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  • 1.
    Abd Al Ghani, Zahi
    et al.
    Malmö University, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS), Department of Computer Science and Media Technology (DVMT).
    Ha Zu, Peter
    Malmö University, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS), Department of Computer Science and Media Technology (DVMT).
    Framtidens Lärande: En Undersökning av ChatGPT:s Acceptans, Möjligheter och Utmaningar Inom Högre Utbildning2023Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 13 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Det pågår en stor förändring i arbetsliv och samhälle i samband med lansering av olika generativa AI verktyg som skapar innehåll varierande former. Centralt i debatten är ChatGPT, som har väckt mängder av diskussioner i media angående risker för missbruk, särskilt inom utbildningssektorn. Denna studie syftar till att skapa och bidra till förståelse över ChatGPT och dess användbarhet, samt utmaningar genom att analysera acceptansen hos lärare och studenter i högre utbildning. Detta genom att använda teorier från nya vetenskapliga artiklarna angående ChatGPT i högre utbildning, samt jämföra dem med kvalitativa data i form av perspektiv och åsikter från lärare och studenter, och slutligen analysera dem i ett samband med tidigare utbildningsteknologier. Studiens resultat tyder på att ChatGPT har relativt blandad acceptans och delvis haft fördelaktiga effekter på genomförandet av uppgifter i högre utbildning beroende på kunskapsämne. ChatGPT har redan uppvisat anmärkningsvärda förändringar i arbetsprocessen för både lärare och studenter, däremot förekommer det obesvarade frågor och etiska problematik vilket för närvarande förhindrar dess möjligheter som ett potentiellt revolutionerande utbildningsverktyg i högre utbildning.

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  • 2.
    Abdul Sater, Malek
    et al.
    Malmö University, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS), Department of Computer Science and Media Technology (DVMT).
    Mohamed, Reem
    Malmö University, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS), Department of Computer Science and Media Technology (DVMT).
    Parkinson’s disease tremor assessment: Leveragingsmartphones for symptom measurement2023Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a progressive, chronic neurodegenerative disorder that impacts patients' quality of life. Hand tremor is a hallmark motor symptom of PD. However, current clinical tremor assessment methods are time-consuming and expensive and may not capture the full extent of tremor fluctuations. The built-in sensors in smartphones offer an accessible and cost-effective alternative for objective tremor assessment.

    This study presents a systematic approach to developing a quantitative algorithm for Parkinson's disease tremor assessment using Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU) data. This study begins with a comprehensive data visualisation and understanding phase, leading to the design decision to implement a multiple linear regression model for tremor severity prediction. The IMU data, collected from 10 patients, is pre-processed and normalised to ensure consistency and account for varying degrees of tremor severity.

    Feature extraction is conducted based on insights from literature, resulting in 16 unique features. These unique features are extracted for each of the acceleration and rotation rate data, resulting in 582 total features over both hands and all three tremor types. Recursive Feature Elimination with Cross-Validation (RFECV) is employed for feature selection, identifying the most relevant features contributing to tremor severity prediction. A multiple linear regression model is implemented and trained using the Leave-One-Out with Cross-Validation (LOOCV) method.

    The model's performance is evaluated resulting in a mean MSE of 0.88, a mean MAE of 0.69, and an R² of 0.88. The results indicate a strong correlation between predicted and actual tremor severity, suggesting the model's high validity. The selected features show a high correlation with the patient's MDS-UPDRS scores, further validating their relevance in predicting tremor severity. Greater results could be achieved, but sample size was the greatest limitation during this study.

    This study demonstrates the potential of using IMU data and multiple linear regression modelling for accurate PD tremor assessment within Mobistudy, contributing to the field of quantitative PD analysis.

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  • 3.
    Abid, Muhammad Adil
    et al.
    Malmö University, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS), Department of Computer Science and Media Technology (DVMT).
    Amouzad Mahdiraji, Saeid
    Malmö University, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS), Department of Computer Science and Media Technology (DVMT).
    Lorig, Fabian
    Malmö University, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS), Department of Computer Science and Media Technology (DVMT). Malmö University, Internet of Things and People (IOTAP).
    Holmgren, Johan
    Malmö University, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS), Department of Computer Science and Media Technology (DVMT).
    Mihailescu, Radu-Casian
    Malmö University, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS), Department of Computer Science and Media Technology (DVMT).
    Petersson, Jesper
    Department of Health Care Management, Region Skåne, 21428 Malmö, Sweden; Department of Neurology, Lund University, 22242 Malmö, Sweden.
    A Genetic Algorithm for Optimizing Mobile Stroke Unit Deployment2023In: Procedia Computer Science, ISSN 1877-0509, Vol. 225, p. 3536-3545Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A mobile stroke unit (MSU) is an advanced ambulance equipped with specialized technology and trained healthcare personnel to provide on-site diagnosis and treatment for stroke patients. Providing efficient access to healthcare (in a viable way) requires optimizing the placement of MSUs. In this study, we propose a time-efficient method based on a genetic algorithm (GA) to find the most suitable ambulance sites for the placement of MSUs (given the number of MSUs and a set of potential sites). We designed an efficient encoding scheme for the input data (the number of MSUs and potential sites) and developed custom selection, crossover, and mutation operators that are tailored according to the characteristics of the MSU allocation problem. We present a case study on the Southern Healthcare Region in Sweden to demonstrate the generality and robustness of our proposed GA method. Particularly, we demonstrate our method's flexibility and adaptability through a series of experiments across multiple settings. For the considered scenario, our proposed method outperforms the exhaustive search method by finding the best locations within 0.16, 1.44, and 10.09 minutes in the deployment of three MSUs, four MSUs, and five MSUs, resulting in 8.75x, 16.36x, and 24.77x faster performance, respectively. Furthermore, we validate the method's robustness by iterating GA multiple times and reporting its average fitness score (performance convergence). In addition, we show the effectiveness of our method by evaluating key hyperparameters, that is, population size, mutation rate, and the number of generations.

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  • 4.
    Adewole, Kayode S.
    et al.
    Malmö University, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS), Department of Computer Science and Media Technology (DVMT). Umeå Univ, Dept Comp Sci, Umeå, Sweden.;Univ Ilorin, Dept Comp Sci, Ilorin, Nigeria..
    Torra, Vicenc
    Umeå Univ, Dept Comp Sci, Umeå, Sweden..
    Privacy Protection of Synthetic Smart Grid Data Simulated via Generative Adversarial Networks2023In: Proceedings of the 20th international conference on security and cryptography, secrypt 2023 / [ed] DiVimercati, SD; Samarati, P, SciTePress, 2023, p. 279-286Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The development in smart meter technology has made grid operations more efficient based on fine-grained electricity usage data generated at different levels of time granularity. Consequently, machine learning algorithms have benefited from these data to produce useful models for important grid operations. Although machine learning algorithms need historical data to improve predictive performance, these data are not readily available for public utilization due to privacy issues. The existing smart grid data simulation frameworks generate grid data with implicit privacy concerns since the data are simulated from a few real energy consumptions that are publicly available. This paper addresses two issues in smart grid. First, it assesses the level of privacy violation with the individual household appliances based on synthetic household aggregate loads consumption. Second, based on the findings, it proposes two privacy-preserving mechanisms to reduce this risk. Three inference attacks are simulated and the results obtained confirm the efficacy of the proposed privacy-preserving mechanisms.

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  • 5.
    Ahrling, Julia
    et al.
    Malmö University, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS), Department of Computer Science and Media Technology (DVMT).
    Franzén, Jonna
    Malmö University, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS), Department of Computer Science and Media Technology (DVMT).
    Exploring Emely: An exploratory case study on the usability and user experience of a conversational agent for L2 learning2023Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study focuses on evaluating and enhancing the user experience of Emely, a conversational agent aimed at improving language skills for second language learners, particularly those who want to increase their chances of securing employment in Sweden. Usability testing was conducted in two test rounds, with the first round providing design implications for the user interface in the second round. However, assessing the effectiveness of the interface improvements was challenging due to low Swedish proficiency among the test groups consisting of potential users of Emely. Although the study did not result in design implications for the user interface, important findings highlight the need to adapt conversational agents, like Emely, for users with low literacy levels and illiteracy, emphasizing the importance of inclusive design for effective language learning support.

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  • 6.
    Akin, Erdal
    Malmö University, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS), Department of Computer Science and Media Technology (DVMT). Malmö University, Internet of Things and People (IOTAP). Computer Engineering Department, Bitlis Eren University, Bitlis, Türkiye.
    Deep Reinforcement Learning-Based Multirestricted Dynamic-Request Transportation Framework2023In: IEEE Transactions on Neural Networks and Learning Systems, ISSN 2162-237X, E-ISSN 2162-2388, p. 1-11Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) are used in many areas where their usage is increasing constantly. Their popularity, therefore, maintains its importance in the technology world. Parallel to the development of technology, human standards, and surroundings should also improve equally. This study is developed based on the possibility of timely delivery of urgent medical requests in emergency situations. Using UAVs for delivering urgent medical requests will be very effective due to their flexible maneuverability and low costs. However, off-the-shelf UAVs suffer from limited payload capacity and battery constraints. In addition, urgent requests may be requested at an uncertain time, and delivering in a short time may be crucial. To address this issue, we proposed a novel framework that considers the limitations of the UAVs and dynamically requested packages. These previously unknown packages have source–destination pairs and delivery time intervals. Furthermore, we utilize deep reinforcement learning (DRL) algorithms, deep Q-network (DQN), proximal policy optimization (PPO), and advantage actor–critic (A2C) to overcome this unknown environment and requests. The comprehensive experimental results demonstrate that the PPO algorithm has a faster and more stable training performance than the other DRL algorithms in two different environmental setups. Also, we implemented an extension version of a Brute-force (BF) algorithm, assuming that all requests and environments are known in advance. The PPO algorithm performs very close to the success rate of the BF algorithm.

  • 7.
    Al Fatah, Jabir
    et al.
    Malmö University, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS), Department of Computer Science and Media Technology (DVMT).
    Alshaban, Ala’a
    Malmö University, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS), Department of Computer Science and Media Technology (DVMT).
    Holmgren, Johan
    Malmö University, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS), Department of Computer Science and Media Technology (DVMT).
    Petersson, Jesper
    An agent-based simulation model for assessment of prehospital triage policies concerning destination of stroke patients2018In: Procedia Computer Science, Vol. 141, p. 405-412Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Stroke is a life threatening medical condition that is caused either by a blood clot or a bleeding inside the brain. It is generally agreed that immediate treatment of stroke patients is crucial for their ability to recover; however, before treatment can be initiated, the stroke patient has to be diagnosed using, for example, a computed tomography scan of the brain. This, in turn, requires that the patient is transported to a hospital for diagnosis, which is a procedure that consumes valuable time and resources. In the current paper, we present an agent-based simulation model for assessment of logistical stroke patient triage policies. Using a population of stroke patients as input, the model enables to simulate the activities and the main decisions involved in the logistical operations of stroke patients. In an experimental study covering the southernmost part of Sweden, we used the simulation model in order to assess two different policies regarding where to send patients for diagnosis; the nearest hospital policy and the nearest hospital towards the stroke center policy. Our simulation results show that the patients in need of special treatment favor from being transported in direction towards the stroke center, whereas the patients who are not in need of specialist treatment favor from being sent to the closest hospital.

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  • 8.
    Aladwan, Mohammad N.
    et al.
    Univ Santiago de Compostela, Ctr Singular Invest Tecnoloxias Intelixentes, Santiago De Compostela 15782, Spain..
    Awaysheh, Feras M.
    Univ Santiago de Compostela, Ctr Singular Invest Tecnoloxias Intelixentes, Santiago De Compostela 15782, Spain..
    Alawadi, Sadi
    Malmö University, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS), Department of Computer Science and Media Technology (DVMT). Malmö University, Internet of Things and People (IOTAP).
    Alazab, Mamoun
    Charles Darwin Univ, Coll Engn IT & Environm, Casuarina, NT 0810, Australia..
    Pena, Tomas F.
    Univ Santiago de Compostela, Ctr Singular Invest Tecnoloxias Intelixentes, Santiago De Compostela 15782, Spain..
    Cabaleiro, Jose C.
    Univ Santiago de Compostela, Ctr Singular Invest Tecnoloxias Intelixentes, Santiago De Compostela 15782, Spain..
    TrustE-VC: Trustworthy Evaluation Framework for Industrial Connected Vehicles in the Cloud2020In: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Informatics, ISSN 1551-3203, E-ISSN 1941-0050, Vol. 16, no 9, p. 6203-6213Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The integration between cloud computing and vehicular ad hoc networks, namely, vehicular clouds (VCs), has become a significant research area. This integration was proposed to accelerate the adoption of intelligent transportation systems. The trustworthiness in VCs is expected to carry more computing capabilities that manage large-scale collected data. This trend requires a security evaluation framework that ensures data privacy protection, integrity of information, and availability of resources. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study that proposes a robust trustworthiness evaluation of vehicular cloud for security criteria evaluation and selection. This article proposes three-level security features in order to develop effectiveness and trustworthiness in VCs. To assess and evaluate these security features, our evaluation framework consists of three main interconnected components: 1) an aggregation of the security evaluation values of the security criteria for each level; 2) a fuzzy multicriteria decision-making algorithm; and 3) a simple additive weight associated with the importance-performance analysis and performance rate to visualize the framework findings. The evaluation results of the security criteria based on the average performance rate and global weight suggest that data residency, data privacy, and data ownership are the most pressing challenges in assessing data protection in a VC environment. Overall, this article paves the way for a secure VC using an evaluation of effective security features and underscores directions and challenges facing the VC community. This article sheds light on the importance of security by design, emphasizing multiple layers of security when implementing industrial VCs.

  • 9.
    Alassadi, Abdulrahman
    Malmö University, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS), Department of Computer Science and Media Technology (DVMT).
    An Individual-based Simulation Approach for Generating a Synthetic Stroke Population2021Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The time to treatment plays a major factor in recovery for stroke patients, and simulation techniques can be valuable tools for testing healthcare policies and improving the situation for stroke patients. However, simulation requires individual-level data about stroke patients which cannot be acquired due to patient’s privacy rules. This thesis presents a hybrid simulation model for generating a synthetic population of stroke patients by combining Agent-based and microsimulation modeling. Subsequently, Agent-based simulation is used to estimate the locations where strokes happen. The simulation model is built by conducting the Design Science research method, where the simulation model is built by following a set of steps including data preparation, conceptual model formulation, implementation, and finally running the simulation model. The generated synthetic population size is based on the number of stroke events in a year from a Poisson Point Process and consists of stroke patients along with essential attributes such as age, stroke status, home location, and current location. The simulation output shows that nearly all patients had their stroke while being home, where the traveling factor is insignificant to the stroke locations based on the travel survey data used in this thesis and the assumption that all patients return home at midnight.

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  • 10.
    Alassadi, Abdulrahman
    et al.
    Malmö University, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS), Department of Computer Science and Media Technology (DVMT).
    Lorig, Fabian
    Malmö University, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS), Department of Computer Science and Media Technology (DVMT). Malmö University, Internet of Things and People (IOTAP).
    Holmgren, Johan
    Malmö University, Internet of Things and People (IOTAP). Malmö University, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS), Department of Computer Science and Media Technology (DVMT).
    An Agent-based Model for Simulating Travel Patterns of Stroke Patients2021In: DIGITAL 2021: Advances on Societal Digital Transformation / [ed] Wanwan Li; Manuela Popescu, ThinkMind , 2021, p. 11-16Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    For patients suffering from a stroke, the time until the start of the treatment is a crucial factor with respect to the recovery from this condition. In rural regions, transporting the patient to an adequate hospital typically delays the diagnosis and treatment of a stroke, worsening its prognosis. To reduce the time to treatment, different policies can be applied. This includes, for instance, the use of Mobile Stroke Units (MSUs), which are specialized ambulances that can provide adequate care closer to where the stroke occurred. To simulate and assess different stroke logistics policies, such as the use of MSUs, a major challenge is the realistic modeling of the patients. In this article, we present an approach for generating an artificial population of stroke patients to simulate when and where strokes occur. We apply the model to the region of Skåne, where we investigated the relevance of travel behavior on the spatial distribution of stroke patients.

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  • 11.
    Alassadi, Abdulrahman
    et al.
    Malmö University, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS), Department of Computer Science and Media Technology (DVMT).
    Lorig, Fabian
    Malmö University, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS), Department of Computer Science and Media Technology (DVMT). Malmö University, Internet of Things and People (IOTAP).
    Holmgren, Johan
    Malmö University, Internet of Things and People (IOTAP). Malmö University, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS), Department of Computer Science and Media Technology (DVMT).
    Population Generation for Agent-based Simulations of Stroke Logistics Policies: A Case Study of Stroke Patient Mobility2022In: International Journal On Advances in Life Sciences, ISSN 1942-2660, E-ISSN 1942-2660, Vol. 14, no 1&2, p. 12-21Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    For acute medical conditions, for instance strokes, the time until the start of the treatment is a crucial factor to prevent a fatal outcome and to facilitate the recovery of the patient’s health. Hence, the planning and optimization of patient logistics is of high importance to ensure prompt access to healthcare facilities in case of medical emergencies. Computer simulation can be used to investigate the effects of different stroke logistics policies under realistic conditions without jeopardizing the health of the patients. The success of such policies greatly depends on the behavior of the individuals. Hence, agent-based simulation is particularly well-suited as it imitates human behavior and decision-making by means of artificial intelligence, which allows for investigating the effects of policies under different conditions. Agent-based simulation requires the generation of a realistic synthetic population, that adequately represents the population that shall be investigated such that reliable conclusions can be drawn from the simulation results. In this article, we propose a process for generating an artificial population of potential stroke patients that can be used to investigate the effects of stroke logistics policies using agent-based simulation. To illustrate how this process can be applied, we present the results from a case study in the region of Skåne in southern Sweden, where a synthetic population of stroke patients with realistic mobility behavior is simulated. 

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  • 12.
    Alawadi, Sadi
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Kebande, Victor R.
    Umeå University, Sweden.
    Dong, Yuji
    School of Internet of ThingsXi’an Jiaotong-Liverpool UniversitySuzhouChina.
    Bugeja, Joseph
    Malmö University, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS), Department of Computer Science and Media Technology (DVMT).
    Persson, Jan A.
    Malmö University, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS), Department of Computer Science and Media Technology (DVMT).
    Olsson, Carl Magnus
    Malmö University, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS), Department of Computer Science and Media Technology (DVMT).
    A Federated Interactive Learning IoT-Based Health Monitoring Platform2021In: New Trends in Database and Information Systems, Springer, 2021, p. 235-246Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Remote health monitoring is a trend for better health management which necessitates the need for secure monitoring and privacy-preservation of patient data. Moreover, accurate and continuous monitoring of personal health status may require expert validation in an active learning strategy. As a result, this paper proposes a Federated Interactive Learning IoT-based Health Monitoring Platform (FIL-IoT-HMP) which incorporates multi-expert feedback as ‘Human-in-the-loop’ in an active learning strategy in order to improve the clients’ Machine Learning (ML) models. The authors have proposed an architecture and conducted an experiment as a proof of concept. Federated learning approach has been preferred in this context given that it strengthens privacy by allowing the global model to be trained while sensitive data is retained at the local edge nodes. Also, each model’s accuracy is improved while privacy and security of data has been upheld.

  • 13.
    Alawadi, Sadi
    et al.
    Malmö University, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS), Department of Computer Science and Media Technology (DVMT). Malmö University, Internet of Things and People (IOTAP).
    Mera, David
    Centro Singular de Investigación en Tecnoloxías da Información (CiTIUS), Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, Santiago de Compostela, Spain.
    Fernandez-Delgado, Manuel
    Centro Singular de Investigación en Tecnoloxías da Información (CiTIUS), Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, Santiago de Compostela, Spain.
    Alkhabbas, Fahed
    Malmö University, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS), Department of Computer Science and Media Technology (DVMT). Malmö University, Internet of Things and People (IOTAP).
    Olsson, Carl Magnus
    Malmö University, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS), Department of Computer Science and Media Technology (DVMT). Malmö University, Internet of Things and People (IOTAP).
    Davidsson, Paul
    Malmö University, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS), Department of Computer Science and Media Technology (DVMT). Malmö University, Internet of Things and People (IOTAP).
    A comparison of machine learning algorithms for forecasting indoor temperature in smart buildings2020In: Energy Systems, Springer Verlag, ISSN 1868-3967, E-ISSN 1868-3975, Vol. 13, p. 689-705Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The international community has largely recognized that the Earth's climate is changing. Mitigating its global effects requires international actions. The European Union (EU) is leading several initiatives focused on reducing the problems. Specifically, the Climate Action tries to both decrease EU greenhouse gas emissions and improve energy efficiency by reducing the amount of primary energy consumed, and it has pointed to the development of efficient building energy management systems as key. In traditional buildings, households are responsible for continuously monitoring and controlling the installed Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning (HVAC) system. Unnecessary energy consumption might occur due to, for example, forgetting devices turned on, which overwhelms users due to the need to tune the devices manually. Nowadays, smart buildings are automating this process by automatically tuning HVAC systems according to user preferences in order to improve user satisfaction and optimize energy consumption. Towards achieving this goal, in this paper, we compare 36 Machine Learning algorithms that could be used to forecast indoor temperature in a smart building. More specifically, we run experiments using real data to compare their accuracy in terms of R-coefficient and Root Mean Squared Error and their performance in terms of Friedman rank. The results reveal that the ExtraTrees regressor has obtained the highest average accuracy (0.97%) and performance (0,058%) over all horizons.

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  • 14. Al-Dhaqm, Arafat
    et al.
    Abd Razak, Shukor
    Dampier, David A.
    Choo, Kim-Kwang Raymond
    Siddique, Kamran
    Ikuesan, Richard Adeyemi
    d.
    Alqarni, Abdulhadi
    Kebande, Victor R.
    Malmö University, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS), Department of Computer Science and Media Technology (DVMT).
    Categorization and Organization of Database Forensic Investigation Processes2020In: IEEE Access, E-ISSN 2169-3536, Vol. 8, p. 112846-112858Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Database forensic investigation (DBFI) is an important area of research within digital forensics. It & x2019;s importance is growing as digital data becomes more extensive and commonplace. The challenges associated with DBFI are numerous, and one of the challenges is the lack of a harmonized DBFI process for investigators to follow. In this paper, therefore, we conduct a survey of existing literature with the hope of understanding the body of work already accomplished. Furthermore, we build on the existing literature to present a harmonized DBFI process using design science research methodology. This harmonized DBFI process has been developed based on three key categories (i.e. planning, preparation and pre-response, acquisition and preservation, and analysis and reconstruction). Furthermore, the DBFI has been designed to avoid confusion or ambiguity, as well as providing practitioners with a systematic method of performing DBFI with a higher degree of certainty.

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  • 15. Al-Dhaqm, Arafat
    et al.
    Razak, Shukor Abd
    Ikuesan, Richard Adeyemi
    Kebande, Victor R.
    Malmö University, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS), Department of Computer Science and Media Technology (DVMT). Malmö University, Internet of Things and People (IOTAP).
    Siddique, Kamran
    A Review of Mobile Forensic Investigation Process Models2020In: IEEE Access, E-ISSN 2169-3536, Vol. 8, p. 173359-173375Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Mobile Forensics (MF) field uses prescribed scientific approaches with a focus on recovering Potential Digital Evidence (PDE) from mobile devices leveraging forensic techniques. Consequently, increased proliferation, mobile-based services, and the need for new requirements have led to the development of the MF field, which has in the recent past become an area of importance. In this article, the authors take a step to conduct a review on Mobile Forensics Investigation Process Models (MFIPMs) as a step towards uncovering the MF transitions as well as identifying open and future challenges. Based on the study conducted in this article, a review of the literature revealed that there are a few MFIPMs that are designed for solving certain mobile scenarios, with a variety of concepts, investigation processes, activities, and tasks. A total of 100 MFIPMs were reviewed, to present an inclusive and up-to-date background of MFIPMs. Also, this study proposes a Harmonized Mobile Forensic Investigation Process Model (HMFIPM) for the MF field to unify and structure whole redundant investigation processes of the MF field. The paper also goes the extra mile to discuss the state of the art of mobile forensic tools, open and future challenges from a generic standpoint. The results of this study find direct relevance to forensic practitioners and researchers who could leverage the comprehensiveness of the developed processes for investigation.

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  • 16. Al-Dhaqm, Arafat
    et al.
    Razak, Shukor Abd
    Siddique, Kamran
    Ikuesan, Richard Adeyemi
    Kebande, Victor R.
    Malmö University, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS), Department of Computer Science and Media Technology (DVMT).
    Towards the Development of an Integrated Incident Response Model for Database Forensic Investigation Field2020In: IEEE Access, E-ISSN 2169-3536, Vol. 8, p. 145018-145032Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    For every contact that is made in a database, a digital trace will potentially be left and most of the database breaches are mostly aimed at defeating the major security goals (Confidentiality, Integrity, and Authenticity) of data that reside in the database. In order to prove/refute a fact during litigation, it is important to identify suitable investigation techniques that can be used to link a potential incident/suspect to the digital crime. As a result, this paper has proposed suitable steps of constructing and Integrated Incident Response Model (IIRM) that can be relied upon in the database forensic investigation field. While developing the IIRM, design science methodology has been adapted and the outcome of this study has shown significant and promising approaches that could be leveraged by digital forensic experts, legal practitioners and law enforcement agencies. This is owing to the fact, that IIRM construction has followed incident investigation principles that are stipulated in ISO guidelines.

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  • 17. Al-Dhaqm, Arafat
    et al.
    Shukor, Razak
    Ikuesan, Richard
    Kebande, Victor R.
    Malmö University, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS), Department of Computer Science and Media Technology (DVMT). Malmö University, Internet of Things and People (IOTAP). Luleå University of Technology.
    Othman, Siti
    Face Validation of Database Forensic Investigation Metamodel2021In: Infrastructues, ISSN 2412-3811, Vol. 6, no 2, p. 1-20, article id 13Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Using a face validity approach, this paper provides a validation of the Database Forensic Investigation Metamodel (DBFIM). The DBFIM was developed to solve interoperability, heterogeneity, complexity, and ambiguity in the database forensic investigation (DBFI) field, where severalmodels were identified, collected, and reviewed to develop DBFIM. However, the developedDBFIM lacked the face validity-based approach that could ensure DBFIM’s applicability in the DBFIfield. The completeness, usefulness, and logic of the developed DBFIM needed to be validated byexperts. Therefore, the objective of this paper is to perform the validation of the developed DBFIMusing the qualitative face validity approach. The face validity method is a common way of validating metamodels through subject expert inquiry on the domain application of the metamodel to assess whether the metamodel is reasonable and compatible based on the outcomes. For this purpose,six experts were nominated and selected to validate the developed DBFIM. From the expert review,the developed DBFIM was found to be complete, coherent, logical, scalable, interoperable, and useful for the DBFI field. 

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  • 18.
    Al-Ghushami, Abdullah
    et al.
    Edith Cowan Univ, Cyber Secur Cooperat Res Ctr, Perth, WA, Australia.
    Karie, Nlckson
    Edith Cowan Univ, Cyber Secur Cooperat Res Ctr, Perth, WA, Australia.
    Kebande, Victor R.
    Malmö University, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS), Department of Computer Science and Media Technology (DVMT).
    Detecting Centralized Architecture-Based Botnets using Travelling Salesperson Non-Deterministic Polynomial-Hard problem-TSP-NP Technique2019In: 2019 IEEE CONFERENCE ON APPLICATION, INFORMATION AND NETWORK SECURITY (AINS), IEEE, 2019, p. 77-81Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The threats posed by botnets in the cyber-space continues to grow each day and it has become very hard to detect or infiltrate bots given that the botnet developers each day keep changing the propagation and attack techniques. Currently, most of these attacks have been centered on stealing computing energy, theft of personal information and Distributed Denial of Service (DDoS attacks). In this paper, the authors propose a novel technique that uses the Non-Deterministic Polynomial-Time Hardness (NP-Hard Problem) based on the Traveling Salesperson Person (TSP) that depicts that a given bot, b(j), is able to visit each host on a network environment, NE, and then it returns to the botmaster in form of instruction(command) through optimal minimization of the hosts that are or may be attacked. Given that b(j) represents a piece of malicious code and based on TSP-NP Hard Problem which forms part of combinatorial optimization, the authors present an effective approach for the detection of the botnet. It is worth noting that the concentration of this study is basically on the centralized botnet architecture. This holistic approach shows that botnet detection accuracy can be increased with a degree of certainty and potentially decrease the chances of false positives. Nevertheless, a discussion on the possible applicability and implementation has also been given in this paper.

  • 19.
    Alkayali, Omar
    Malmö University, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS), Department of Computer Science and Media Technology (DVMT).
    A regression spline based approach to enhance the prediction accuracy of bicycle counter data2022Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Regression analysis has been used in previous research to predict the number of bicycles registered by a bicycle counter. An important step to improve the prediction is to include a long-term trend curve estimate as part of the formulation of the regression target variable. In this way, it is possible to use the deviation from the trend curve estimate instead of the absolute number of bicycles as target variable in the regression problem formulation. This can help capturing the factors that are difficult, or even impossible, to model as input variables in the regression model, for example, larger infrastructural changes. This study aims to evaluate a regression spline-based approach to enhance the prediction accuracy of bicycle counter data. This will be achieved by formulating a regression problem, generating trend curve estimates using regression splines, and evaluating the resulted curves using cross validation on a set of chosen regression algorithms. We illustrate our approach by applying it on a time series recorded by a bicycle counter in Malmö city, Sweden. For the considered data set, our experimental results show that the spline trend curve estimate with knots between 12-19, which has been fitted to the time series, gives the best prediction. It also shows that the use of ensemble methods leads to better prediction, where the G.B. Regressor shows best performance with 19 knots.

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  • 20.
    Alkhabbas, Fahed
    Malmö University, Internet of Things and People (IOTAP). Malmö University, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS), Department of Computer Science and Media Technology (DVMT).
    An Approach to Engineer and Realize Emergent Configurations in the Internet of Things2018In: Proceedings of the 40th International Conference on Software Engineering: Companion Proceeedings, ACM Digital Library, 2018, p. 448-449Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Internet of Things (IoT) is a fast propagating technology that is expected to emerge in almost all aspects of our daily life. The IoT environment is well known for being dynamic and uncertain. Connected devices, and their software, can be discovered at runtime and might also become suddenly unavailable. The involvement of the human in the loop complicates more the scene. People's activities are stochastic and their needs are not always predictable. Therefore, coping with the dynamic IoT environment should be considered as a first class requirement when engineering IoT systems. A useful concept for supporting this effort is Emergent Configurations (ECs). An EC consists of a dynamic set of devices that cooperate temporarily to achieve a user goal. This PhD work aims to use the concept of ECs as a basis for a novel approach for realizing IoT systems. More specifically, this thesis aims at: (i) producing characterization models for IoT systems and ECs; (ii) proposing a concrete architecture and an approach for realizing ECs.

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  • 21.
    Alkhabbas, Fahed
    Malmö University, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS), Department of Computer Science and Media Technology (DVMT). Malmö University, Internet of Things and People (IOTAP).
    Realizing Emergent Configurations in the Internet of Things2020Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The Internet of Things (IoT) is a fast-spreading technology that enables new types of services in several domains such as transportation, health, and building automation. To exploit the potential of the IoT effectively, several challenges have to be tackled, including the following ones that we study in this thesis. First, the proposed IoT visions provide a fragmented picture, leading to a lack of consensus about IoT systems and their constituents. To piece together the fragmented picture of IoT systems, we systematically identified their characteristics by analyzing existing taxonomies. More specifically, we identified seventeen characteristics of IoT systems, and grouped them into two categories, namely, elements and quality aspects of IoT systems. Moreover, we conducted a survey to identify the factors that drive the deployment decisions of IoT systems in practice. A second set of challenges concerns the environment of IoT systems that is often dynamic and uncertain. For instance, due to the mobility of users and things, the set of things available in users' environment might change suddenly. Similarly, the status of IoT systems’ deployment topologies (i.e., the deployment nodes and their interconnections) might change abruptly. Moreover, environmental conditions monitored and controlled through IoT devices, such as ambient temperature and oxygen levels, might fluctuate suddenly. The majority of existing approaches to engineer IoT systems rely on predefined processes to achieve users’ goals. Consequently, such systems have significant shortcomings in coping with dynamic and uncertain environments. To address these challenges, we used the concept of Emergent Configurations (ECs) to engineer goal-driven IoT systems. An EC is an IoT system that consists of a dynamic set of things that cooperate temporarily to achieve a user goal. To realize ECs, we proposed an abstract architectural approach, comprising an architecture and processes, as well as six novel approaches that refine the abstract approach. The developed approaches support users to achieve their goals seamlessly in arbitrary environments by enabling the dynamic formation, deployment, enactment, and self-adaptation of IoT systems. The approaches exploit different techniques and focus on different aspects of ECs. Moreover, to better support users in dynamic and uncertain environments, we investigated the automated configuration of those environments based on users' preferences. 

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  • 22.
    Alkhabbas, Fahed
    Malmö University, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS), Department of Computer Science and Media Technology (DVMT).
    Towards Emergent Configurations in the Internet of Things2018Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The Internet of Things (IoT) is a fast-spreading technology that enables new types of services in several domains, such as transportation, health, and building automation. To exploit the potential of the IoT effectively, several challenges have to be tackled including the following ones. First, the proposed IoT visions provide a fragmented picture, leading to a lack of consensus about IoT systems and their constituents. A second set of challenges concerns the environment of IoT systems that is often dynamic and uncertain, e.g. devices can appear and be discovered at runtime as well as become suddenly unavailable. Additionally, the in- volvement of human users complicates the scene as people’s activities are not always predictable . The majority of existing approaches to en- gineer IoT systems rely on predefined processes to achieve users’ goals. Consequently, such systems have significant shortcomings in coping with dynamic and uncertain environments. To piece together the fragmented picture of IoT systems, we sys- tematically identified their characteristics by analyzing and synthesizing existing taxonomies. To address the challenges related to the IoT envir- onment and the involvement of human users, we used the concept of Emergent Configurations (ECs) to engineer IoT systems. An EC consists of a dynamic set of devices that cooperate temporarily to achieve a user goal. To realize this vision, we proposed novel approaches that enable users to achieve their goals by supporting the automated formation, en- actment, and self-adaptation of IoT systems.

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  • 23.
    Alkhabbas, Fahed
    et al.
    Malmö University, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS), Department of Computer Science and Media Technology (DVMT). Malmö University, Internet of Things and People (IOTAP).
    Alawadi, Sadi
    School of Information Technology, Halmstad University,Halmstad,Sweden.
    Ayyad, Majed
    Birzeit University,Department of Computer Science,Palestine.
    Spalazzese, Romina
    Malmö University, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS), Department of Computer Science and Media Technology (DVMT). Malmö University, Internet of Things and People (IOTAP).
    Davidsson, Paul
    Malmö University, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS), Department of Computer Science and Media Technology (DVMT). Malmö University, Internet of Things and People (IOTAP).
    ART4FL: An Agent-Based Architectural Approach for Trustworthy Federated Learning in the IoT2023In: 2023 Eighth International Conference on Fog and Mobile Edge Computing (FMEC), Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2023Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The integration of the Internet of Things (IoT) and Machine Learning (ML) technologies has opened up for the development of novel types of systems and services. Federated Learning (FL) has enabled the systems to collaboratively train their ML models while preserving the privacy of the data collected by their IoT devices and objects. Several FL frameworks have been developed, however, they do not enable FL in open, distributed, and heterogeneous IoT environments. Specifically, they do not support systems that collect similar data to dynamically discover each other, communicate, and negotiate about the training terms (e.g., accuracy, communication latency, and cost). Towards bridging this gap, we propose ART4FL, an end-to-end framework that enables FL in open IoT settings. The framework enables systems' users to configure agents that participate in FL on their behalf. Those agents negotiate and make commitments (i.e., contractual agreements) to dynamically form federations. To perform FL, the framework deploys the needed services dynamically, monitors the training rounds, and calculates agents' trust scores based on the established commitments. ART4FL exploits a blockchain network to maintain the trust scores, and it provides those scores to negotiating agents' during the federations' formation phase.

  • 24.
    Alkhabbas, Fahed
    et al.
    Malmö University, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS), Department of Computer Science and Media Technology (DVMT). Malmö University, Internet of Things and People (IOTAP).
    Alawadi, Sadi
    Malmö University, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS), Department of Computer Science and Media Technology (DVMT). Malmö University, Internet of Things and People (IOTAP).
    Spalazzese, Romina
    Malmö University, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS), Department of Computer Science and Media Technology (DVMT). Malmö University, Internet of Things and People (IOTAP).
    Davidsson, Paul
    Malmö University, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS), Department of Computer Science and Media Technology (DVMT). Malmö University, Internet of Things and People (IOTAP).
    Activity Recognition and User Preference Learning for Automated Configuration of IoT Environments2020In: IoT '20: Proceedings of the 10th International Conference on the Internet of Things, New York, United States: ACM Digital Library, 2020, p. 1-8, article id 3Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Internet of Things (IoT) environments encompass different types of devices and objects that offer a wide range of services. The dynamicity and uncertainty of those environments, including the mobility of users and devices, make it hard to foresee at design time available devices, objects, and services. For the users to benefit from such environments, they should be proposed services that are relevant to the specific context and can be provided by available things. Moreover, environments should be configured automatically based on users' preferences. To address these challenges, we propose an approach that leverages Artificial Intelligence techniques to recognize users' activities and provides relevant services to support users to perform their activities. Moreover, our approach learns users' preferences and configures their environments accordingly by dynamically forming, enacting, and adapting goal-driven IoT systems. In this paper, we present a conceptual model, a multi-tier architecture, and processes of our approach. Moreover, we report about how we validated the feasibility and evaluated the scalability of the approach through a prototype that we developed and used.

  • 25.
    Alkhabbas, Fahed
    et al.
    Malmö University, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS), Department of Computer Science and Media Technology (DVMT). Malmö University, Internet of Things and People (IOTAP).
    Alsadi, Mohammed
    Department of Computer Science, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, 7491 Trondheim, Norway.
    Alawadi, Sadi
    Department of Information Technology, Uppsala University, 75105 Uppsala, Sweden; Center for Applied Intelligent Systems Research, School of Information Technology, Halmstad University, 30118 Halmstad, Sweden.
    Awaysheh, Feras M
    Institute of Computer Science, Delta Research Centre, University of Tartu, 51009 Tartu, Estonia.
    Kebande, Victor R.
    Department of Computer Science (DBlekinge Institute of Technology, 37179 Karlskrona, Sweden.
    Moghaddam, Mahyar T
    The Maersk Mc-Kinney Moller Institute (MMMI), University of Southern Denmark, 5230 Odense, Denmark.
    ASSERT: A Blockchain-Based Architectural Approach for Engineering Secure Self-Adaptive IoT Systems.2022In: Sensors, E-ISSN 1424-8220, Vol. 22, no 18, article id 6842Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Internet of Things (IoT) systems are complex systems that can manage mission-critical, costly operations or the collection, storage, and processing of sensitive data. Therefore, security represents a primary concern that should be considered when engineering IoT systems. Additionally, several challenges need to be addressed, including the following ones. IoT systems' environments are dynamic and uncertain. For instance, IoT devices can be mobile or might run out of batteries, so they can become suddenly unavailable. To cope with such environments, IoT systems can be engineered as goal-driven and self-adaptive systems. A goal-driven IoT system is composed of a dynamic set of IoT devices and services that temporarily connect and cooperate to achieve a specific goal. Several approaches have been proposed to engineer goal-driven and self-adaptive IoT systems. However, none of the existing approaches enable goal-driven IoT systems to automatically detect security threats and autonomously adapt to mitigate them. Toward bridging these gaps, this paper proposes a distributed architectural Approach for engineering goal-driven IoT Systems that can autonomously SElf-adapt to secuRity Threats in their environments (ASSERT). ASSERT exploits techniques and adopts notions, such as agents, federated learning, feedback loops, and blockchain, for maintaining the systems' security and enhancing the trustworthiness of the adaptations they perform. The results of the experiments that we conducted to validate the approach's feasibility show that it performs and scales well when detecting security threats, performing autonomous security adaptations to mitigate the threats and enabling systems' constituents to learn about security threats in their environments collaboratively.

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  • 26.
    Alkhabbas, Fahed
    et al.
    Malmö University, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS), Department of Computer Science and Media Technology (DVMT). Malmö University, Internet of Things and People (IOTAP).
    De Sanctis, Martina
    Gran Sasso Sci Inst, Comp Sci Dept, Laquila, Italy..
    Bucchiarone, Antonio
    Fdn Bruno Kessler, Trento, Italy..
    Cicchetti, Antonio
    Mälardalen Univ, IDT Dept, Västerås, Sweden..
    Spalazzese, Romina
    Malmö University, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS), Department of Computer Science and Media Technology (DVMT). Malmö University, Internet of Things and People (IOTAP).
    Davidsson, Paul
    Malmö University, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS), Department of Computer Science and Media Technology (DVMT). Malmö University, Internet of Things and People (IOTAP).
    Iovino, Ludovico
    Gran Sasso Sci Inst, Comp Sci Dept, Laquila, Italy..
    ROUTE: A Framework for Customizable Smart Mobility Planners2022In: IEEE 19TH INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON SOFTWARE ARCHITECTURE (ICSA 2022), Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2022, p. 169-179Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Multimodal journey planners are used worldwide to support travelers in planning and executing their journeys. Generated travel plans usually involve local mobility service providers, consider some travelers' preferences, and provide travelers information about the routes' current status and expected delays. However, those planners cannot fully consider the special situations of individual cities when providing travel planning services. Specifically, authorities of different cities might define customizable regulations or constraints of movements in the cities (e.g., due to construction works or pandemics). Moreover, with the transformation of traditional cities into smart cities, travel planners could leverage advanced monitoring features. Finally, most planners do not consider relevant information impacting travel plans, for instance, information that might be provided by travelers (e.g., a crowded square) or by mobility service providers (e.g., changing the timetable of a bus). To address the aforementioned shortcomings, in this paper, we propose ROUTE, a framework for customizable smart mobility planners that better serve the needs of travelers, local authorities, and mobility service providers in the dynamic ecosystem of smart cities. ROUTE is composed of an architecture, a process, and a prototype developed to validate the feasibility of the framework. Experiments' results show that the framework scales well in both centralized and distributed deployment settings.

  • 27.
    Alkhabbas, Fahed
    et al.
    Malmö University, Internet of Things and People (IOTAP). Malmö University, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS), Department of Computer Science and Media Technology (DVMT).
    Martina, De Sanctis
    Spalazzese, Romina
    Malmö University, Internet of Things and People (IOTAP). Malmö University, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS), Department of Computer Science and Media Technology (DVMT).
    Bucchiarone, Antonio
    Davidsson, Paul
    Malmö University, Internet of Things and People (IOTAP). Malmö University, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS), Department of Computer Science and Media Technology (DVMT).
    Marconi, Annapaola
    Enacting Emergent Configurations in the IoT Through Domain Objects2018In: Proceedings of ICSOC 2018: Service-Oriented Computing, Springer, 2018, p. 279-294Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Internet of Things (IoT) pervades more and more aspects of our lives and often involves many types of smart connected objects and devices. User’s IoT environment changes dynamically, e.g., due to the mobility of the user and devices. Users can fully benefit from the IoT only when they can effortlessly interact with it. To accomplish this in a dynamic and heterogenous environment, we make use of Emergent Configurations (ECs), which consist of a set of things that connect and cooperate temporarily through their functionalities, applications, and services, to achieve a user goal. In this paper, we: (i) present the IoT-FED architectural approach to enable the automated formation and enactment of ECs. IoT-FED exploits heterogeneous and independently developed things, IoT services, and applications which are modeled as Domain Objects (DOs), a service-based formalism. Additionally, we (ii) discuss the prototype we developed and the experiments run in our IoT lab, for validation purposes.

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  • 28.
    Alkhabbas, Fahed
    et al.
    Malmö University, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS), Department of Computer Science and Media Technology (DVMT). Malmö University, Internet of Things and People (IOTAP).
    Murturi, Ilir
    Spalazzese, Romina
    Malmö University, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS), Department of Computer Science and Media Technology (DVMT). Malmö University, Internet of Things and People (IOTAP).
    Davidsson, Paul
    Malmö University, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS), Department of Computer Science and Media Technology (DVMT). Malmö University, Internet of Things and People (IOTAP).
    Dustdar, Schahram
    A Goal driven Approach for Deploying Self-adaptive IoT Systems2020In: Proceedings: 2020 IEEE International Conference on Software Architecture (ICSA), Salvador, Brazil, 16-20 March 2020 / [ed] Lisa O’Conner, 2020, p. 146-156Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Engineering Internet of Things (IoT) systems is a challenging task partly due to the dynamicity and uncertainty of the environment including the involvement of the human in the loop. Users should be able to achieve their goals seamlessly in different environments, and IoT systems should be able to cope with dynamic changes. Several approaches have been proposed to enable the automated formation, enactment, and self-adaptation of goal-driven IoT systems. However, they do not address deployment issues. In this paper, we propose a goal-driven approach for deploying self-adaptive IoT systems in the Edge-Cloud continuum. Our approach supports the systems to cope with the dynamicity and uncertainty of the environment including changes in their deployment topologies, i.e., the deployment nodes and their interconnections. We describe the architecture and processes of the approach and the simulations that we conducted to validate its feasibility. The results of the simulations show that the approach scales well when generating and adapting the deployment topologies of goal-driven IoT systems in smart homes and smart buildings.

  • 29.
    Alkhabbas, Fahed
    et al.
    Malmö University, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS), Department of Computer Science and Media Technology (DVMT). Malmö University, Internet of Things and People (IOTAP).
    Spalazzese, Romina
    Malmö University, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS), Department of Computer Science and Media Technology (DVMT). Malmö University, Internet of Things and People (IOTAP).
    Cerioli, Maura
    Leotta, Maurizio
    Reggio, Gianna
    On the Deployment of IoT Systems: An Industrial Survey2020In: 2020 IEEE International Conference on Software Architecture Companion (ICSA-C), 2020Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Internet of Things (IoT) systems are complex and multifaceted, and the design of their architectures needs to consider many aspects at a time. Design decisions concern, for instance, the modeling of software components and their interconnections, as well as where to deploy the components within the available hardware infrastructure in the Edge-Cloud continuum. A relevant and challenging task, in this context, is to identify optimal deployment models due to all the different aspects involved, such as extra-functional requirements of the system, heterogeneity of the hardware resources concerning their processing and storage capabilities, and constraints like legal issues and operational cost limits. To gain insights about the deployment decisions concerning IoT systems in practice, and the factors that influence those decisions, we report about an industrial survey we conducted with 66 IoT architects from 18 countries across the world. Each participant filled in a questionnaire that comprises 15 questions. By analyzing the collected data, we have two main findings: (i) architects rely on the Cloud more than the Edge for deploying the software components of IoT systems, in the majority of the IoT application domains; and (ii) the main factors driving deployment decisions are four: reliability, performance, security, and cost.

  • 30.
    Alkhabbas, Fahed
    et al.
    Malmö University, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS), Department of Computer Science and Media Technology (DVMT). Malmö University, Internet of Things and People (IOTAP).
    Spalazzese, Romina
    Malmö University, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS), Department of Computer Science and Media Technology (DVMT). Malmö University, Internet of Things and People (IOTAP).
    Davidsson, Paul
    Malmö University, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS), Department of Computer Science and Media Technology (DVMT). Malmö University, Internet of Things and People (IOTAP).
    An Agent-based Approach to Realize Emergent Configurationsin the Internet of Things2020In: Electronics, E-ISSN 2079-9292, Vol. 9, no 9, article id 1347Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Internet of Things (IoT) has enabled physical objects and devices, often referred to as things, to connect and communicate. This has opened up for the development of novel types of services that improve the quality of our daily lives. The dynamicity and uncertainty of IoT environments, including the mobility of users and devices, make it hard to foresee at design time available things and services. Further, users should be able to achieve their goals seamlessly in arbitrary environments. To address these challenges, we exploit Artificial Intelligence (AI) to engineer smart IoT systems that can achieve user goals and cope with the dynamicity and uncertainty of their environments. More specifically, the main contribution of this paper is an approach that leverages the notion of Belief-Desire-Intention agents and Machine Learning (ML) techniques to realize Emergent Configurations (ECs) in the IoT. An EC is an IoT system composed of a dynamic set of things that connect and cooperate temporarily to achieve a user goal. The approach enables the distributed formation, enactment, adaptation of ECs, and conflict resolution among them. We present a conceptual model of the entities of the approach, its underlying processes, and the guidelines for using it. Moreover, we report about the simulations conducted to validate the feasibility of the approach and evaluate its scalability. View Full-Text

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  • 31.
    Alkhabbas, Fahed
    et al.
    Malmö University, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS), Department of Computer Science and Media Technology (DVMT). Malmö University, Internet of Things and People (IOTAP).
    Spalazzese, Romina
    Malmö University, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS), Department of Computer Science and Media Technology (DVMT). Malmö University, Internet of Things and People (IOTAP).
    Davidsson, Paul
    Malmö University, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS), Department of Computer Science and Media Technology (DVMT). Malmö University, Internet of Things and People (IOTAP).
    Characterizing Internet of Things Systems through Taxonomies: A Systematic Mapping Study2019In: Internet of Things: Engineering Cyber Physical Human Systems, E-ISSN 2542-6605, Vol. 7, article id 100084Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    During the last decade, a large number of different definitions and taxonomies of Internet of Things (IoT) systems have been proposed. This has resulted in a fragmented picture and a lack of consensus about IoT systems and their constituents. To provide a better understanding of this issue and a way forward, we have conducted a Systematic Mapping Study (SMS) of existing IoT System taxonomies. In addition, we propose a characterization of IoT systems synthesized from the existing taxonomies, which provides a more holistic view of IoT systems than previous taxonomies. It includes seventeen characteristics, divided into two groups: elements and quality aspects. Finally, by analyzing the results of the SMS, we draw future research directions.

  • 32.
    Alkhabbas, Fahed
    et al.
    Malmö University, Internet of Things and People (IOTAP). Malmö University, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS), Department of Computer Science and Media Technology (DVMT).
    Spalazzese, Romina
    Malmö University, Internet of Things and People (IOTAP). Malmö University, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS), Department of Computer Science and Media Technology (DVMT).
    Davidsson, Paul
    Malmö University, Internet of Things and People (IOTAP). Malmö University, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS), Department of Computer Science and Media Technology (DVMT).
    ECo-IoT: An Architectural Approach for Realizing Emergent Configurations in the Internet of Things2018In: Software Architecture: Proceeding of 12th European Conference on Software Architecture, ECSA 2018, Springer, 2018, p. 86-102Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The rapid proliferation of the Internet of Things (IoT) is changing the way we live our everyday life and the society in general. New devices get connected to the Internet every day and, similarly, new IoT services and applications exploiting them are developed across a wide range of domains. The IoT environment typically is very dynamic, devices might suddenly become unavailable and new ones might appear. Similarly, users enter and/or leave the IoT environment while being interested in fulfilling their individual needs. These key aspects must be considered while designing and realizing IoT systems. In this paper we propose ECo-IoT, an architectural approach to enable the automated formation and adaptation of Emergent Configurations (ECs) in the IoT. An EC is formed by a set of things, with their services, functionalities, and applications, to realize a user goal. ECs are adapted in response to (un)foreseen context changes e.g., changes in available things or due to changing or evolving user goals. In the paper, we describe: (i) an architecture and a process for realizing ECs; and (ii) a prototype we implemented for (iii) the validation of ECo-IoT through an IoT scenario that we use throughout the paper.

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  • 33.
    Alkhabbas, Fahed
    et al.
    Malmö University, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS), Department of Computer Science and Media Technology (DVMT). Malmö University, Internet of Things and People (IOTAP).
    Spalazzese, Romina
    Malmö University, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS), Department of Computer Science and Media Technology (DVMT). Malmö University, Internet of Things and People (IOTAP).
    Davidsson, Paul
    Malmö University, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS), Department of Computer Science and Media Technology (DVMT). Malmö University, Internet of Things and People (IOTAP).
    Human-Centric Emergent Configurations: Supporting the User Through Self-configuring IoT Systems2021In: Advances in Neuroergonomics and Cognitive Engineering: Proceedings of the AHFE 2021 Virtual Conferences on Neuroergonomics and Cognitive Engineering, Industrial Cognitive Ergonomics and Engineering Psychology, and Cognitive Computing and Internet of Things, July 25-29, 2021, USA / [ed] Hasan Ayaz; Umer Asgher; Lucas Paletta, Springer, 2021, p. 411-418Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Internet of Things (IoT) is revolutionizing our environments with novel types of services and applications by exploiting the large number of diverse connected things. One of the main challenges in the IoT is to engineer systems to support human users to achieve their goals in dynamic and uncertain environments. For instance, the mobility of both users and devices makes it infeasible to always foresee the available things in the users’ current environments. Moreover, users’ activities and/or goals might change suddenly. To support users in such environments, we developed an initial approach that exploits the notion of Emergent Configurations (ECs) and mixed initiative techniques to engineer self-configuring IoT systems. An EC is a goal-driven IoT system composed of a dynamic set of temporarily connecting and cooperating things. ECs are more flexible and usable than IoT systems whose constituents and interfaces are fully specified at design time

  • 34.
    Alvarez, Alberto
    Malmö University, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS), Department of Computer Science and Media Technology (DVMT).
    ChatGPT as a Narrative Structure Interpreter2023In: Interactive Storytelling: 16th International Conference on Interactive Digital Storytelling, ICIDS 2023, Kobe, Japan, November 11–15, 2023, Proceedings, Part II / [ed] Lissa Holloway-Attaway, John T. Murray, Springer, 2023, p. 113-121Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Narrative structures define the skeleton of narratives and help at identifying common structures in stories, that then can be used to compare structures, define variations, and understand prototypical [structural] components. However, narrative structures are just one piece of the puzzle, their interpretation is what gives room to the stories seen in transmedia storytelling. In principle, a structure can be interpreted and developed with a myriad of stories, but requires some type of corpus to develop it further. Large language models such as ChatGPT could be employed for this task, if we are able to define a good narrative structure and give the tools to the algorithm to develop them further. For this paper, we use a narrative structure system called TropeTwist, which employs interconnected tropes as narrative structures, defining characters, conflicts, and plot devices in a relational graph, which gives raise to a set of trope micro- and meso-patterns. Using ChatGPT and through the web interface, we communicate all the possible elements to be used from TropeTwist and tasked ChatGPT to interpret them and generate stories. We describe our process and methodology to reach these interpretations, and present some of the generated stories based on a constructed narrative structure. Our results show the possibilities and limitations of using these systems and elaborate on future work to combine large language models for other tasks within narrative interpretation and generation.

  • 35.
    Alvarez, Alberto
    Malmö University, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS), Department of Computer Science and Media Technology (DVMT).
    Exploring Game Design through Human-AI Collaboration2022Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Game design is a hard and multi-faceted task that intertwines different gameplay mechanics, audio, level, graphic, and narrative facets. Games' facets are developed in conjunction with others with a common goal that makes games coherent and interesting. These combinations result in plenty of games in diverse genres, which usually require a collaboration of a diverse group of designers. Collaborators can take different roles and support each other with their strengths resulting in games with unique characteristics. The multi-faceted nature of games and their collaborative properties and requirements make it an exciting task to use Artificial Intelligence (AI). The generation of these facets together requires a holistic approach, which is one of the most challenging tasks within computational creativity. Given the collaborative aspect of games, this thesis approaches their generation through Human-AI collaboration, specifically using a mixed-initiative co-creative (MI-CC) paradigm. This paradigm creates an interactive and collaborative scenario that leverages AI and human strengths with an alternating and proactive initiative to approach a task. However, this paradigm introduces several challenges, such as Human and AI goal alignment or competing properties.

    In this thesis, game design and the generation of game facets by themselves and intertwined are explored through Human-AI collaboration. The AI takes a colleague's role with the designer, arising multiple dynamics, challenges, and opportunities. The main hypothesis is that AI can be incorporated into systems as a collaborator, enhancing design tools, fostering human creativity, and reducing workload. The challenges and opportunities that arise from this are explored, discussed, and approached throughout the thesis. As a result, multiple approaches and methods such as quality-diversity algorithms and designer modeling are proposed to generate game facets in tandem with humans, create a better workflow, enhance the interaction, and establish adaptive experiences.

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  • 36.
    Alvarez, Alberto
    Malmö University, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS), Department of Computer Science and Media Technology (DVMT).
    Exploring the Dynamic Properties of Interaction in Mixed-Initiative Procedural Content Generation2020Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    As AI develops, grows, and expands, the more benefits we can have from it. AI is used in multiple fields to assist humans, such as object recognition, self-driving cars, or design tools. However, AI could be used for more than assisting humans in their tasks. It could be employed to collaborate with humans as colleagues in shared tasks, which is usually described as Mixed-Initiative (MI) paradigm. This paradigm creates an interactive scenario that leverage on AI and human strengths with an alternating and proactive initiative to approach a task. However, this paradigm introduces several challenges. For instance, there must be an understanding between humans and AI, where autonomy and initiative become negotiation tokens. In addition, control and expressiveness need to be taken into account to reach some goals. Moreover, although this paradigm has a broader application, it is especially interesting for creative tasks such as games, which are mainly created in collaboration. Creating games and their content is a hard and complex task, since games are content-intensive, multi-faceted, and interacted by external users. 

    Therefore, this thesis explores MI collaboration between human game designers and AI for the co-creation of games, where the AI's role is that of a colleague with the designer. The main hypothesis is that AI can be incorporated in systems as a collaborator, enhancing design tools, fostering human creativity, reducing their workload, and creating adaptive experiences. Furthermore, This collaboration arises several dynamic properties such as control, expressiveness, and initiative, which are all central to this thesis. Quality-Diversity algorithms combined with control mechanisms and interactions for the designer are proposed to investigate this collaboration and properties. Designer and Player modeling is also explored, and several approaches are proposed to create a better workflow, establish adaptive experiences, and enhance the interaction. Through this, it is demonstrated the potential and benefits of these algorithms and models in the MI paradigm.

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  • 37.
    Alvarez, Alberto
    et al.
    Malmö University, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS), Department of Computer Science and Media Technology (DVMT).
    Dahlskog, Steve
    Malmö University, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS), Department of Computer Science and Media Technology (DVMT).
    Font, Jose
    Malmö University, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS), Department of Computer Science and Media Technology (DVMT).
    Holmberg, Johan
    Malmö University, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS), Department of Computer Science and Media Technology (DVMT).
    Johansson, Simon
    Malmö University, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS), Department of Computer Science and Media Technology (DVMT).
    Assessing Aesthetic Criteria in the Evolutionary dungeon Designer2018In: Proceedings of the 13th International Conference on the Foundations of Digital Games, ACM Digital Library, 2018, article id 44Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Evolutionary Dungeon Designer (EDD) [1] is as a mixed-initiative tool for creating dungeons for adventure games. Results from a user study with game developers positively evaluated EDD as a suitable framework for collaboration between human designers and PCG suggestions, highlighting these as time-saving and inspiring for creating dungeons [2]. Previous work on EDD identified the need of assessing aesthetic criteria as a key area for improvement in its PCG Engine. By upgrading the individual encoding system and the fitness evaluation in EDD's evolutionary algorithm, we present three techniques to preserve and account the designer's aesthetic criteria during the dungeon generation process: the capability of locking sections for preserving custom aesthetic structures, as well as the measurement of symmetry and similarity in the provided suggestions.

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  • 38.
    Alvarez, Alberto
    et al.
    Malmö University, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS), Department of Computer Science and Media Technology (DVMT).
    Dahlskog, Steve
    Malmö University, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS), Department of Computer Science and Media Technology (DVMT).
    Font, Jose
    Malmö University, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS), Department of Computer Science and Media Technology (DVMT).
    Togelius, Julian
    Empowering Quality Diversity in Dungeon Design with Interactive Constrained MAP-Elites2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We propose the use of quality-diversity algorithms for mixed-initiative game content generation. This idea is implemented as a new feature of the Evolutionary Dungeon Designer, a system for mixed-initiative design of the type of levels you typically find in computer role playing games. The feature uses the MAP-Elites algorithm, an illumination algorithm which divides the population into a number of cells depending on their values along several behavioral dimensions. Users can flexibly and dynamically choose relevant dimensions of variation, and incorporate suggestions produced by the algorithm in their map designs. At the same time, any modifications performed by the human feed back into MAP-Elites, and are used to generate further suggestions.

  • 39.
    Alvarez, Alberto
    et al.
    Malmö University, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS), Department of Computer Science and Media Technology (DVMT).
    Dahlskog, Steve
    Malmö University, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS), Department of Computer Science and Media Technology (DVMT).
    Holmberg, Johan
    Malmö University, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS), Department of Computer Science and Media Technology (DVMT).
    Nolasco, Chelsi
    Malmö University, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS), Department of Computer Science and Media Technology (DVMT).
    Österman, Axel
    Malmö University, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS), Department of Computer Science and Media Technology (DVMT).
    Font, José
    Malmö University, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS), Department of Computer Science and Media Technology (DVMT).
    Fostering Creativity in the Mixed-Initiative Evolutionary Dungeon Designer2018In: Proceedings of the 13th International Conference on the Foundations of Digital Games, ACM Digital Library, 2018, article id 50Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Mixed-initiative systems highlight the collaboration between humans and computers in fostering the generation of more interesting content in game design. In light of the ever-increasing cost of game development, providing mixed-initiative tools can not only significantly reduce the cost but also encourage more creativity amongst game designers. The Evolutionary Dungeon Designer (EDD) [3] is a mixed-initiative tool with a focus on using evolutionary computation to procedurally generate content that adhere to game design patterns. As part of an ongoing project, feedback from a user study on EDD's capabilities as a mixed-initiative design tool pointed out the need for improvement on the tool's functionalities [4]. In this paper we present a review of the principles of the mixed-initiative model, as well as the existing approaches that implement it. The outcome of this analysis allows us to address the appointed needs for improvement by shaping a new version of EDD that we describe here. Finally, we also present the results from a user study carried out with professional game developers, in order to assess EDD's new functionalities. Results show an overall positive evaluation of the tool's intuitiveness and capabilities for empowering game developers' creative skills during the design process of dungeons for adventure games. They also allow us to identify upcoming challenges pattern-based mixed-initiative tools could benefit from.

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  • 40.
    Alvarez, Alberto
    et al.
    Malmö University, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS), Department of Computer Science and Media Technology (DVMT).
    Font Fernandez, Jose Maria Maria
    Malmö University, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS), Department of Computer Science and Media Technology (DVMT).
    Dahlskog, Steve
    Malmö University, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS), Department of Computer Science and Media Technology (DVMT).
    Togelius, Julian
    Computer Science and Engineering, New York University, New York, New York, United States.
    Interactive Constrained MAP-Elites: Analysis and Evaluation of the Expressiveness of the Feature Dimensions2022In: IEEE Transactions on Games, ISSN 2475-1502, Vol. 14, no 2, p. 202-211Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We propose the Interactive Constrained MAP-Elites, a quality-diversity solution for game content generation, implemented as a new feature of the Evolutionary Dungeon Designer (EDD): a mixed-initiative co-creativity tool for designing dungeons. The feature uses the MAP-Elites algorithm, an illumination algorithm that segregates the population among several cells depending on their scores with respect to different behavioral dimensions. Users can flexibly and dynamically alternate between these dimensions anytime, thus guiding the evolutionary process in an intuitive way, and then incorporate suggestions produced by the algorithm in their room designs. At the same time, any modifications performed by the human user will feed back into MAP-Elites, closing a circular workflow of constant mutual inspiration. This paper presents the algorithm followed by an in-depth evaluation of the expressive range of all possible dimension combinations in several scenarios, and discusses their influence in the fitness landscape and in the overall performance of the procedural content generation in EDD.

  • 41.
    Alvarez, Alberto
    et al.
    Malmö University, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS), Department of Computer Science and Media Technology (DVMT).
    Font, Jose
    Malmö University, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS), Department of Computer Science and Media Technology (DVMT).
    Learning the Designer’s Preferences to Drive Evolution2020In: EvoApplications 2020: Applications of Evolutionary Computation, Springer, 2020, p. 431-445Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents the Designer Preference Model, a data-driven solution that pursues to learn from user generated data in a Quality-Diversity Mixed-Initiative Co-Creativity (QD MI-CC) tool, with the aims of modelling the user’s design style to better assess the tool’s procedurally generated content with respect to that user’s preferences. Through this approach, we aim for increasing the user’s agency over the generated content in a way that neither stalls the user-tool reciprocal stimuli loop nor fatigues the user with periodical suggestion handpicking. We describe the details of this novel solution, as well as its implementation in the MI-CC tool the Evolutionary Dungeon Designer. We present and discuss our findings out of the initial tests carried out, spotting the open challenges for this combined line of research that integrates MI-CC with Procedural Content Generation through Machine Learning.

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  • 42.
    Alvarez, Alberto
    et al.
    Malmö University, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS), Department of Computer Science and Media Technology (DVMT).
    Font, Jose
    Malmö University, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS), Department of Computer Science and Media Technology (DVMT).
    TropeTwist: Trope-based Narrative Structure Generation2022In: FDG '22: Proceedings of the 17th International Conference on the Foundations of Digital Games, ACM Digital Library, 2022, article id 69Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Games are complex, multi-faceted systems that share common elements and underlying narratives, such as the conflict between a hero and a big bad enemy or pursuing a goal that requires overcoming challenges. However, identifying and describing these elements together is non-trivial as they might differ in certain properties and how players might encounter the narratives. Likewise, generating narratives also pose difficulties when encoding, interpreting, and evaluating them. To address this, we present TropeTwist, a trope-based system that can describe narrative structures in games in a more abstract and generic level, allowing the definition of games’ narrative structures and their generation using interconnected tropes, called narrative graphs. To demonstrate the system, we represent the narrative structure of three different games. We use MAP-Elites to generate and evaluate novel quality-diverse narrative graphs encoded as graph grammars, using these three hand-made narrative structures as targets. Both hand-made and generated narrative graphs are evaluated based on their coherence and interestingness, which are improved through evolution.  

     

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  • 43.
    Alvarez, Alberto
    et al.
    Malmö University, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS), Department of Computer Science and Media Technology (DVMT).
    Font, Jose
    Malmö University, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS), Department of Computer Science and Media Technology (DVMT).
    TropeTwist:Trope-based Narrative Structure Generation2022In: Proceedings of the 13th Workshop on Procedural Content Generation, FDG, Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), 2022Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Games are complex, multi-faceted systems that share common elements and underlying narratives, such as the conflict between a hero and a big bad enemy or pursuing a goal that requires overcoming challenges. However, identifying and describing these elements together is non-trivial as they might differ in certain properties and how players might encounter the narratives. Likewise, generating narratives also pose difficulties when encoding, interpreting, and evaluating them. To address this, we present TropeTwist, a trope-based system that can describe narrative structures in games in a more abstract and generic level, allowing the definition of games' narrative structures and their generation using interconnected tropes, called narrative graphs. To demonstrate the system, we represent the narrative structure of three different games. We use MAP-Elites to generate and evaluate novel quality-diverse narrative graphs encoded as graph grammars, using these three hand-made narrative structures as targets. Both hand-made and generated narrative graphs are evaluated based on their coherence and interestingness, which are improved through evolution.

  • 44.
    Alvarez, Alberto
    et al.
    Malmö University, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS), Department of Computer Science and Media Technology (DVMT).
    Font, Jose
    Malmö University, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS), Department of Computer Science and Media Technology (DVMT).
    Dahlskog, Steve
    Malmö University, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS), Department of Computer Science and Media Technology (DVMT).
    Togelius, Julian
    New York University.
    Assessing the Effects of Interacting with MAP-Elites2021In: Proceedings of the seventeenth {AAAI} Conference on Artificial Intelligence and Interactive Digital Entertainment, Association for the Advancement of Artificial Intelligence , 2021, Vol. 17, p. 124-131Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    MAP-Elites has been successfully applied to the generation of game content and robot behaviors. However, its behavior and performance when interacted with in co-creative systems is underexplored. This paper analyzes the implications of synthetic interaction for the stability and adaptability of MAP-Elites in such scenarios. We use pre-recorded human-made level design sessions with the Interactive Constrained MAP-Elites (IC MAP-Elites). To analyze the effect of each edition step in the search space over time using different feature dimensions, we introduce Temporal Expressive Range Analysis (TERA). With TERAs, MAP-Elites is assessed in terms of its adaptability and stability to generate diverse and high-performing individuals. Our results show that interactivity, in the form of design edits and MAP-Elites adapting towards them, directs the search process to previously unexplored areas of the fitness landscape and points towards how this could improve and enrich the co-creative process with quality-diverse individuals.

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  • 45.
    Alvarez, Alberto
    et al.
    Malmö University, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS), Department of Computer Science and Media Technology (DVMT).
    Font, Jose
    Malmö University, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS), Department of Computer Science and Media Technology (DVMT).
    Togelius, Julian
    Game Innovation Lab, New York University, United States.
    Story Designer: Towards a Mixed-Initiative Tool to Create Narrative Structures2022In: FDG '22: Proceedings of the 17th International Conference on the Foundations of Digital Games, ACM Digital Library, 2022, article id 42Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Narratives are a predominant part of games, and their design poses challenges when identifying, encoding, interpreting, evaluating, and generating them. One way to address this would be to approach narrative design in a more abstract layer, such as narrative structures. This paper presents Story Designer, a mixed-initiative co-creative narrative structure tool built on top of the Evolutionary Dungeon Designer (EDD) that uses tropes, narrative conventions found across many media types, to design these structures. Story Designer uses tropes as building blocks for narrative designers to compose complete narrative structures by interconnecting them in graph structures called narrative graphs. Our mixed-initiative approach lets designers manually create their narrative graphs and feeds an underlying evolutionary algorithm with those, creating quality-diverse suggestions using MAP-Elites. Suggestions are visually represented for designers to compare and evaluate and can then be incorporated into the design for further manual editions. At the same time, we use the levels designed within EDD as constraints for the narrative structure, intertwining both level design and narrative. We evaluate the impact of these constraints and the system’s adaptability and expressiveness, resulting in a potential tool to create narrative structures combining level design aspects with narrative.  

     

     

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  • 46.
    Alvarez, Alberto
    et al.
    Malmö University, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS), Department of Computer Science and Media Technology (DVMT).
    Font, Jose
    Malmö University, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS), Department of Computer Science and Media Technology (DVMT).
    Togelius, Julian
    Computer Science and Engineering, New York University, New York, New York, United States.
    Toward Designer Modeling Through Design Style Clustering2022In: IEEE Transactions on Games, ISSN 2475-1502, Vol. 14, no 4, p. 676-686Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We propose modeling designer style in mixed-initiative game content creation tools as archetypical design traces. These design traces are formulated as transitions between design styles; these design styles are in turn found through clustering all intermediate designs along the way to making a complete design. This method is implemented in the Evolutionary Dungeon Designer, a research platform for mixed-initiative systems to create adventure and dungeon crawler games. We present results both in the form of design styles for rooms, which can be analyzed to better understand the kind of rooms designed by users, and in the form of archetypical sequences between these rooms, i.e., Designer Personas.

  • 47.
    Alvarez, Alberto
    et al.
    Malmö University, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS), Department of Computer Science and Media Technology (DVMT).
    Grevillius, Eric
    Malmö University, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS), Department of Computer Science and Media Technology (DVMT).
    Olsson, Elin
    Malmö University, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS), Department of Computer Science and Media Technology (DVMT).
    Font, Jose
    Malmö University, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS), Department of Computer Science and Media Technology (DVMT).
    Questgram [Qg]: Toward a Mixed-Initiative Quest Generation Tool2021In: Proceedings of the 16th International Conference on the Foundations of Digital Games, Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), 2021, p. 1-10, article id 6Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Quests are a core element in many games, especially role-playing and adventure games, where quests drive the gameplay and story, engage the player in the game’s narrative, and in most cases, act as a bridge between different game elements. The automatic generation of quests and objectives is an interesting challenge since this can extend the lifetime of games such as in Skyrim, or can help create unique experiences such as in AI Dungeon. This work presents Questgram [Qg], a mixed-initiative prototype tool for creating quests using grammars combined in a mixed-initiative level design tool. We evaluated our tool quantitatively by assessing the generated quests and qualitatively through a small user study. Human designers evaluated the system by creating quests manually, automatically, and through mixed-initiative. Our results show the Questgram’s potential, which creates diverse, valid, and interesting quests using quest patterns. Likewise, it helps engage designers in the quest design process, fosters their creativity by inspiring them, and enhance the level generation facet of the Evolutionary Dungeon Designer with steps towards intertwining both level and quest design.

  • 48.
    Alvarez, Alberto
    et al.
    Malmö University, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS), Department of Computer Science and Media Technology (DVMT).
    Vozaru, Miruna
    IT University of Copenhagen.
    Perceived Behaviors of Personality-Driven Agents2019In: Violence - Perception - Video Games: New Directions in Game Research / [ed] Federico Alvarez Igarzábal, Michael S. Debus, Curtis L. Maughan, Transcript Verlag, 2019, p. 171-184Chapter in book (Refereed)
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  • 49.
    Aminoff, Hedvig
    et al.
    Biomedical Engineering and Health Systems, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Meijer, Sebastiaan
    Biomedical Engineering and Health Systems, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Arnelo, Urban
    Division of Surgery, CLINTEC, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Surgery, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Frennert, Susanne
    Malmö University, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS), Department of Computer Science and Media Technology (DVMT). Malmö University, Internet of Things and People (IOTAP).
    Telemedicine for Remote Surgical Guidance in Endoscopic Retrograde Cholangiopancreatography: Mixed Methods Study of Practitioner Attitudes2021In: JMIR Formative Research, E-ISSN 2561-326X, Vol. 5, no 1, article id e20692Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Telemedicine innovations are rarely adopted into routine health care, the reasons for which are not well understood. Teleguidance, a promising service for remote surgical guidance during endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) was due to be scaled up, but there were concerns that user attitudes might influence adoption.

    OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to gain a deeper understanding of ERCP practitioners' attitudes toward teleguidance. These findings could inform the implementation process and future evaluations.

    METHODS: We conducted semistructured interviews with ERCP staff about challenges during work and beliefs about teleguidance. Theoretical constructs from the technology acceptance model (TAM) guided the thematic analysis. Our findings became input to a 16-item questionnaire, investigating surgeons' beliefs about teleguidance's contribution to performance and factors that might interact with implementation.

    RESULTS: Results from 20 interviews with ERCP staff from 5 hospitals were used to adapt a TAM questionnaire, exchanging the standard "Ease of Use" items for "Compatibility and Implementation Climate." In total, 23 ERCP specialists from 15 ERCP clinics responded to the questionnaire: 9 novices (<500 ERCP procedures) and 14 experts (>500 ERCP procedures). The average agreement ratings for usefulness items were 64% (~9/14) among experts and 75% (~7/9) among novices. The average agreement ratings for compatibility items were somewhat lower (experts 64% [~9/14], novices 69% [~6/9]). The averages have been calculated from the sum of several items and therefore, they only approximate the actual values. While 11 of the 14 experts (79%) and 8 of the 9 novices (89%) agreed that teleguidance could improve overall quality and patient safety during ERCP procedures, only 8 of the 14 experts (57%) and 6 of the 9 novices (67%) agreed that teleguidance would not create new patient safety risks. Only 5 of the 14 experts (36%) and 3 of the 9 novices (33%) were convinced that video and image transmission would function well. Similarly, only 6 of the 14 experts (43%) and 6 of the 9 novices (67%) agreed that administration would work smoothly. There were no statistically significant differences between the experts and novices on any of the 16 items (P<.05).

    CONCLUSIONS: Both novices and experts in ERCP procedures had concerns that teleguidance might disrupt existing work practices. However, novices were generally more positive toward teleguidance than experts, especially with regard to the possibility of developing technical skills and work practices. While newly trained specialists were the main target for teleguidance, the experts were also intended users. As experts are more likely to be key decision makers, their attitudes may have a greater relative impact on adoption. We present suggestions to address these concerns. We conclude that using the TAM as a conceptual framework can support user-centered inquiry into telemedicine design and implementation by connecting qualitative findings to well-known analytical themes.

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  • 50.
    Amouzad Mahdiraji, Saeid
    Malmö University, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS), Department of Computer Science and Media Technology (DVMT). Malmö University, Internet of Things and People (IOTAP).
    On the Use of Simulation and Optimization for the Analysis and Planning of Prehospital Stroke Care2022Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Immediate treatment is of extreme importance for stroke patients. However, providing fast enough treatment for stroke patients is far from trivial, mainly due to logistical challenges and difficulties in diagnosing the correct stroke type. One way to reduce the time to treatment is to use so-called Mobile Stroke Units (MSUs), which allows to diagnose and provide treatment for stroke patients already at the patient scene. A well-designed stroke transport policy is vital to improve the access to treatment for stroke patients. Simulation and mathematical optimization are useful approaches for assessing and optimizing stroke transport policies, without endangering the health of the patients.

    The main purpose of this thesis is to contribute to improving the situation for stroke patients and to reducing the social impacts of stroke. The aim is to study how to use simulation and optimization to achieve improved analysis and planning of prehospital stroke care. In particular, we focus on assessing the potential use of MSUs in a geographic area. In this thesis, optimization is used to identify the optimal locations of MSUs, and simulation is used to assess different stroke transport policies, including MSU locations. The results of this thesis aim to support public health authorities when making decisions in the prehospital stroke care domain.

    In order to fulfill the aim of this thesis, we develop and analyze a number of different simulation and optimization models. First, we propose a macro-level simulation model, an average time to treatment estimation model, used to estimate the expected time to treatment for different parts of a geographic region. Using the proposed model, we generate two different MSU scenarios to explore the potential benefits of employing MSUs in Sweden’s southern healthcare region (SHR).  

    Second, we present an optimization model to identify the best placement of MSUs while making a trade-off between the efficiency and equity perspectives, providing maximum population coverage and equal service for all patients, respectively. The trade-off function used in the model makes use of the concepts of weighted average time to treatment to model efficiency and the time difference between the expected time to treatment for different geographical areas to model equity. In a scenario study applied in the SHR, we evaluate our optimization model by comparing the current situation with three MSU scenarios, including 1, 2, and 3 MSUs.

    Third, we present a micro-level discrete event simulation model to assess stroke transport policies, including MSUs, allowing us to model the behaviors of individual entities, such as patients and emergency vehicles, over time. We generate a synthetic set of stroke patients using a Poisson distribution, used as input in a scenario study.

    Finally, we present a modeling framework with reusable components, which aims to facilitate the construction of discrete event simulation models in the emergency medical services domain. The framework consists of a number of generic activities, which can be used to represent healthcare chains modeled in the form of flowcharts. As the framework includes activities and policies modeled on the general level, the framework can be used to create models only by providing input data and a care chain specification. We evaluate the framework by using it to build a model for simulating EMS activities related to the complex case of acute stroke.

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