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  • 1.
    Bergström, Kamilla
    et al.
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Odontology (OD).
    Berthelsen, Hanne
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Odontology (OD).
    Hjalmers, Karin
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Odontology (OD).
    Ordell, Sven
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Odontology (OD).
    Söderfeldt, Björn
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Odontology (OD).
    Organizational affiliation and overall job satisfaction among Danish and Swedish dentists2009In: Abstract book, 2009Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: Good work in dentistry concerns the manual skills as well as the patient relation. The ability to provide quality care in dentistry is not only dependent on individual resources but also on work organization, which can affect the job satisfaction. This study aims to describe dentists in different organizational settings in Sweden and Denmark and the relation to their overall job satisfaction. Materials and methods: In 2008, a questionnaire was sent to a random proportionally stratified sample of practicing dentists in Sweden (n=898) and Denmark (n=937). The study was approved by the Swedish regional ethical board. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was used on three items aiming to measure overall job satisfaction; (1) work fulfillment, (2) satisfaction with the work as a whole, and (3) the perception of having a good working life. Kruskal-Wallis tests were used to compare the overall job satisfaction between Swedish and Danish private and public practitioners. Results: The response rate was 68%, whereas 51% were Swedes and 49% Danes, 62% were women and 32% men. Further, 61% were private and 39% were public practitioners. PCA on the three items showed a one factor solution with 78% variance explained. The PCA was stable when splitting the sample as to gender and organizational affiliation. An index for overall job satisfaction was established, having a Cronbach’s alpha 0.86. The overall job satisfaction means (range 3-15) for the four subgroups were; Swedish public (11.0) and private (11.8) practitioners and Danish public (11.9) and private (11.8) practitioners. Statistically significant differences were found between the groups (P< 0.001). Conclusions: The average response rate was reasonably satisfactory. The PCA showed an index of overall job satisfaction as a measure of eudaimonic work life elements as well as more practical contentment with work. The initial results showed that Danish and Swedish dentists have a high overall job satisfaction. The Swedish public practitioners had the lowest overall job satisfaction compared to the other groups. The results are to be further analyzed as to more specific organizational differences. Funding: The Swedish Council for Working Life and Social Research, Malmö University, The Danish Dental Association.

  • 2.
    Bergström, Kamilla
    et al.
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Odontology (OD).
    Berthelsen, Hanne
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Odontology (OD).
    Hjalmers, Karin
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Odontology (OD).
    Ordell, Sven
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Odontology (OD).
    Söderfeldt, Björn
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Odontology (OD).
    Sustainable working life in human service work2009Conference paper (Other academic)
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  • 3.
    Bergström, Kamilla
    et al.
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Odontology (OD).
    Söderfeldt, Björn
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Odontology (OD).
    Berthelsen, Hanne
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Odontology (OD).
    Hjalmers, Karin
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Odontology (OD).
    EXPLORING POSITIVE PERCEPTIONS OF DENTAL WORK IN SWEDEN AND DENMARK2009Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: Dentistry is an example of human service work, involving cognitively, emotionally and technically demanding tasks. These tasks are potentially implicative of negative as well as positive personal effects. The aim was to study work enjoyment, satisfaction with work, and good working life, comparing Danish and Swedish general dental practitioners. Materials and methods: In 2008, a questionnaire was sent to a randomly selected sample of practicing dentists in Sweden (n=900) and Denmark (n=937). The study was approved by the Swedish regional ethical board. Distribution analysis and Mann-Whitney U test were used for comparison between the groups Swedes/Danes, private-/public practitioners, and dentists with/without management responsibility. Results: Response rate was 68%, whereas 51% were Swedes and 49% Danes. Sixty percent had management responsibility and 40% had not. Further, 58% were private and 37% were public practitioners. Frequency analysis showed that almost three fourths of the dentists experienced a high or a very high degree of (1) work enjoyment (73%), (2) of satisfaction with their work as a whole (72%) and (3) of a good working life (74%). The items (1) and (2) showed differences between all three groups: Danes, private practitioners and dentists with management responsibility scored higher than their counterparts (p≤0.05). Item (3) showed similar results (p≤0.05), except for the comparison Danes/Swedes, which was non-significant. Conclusions: The initial results corroborate that Danish and Swedish dentists have positive perceptions of their work. The differences between the three groups are to be further studied to track potential correlations promoting positive perceptions of work. Funding: The Swedish Council for Working Life and Social Research, Malmö University, The Danish Dental Association.

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  • 4.
    Bergström, Kamilla
    et al.
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Odontology (OD).
    Söderfeldt, Björn
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Odontology (OD).
    Berthelsen, Hanne
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Odontology (OD).
    Hjalmers, Karin
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Odontology (OD).
    Ordell, Sven
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Odontology (OD).
    Overall job satisfaction among dentists in Sweden and Denmark: A comparative study, measuring positive aspects of work2010In: Acta Odontologica Scandinavica, ISSN 0001-6357, E-ISSN 1502-3850, Vol. 68, no 6, p. 344-353Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective. Human service work differs from industrial work, which should be considered when organizing work. Previous research has shown organizational differences in the perceptions of work, often with a focus on negative aspects. The aim of this study was to analyse the overall job satisfaction among private- and public-practising dentists in Sweden and Denmark. This also implied a description of the questionnaire Swedish and Danish Dentists' Perceptions of Good Work about opportunities and positive and rewarding aspects of work. Material and methods. A questionnaire covering the multidimensional concept of good work was developed. A total of 1835 dentists randomly sampled from the dental associations were sent a questionnaire in November 2008. A special non-response study was performed. Principal components analysis (PCA) was used to create a measure of overall job satisfaction, comparing four organizational subgroups. Results. The average net response rate was 68% (n = 1226). The special non-response study of the Danish private practitioners showed more males, managers and dentists with more working hours than the respondents. PCA of three satisfaction questions showed a stable one-factor solution. There were differences in job satisfaction, with Danish public dentists ranked highest in overall job satisfaction and Swedish public dentists lowest. Conclusions. There were organizational differences in the perception of job satisfaction. Further analysis of how the human service is organized in the different groups is needed.

  • 5.
    Berthelsen, Hanne
    Malmö University, Centre for Work Life and Evaluation Studies (CTA). Malmö University, Faculty of Odontology (OD).
    Att arbeta inom människobehandlande organisationer2022In: Plats för vem?: Om arbetets inkludering och exkludering / [ed] Elin Ennerberg & Peter Gladoić Håkansson, Lund: Nordic Academic Press, 2022, p. 261-281Chapter in book (Other academic)
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  • 6.
    Berthelsen, Hanne
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Odontology (OD).
    Europæiske retningslinjer for Behaviour Management2008Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    European Academy of Paediatric Dentistry (EAPD) udarbejder med mellemrum kliniske retningslinjer indenfor forskellige områder af pædodontien. Senest i rækken er guidelines for Behaviour Management. Retningslinjerne er udarbejdet af en ekspertgruppe bestående af Gunilla Klingberg, Ruth Freeman, Maaike ten Berge og Jaap Veerkamp ud fra en evidensbaseret tilgang til forebyggelse af tandlægeangst blandt børn og unge. Der var en forventning om, at guidelines i den foreliggende form ville være blevet vedtaget på årets EAPD kongres i Kroatien, hvilket dog ikke blev tilfældet. Retningslinjerne er derfor fortsat undervejs i processen, men kan være af faglig interesse at have nøjere indsigt i. Der findes ikke noget godt dansk ord, som fuldt ud dækker den engelske betegnelse Behaviour Management. Indtil videre vil vi derfor foreslå, at man anvender den engelske betegnelse. I de nye retningslinjer omfatter begrebet, udover tilvænningsbehandling, tillige udviklingsmæssige og behandlingsmæssige aspekter ligesom forhold omkring selve mødet med patienterne på deres vilkår. Børn har ret til at blive respekteret og beskyttet fremgår det af FN’s børnekonvention, som retningslinjerne tager afsæt i. En række nøgle-begreber præciseres, ligesom såvel fore¬byggende som behandlingsmæssige aspekter bearbejdes ud fra den nyeste dokumenterede viden på området kombineret med kliniske erfaringer. Det understreges, at alle tandlæger, der behandler børn, bør besidde særlige kompetencer i kommunikation, psykologisk indsigt samt i Behaviour Management strategier, da dette er vist at forebygge og behandle tandlægeangst og frygt. Retningslinjerne lægger desuden op til en systematisk observation og registrering i såvel anamnese som journalisering. En bredt sammensat arbejdsgruppe under Dansk Pædodontisk Selskab har i løbet af 2008 gen¬nemgået og debatteret EAPD’s nye retnings¬linjer for Behaviour Management og derved fået et interessant indblik i, hvorledes andre europæiske lande ser på et af pædodontiens mest centrale områder. Selvom grundkernen i arbejdet med børn er den samme, er såvel synet på børnepatienten som tilgangen til den praktiske håndtering i høj grad kulturafhængig. Det er den danske arbejdsgruppes vurdering, at retningslinjer som disse kan bidrage til at sikre et fornuftigt grundniveau i tilrettelæggelsen af børnetandpleje, og desuden være et redskab til løbende diskussion af eksisterende praksis. Retningslinjer for Behaviour Management kan i særdeleshed medvirke til at understrege det faktum, at fagligheden som tandlæge er mere og andet end de håndværksmæssige kompetencer. På vegne af Dansk Pædodontisk Selskabs Arbejdsgruppes medlemmer, Hanne Berthelsen

  • 7.
    Berthelsen, Hanne
    Malmö University, Centre for Work Life and Evaluation Studies (CTA). Malmö University, Faculty of Odontology (OD).
    Slutrapport. Etablering av nationella normvärden avseende den organisatoriska och sociala arbetsmiljönpå svenska arbetsplatser2022Report (Other academic)
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  • 8.
    Berthelsen, Hanne
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Odontology (OD).
    Work-related support, community and trust - Dentistry in Sweden and Denmark2010Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Work as a dentist provides great opportunities for human contacts with patients as well as with co-workers. The context for provision of health care is changing, implicating that the roles of health professionals - including dentists - are challenged. This thesis deals with positive work relations among dentists. The overall aims were: 1) to improve understanding of what characterizes Good Work for general dental practitioners and 2) to analyse associations between factors in the work environment and social support, community, and trust among dentists in Sweden and Denmark. The thesis is based on both qualitative and quantitative methods, comprising results from three studies, presented in four papers. The study populations include general dental practitioners from Sweden and Denmark working in the private and in the public sector. In Paper I, dentists’ perceptions of Good Work regarding positive and rewarding aspects were explored through phenomenological analysis of interviews with Danish and Swedish general dental practitioners. The main result was that the core of Good Work emanates from the clinical encounter; from the relation with the patient and from the opportunity to carry out high quality odontological handicraft. Social relations at the workplace, as well as organizational values and conditions, were perceived as influencing the opportunities to achieve rewarding aspects from the clinical encounter. The aim of Paper II was to study to what extent Danish general dental practitioners perceived support from colleagues and to relate this support to demographic and work-related background factors. The analysis was based on answers from 222 dentists included in a cross-sectional survey of randomly selected general dental practitioners from Denmark. Most respondents perceived that they had a colleague with whom they would choose to discuss a potential complaint proceeding, even though it was more common to discuss difficult treatments than problems concerning dissatisfied patients with colleagues. Dentists who were female, young, from group practices, often in contact with colleagues outside the practice, and who reported that they were supported in practical matters, perceived on average a higher degree of Emotional Support. Dentists who were married/cohabitant, coming from a group practice, often in contact with colleagues outside the practice and who were emotionally supported perceived a higher degree of Practical Support. The study emphasized the importance of the organizational setting for a professional and personal supportive psychosocial working environment in dentistry. Data from a cross-sectional comparative survey were used in papers III and IV. A questionnaire was sent to randomly selected general dental practitioners working in Sweden or Denmark in the private or the public sectors. The net response was 68%. In paper III, two scales were developed; the one measuring Community with Trust (the sense of being part of a community characterized by trust and humour at work) and the other Collegial Support (perceived social support from colleagues in relation to the work with patients) were developed. The psychometric properties of the scales were evaluated. Explorative factor analysis was used to investigate dimensionality; internal consistency was assessed by Cronbach’s coefficient alpha. Differential item functioning and convergent validity were assessed. The reliability and validity of the two new scales were satisfactory. The aim of paper IV was to analyse variables associated with the scales for Collegial Support and Community with Trust. Two models were built using multiple hierarchical linear regression analysis. Demographic background factors, work factors, managerial factors and factors relating to objectives and values characterizing the climate of the practice were introduced as blocks in the models. The main results were that having common breaks and decision authority, as well as working in a practice climate characterized by professional values were positively associated with the scale for Community with Trust. Dentists who were female, married/cohabitant, who had frequent contacts with colleagues outside the practice, and worked at a practice with frequent common breaks, where the leader had formalized managerial education, and the climate was characterized by professional values, were positively associated with the scale for Collegial Support. In contrast, being managerially responsible and having worked many years as a dentist were negatively associated with Collegial Support. Thus, a different pattern was documented for Collegial Support than for Community with Trust, indicating different underlying mechanisms. A professionally oriented practice climate and common breaks at work were strongly associated with both outcome variables. Differences in average for dentists’ Collegial Support and Community with Trust were found among different organizational settings. The final regression analyses pointed to organizational differences such as size of practices, influence on work, frequency of common breaks, managerial education and practice climate as well as, for example, gender distributions, contributed to possible explanations. Thereby, new knowledge has been achieved about a number of work environment factors which are of relevance for positive social relations in dentistry. In conclusion, the work with patients constitutes the core of work in dentistry, while relations among peers, staff, and management are important frameworks. This thesis points to the importance of collegiality and work-related community with freedom in work with patients. Therefore, it is relevant to address the professional and relational character of the work when organizing and managing dentistry.

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  • 9.
    Berthelsen, Hanne
    et al.
    Malmö University, Faculty of Odontology (OD). Malmö University, Centre for Work Life and Evaluation Studies (CTA).
    Conway, Paul Maurice
    Clausen, Thomas
    Is organizational justice climate at the workplace associated with individual-level quality of care and organizational affective commitment? A multi-level, cross-sectional study on dentistry in Sweden2018In: International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, ISSN 0340-0131, E-ISSN 1432-1246, Vol. 91, no 2, p. 237-245Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose The aim of this study is to investigate whether organizational justice climate at the workplace level is associated with individual staff members’ perceptions of care quality and affective commitment to the workplace. Methods The study adopts a cross-sectional multi-level design. Data were collected using an electronic survey and a response rate of 75% was obtained. Organizational justice climate and affective commitment to the workplace were measured by items from Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire and quality of care by three self-developed items. Non-managerial staff working at dental clinics with at least five respondents (n = 900 from 68 units) was included in analyses. A set of Level-2 random intercept models were built to predict individual-level organizational affective commitment and perceived quality of care from unit-level organizational justice climate, controlling for potential confounding by group size, gender, age, and occupation. Results The results of the empty model showed substantial between-unit variation for both affective commitment (ICC-1 = 0.17) and quality of care (ICC-1 = 0.12). The overall results showed that the shared perception of organizational justice climate at the clinical unit level was significantly associated with perceived quality of care and affective commitment to the organization (p < 0.001). Conclusions Organizational justice climate at work unit level explained all variation in affective commitment among dental clinics and was associated with both the individual staff members’ affective commitment and perceived quality of care. These findings suggest a potential for that addressing organizational justice climate may be a way to promote quality of care and enhancing affective commitment. However, longitudinal studies are needed to support causality in the examined relationships. Intervention research is also recommended to probe the effectiveness of actions increasing unit-level organizational justice climate and test their impact on quality of care and affective commitment.

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  • 10.
    Berthelsen, Hanne
    et al.
    Malmö University, Centre for Work Life and Evaluation Studies (CTA). Malmö University, Faculty of Odontology (OD).
    Ertel, Michael
    Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsschutz und Arbeitsmedizin, DE.
    Geisler, Martin
    Malmö University, Centre for Work Life and Evaluation Studies (CTA).
    Muhonen, Tuija
    Malmö University, Centre for Work Life and Evaluation Studies (CTA).
    Validating the Psychosocial Safety Climate Questionnaire: Integration of Findings from Cognitive Interviews in Germany and Sweden2019In: Scandinavian Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, E-ISSN 2002-2867, Vol. 4, no 1, p. 1-12Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Work-related stress and stress-related ill health are major concerns in modern Western societies. In the European Union, the joint Occupational Safety and Health (OSH) framework obliges employers to ensure the health and safety of workers in every aspect related to work, including psychological safety and health. Against this background, the aim of the present study was to gain a deeper understanding of the cross-cultural validity of the Psychosocial Safety Climate (PSC) instrument as a measure for organizational and managerial commitment to employee psychological health. By integrating findings from cognitive interview studies conducted in Germany and in Sweden, we found participants considered the focus of PSC on managerial and organizational perspectives as an important contribution to workplace surveys. However, we were also able to identify some challenges (e.g., in relation to translation of key concepts, the intended shift of referent, and the use of the intermediate response options) as difficulties in identifying a homogeneous PSC within an organization was also observed to some extent. We can conclude that integrating findings from cognitive interviews conducted in two European countries expands the existing knowledge of the PSC measure. This is achieved by a deeper understanding of problems that might occur when transferring PSC to a different context. The overall findings of the present study corroborate the cross-cultural validity of transferring the PSC measure from an Australian to a European context, and we consider PSC to be a valid and useful framework for targeting psychosocial risks and organizational procedures in a European setting.

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  • 11.
    Berthelsen, Hanne
    et al.
    Malmö University, Faculty of Odontology (OD). Malmö University, Centre for Work Life and Evaluation Studies (CTA).
    Hakanen, Jari J.
    Westerlund, Hugo
    Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire: A validation study using the Job Demand-Resources model2018In: PLOS ONE, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 13, no 4, article id e0196450Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: This study aims at investigating the nomological validity of the Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire (COPSOQ II) by using an extension of the Job Demands-Resources (JD-R) model with aspects of work ability as outcome. Material and methods: The study design is cross-sectional. All staff working at public dental organizations in four regions of Sweden were invited to complete an electronic questionnaire (75% response rate, n = 1345). The questionnaire was based on COPSOQ II scales, the Utrecht Work Engagement scale, and the one-item Work Ability Score in combination with a proprietary item. The data was analysed by Structural Equation Modelling. Results: This study contributed to the literature by showing that: A) The scale characteristics were satisfactory and the COPSOQ instrument could be integrated in the JD-R framework; B) Job resources arising from leadership may be a driver of the two processes included in the JD-R model; and C) Both the health impairment and motivational processes were associated with WA, and the results suggested that leadership may impact WA, in particularly by securing task resources. Conclusion: In conclusion, the nomological validity of COPSOQ was supported as the JD-R model can be operationalized by the instrument. This may be helpful for transferral of complex survey results and work life theories to practitioners in the field.

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  • 12.
    Berthelsen, Hanne
    et al.
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Odontology (OD). Malmö högskola, Centre for Work Life and Evaluation Studies (CTA).
    Hakanen, Jari
    Kristensen, Tage Søndergård
    Lönnblad, Anneli
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Odontology (OD). Malmö högskola, Centre for Work Life and Evaluation Studies (CTA).
    Westerlund, Hugo
    A Qualitative Study on the Content Validity of the Social Capital Scales in the Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire (COPSOQ II)2016In: Scandinavian Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, ISSN 2002-2867, Vol. 1, no 1, article id 5Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire (COPSOQ II) includes scales for measuring workplace social capital. The overall aim of this article is to evaluate the content validity of the following scales: horizontal trust, vertical trust and justice based on data from cognitive interviews using a think-aloud procedure. Informants were selected to achieve variation in gender, age, region of residence, and occupation. A predetermined coding scheme was used to identify: 1) Perspective (reflection on behalf of oneself only or abstraction to a broader perspective), 2) Use of response options, 3) Contexts challenging the process of answering, and 4) Overall reflections included in the retrieval and judgement processes leading to an answer for each item. The results showed that 1) the intended shift from individual to a broader perspective worked for eight out of eleven items. 2) The response option balancing in the middle covered different meanings. Retrieval of information needed to answer constituted a problem in four out of eleven items. 3) Three contextually challenging situations were identified. 4) For most items the reflections corresponded well with the intention of the scales, though the items asking about withheld information caused more problems in answering and lower content validity compared to the other items of the scales. In general, the findings supported the content validity of the COPSOQ II measurement of workplace social capital as a group construct. The study opens for new insight into how concepts and questions are understood and answered among people coming from different occupations and organizational settings.

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  • 13.
    Berthelsen, Hanne
    et al.
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Odontology (OD).
    Hjalmers, Karin
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Odontology (OD).
    "Good Work"2007Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 14.
    Berthelsen, Hanne
    et al.
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Odontology (OD).
    Hjalmers, Karin
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Odontology (OD).
    Bergström, Kamilla
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Odontology (OD).
    Ordell, Sven
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Odontology (OD).
    Söderfeldt, Björn
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Odontology (OD).
    Rewarding aspects of the work as a general dental practitioner2008Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The psychosocial work environment in dentistry is well documented as demanding, but less is known of what makes dentists stay engaged. Aim.The aim was to explore the rewarding aspects of the work as general dental practitioner..Methods. A qualitative approach was used to ensure a deeper understanding of the subject as perceived by dentists working in the field. Among Danish and Swedish general dental practitioners, six informants were in 2007-08 selected step by step to obtain maximal variation of respondents as to country of origin, gender, age and clinical work experience. Semi-structured, in-depth interviews based on Kvale’s principles were performed in the mother tongue of the informants. The interviews were audio-recorded and later transcribed verbatim in the original language by the interviewers. Statements covering rewarding aspects of dentistry were used for systematic text condensation according to the principles of Giorgi’s phenomenological analysis, modified by Malterud following 4 steps: (1) reading all the material to obtain an overall impression, and bracketing preconceptions; (2) identifying units of meaning representing different rewarding aspects of good work, and coding for these aspects; (3) condensing and abstracting the meaning within each of the coded groups; and (4) summarizing the contents of each code group to generalize descriptions and concepts reflecting aspects of good work. The study was approved by The Regional Ethical Review Board in Lund, Sweden Results. The first overall impression of data was that the rewarding aspects of the work as a dentist emerged directly from the clinical encounter; from the relation with the patient and the opportunity for performing a high quality odontological handicraft. Next, the dentists described some basic conditions as their relations to workmates, peers and managers as well as how organisational values and conditions influenced the opportunities for achieving the perceived rewarding aspects from the clinical encounter.Conclusion. The results comprising the moral aspects as essential in the work as a dentist confirm Hasenfelds’ theory of Human Service Organizations. This implicates a need for developing work environmental models with internal as well as external rewards when dealing with human service organizations. Acknowledgements. The authors wish to acknowledge the Swedish Council for working life and social research for financial support.

  • 15.
    Berthelsen, Hanne
    et al.
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Odontology (OD).
    Hjalmers, Karin
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Odontology (OD).
    Hakanen, Jari
    Good work: the relations between social capital, influence at work and perceived quality of work2014In: The 8th Novo symposium Sustainable Health Care Production Systems, Department of Management Engineering, Technical University of Denmark , 2014, p. 15-15Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction A model for Good Work, understood as positive and rewarding aspects of work, has previously been developed based on interviews including dentists working under different organizational systems. An overall finding was that a positive work climate with trustful relations and professional freedom was found important for being able to carry out high quality work. The aim of this presentation is to assess whether the central part of this model can be corroborated empirically. Material and methods All staff employed at public dentistry in two counties in Sweden received an email with a personal login to an electronic questionnaire. After two reminders a response rate of 78% and 81% respectively was obtained including a total of 610 respondents. Data from non-managerial dental hygienists and dentists with direct patient contact in their work were included in the analyses (N=198). The analyses are preliminary as data from more organizations are in the process of being collected. A scale was developed for perceived quality of the work done at the clinic. This scale was used as the dependent variable in a multiple linear hierarchical regression model. Independent variables: county, a scale developed to measure social support in relation to patient-work in addition to scales from the Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire on horizontal trust, community at the workplace and influence. The study has been approved by the Regional Ethics Board in Southern Sweden and is funded by the Swedish Research Council for Health, Working Life and Welfare (FORTE). Results A significant difference in average for perceived quality of work was seen in relation to organization, but this difference disappeared in the final regression model. Being part of a work-related community, having trusted relations and a good support were all significantly associated with a positive assessment of the quality of work performed at the workplace, while influence did not contribute to further explanation. The final regression model explained 35% of the variance of the outcome. Conclusion The overall model for Good Work was corroborated concerning the relationship between social capital and valuation of quality of care.

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  • 16.
    Berthelsen, Hanne
    et al.
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Odontology (OD).
    Hjalmers, Karin
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Odontology (OD).
    Pejtersen, Jan Hyld
    Söderfeldt, Björn
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Odontology (OD).
    Good Work for dentists - a qualitative analysis2010In: Community Dentistry and Oral Epidemiology, ISSN 0301-5661, E-ISSN 1600-0528, Vol. 38, no 2, p. 159-170Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: This study explores dentists' perceptions of Good Work in the meaning of positive and rewarding aspects in their work in contrast to a traditional problem-centred focus on work life. Methods: Nine informants were selected among Danish and Swedish general dental practitioners to obtain variation as to country of origin, gender, age and clinical work experience. Semi-structured, in-depth interviews were audio-recorded and transcribed verbatim in the original language. Statements concerning positive aspects of work were used for systematic text condensation according to the principles of Giorgi's phenomenological analysis, as modified by Malterud, generalizing descriptions reflecting aspects of Good Work. Selection of participants continued until saturation of the emerging categories was achieved. Results: The core of Good Work emanates from the clinical encounter: from the relation with the patient and from the opportunity to carry out high quality odontological handicraft. Social relations at the workplace, as well as organizational values and conditions were perceived as influencing the opportunities to achieve the rewarding aspects from the clinical encounter. Conclusions: The results implicate a need for developing a work-environmental model with intrinsic as well as extrinsic rewards when dealing with human service organizations. At policy level it is necessary to address the professional culture.

  • 17.
    Berthelsen, Hanne
    et al.
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Odontology (OD).
    Hjalmers, Karin
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Odontology (OD).
    Söderfeldt, Björn
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Odontology (OD).
    Collaboration among Danish dentists in private general practices2007Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Perceived social support is a central concept in classical stress models and is known to be important to health. Aim The aim of this study was to investigate to what extent Danish general dental practitioners support each other, in relation to background factors. Methods The study was a cross-sectional survey with a postal questionnaire sent to 300 dentists who were randomly selected members of the Danish Dental Association. Response rate was 80% after one reminder. Factor analyses of items describing collaboration among colleagues were performed. The extracted support factors were used as outcome variables in multiple regression analyses with background factors like age, gender, and work characteristics as independent variables. Results Two factors were extracted describing perceived support and were interpreted as emotional and practical support. The regression analyses with support as dependent variables gave the following main results (Model 1: R2=0.34; F=13.53 8/184; p≤0.000; Model 2: R2=0.24; F=8.50 8/184; p≤0.000): • Dentists from solo practices perceived significantly less emotional and practical support than dentists working in bigger units (p=0.002; p= 0.001); • The more time dentists spent with colleagues outside the clinical sphere, the more emotional support was perceived (p≤0.000). A parallel relation, but weaker was found for practical support (p=0.041); • Male dentists reported significantly less emotional support than their female colleagues (p=0.004). A similar gender difference was not found for practical support (p=0.843). • Being single in private life was associated with less perception of practical support compared to married dentists (p=0.044). Conclusion The study underlines the importance of structural and cultural conditions in work environment for the perception of social support from colleagues. Acknowledgements The study was financially supported by Telia and PFA.

  • 18.
    Berthelsen, Hanne
    et al.
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Odontology (OD).
    Hjalmers, Karin
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Odontology (OD).
    Söderfeldt, Björn
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Odontology (OD).
    Perceived social support in relation to work among Danish general dental practitioners in private practices2008In: European Journal of Oral Sciences, ISSN 0909-8836, E-ISSN 1600-0722, Vol. 116, no 2, p. 157-163Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Social support is an important phenomenon in the psychosocial work environment. The aim of this study was to assess the extent to which Danish general dental practitioners perceived support from colleagues and to relate perceived support to demographic and work related background factors. A questionnaire was sent to a random sample of 300 Danish dentists. The response rate was 80% after one reminder. Factor analyses and multiple regression analyses were carried out. The results showed that clinic size was the overall most important variable explaining perceived support among dentists. Gender differences were found in perceived emotional and practical support, and women perceived more emotional support (e.g. discussing problematic patients with peers) than their male colleagues. A similar gender difference was not found for the perception of practical support, such as helping each other in the event of falling behind schedule. Dentists from small and large practices did not differ in the extent of peer contact outside the clinical environment. This study emphasized the importance of the organizational setting for a professional and personal supportive psychosocial working environment in dentistry.

  • 19.
    Berthelsen, Hanne
    et al.
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Odontology (OD).
    Hyld Pejtersen, Jan
    Söderfeldt, Björn
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Odontology (OD).
    Measurement of social support, community and trust in dentistry2011In: Community Dentistry and Oral Epidemiology, ISSN 0301-5661, E-ISSN 1600-0528, Vol. 39, no 4, p. 289-299Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background and aim: Relationships among people at work have previously been found to contribute to the perception of having a good work. The aim of the present paper was to develop scales measuring aspects of social support, trust, and community among dentists, and to evaluate psychometric properties of the scales. Material and methods: In 2008, a questionnaire was sent to 1835 general dental practitioners randomly selected from the dental associations in Sweden and Denmark. The response rate was 68% after two reminders. Principal Component Analysis was applied to 14 items and scales were established based on the resulting factors. Internal consistency was evaluated by Cronbach’s alpha. Differential Item Functioning (DIF) with respect to gender, nationality and employment sector was analysed using ordinal logistic regression methods. Construct validity was assessed in relation to selfrated health and a range of work satisfaction outcomes. Results: The percentage of missing values on the items was low (range 0.7%–3.8%). Two scales (range 0–100) were established to measure ‘Community with Trust’ (nine items, mean = 79.2 [SD = 13.4], Cronbach’s alpha = 0.89) and ‘Collegial Support’ (five items, mean = 70.4 [SD = 20.8], Cronbach’s alpha = 0.89). DIF of only minor importance was found which supported cultural equivalence. The two scales were weakly positively correlated with each other. ‘Community with Trust’ was in general more strongly correlated with work satisfaction variables than ‘Collegial Support’ was. Conclusions: Stability and internal consistency of the scales were considered as satisfactory. Content validity and construct validity were considered as good. Further validation in other populations is recommended.

  • 20.
    Berthelsen, Hanne
    et al.
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Odontology (OD).
    Lönnblad, Anneli
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Odontology (OD).
    Hakanen, Jari
    Søndergård Kristensen, Tage
    Axtelius, Björn
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Odontology (OD).
    Bjørner, Jakob Bue
    Westerlund, Hugo
    Cognitive interviewing used in the development and validation of Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire in Sweden2014In: Threats and Possibilities Facing Nordic Working Life: Book of Abstracts and Programme, University of Gothenburg, 2014, p. 232-233Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire (COPSOQ) has primarily been validated through psychometric methods. Therefore, cognitive interviewing was included as part of the validation project of COPSOQ in Sweden. The aim is to discuss the use of cognitive interviews for development and validation of the Swedish version of COPSOQ. Informants were selected to achieve variation in age, gender, occupation, and region of residence. Individual interviews were performed with 26 informants using a think aloud approach combined with flexible concurrent probing based on an interview guide. The interviews were audio recorded and transcribed verbatim. The interviews were conducted in rounds followed by an initial analysis by the two first authors before adjustments of the questionnaire items were made. Currently, content analysis is ongoing. The cognitive interviews provided insight into what people actually reflected upon while answering the questionnaire. This added new knowledge about how key terms such as ‘work place’ were understood by the respondents and also it helped identifying problems in the interpretation of specific words. The study has been approved by the Regional Ethics Board in Southern Sweden and is funded by the Swedish Research Council for Health, Working Life and Welfare (FORTE).

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  • 21.
    Berthelsen, Hanne
    et al.
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Odontology (OD).
    Lönnblad, Anneli
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Odontology (OD).
    Westerlund, Hugo
    Søndergård Kristensen, Tage
    Hakanen, Jari
    Bjørner, Jakob Bue
    A validation project of Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire in Sweden2013In: 7th NOVO Symposium: A Nordic Model for Sustainable Systems in the Health Care Sector, National institute for health and welfare , 2013, p. 42-43Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction Health care in Sweden has gone through major re-organization during the last two decades, and the pace of change continues to be high. Reliable instruments to monitor the situation, even at the local level, are needed. Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire (COPSOQ) is a suitable staff questionnaire for mapping the psychosocial working environment as well as for evaluating changes following interventions. The intention is to present the ongoing validation project of the Swedish version of COPSOQ for use in health care organizations at the symposium. The target group of this research project is first line health care workers with a short education and the aim is to * validate the existing Swedish translation of COPSOQ and further develop scales specifically directed towards personally enriching aspects in human service work; * map the psychosocial work environment, stress, and wellbeing of first-line health care workers aiming to establish reference values as well as to analyze the interplay between individual and group factors in relation to outcomes such as sickness absence and staff turnover. Material and methods The project includes back-translation, cognitive debriefing interviews, a cross-sectional study at public dental practices and hospital wards, as well as register data at group level. Results Preliminary results from the back-translation procedure show challenges in relations to conceptual equivalence between some items in the existing Swedish version of COPSOQ and the official English version and a need for adjustments to improve clarity and the use of ordinary contemporary language. Interviews are ongoing and preliminary results will be presented at the symposium. Conclusions Improved knowledge about the psychosocial working environment and health among first line health care workers would increase the opportunities for promoting future working conditions which positively influence motivation, health and willingness to stay on the labor market and in the caring professions. This would support a sustainable health care system likely contributing to organizational efficiency, quality in patient-work, and a good work life for employees. Funding The project is funded by the Swedish Research Council for Health, Working Life and Welfare (FORTE).

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  • 22.
    Berthelsen, Hanne
    et al.
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Odontology (OD). Malmö högskola, Centre for Work Life and Evaluation Studies (CTA).
    Muhonen, Tuija
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), Department of Urban Studies (US). Malmö högskola, Centre for Work Life and Evaluation Studies (CTA).
    Psykosocialt säkerhetsklimat: ett sätt att mäta organisatoriskt och socialt säkerhetsklimat. Stressforskningsrapport nr 3272017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In the Swedish context, the provisions about Organisational and Social Work Environment (AFS 2015: 4) have contributed to more attention being paid to the role of organisational conditions for a healthy work environment. From this perspective, a relevant theoretical term is Psychosocial Safety Climate (PSC). PSC can be defined as the employees’ shared perceptions of the organizations’ guidelines, practices and procedures to protect the employees’ psychosocial health and safety. The PSC measures how employees perceive that the senior management 1) engages, 2) prioritizes, 3) communicates and 4) involves employees in psychosocial workplace safety issues. Several studies show that PSC predicts work environment factors such as emotional and quantitative job demands, bullying, influence and development opportunities, which in turn affect, for example, employee involvement, stress, fatigue and depression symptoms. The purpose of this report is to present the initial steps in the adaptation and validation process leading to the establishment of an official Swedish version of the international PSC scale. Initially, a translation of the original English version of PSC into Swedish was conducted including suggestions for alternative terms of key concepts such as senior management. An expert panel including researchers in the field evaluated the translated version. They identified potential problem areas and commented on which translations they considered as most relevant. This phase led to a revised version of the questionnaire that was tested and further developed based on ten cognitive interviews and evaluated psychometrically in a survey. Finally, the Swedish version of the survey was back-translated into English and the conceptual congruency with the original version was verified in collaboration with Professor Maureen Dollard, with whom we have been in continuous dialogue during the whole process. Results of the interview study revealed that while the central concept of psychological health was unproblematic, the term senior management did not result in consistent interpretations among the informants. Most often, the informants referred to their immediate manager rather than senior management. The informants perceived it as difficult to respond to the statements that concerned the whole workgroup rather than themselves as individuals. They also commented that responding to statements was more difficult than responding to questions. Informants who had trouble responding were inclined to choose the middle response option. In general, informants expressed that it was positive and relevant to study climate related to the psychosocial working environment, while some expressed doubt about the relevance of certain statements. In addition, a number of informants found some statements to be redundant regarding the 12-item version (PSC-12). The results of the psychometric analyses of the 4 item version (PSC-4) showed a low internal non-response percentage and a frequent use of the middle response option. A confirmatory factor analysis supported combining the four statements into a scale (PSC-4). The correlations between the PSC-4 and a selection of theoretically relevant concepts corroborated our expectations about the relationships between the variables. In sum, content and construct validity as well as reliability of the Swedish adapted translation of PSC-4 was supported by the findings of the initial part of the validation process described in this report.

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  • 23.
    Berthelsen, Hanne
    et al.
    Malmö University, Centre for Work Life and Evaluation Studies (CTA). Malmö University, Faculty of Odontology (OD).
    Muhonen, Tuija
    Malmö University, Centre for Work Life and Evaluation Studies (CTA). Malmö University, Faculty of Education and Society (LS), Department of School Development and Leadership (SOL).
    Utveckling av gränsvärden för bedömning av arbetsmiljörisker med hjälp av en kort version av Psychosocial Safety Climate Scale (PSC-4)2021In: FALF 2021: Konferensbok, 2021Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund

    Sedan föreskriften Organisatorisk och social arbetsmiljö (AFS 2015:4) introducerades har fokus riktats på betydelsen av organisatoriska förutsättningar för en hälsosam arbetsmiljö. Till skillnad från bedömning och mätning av fysiska arbetsmiljörisker, är de organisatoriska och psykosociala arbetsmiljörisker svårare att hantera. Ett relevant teoretiskt begrepp i sammanhanget är Psychosocial Safety Climate – PSC), som kan definieras som medarbetarnas delade uppfattningar om organisationens riktlinjer, praxis och procedurer för att skydda deras psykologiska hälsa och säkerhet. Med hjälp av PSC skalan undersöks hur medarbetarna upplever att den högsta ledningen 1) engagerar sig, 2) prioriterar, 3) kommunicerar och 4) involverar medarbetarna, i psykosociala arbetsmiljöfrågor. Forskning visar att PSC kan predicera arbetsmiljöfaktorer såsom känslomässiga och kvantitativa jobbkrav, mobbing, inflytande och utvecklingsmöjligheten, som i sin tur påverkar till exempel medarbetarnas arbetsengagemang, stress-, utmattnings- och depressionssymptom. Medan den tidigare forskningen huvudsakligen har bedrivits i Australien, bidrar den aktuella studien med att undersöka tillförlitligheten och användbarheten av den korta versionen av PSC-4 i den svenska kontexten.  

    Syfte

    Syftet med studien är att presentera en kort svensk version av Psychosocial Safety Climate (PSC-4, Dollard, 2019) samt hur PSC-4 kan användas för att identifiera risknivåer i den organisatoriska och sociala arbetsmiljön.  

    Metod

    Studien är baserad på en enkätundersökning som genomfördes bland ett slumpmässigt urval av anställda i åldern 25–65 år (N = 2847) samt enkätdata från ett icke-slumpmässigt urval av 94 arbetsplatser (N = 3066). Som kriterier för utveckling av gränsvärden för PSC-4 risknivåer användes organisationers upplevda efterlevnad av arbetsmiljöföreskrifter.

    Resultat

    Resultaten visade att PSC-4 hade relevanta samband med andra arbetsmiljöfaktorer såsom kvantitativa krav, ledarskapskvalitet, engagemang i organisationen, arbetsengagemang, arbetstillfredsställelse samt stress och utbrändhet. Vidare framstår PSC-4 som en valid och användbar verktyg för att kunna identifiera risknivåer i relation till hur arbetsmiljöarbetet 2 praktiseras på svenska arbetsplatser. PSC-4 värden över 12 indikerar en god arbetsmiljöpraktik med låg risknivå, medan PSC-4 värden ≤ 8 indikerar bristande arbetsmiljöpraktik med hög risknivå. Värden mellan 12 och 8 indikerar otillräcklig arbetsmiljöpraktik med måttlig risknivå. Arbetsplatser med hög risk rekommenderas att sätta till åtgärder omedelbart, medan de med måttlig risknivå bör ge det systematiska arbetsmiljöarbete mer uppmärksamhet. Sammanfattningsvis, den svenska versionen av PSC4 kan betraktas som en valid och tillförlitlig instrument för både forskning och praktisk användning för riskbedömning på arbetsplatser. 

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  • 24.
    Berthelsen, Hanne
    et al.
    Malmö University, Centre for Work Life and Evaluation Studies (CTA). Malmö University, Faculty of Odontology (OD).
    Muhonen, Tuija
    Malmö University, Centre for Work Life and Evaluation Studies (CTA). Malmö University, Faculty of Education and Society (LS), Department of School Development and Leadership (SOL).
    Bergström, Gunnar
    Centre for Musculoskeletal Research, Department of Occupational Health Sciences and Psychology, University of Gävle, 801 76 Gävle, Sweden; Unit of Intervention and Implementation Research for Worker Health, Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institute, 171 77 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Westerlund, Hugo
    Department of Psychology, Stress Research Institute, Stockholm University, 106 91 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Dollard, Maureen F
    PSC Observatory, Centre for Workplace Excellence, Justice and Society, University of South Australia, Adelaide, SA 5001, Australia.
    Benchmarks for Evidence-Based Risk Assessment with the Swedish Version of the 4-Item Psychosocial Safety Climate Scale.2020In: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, ISSN 1661-7827, E-ISSN 1660-4601, Vol. 17, no 22, article id E8675Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the present study was to validate the short version of The Psychosocial Safety Climate questionnaire (PSC-4, Dollard, 2019) and to establish benchmarks indicating risk levels for use in Sweden. Cross-sectional data from (1) a random sample of employees in Sweden aged 25–65 years (n = 2847) and (2) a convenience sample of non-managerial employees from 94 workplaces (n = 3066) were analyzed. Benchmarks for three PSC risk levels were developed using organizational compliance with Occupational Safety and Health (OSH) regulations as criterion. The results support the validity and usefulness of the Swedish PSC-4 as an instrument to indicate good, fair, and poor OSH practices. The recommended benchmark for indicating good OSH practices is an average score of >12.0, while the proposed cutoff for poor OSH practices is a score of ≤8.0 on the PSC-4. Scores between these benchmarks indicate fair OSH practices. Furthermore, aggregated data on PSC-4 supported its reliability as a workplace level construct and its association with quantitative demands, quality of leadership, commitment to the workplace, work engagement, job satisfaction, as well as stress and burnout. Thus, the Swedish version of PSC-4 can be regarded as a valid and reliable measure for both research and practical use for risk assessment at workplaces.

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  • 25.
    Berthelsen, Hanne
    et al.
    Malmö högskola, Centre for Work Life and Evaluation Studies (CTA). Malmö högskola, Faculty of Odontology (OD).
    Muhonen, Tuija
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), Department of Urban Studies (US). Malmö högskola, Centre for Work Life and Evaluation Studies (CTA).
    Toivanen, Susanna
    Vad händer med arbetsmiljön när man inför aktivitetsbaserade kontor inom akademin?2017In: Arbetsmarknad & Arbetsliv, ISSN 1400-9692, E-ISSN 2002-343X, Vol. 23, no 3, p. 9-23Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Aktivitetsbaserade kontor är fortfarande ovanliga för forskare och lärare inom akademin, men nu verkar flera lärosäten vara igång att införa den här typen av arbetsplatser. Det finns begränsat med kunskap om vad som händer vid flyttprocesser från egna rum till aktivitetsbaserade kontor i akademin och hur personalen upplever arbetsmiljön i denna typ av kontorsmiljöer. I den här artikeln redovisas resultat från en enkätundersökning före och efter flytt till aktivitetsbaserade kontor på en svensk högskola.

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  • 26.
    Berthelsen, Hanne
    et al.
    Malmö University, Centre for Work Life and Evaluation Studies (CTA).
    Muhonen, Tuija
    Malmö University, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), Department of Urban Studies (US). Malmö University, Centre for Work Life and Evaluation Studies (CTA).
    Toivanen, Susanna
    What happens to the physical and psychosocial work environment when activity-based offices are introduced into academia?2018In: Journal of Corporate Real Estate, ISSN 1463-001X, E-ISSN 1479-1048, Vol. 20, no 4, p. 230-243Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – There is an increased interest for introducing activity-based offices at universities. The purpose of this study is to contribute to the knowledge about the importance of the built environment for the psychosocial work environment within academia by analyzing how staff at a large Swedish university experienced the physical and psychosocial work environment before and after moving to activity-based offices. Design/methodology/approach – A Web-based survey was distributed to all employees at two faculties at a university three months before (2015, n = 217, response rate 51 per cent) and nine months after (2016, n = 200, response rate 47 per cent) relocation to a new activity-based university building. Findings – In the new premises, a vast majority (86 per cent) always occupied the same place when possible, and worked also more often from home. The social community at work had declined and social support from colleagues and supervisors was perceived to have decreased. The participants reported a lower job satisfaction after the relocation and were more likely to seek new jobs. No aspects in the physical or psychosocial work environment were found to have improved after the relocation. Research/limitations implications – The study had a two-wave cross-sectional design, which does not allow establishing causal relations. Practical implications – There is reason to be cautious about relocation to activity-based offices at universities. The potential savings in costs for premises may lead to may be followed by an increase in other costs. The risk that staff cannot concentrate on their work in activity-based university workplaces and lose their sense of community with colleagues are factors, which in the long run may lead to decreased efficiency, more conflicts and poorer well-being. Originality/value – This paper contributes with new knowledge concerning changes in the physical and psychosocial work environment when relocating from cell offices to activity-based offices in a university setting.

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  • 27.
    Berthelsen, Hanne
    et al.
    Malmö University, Centre for Work Life and Evaluation Studies (CTA). Malmö University, Faculty of Odontology (OD).
    Owen, Mikaela
    University of South Australia.
    Westerlund, Hugo
    Stockholm University.
    Does workplace social capital predict care quality through job satisfaction and stress at the clinic? A prospective study2021In: BMC Public Health, E-ISSN 1471-2458, Vol. 21, no 1, article id 1320Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Welfare societies like Sweden face challenges in balancing the budget while meeting the demand for good quality healthcare. The aim of this study was to analyse whether care quality, operationalized as survival of dental fillings, is predicted by workplace social capital and if this effect is direct or indirect (through stress and/or job satisfaction among staff at the clinic), controlling for patient demographics.

    METHODS: The prospective design includes A) work environment data from surveys of 75 general public dental clinics (aggregated data based on 872 individual ratings), and B) register-based survival of 9381dental fillings performed during a 3-month period around the time of the survey, and C) patient demographics (age, gender, income level and birth place). Using a multi-level discrete-time proportional hazard model, we tested whether clinic-level social capital, stress, and job satisfaction could predict tooth-level filling failure, controlling for patient demographics. One direct and two indirect pathways, moderated by filling tooth, location, and filling type, were tested.

    RESULTS: High workplace social capital reduced the risk of early failure of fillings in molar teeth, mediated by group-perceived job satisfaction (indirect path: OR = 0.93, p < .05, direct path from job satisfaction: OR = 0.89, p < .05). Contrary to expectations, we found no support for a direct effect from social capital on care quality or for the indirect pathway via stress at the clinic level.

    CONCLUSIONS: Workplace social capital boosted the quality of dental fillings through increased levels of job satisfaction. In addition, staff at clinics with higher social capital reported less stress and higher levels of job satisfaction. These results indicate that promotion of social capital may improve both occupational health and care quality.

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  • 28.
    Berthelsen, Hanne
    et al.
    Malmö University, Centre for Work Life and Evaluation Studies (CTA). Malmö University, Faculty of Odontology (OD).
    Owen, Mikaela
    Centre for Workplace Excellence, University of South Australia, Adelaide, Australia.
    Westerlund, Hugo
    The Stress Research Institute, Department of Psychology, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Leadership, work environment and caries prevention: what is good for the staff, is also good for the patients2023In: Acta Odontologica Scandinavica, ISSN 0001-6357, E-ISSN 1502-3850, Vol. 81, no 3, p. 196-201Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVES: Dental caries is a health problem that can be prevented. The aim of this study is to analyse if the quality of leadership, in Swedish Public Dental Health clinics, influences the extent to which patients with caries receive preventive care, and if any such effect is mediated through a collaborative work climate, clear role expectations and a low average level of burnout among staff.

    METHODS: The multilevel cross-sectional design includes work environment data from surveys of 75 general public dental clinics, register-based data on preventive measures provided to 5398 patients who received a dental filling due to a caries diagnosis, and patient demographics. Using a multilevel path analysis with logistic regression, we tested a model with one direct and three indirect pathways, controlling for the potential confounding effect of patient demographic factors.

    RESULTS: Leadership quality, as assessed by the staff at the clinic, was associated with increased odds of patients with caries receiving prevention, controlling for patient demographic factors. Leadership quality was also positively related to a collaborative work climate, clear role expectations and a low average level of burnout among staff. Against expectations, however, no indirect effect from leadership quality on prevention through the other work environment factors was found.

    CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, the quality of leadership in Swedish Public Dental Health clinics was positively related to a good work environment for staff and to delivery of preventive care to patients experiencing caries.

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  • 29.
    Berthelsen, Hanne
    et al.
    Malmö University, Faculty of Odontology (OD). Malmö University, Centre for Work Life and Evaluation Studies (CTA). Malmö University.
    Owen, Mikaela
    Centre for Workplace Excellence, University of South Australia.
    Wretlind, Katharina
    Public Dental Service Västra Götaland.
    Westerlund, Hugo
    Does staff-assessed care quality predict early failure of dental fillings?: a prospective study2020In: Community Dentistry and Oral Epidemiology, ISSN 0301-5661, E-ISSN 1600-0528, Vol. 48, no 5, p. 387-394Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to evaluate staff-assessed care quality as an indicator of register-based measures of care quality at dental clinics, more specifically register-based measures of survival of dental fillings and initiation of preventive treatments for caries patients.

    METHODS: This prospective study includes data from cross-sectional workplace psychosocial risk assessment surveys at dental clinics and register data on survival of dental fillings, and initiation of preventive treatment for caries patients obtained from the Swedish Quality Registry for Caries and Periodontal Disease (SKaPa) Demographic background data on the age, gender, income level and place of birth of patients was obtained from Statistics Sweden (SCB). The data were analysed using discrete-time multilevel survival analysis and multiple linear regression analysis.

    RESULTS: The results showed that staff-assessed care quality rated by the total staff or by dental nurses at the clinic predicted the risk of replacement of dental fillings made due to a caries diagnosis during the 3-year follow-up period, controlling for potential confounding due to patient demographic characteristics (age, sex, income and country of birth). In contrast, the better the staff-assessed care quality at the clinic, the smaller the proportion of the patients received preventive care in addition to operative caries therapy when controlling for potential confounding due to patient demographics. Care quality assessed by dentists at the clinic did not predict either of these outcome measures.

    CONCLUSIONS: Premature failure of dental fillings is costly for both patients and society, which leads to a need for relevant measures for following dental care quality. Our findings indicate that staff-assessed care quality - a cheap and easy measure to collect and follow continuously in dental practice - can be used to monitor aspects of quality in real time in order to facilitate continuous improvement and quickly amend quality problems. Also, it can be used for integrating quality improvement in systematic work environment risk management.

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  • 30.
    Berthelsen, Hanne
    et al.
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Odontology (OD).
    Pejtersen, Jan Hyld
    Hjalmers, Karin
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Odontology (OD).
    Bergström, Kamilla
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Odontology (OD).
    Söderfeldt, Björn
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Odontology (OD).
    Work fulfilment in dentistry2008In: Abstract book, The Nordic Network NOVO, NOVO symposium, Espoo, Finland , 2008, p. 21-22Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The psychosocial work environment in dentistry is well documented as demanding, while less is known of what constitutes work fulfilment for dentists. Aim. The aim was to explore the rewarding aspects of the work as general dental practitioner. Methods. A qualitative approach was used to ensure a deeper understanding of the subject as perceived by dentists working in the field. Among Danish and Swedish general dental practitioners, eight informants were in 2007-08 selected step by step to obtain maximal variation of participants as to country of origin, gender, age and clinical work experience. Semi-structured, in-depth interviews based on Kvale’s principles were performed in the mother tongue of the informants. The interviews were audio-recorded and later transcribed verbatim in the original language by the interviewers. Statements covering rewarding aspects of dentistry were used for systematic text condensation according to the principles of Giorgi’s phenomenological analysis, following 4 steps as modified by Malterud: (1) reading all the material to obtain an overall impression, and bracketing preconceptions; (2) identifying units of meaning representing different rewarding aspects of good work, and coding for these aspects; (3) condensing and abstracting the meaning within each of the coded groups; and (4) summarizing the contents of each code group to generalize descriptions and concepts reflecting aspects of good work. The study was approved by The Regional Ethical Review Board in Lund, Sweden. Results. The first overall impression of data was that the rewarding aspects of the work as a dentist emerged directly from the clinical encounter: From the opportunity for performing a high quality odontological handicraft and from the relation with patients. It was formulated as an emotion of internal self satisfaction. Next, the dentists described some basic conditions as their relations to workmates, peers and managers as well as how organisational values and conditions influenced the opportunities for achieving the perceived rewarding aspects from the clinical encounter. Conclusion. The results comprising the moral aspects as essential in the work as a dentist support Hasenfelds’ theory of Human Service Organizations. This implicates a need for developing work environmental models with internal as well as external rewards when dealing with human service organizations. Acknowledgements. The authors wish to acknowledge the Swedish Council for working life and social research for financial support.

  • 31.
    Berthelsen, Hanne
    et al.
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Odontology (OD).
    Pejtersen, Jan Hyld
    Ordell, Sven
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Odontology (OD).
    Söderfeldt, Björn
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Odontology (OD).
    Measurement of trust in dentistry, the example of Sweden-Denmark2009Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Background and aim: At workplace it is relevant to study trust in the relations among colleagues (horizontal trust) and trust between management and employees (vertical trust). In the Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire (COPSOQ) a measure of these two concepts has been developed, but the validity of the measures in a specific context as dentistry is unknown. The aim of the present study was to apply the measurements of trust from COPSOQ to a population of general dental practitioners from Denmark and Sweden, comparing factor solutions and scoring norms to the original results. Besides dentistry is an example of a human service organization, which implicates that also the patients take a central role in the daily work. Materials and methods: In 2008, a questionnaire was sent to 1835 general dental practitioners, randomly selected among members of the dental associations in Sweden and Denmark. The response rate was 68% after two reminders. Distribution analyses of two items concerning the importance of colleagues and relationship with patients were performed. Principal Components Analysis was applied to seven items concerning trust, taken directly from the second version of COPSOQ. The analyses were performed for the total sample as well as for subgroups according to gender, country, and employment sector. Results: Relationships to colleagues as well as patients were considered as very important for the perception of work fullfillment. The analyses resulted in two stable factors, interpreted as “trust” and “hindered information flow”. Conclusions: The suggested two factors from COPSOQ: vertical and horizontal trust, could not be reproduced in the present study. Consequently, the constructs cannot be regarded as valid for small enterprises as dentistry in Sweden and Denmark. Besides, it is suggested to include measurement of trust in the relationship with patients, when dealing with psychosocial work environment in human service organizations. The authors wish to acknowledge the Swedish Council for Working Life and Social Research, Malmö University and The Danish Dental Association for financial support.

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  • 32.
    Berthelsen, Hanne
    et al.
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Odontology (OD).
    Pejtersen, Jan Hyld
    Söderfeldt, Björn
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Odontology (OD).
    The use of COPSOQ measures in dentistry2009Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Background and aim: In the Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire (COPSOQ)measures of community at workplace, horizontal and vertical trust have been developed, but the validity of the measures in a specific context as dentistry is unknown. The aim was to apply the measurements from COPSOQ to a population of general dental practitioners from Denmark and Sweden, comparing factor solutions and scoring norms to the original results. Materials and methods: In 2008, a questionnaire was sent to 1835 general dental practitioners, randomly selected among members of the dental associations in Sweden and Denmark. The response rate was 68% after two reminders. Distribution analyses of two items concerning the importance of colleagues and relationship with patients were performed. Principal Components Analysis with Varimax rotation (PCA) was applied to seven COPSOQ items on trust and two on community together with three new developed questions. The analyses were performed for the total sample and for subgroups according to gender, country, employment sector and managerial responsibility. Results: The PCA resulted in two stable factors, interpreted as “trust” and “hindered information flow". Conclusions: The suggested concepts from COPSOQ: vertical and horizontal trust and community could not be reproduced in the present study. Consequently, the constructs cannot be regarded as valid for small enterprises as dentistry in Sweden and Denmark. The authors wish to acknowledge the Swedish Council for Working Life and Social Research, Malmö University and The Danish Dental Association for financial support.

  • 33.
    Berthelsen, Hanne
    et al.
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Odontology (OD).
    Söderfeldt, Björn
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Odontology (OD).
    Bergström, Kamilla
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Odontology (OD).
    Pejtersen, Jan Hyld
    Hjalmers, Karin
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Odontology (OD).
    Ordell, Sven
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Odontology (OD).
    Decision Authority among Dentists from Denmark and Sweden2009In: Abstract book, 2009Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: Karasek and Theorell define job control as the worker's control over work tasks and performance during the working day. This study aims to analyze differences in job control as decision authority over aspects of the work, among general dental practitioners from Denmark and Sweden. Materials and methods: In 2008, a questionnaire was sent to 1835 general dental practitioners, randomly selected from the dental associations in Sweden and Denmark (17% of the eligible population). The response rate was 68% after two reminders. Principal Components Analysis was applied to eight items about influence. Based on the resulting two factors, additive indices were established to measure decision authority: “influence on scheduling appointments” (2 items) and “general influence” (6 items). ANOVA with Tukey's HSD test was used for comparison between groups based on nationality and sector for dentists with/without managerial responsibility. For analyses without equal variances, Kruskal-Wallis test was applied. Results: Influence on scheduling appointments: In both Denmark and Sweden, dentists from the public sector reported lower influence on scheduling appointments than private practitioners (p≤0.01). Comparing dentists from the same sector showed no significant differences between the countries, neither after controlling for managerial responsibility. Dentists with managerial responsibility had higher influence than employed dentists (p≤0.001). Influence in general: For dentists without leadership tasks, similar patterns were seen. In contrast, Swedish dentists with managerial responsibility reported higher general influence than their Danish colleagues (p≤0.01). Independently of gender and nationality, private managers had higher general influence than their public counterpart (p≤0.01). Dentists with managerial responsibility had higher influence than employed dentists (p≤0.001). Conclusion and perspective: Differences in decision authority were found between general dental practitioners working in the public and the private sector in both countries. The results may reflect different management cultures as well as different structural organization of the work. In light of changes in demands made on health care professionals it is important to secure decision authority in order to keep work balance as well as quality in care. The authors wish to acknowledge the Swedish Council for Working Life and Social Research, Malmö University and The Danish Dental Association for financial support.

  • 34.
    Berthelsen, Hanne
    et al.
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Odontology (OD).
    Söderfeldt, Björn
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Odontology (OD).
    Harris, Rebecca
    Hyld Pejtersen, Jan
    Bergström, Kamilla
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Odontology (OD).
    Hjalmers, Karin
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Odontology (OD).
    Ordell, Sven
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Odontology (OD).
    Collegial Support and Community with Trust in Swedish and Danish dentistry2011In: Acta Odontologica Scandinavica, ISSN 0001-6357, E-ISSN 1502-3850, Vol. 69, no 6, p. 343-354Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives. The aim of the study was to better understand the associations between work factors and professional support among dentists (Collegial Support) as well as the sense of being part of a work community characterized by trust (Community with Trust). Methods. A questionnaire was sent to 1835 general dental practitioners, randomly selected from the members of dental associations in Sweden and Denmark in 2008. The response rate was 68%. Two models with the outcome variables Collegial Support and being part of a Community with Trust were built using multiple hierarchical linear regression. Demographic background factors, work factors, managerial factors and factors relating to objectives and to values characterizing climate of the practice were all introduced as blocks into the models. Results. A different pattern emerged for Collegial Support than for Community with Trust, indicating different underlying mechanisms. The main results were: (I) Female, married/cohabitant, collegial network outside the practice, common breaks, formalized managerial education of leader and a climate characterized by professional values, which were positively associated with Collegial Support, while number of years as a dentist and being managerially responsible were negatively associated. (II) Common breaks, decision authority and a climate characterized by professional values were positively associated with Community with Trust. Conclusion. A professionally-oriented practice climate and having common breaks at work were strongly associated with both outcome variables. The study underlined the importance of managing dentistry in a way which respects the professional ethos of dentists.

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  • 35.
    Berthelsen, Hanne
    et al.
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Odontology (OD).
    Söderfeldt, Björn
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Odontology (OD).
    Hyld Pejtersen, Jan
    A work-related community characterized of trust - dentistry in Sweden and Denmark2010Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Background Earlier research emphasizes the importance of positive work relations for dentists’ perception of opportunities for quality in handicraft and patient relations. A scale for positive work relations, Community with Trust, has been developed and its psychometrical properties evaluated. Objectives. The aim of the study was a) to compare mean scores on Community with Trust across subgroups based on organizational affiliation; b) to analyse associations between work factors (size of practice, common breaks, formalized managerial education of the daily leader, influence on work, profession-oriented and productivity-oriented practice climate) and Community with Trust; and c) to assess the correlation between the scales for Community with Trust and Overall Job Satisfaction. Methods. A questionnaire was sent to 1835 general dental practitioners, randomly selected from dental associations in Sweden and Denmark. The response rate was 68%. Kruskal Wallis test and Pearson’s correlation were applied and a hierarchical linear multiple regression model with the outcome variable Community with Trust was built. Results. Significant differences in mean score of Community with Trust were found for dentists working in different organizational forms. The final regression analysis explained 49 % of the variation and showed that factors such as common breaks, influence on work, and a practice climate with values corresponding with those of the profession contributed to explanation of the differences in average among dentists with different organizational affiliation. Community with Trust and Overall Job Satisfaction were moderately to strongly correlated (0.52). Conclusion. The study pointed to the relevance of addressing the professional ethos when organizing and managing dentistry for a sustainable work environment supporting quality in handicraft and in relations with patients.

  • 36.
    Berthelsen, Hanne
    et al.
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Odontology (OD).
    Söderfeldt, Björn
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Odontology (OD).
    Pejtersen, Jan Hyld
    Hjalmers, Karin
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Odontology (OD).
    Bergström, Kamilla
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Odontology (OD).
    DECISION AUTHORITY AMONG DENTISTS FROM DENMARK AND SWEDEN2009Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: Karasek and Theorell define job control as the worker's control over work tasks and performance during the working day. This study aims to analyze differences in job control as decision authority over aspects of the work, among general dental practitioners from Denmark and Sweden. Materials and methods: In 2008, a questionnaire was sent to 1835 general dental practitioners, randomly selected from the dental associations in Sweden and Denmark (17% of the eligible population). The response rate was 68% after two reminders. Principal Components Analysis was applied to eight items about influence. Based on the resulting two factors, additive indices were established to measure decision authority: “influence on scheduling appointments” (2 items) and “general influence” (6 items). ANOVA with Tukey's HSD test was used for comparison between groups based on nationality and sector for dentists with/without managerial responsibility. For analyses without equal variances, Kruskal-Wallis test was applied. Results: Influence on scheduling appointments: In both Denmark and Sweden, dentists from the public sector reported lower influence on scheduling appointments than private practitioners (p≤0.01). Comparing dentists from the same sector showed no significant differences between the countries, neither after controlling for managerial responsibility. Dentists with managerial responsibility had higher influence than employed dentists (p≤0.001). Influence in general: For dentists without leadership tasks, similar patterns were seen. In contrast, Swedish dentists with managerial responsibility reported higher general influence than their Danish colleagues (p≤0.01). Independently of gender and nationality, private managers had higher general influence than their public counterpart (p≤0.01). Dentists with managerial responsibility had higher influence than employed dentists (p≤0.001). Conclusions: Differences in decision authority were found between general dental practitioners working in the public and the private sector in both countries. The results may reflect different management cultures as well as different structural organization of the work. The authors wish to acknowledge the Swedish Council for Working Life and Social Research, Malmö University and The Danish Dental Association for financial support.

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  • 37.
    Berthelsen, Hanne
    et al.
    Malmö University, Centre for Work Life and Evaluation Studies (CTA). Malmö University, Faculty of Odontology (OD).
    Westerlund, Hugo
    Department of Psychology, Stress Research Institute, Stockholm University.
    Bergström, Gunnar
    Institute of Environmental Medicine, Unit of Intervention and Implementation Research for Worker Health, Karolinska Institute.
    Burr, Hermann
    Division 3Work and Health, Federal Institute of Occupational Safety and Health (BAuA),.
    Validation of the Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire Version III and Establishment of Benchmarks for Psychosocial Risk Management in Sweden2020In: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, ISSN 1661-7827, E-ISSN 1660-4601, Vol. 17, no 9, article id E3179Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study presents the Swedish standard version of the Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire, COPSOQ III, and investigates its reliability and validity at individual and workplace levels with the aim of establishing benchmarks for the psychosocial work environment. Cross-sectional data from (1) a random sample of employees in Sweden aged 25-65 years (N = 2847) and (2) a convenience sample of non-managerial employees at 51 workplaces (N = 1818) were analysed. Internal consistency reliability was evaluated as well as the effects of sex, work sector and blue/white-collar work. Population benchmarks and mean scores for major occupational groups were computed based on weighted data. ICC(1) and ICC(2) estimates were computed to evaluate aggregation to the workplace level and Pearson inter-correlations to evaluate construct validity at individual and aggregated levels. The reliability and scale characteristics were satisfactory, with few exceptions, at both individual and workplace levels. The strength and direction of correlations supported the construct validity of the dimensions and the amount of variance explained by workplace justified aggregation to the workplace level. The present study thus supports the use of COPSOQ III for measurement at the workplace level and presents benchmarks for risk management as well as for research purposes.

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  • 38.
    Berthelsen, Hanne
    et al.
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Odontology (OD). Malmö högskola, Centre for Work Life and Evaluation Studies (CTA).
    Westerlund, Hugo
    Hakanen, Jari
    Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire (COPSOQ II) - concurrent validity assessed by a theoretical model2016In: International Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0020-7594, E-ISSN 1464-066X, Vol. 51, no Issue S1, p. 640-640Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives. To validate the concurrent validity of COPSOQ II (Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire), a work environment questionnaire translated into >25 languages. Methods. Electronic questionnaire sent to all public dentistry staff in four Swedish regions (response rate of 75%; n = 1345). Twenty‐two scales from COPSOQ II, complemented by the Utrecht Work Engagement scale, were mapped onto a hypothesized double mediated model based on the Job‐Demand‐Resources (JD‐R) Model with workability as outcome. The model was tested using Structural Equation Modelling (SEM). Results. The theoretical model fit the data well (RMSEA 0.060; CFI 0.925, TLI 0.913, χ2 1543.81; df 281; p < 0.001). The effect of leadership resources on workability was mediated through other kind of job resources and demands, and from these through strain symptoms and positive work‐related outcomes. Conclusion. The concurrent validity of the scales was corroborated and the results support the use of COPSOQ II for research and workplace risk assessment.

  • 39.
    Berthelsen, Hanne
    et al.
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Odontology (OD). Malmö högskola, Centre for Work Life and Evaluation Studies (CTA).
    Westerlund, Hugo
    Hakanen, Jari J
    Kristensen, Tage S
    It is not just about occupation, but also about where you work2017In: Community Dentistry and Oral Epidemiology, ISSN 0301-5661, E-ISSN 1600-0528, Vol. 45, no 4, p. 372-379Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: Dentistry is characterized by a meaningful but also stressful psychosocial working environment. Job satisfaction varies among staff working under different organizational forms. The aim of this study was to identify (i) to what extent crucial psychosocial work environment characteristics differ among occupations in general public dental clinics in Sweden, and (ii) how much of the variation within each occupation is attributable to the organizational level. Methods: All staff (N=1782) employed in four public dental organizations received an email with personal log-in to an electronic questionnaire based on the Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire. After two reminders, a response rate of 75% was obtained. Responses from 880 nonmanagerial dentists, dental hygienists and dental nurses working in general practices were included in our analyses. Results: First, we compared the three dental occupations. We found that job demands, task resources (eg influence, possibilities for development and role clarity), strain symptoms and attitudes to work differed among occupations, dentists having the least favourable situation. Next, we compared the four organizations for each occupational group, separately. For dentists, a significant and relevant amount of variance (P<.05 and ICC >.05) was explained by the organizational level for 15 of 26 subscales, least pronounced for task resources. By contrast, for dental nurses and hygienists, the corresponding number was 2 subscales of 26. The psychosocial working environment of people working at the organization with the highest levels of strain indicators and the least positive work-related attitudes differed systematically from the organization with the most favourable profile, in particular regarding job demands and leadership aspects. Conclusion: In conclusion, the psychosocial working environment depended to a large degree on occupation and, for dentists in particular, also on their organizational affiliation. The findings suggest a potential for designing interventions at organizational level for improvements of the psychosocial working environment for dentists.

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  • 40.
    Berthelsen, Hanne
    et al.
    Malmö University, Faculty of Odontology (OD). Malmö University, Centre for Work Life and Evaluation Studies (CTA).
    Westerlund, Hugo
    Pejtersen, Jan Hyld
    Hadzibajramovic, Emina
    Construct validity of a global scale for Workplace Social Capital based on COPSOQ III2019In: PLOS ONE, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 14, no 8, article id e0221893Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background and aim: Workplace Social Capital has been suggested as a useful concept when addressing organizational and social factors of the work environment. The overall aim of the present study is to establish and evaluate the construct validity of a measure of Workplace Social Capital based on the operationalization suggested in the third version of the Copenhagen Psychosocial questionnaire. Methods: The present study is based on data collected as part of a validation and development project for the use of the Swedish version of COPSOQ at workplaces and includes responses from 1316 human service workers answering a workplace survey. Six items from scales for organizational justice, vertical trust and horizontal trust in COPSOQ III were included in the analyses. Rasch Analysis was used for scale validation. Results: The analyses showed that the psychometric properties of the suggested COPSOQ scale for Workplace Social Capital were satisfactory after accommodation for local dependency. Each individual item worked as intended, the scale was unidimensional and functioned invariantly for women and men, and for younger and older employees. The scale was furthermore found to be valid for use for distinguishing groups, not individuals. Conclusion: We have established that the scale for Workplace Social Capital measured by COPSOQ III is valid for distinguishing groups, e.g. work teams. The scale exhibits good construct validity as it satisfies the measurement criteria defined by the Rasch model.

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  • 41.
    Berthelsen, Hanne
    et al.
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Odontology (OD). Malmö högskola, Centre for Work Life and Evaluation Studies (CTA).
    Westerlund, Hugo
    Søndergård Kristensen, Tage
    COPSOQ II: en uppdatering och språklig validering av den svenska versionen av en enkät för kartläggning av den psykosociala arbetsmiljön på arbetsplatser2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire version II (COPSOQ II) was developed by the Danish National Research Centre for the Working Environment (www.arbejdsmiljoforskning.dk) to be a valid instrument for the assessment of the psychosocial work environment and for facilitating communication between workplaces, work environment professionals, and researchers. It is a comprehensive, generic instrument including numerous dimensions based on an eclectic set of theories on psychosocial factors at work as well as on empirical research, rather than being linked to one particular theory. The existing Swedish version of COPSOQ II was translated from the Danish version of the questionnaire by a Danish-Swedish team of researchers, but has so far not been back-translated or subjected to psychometric analysis. The aim of this report is to present the overall results from the first steps of the validation process, including a revised Swedish version of the instrument. An international group of practitioners and researchers using COPSOQ meet regularly for exchange of experiences, discussions and decisions on the instrument’s continued development. This international group has agreed that new translations of COPSOQ should be based on the English version of the instrument. The ongoing validation of the Swedish version of COPSOQ therefore includes a back-translation from Swedish to English, followed by cognitive interviews for questionnaire development and a cross-sectional study combined with register data. Results from the back-translation procedure including a systematic evaluation process revealed challenges in relations to conceptual equivalence as well as a need for adjustments to improve clarity and the use of ordinary contemporary language. Cognitive interviews were conducted to identify potential problems in the questionnaire, to clarify how different concepts and questions were interpreted by the respondents, and thus to revise the Swedish version of COPSOQ. Informants were selected to achieve variation in age, gender, occupation, and region of residence. Individual interviews were performed with 26 informants using a think aloud approach combined with flexible concurrent probing based on an interview guide. The interviews were audio recorded and transcribed verbatim. The interviews were conducted in rounds followed by an initial analysis before adjustments of the questionnaire items were made. The initial analyses provided insight in questions which were difficult to understand or were understood in another way than expected, in addition to an understanding of how response options were used by informants. Based on the findings from the back-translation and the interviews, the Swedish version of the Swedish was revised and tested on new rounds of informants until it was functioning well. Results from the back-translation procedure indicate problems with lacking conceptual equivalence for a number of items in the Danish and English versions of COPSOQ. As a starting point the questions were adjusted for equivalence to the English version, but in a number of items equivalence to the original Danish version was preferred to be retained. Results from the interviews implicated that some formulations were adjusted in such a way that comprehensibility and relevance were given preference over equivalence. The present report presents all the decisions we have made about adjustments of the formulations and the consequences for conceptual equivalence. This is relevant to take into consideration, when results from Swedish and international studies are compared. The results of the project are also relevant in relation to the other language versions of COPSOQ, which are developed, based on the Danish version, as well as for decisions concerning the future international development of the instrument. The project will continue with complementary studies and analyses in relation to other aspects of validity. The study has been approved by the Regional Ethics Board in Southern Sweden and is funded by the Swedish Research Council for Health, Working Life and Welfare (Forte).

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  • 42.
    Burr, H.
    et al.
    Unit 3.2 Psychosocial Factors and Mental Health, Federal Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (BAuA), 13017 Berlin, Germany.
    Müller, G.
    Federal Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (BAuA), 10317 Berlin, Germany.
    Rose, U.
    Unit 3.2 Psychosocial Factors and Mental Health, Federal Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (BAuA), 13017 Berlin, Germany.
    Formazin, M.
    Unit 3.0 Work and Health, Federal Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (BAuA), 10317 Berlin, Germany.
    Clausen, T.
    National Research Centre for the Working Environment, 2100 Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Schulz, A.
    Unit 3.2 Psychosocial Factors and Mental Health, Federal Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (BAuA), 13017 Berlin, Germany.
    Berthelsen, Hanne
    Malmö University, Centre for Work Life and Evaluation Studies (CTA). Malmö University, Faculty of Odontology (OD).
    Potter, G.
    Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Duke University, Durham, NC 27701, USA.
    D’errico, A.
    Department of Epidemiology, Local Health Unit ASL TO 3, Piedmont Region, 10095 Turin, Italy.
    Pohrt, A.
    Department of Medical Psychology, Charité-Universitätsmedizin, 10317 Berlin, Germany.
    The demand–control model as a predictor of depressive symptoms—interaction and differential subscale effects: Prospective analyses of 2212 German employees2021In: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, ISSN 1661-7827, E-ISSN 1660-4601, Vol. 18, no 16, article id 8328Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Testing assumptions of the widely used demand–control (DC) model in occupational psychosocial epidemiology, we investigated (a) interaction, i.e., whether the combined effect of low job control and high psychological demands on depressive symptoms was stronger than the sum of their single effects (i.e., superadditivity) and (b) whether subscales of psychological demands and job control had similar associations with depressive symptoms. Logistic longitudinal regression analyses of the 5-year cohort of the German Study of Mental Health at Work (S-MGA) 2011/12–2017 of 2212 employees were conducted. The observed combined effect of low job control and high psychological demands on depressive symptoms did not indicate interaction (RERI = −0.26, 95% CI = −0.91; 0.40). When dichotomizing subscales at the median, differential effects of subscales were not found. When dividing subscales into categories based on value ranges, differential effects for job control subscales (namely, decision authority and skill discretion) were found (p = 0.04). This study does not support all assumptions of the DC model: (1) it corroborates previous studies not finding an interaction of psychological demands and job control; and (2) signs of differential subscale effects were found regarding job control. Too few prospective studies have been carried out regarding differential subscale effects. 

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  • 43. Burr, Hermann
    et al.
    Berthelsen, Hanne
    Malmö University, Faculty of Odontology (OD). Malmö University, Centre for Work Life and Evaluation Studies (CTA).
    Moncada, Salvador
    Nübling, Matthias
    Dupret, Emilie
    Demiral, Yucel
    Oudyk, John
    Kristensen, Tage S.
    Llorens, Clara
    Navarro, Albert
    Lincke, Hans-Joachim
    Bocéréan, Christine
    Sahan, Ceyda
    Smith, Peter
    Pohrt, Anne
    The Third Version of the Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire2019In: SH@W Safety and Health at Work, ISSN 2093-7911, E-ISSN 2093-7997, Vol. 10, no 4, p. 482-503Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction A new third version of the Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire (COPSOQ III) has been developed in response to trends in working life, theoretical concepts, and international experience. A key component of the COPSOQ III is a defined set of mandatory core items to be included in national short, middle, and long versions of the questionnaire. The aim of the present article is to present and test the reliability of the new international middle version of the COPSOQ III. Methods The questionnaire was tested among 23,361 employees during 2016–2017 in Canada, Spain, France, Germany, Sweden, and Turkey. A total of 26 dimensions (measured through scales or single items) of the middle version and two from the long version were tested. Psychometric properties of the dimensions were assessed regarding reliability (Cronbach α), ceiling and floor effects (fractions with extreme answers), and distinctiveness (correlations with other dimensions). Results Most international middle dimensions had satisfactory reliability in most countries, though some ceiling and floor effects were present. Dimensions with missing values were rare. Most dimensions had low to medium intercorrelations. Conclusions The COPSOQ III offers reliable and distinct measures of a wide range of psychosocial dimensions of modern working life in different countries; although a few measures could be improved. Future testing should focus on validation of the COPSOQ items and dimensions using both qualitative and quantitative approaches. Such investigations would enhance the basis for recommendations using the COPSOQ III.

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  • 44.
    Cowen Forssell, Rebecka
    et al.
    Malmö University, Centre for Work Life and Evaluation Studies (CTA). Malmö University, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), Department of Urban Studies (US).
    Ringblom, Lisa
    Malmö University, Centre for Work Life and Evaluation Studies (CTA). Malmö University, Faculty of Education and Society (LS), Department of Society, Culture and Identity (SKI).
    Jönsson, Sandra
    Malmö University, Centre for Work Life and Evaluation Studies (CTA). Malmö University, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), Department of Urban Studies (US).
    Berthelsen, Hanne
    Malmö University, Centre for Work Life and Evaluation Studies (CTA). Malmö University, Faculty of Odontology (OD).
    Work-related cyber mistreatment from guardians, members of the public, and pupils in the context of educational work: From incivility to aggression2024In: Teaching and Teacher Education: An International Journal of Research and Studies, ISSN 0742-051X, E-ISSN 1879-2480, E-ISSN 1879-2480, Vol. 145, p. 1-10, article id 104603Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study explores the nature of work-related cyber mistreatment from guardians, pupils, and members of the public as experienced by educational workers. Thematic analysis of data collected by semi-structured interviews with 31 teachers and principals resulted in two overarching themes; directly addressed cyber mistreatment in email and unwanted negative exposure on social media. The data spans over different types of cyber mistreatment, ranging from cyber incivility to cyberaggression. Educational workers typically feel powerless when exposed to mistreatment, and require support to manage these complex, novel, and distressing situations.

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  • 45.
    Duarte, Joana
    et al.
    Malmö University, Centre for Work Life and Evaluation Studies (CTA).
    Berthelsen, Hanne
    Malmö University, Centre for Work Life and Evaluation Studies (CTA). Malmö University, Faculty of Odontology (OD).
    Owen, Mikaela
    Centre for Workplace Excellence, University of South Australia.
    Not All Emotional Demands Are the Same: Emotional Demands from Clients' or Co-Workers' Relations Have Different Associations with Well-Being in Service Workers.2020In: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, ISSN 1661-7827, E-ISSN 1660-4601, Vol. 17, no 21, article id E7738Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There has been an increased interest in the study of emotional demands (ED) at work and its impact on workers' well-being. However, ED have been conceptualized as a unitary concept, focused on interactions with clients, and excluding other potential sources of ED at work. Therefore, the aim of the current study is to explore the relation between ED from different relational sources (clients/patients/customers and colleagues, supervisors, and employees) and service workers' exhaustion and engagement. Cross-sectional data from a sample of 2742 service workers were analysed using structural equation modelling. Results showed that ED from both sources (clients and colleagues) were associated with more emotional exhaustion, particularly if dealing with clients was not an integrated part of the role. Further, ED from clients' relations were negatively associated with engagement for managers with staff responsibility, but positively for managers without staff responsibility. We also found moderating effects of psychosocial safety climate (PSC), whereby ED had the strongest effect on emotional exhaustion when PSC was low. This study suggests that different relational sources of ED at work have a different impact on employees' well-being. Strategies that promote a reduction of extra-role ED, and the development of a PSC in the organization, could therefore offer possible solutions to promote employees' psychological well-being and motivation.

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  • 46.
    Farley, Samuel
    et al.
    Univ Sheffield, Management Sch, Sheffield, England..
    Cowen Forssell, Rebecka
    Malmö University, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), Department of Urban Studies (US). Malmö University, Centre for Work Life and Evaluation Studies (CTA).
    Holm, Kristoffer
    Malmö University, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), Department of Urban Studies (US).
    Berthelsen, Hanne
    Malmö University, Faculty of Odontology (OD).
    Predictors of work-related cyberaggression in a random sample of the Swedish working population2024In: International Journal of Workplace Health Management, ISSN 1753-8351, E-ISSN 1753-836X, Vol. 17, no 1, p. 57-71Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: With greater numbers of employees using computer-mediated communication, cyberaggression is becoming a more pressing problem for employees and their organizations. However, while a growing body of research illustrates its harmful effects, little is known about the factors that drive its occurrence. The authors therefore sought to identify factors that increase the risk of cyberaggression among employees.

    Design/methodology/approach: A random sample of the Swedish working population (N = 11,556) was surveyed via Statistics Sweden (SCB), which produced a final sample of N = 2,847 (response rate = 24.6%).

    Findings: Logistic regression analysis showed that emotionally demanding work, availability expectations, low perceived work quality, public sector work and being in a managerial position were related to higher levels of experienced cyberaggression. In addition, exploratory analyses indicated that some of these factors were more strongly related to cyberaggression enacted by organizational insiders compared to organizational outsiders.

    Originality/value: Together, the authors' findings suggest that situational factors are stronger antecedents of cyberaggression victimization than personal factors. This has implications for organizations, as practical steps can be taken to reduce cyberaggression among employees.

  • 47.
    Forssell, Rebecka
    et al.
    Malmö University, Centre for Work Life and Evaluation Studies (CTA). Malmö University, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), Department of Urban Studies (US).
    Berthelsen, Hanne
    Malmö University, Centre for Work Life and Evaluation Studies (CTA). Malmö University, Faculty of Odontology (OD).
    Jönsson, Sandra
    Malmö University, Centre for Work Life and Evaluation Studies (CTA). Malmö University, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), Department of Urban Studies (US).
    Negotiating for influence and resources: A study of Swedish teachers' and principals' experiences of aggressive emails from parents2024In: Educational Management Administration & Leadership, ISSN 1741-1432, E-ISSN 1741-1440Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article focuses on teachers’ and principals’ experiences of aggressive emails in home–school collaborations with parents. Semi-structured interviews with 31 teachers and principals from primary, lower and upper secondary schools in Sweden were conducted. Three categories were identified in the material which illuminate the phenomenon of cyberaggression towards principals and teachers from parents: ‘aggressive emails as reactions to principals and teachers’ performances’, ‘aggressive emails as a way of imposing power’ and ‘aggressive emails as a source of anxiety, loss of joy, and decreased focus on core tasks’. The study concludes that cyberaggression in emails from parents is centred around the act of negotiating and that email communication opens up spaces for negotiation to take place. The study also concludes that email cyberaggression tends to be instrumental in character, intended to result in a specific outcome rather than to cause harm. However, cyberaggression influences professional practice and can create a vicious circle of administrative obligation.

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  • 48.
    Geisler, Martin
    et al.
    Malmö University, Centre for Work Life and Evaluation Studies (CTA).
    Berthelsen, Hanne
    Malmö University, Centre for Work Life and Evaluation Studies (CTA). Malmö University, Faculty of Odontology (OD).
    Hakanen, Jari J
    No job demand is an island: interaction effects between emotional demands and other types of job demands2019In: Frontiers in Psychology, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 10, p. 1-11, article id 873Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Emotional demands are an inevitable feature of human services, and suggested to be a defining antecedent for workers’ stress and ill health. However, previous research indicate that emotional demands can have a favorably association to certain facets of human service workers’ motivation and well-being. Furthermore, recent research report that the effect of emotional demands on workers’ health and well-being seem to be contingent on the parallel level of other job demands. Still, initial investigations of interaction effects between emotional demands and other types of job demands have primarily focused on negative outcomes in terms of stress-related concerns and absenteeism. The present study investigated interaction effects between emotional demands and other types of job demands in relation to positive outcomes. In a larger sample of human service workers (social workers, n = 725), interaction effects were investigated between emotional demands and other job demands (quantitative demands, work pressure, and role conflict) for meaning in work and quality of work. Hypotheses stated that other job demands would moderate the relationship between emotional demands and positive outcomes, so that emotional demands would have a positive relation (i.e., act as a challenge) when the level of other demands is lower, but have a negative relation (i.e., act as a hindrance) when the level of other demands is high. Overall, the results provided support for the idea that emotional demands may act as a challenge. We found small but significant interaction effects between emotional demands and work pressure – in relation to meaning of work, as well as between emotional demands and quantitative demands, work pressure, and roleconflict, respectively – in relation to quality of work. Yet, the results did not support the assumption that emotional demands act as a hindrance when the level of other types of job demands is high. In sum, the results contribute by showing that emotional demands may promote human-service workers’ job attitudes when the level of parallel job demands is lower. We discuss the contribution of the study and the potential practical implications of the results, and give some suggestions for future research.

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  • 49.
    Geisler, Martin
    et al.
    Malmö University, Centre for Work Life and Evaluation Studies (CTA).
    Berthelsen, Hanne
    Malmö University, Centre for Work Life and Evaluation Studies (CTA).
    Muhonen, Tuija
    Malmö University, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), Department of Urban Studies (US). Malmö University, Centre for Work Life and Evaluation Studies (CTA).
    Retaining social workers: The role of quality of work and psychosocial safety climate for work engagement, job satisfaction, and organizational commitment2019In: Human service organizations, management, leadership & governance, ISSN 2330-3131, E-ISSN 2330-314X, Vol. 43, no 1, p. 1-15Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study investigated how psychosocial safety climate (PSC), job demands (role conflict and work-family conflict), job resources (social support from superiors and social community at work), and assessments for quality of work relate to social workers’ work engagement, job satisfaction, and organizational commitment. The results of the questionnaire study (N = 831) showed that quality of work was strongly related to all three outcomes, whereas PSC was found to be related to social workers’ job satisfaction. The contribution of the study is discussed in relation to understanding the retention of social workers.

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  • 50.
    Hjalmers, Karin
    et al.
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Odontology (OD).
    Berthelsen, Hanne
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Odontology (OD).
    Söderfeldt, Björn
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Odontology (OD).
    Goda relationer och kvalitet viktigast för arbetsglädjen2010In: Tandläkartidningen, ISSN 0039-6982, no 12, p. 74-76Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Goda patientrelationer och möjlighet att utföra kvalitetsarbete i en bra arbetsmiljö. Det är viktigast för att tandläkare ska känna arbetsglädje, visar en studie på avdelningen för samhällsodontologi vid odontologiska fakulteten i Malmö.

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