Print), ISSN 0278-2391, E-ISSN 1531-5053, Vol. 68, nr 4, s. 837-844Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to prospectively evaluate the status of implants, marginal bone loss, and outcome of maxillary sinus floor augmentation in patients undergoing maxillary sinus lift and simultaneous implant placement with the use of bone grafts harvested adjacent to the actual surgical site. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients in need of maxillary sinus floor augmentation to enable implant placement were enrolled in 2 different groups. In group A, a "bone trap" was used to harvest bone debris during implant preparation with additional bone collected by further drilling adjacent to the implant sites. In group B, a "bone scraper" was used to harvest cortical bone chips from the zygomatic buttress and from the lateral sinus wall before opening of a bony window. All patients were provided a fixed partial denture after a healing period of 3 to 6 months. A total of 61 patients with 81 Straumann implants (Institut Straumann AG, Basel, Switzerland) were assessed, with 17 patients (20 implants) in group A and 44 patients (61 implants) in group B. RESULTS: One implant was lost (in group B) before loading. The survival rate after a follow-up of 12 to 60 months was 98.8%. There was no significant difference in marginal bone loss on the mesial and distal sides of the implant when baseline to 1-year registration was compared with baseline to final registration. During the same time, graft height decreased significantly on the distal apical side of the implants. CONCLUSIONS: Bone grafts can be locally harvested at the site of the maxillary sinus augmentation procedure to enable placement, successful healing, and loading of 1 to 3 implants.

  • 44. Karayianni, Kety
    et al.
    Horner, Keith
    Mitsea, Anastasia
    Berkas, Leonidas
    Mastoris, Michael
    Jacobs, Reinhilde
    van der Stelt, Paul F
    Harrison, Elizabeth
    Adams, Judith
    Pavitt, Susan
    Lindh, Christina
    Malmö högskola, Odontologiska fakulteten (OD).
    Devlin, Hugh
    Accuracy in osteoporosis diagnosis of a combination of mandibular cortical width measurement on dental panoramic radiographs and a clinical risk index (OSIRIS): the OSTEODENT project2007Ingår i: Bone, ISSN 8756-3282, E-ISSN 1873-2763, Vol. 40, nr 1, s. 223-229Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Clinical questionnaires and dental radiographic findings have both been suggested as methods of identifying women at risk of having osteoporosis and who might benefit from bone densitometry. The aim of this study was to measure the diagnostic accuracy of a combination of mandibular cortical width (MCW) measured from dental panoramic radiographs (DPRs) and the osteoporosis index of risk (OSIRIS) in the diagnosis of osteoporosis. 653 women (age range 45-70 years, mean age 54.95 years) in four European centres underwent standardised dual X-ray energy absorptiometry (DXA) to provide reference data on osteoporosis status. Each subject was interviewed to derive OSIRIS scores and underwent DPR examination. MCW was measured directly by five observers. Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was used to calculate sensitivities and specificities of the clinical and radiographic tests for the diagnosis of osteoporosis. 512 (78.4%) of the study population were classified as having normal BMD and 141 (21.6%) as having osteoporosis. Using ROC analysis, OSIRIS gave a ROC curve area (A(z)) of 0.838, with a sensitivity of 70.9% and a specificity of 79.5% at a diagnostic threshold of

  • 45.
    Klinge, Anna
    et al.
    Malmö universitet, Odontologiska fakulteten (OD).
    Al-Okshi, Ayman
    Malmö universitet, Odontologiska fakulteten (OD). Department of Oral Medicine and Radiology, Sebha University, Sebha, Libyan Arab Jamahiriya.
    Becktor, Jonas P
    Malmö universitet, Odontologiska fakulteten (OD).
    Lindh, Christina
    Malmö universitet, Odontologiska fakulteten (OD).
    A rater agreement study on measurements in cross-sectional CBCT images exploring the association between alveolar bone morphology and craniofacial height2021Ingår i: Oral Radiology/Springer, ISSN 0911-6028, E-ISSN 1613-9674, Vol. 37, s. 573-584Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVES: To investigate rater agreement regarding measurements of height and width of the maxilla and mandible using cross-sectional images from CBCT examinations. Furthermore, to explore the association between vertical craniofacial height and alveolar bone morphology.

    METHODS: Pre-treatment CBCT scans from 450 patients referred for treatment to a private clinic for orthodontics and oral surgery in Scandinavia were available and of these, 180 were selected. Lateral head images were generated from the CBCT volumes to categorise subjects into three groups based on their craniofacial height. Cross-sectional images of the maxillary and mandibular bodies at three locations in the maxilla and mandible, respectively, were obtained and measured at one height and two width recordings by five raters. One-way analysis of variance with a Tukey post hoc test was performed. A significance level of 5% was used.

    RESULTS: Rater agreement was mostly excellent or good when measuring height and width of the maxilla and mandible in cross-sectional CBCT images. For height (of the alveolar bone/bodies), there were statistically significant differences between the low- and the high-angle groups for all the observers when measuring in the premolar and midline regions, both in the maxilla and in the mandible.

    CONCLUSION: The high agreement found ensures a reliable measurement technique and confirms the relation between craniofacial height and alveolar bone height and width.

    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 46.
    Klinge, Anna
    et al.
    Malmö högskola, Odontologiska fakulteten (OD).
    Becktor, Karin
    Clinic for Orthodontics and Oral Surgery, Strandvejen 116A, 2900, Hellerup, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Lindh, Christina
    Malmö högskola, Odontologiska fakulteten (OD).
    Becktor, Jonas P
    Malmö högskola, Odontologiska fakulteten (OD).
    Craniofacial height in relation to cross-sectional maxillary and mandibular morphology2017Ingår i: Progress in Orthodontics, ISSN 1723-7785, Vol. 18, nr 32, artikel-id 32Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background In order to gain a better understanding of how growth of the alveolar bone is linked to the vertical development of the face, the purpose of this study was to investigate if there is an association between the cross-sectional morphology of the maxillary and mandibular bodies with the craniofacial height, using images from cone beam computed tomography (CBCT). Methods From 450 pre-treatment CBCT scans, 180 were selected to be included in the study. Lateral head images were generated from the CBCT scans and were used to categorise subjects into three groups based on their vertical craniofacial height. Cross-sectional images from CBCT volumes were reformatted of the maxillary and mandibular bodies at five locations in the maxilla and five in the mandible. Each image was measured at one height and two width measurements. Statistical analysis performed was the one-way analysis of variance with a Tukey post hoc test. A significance level of 5% was used in all comparisons. Results Patients with large vertical craniofacial height had a significantly higher cross-sectional area both in the maxilla and in the mandible. In the same group, the cross-sectional area was significantly thinner in the mandible compared with the other two groups, especially in the anterior region. Conclusions This study further highlights the close relationship between craniofacial height and alveolar bone dimensions and contributes with important knowledge for planning and follow-up of comprehensive dental- and orthodontic treatments.

    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 47. Konishi, Masara
    et al.
    Lindh, Christina
    Malmö högskola, Odontologiska fakulteten (OD).
    Nilsson, Mats
    Malmö högskola, Odontologiska fakulteten (OD).
    Tanimoto, Keiji
    Rohlin, Madeleine
    Malmö högskola, Odontologiska fakulteten (OD).
    Important technical parameters are not presented in reports of intraoral digital radiography in endodontic treatment: recommendations for future studies2012Ingår i: Oral surgery, oral medicine, oral pathology and oral radiology, ISSN 2212-4403, E-ISSN 2212-4411, Vol. 114, nr 2, s. 251-258Artikel, forskningsöversikt (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract OBJECTIVES: The aims of this study were to review the literature on intraoral digital radiography in endodontic treatment with focus on technical parameters and to propose recommendations for improving the quality of reports in future publications. STUDY DESIGN: Two electronic databases were searched. Titles and abstracts were selected according to preestablished criteria. Data were extracted using a model of image acquisition and interpretation. RESULTS: The literature search yielded 233 titles and abstracts; 61 reports were read in full text. Recent reports presented technical parameters more thoroughly than older reports. Most reported important parameters for the x-ray unit, but for image interpretation only about one-half of the publications cited resolution of the display system and fewer than one-half bit depth of the graphics card. CONCLUSIONS: The methodologic quality of future publications must be improved to permit replication of studies and comparison of results between studies in dental digital radiography. Our recommendations can improve the quality of studies on diagnostic accuracy.

  • 48.
    Lindh, Christina
    Malmö högskola, Odontologiska fakulteten (OD).
    Advanced dross sectional imaging in lesions of the teeth and jaws2007Konferensbidrag (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 49.
    Lindh, Christina
    Malmö högskola, Odontologiska fakulteten (OD).
    DentEd site visitation2008Konferensbidrag (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 50.
    Lindh, Christina
    Malmö högskola, Odontologiska fakulteten (OD).
    Evidence from studies of diagnostic imaging2009Ingår i: Programme and abstract book, 17th International Congress of Dentomaxillofacial Radiology, June 28-July 2, 2009, The Netherlands, Amsterdam , 2009, s. 69-69Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Important healthcare decisions that concern a patient’s health should always proceed from the best available scientific evidence in order to improve quality of care through the identification and promotion of practices that work, and the elimination of those that are ineffective or harmful. Evidence-based medicine (EBM) was originally defined as "the integration of current best evidence with clinical expertise and patient values" (1). EBM is not a cookbook but a useful tool for decision making. There are four steps in incorporating the best available research evidence in decision making: asking answerable questions; accessing the best information; appraising the information for validity and relevance; and applying the information to patient care. This, as well as identification of important knowledge gaps, can be done through systematic literature reviews. Diagnostic methods differ from therapeutic methods and it is sometimes difficult to establish a connection between results from a diagnostic test with patient outcomes. The benefits associated with the use of a specific diagnostic method depend on performance characteristics such as sensitivity and specificity as well as prevalence of the disease. The fact that diagnostic methods affect short-term outcomes rather than longterm patient outcomes make evaluation of diagnostic tests more complicated than the evaluation of therapeutic methods. The efficacy of diagnostic imaging methods can be evaluated according to a hierarchical approach as described by Fryback and Thornbury (2). This approach includes six levels of efficacy where efficacy at higher levels is contingent on efficacy at all lower levels. As a tool to assess the quality of studies on diagnostic imaging the QUADAS protocol has been suggested (3). Examples of systematic literature reviews in oral- and maxillofacial imaging, assessed according to the QUADAS protocol, will be given. Few studies deal with the upper levels of the Fryback and Thornbury model and the costs and effects of imaging methods at the patient outcomes and societal levels have rarely been considered. (1) Sackett DL et al. Evidence based medicine: what it is and what it isn't. 1996. Clin Orthop Relat Res 2007;455:3-5. (2) Fryback DG, Thornbury JR. The efficacy of diagnostic imaging. Med Decis Making 1991;11:88-94. (3) Whiting P et al. The development of QUADAS: a tool for the quality assessment of studies of diagnostic accuracy included in systematic reviews. BMC Med Res Methodol 2003;3:25.

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