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  • 1.
    Adadevoh Svensson, Tonya
    Malmö University, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Criminology (KR).
    Plattform Malmös stödinsatser för avhoppare: Samarbetet mellan polis och kommunal verksamhet2023Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna kvalitativa studie undersöker hur individers möjlighet att få stöd av Plattform Malmö för att lyckas lämna ett kriminellt nätverk ser ut. Detta uppnås genom att undersöka hur samarbetet fungerar mellan polis och kommunens avhopparverksamhet samt att vidare undersöka hur arbetet med avhoppare fungerar på Plattform Malmö. Studien genomfördes med semistrukturerade intervjuer som analyserades tematiskt. Urvalet bestod av tre deltagare och tre intervjuer har utförts med Konsultationsteamet, sociala insatsgrupper och polisen. Resultatet visade att samarbetet mellan polis och avhopparverksamhet är väletablerat, men det innebär även utmaningar att få ett bestående arbete med de olika arbetssätten. Plattform Malmös arbete med avhoppare innebär en svår process som kräver ett samspel mellan parterna. Det gäller att ställa tydliga krav men samtidigt inte vara för hårda mot individerna. Individerna kan få flera stödinsatser för att lämna ett kriminellt nätverk. Insatserna tillsätts efter individens behov och får hjälp att jobba med både fysiska och inre förändringar. Sammanfattningsvis visar resultatet att Konsultationsteamet och sociala insatsgrupper arbetar med samordnade och hållbara metoder. Individen har en omfattande möjlighet att få stöd av Plattform Malmö för att lyckas lämna ett kriminellt nätverk, däremot måste individen själv kunna tillgodose insatserna. 

  • 2.
    Ahmadi, Zainab
    et al.
    Department of Clinical Sciences Lund, Respiratory Medicine, Allergology and Palliative Medicine, Lund University, Lund,.
    Björk, Joar
    Centre for Research Ethics and Bioethics (CRB), Uppsala University, Uppsala; Stockholm Centre for Healthcare Ethics (CHE), LIME, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm,.
    Gilljam, Hans
    Department of Global Public Health, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm.
    Gogineni, Madhuri
    Stockholms Sjukhem, Palliative Home Care and Hospice Wards, Stockholm,.
    Gustafsson, Torbjörn
    Department of Respiratory Medicine and Allergy, University Hospital of Umeå, Umeå,.
    Runold, Michael
    Department of Respiratory Medicine and Allergy, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm; Department of Medicine Solna, Respiratory Medicine Unit, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm.
    Ringbæk, Thomas
    Allergy and Lung Clinic, Elsinore, Denmark.
    Wahlberg, Josefin
    Department of Medicine, Blekinge Hospital, Karlskrona.
    Wendel, Lotta
    Malmö University, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Criminology (KR). Malmö University, Centre for Sexology and Sexuality Studies (CSS).
    Ekström, Magnus
    Department of Clinical Sciences Lund, Respiratory Medicine, Allergology and Palliative Medicine, Lund University, Lund,.
    Smoking and home oxygen therapy: a review and consensus statement from a multidisciplinary Swedish taskforce2024In: European Respiratory Review, ISSN 0905-9180, E-ISSN 1600-0617, Vol. 33, no 171, p. 230194-230194Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Home oxygen therapy (HOT) improves survival in patients with hypoxaemic chronic respiratory disease. Most patients evaluated for HOT are former or active smokers. Oxygen accelerates combustion and smoking may increase the risk of burn injuries and fire hazards; therefore, it is considered a contraindication for HOT in many countries. However, there is variability in the practices and policies regarding this matter. This multidisciplinary Swedish taskforce aimed to review the potential benefits and risks of smoking in relation to HOT, including medical, practical, legal and ethical considerations.

    Methods: The taskforce of the Swedish Respiratory Society comprises 15 members across respiratory medicine, nursing, medical law and ethics. HOT effectiveness and adverse risks related to smoking, as well as practical, legal and ethical considerations, were reviewed, resulting in five general questions and four PICO (population–intervention–comparator–outcome) questions. The strength of each recommendation was rated according to the GRADE (grading of recommendation assessment, development and evaluation) methodology.

    Results: General questions about the practical, legal and ethical aspects of HOT were discussed and summarised in the document. The PICO questions resulted in recommendations about assessment, management and follow-up of smoking when considering HOT, if HOT should be offered to people that meet the eligibility criteria but who continue to smoke, if a specific length of time of smoking cessation should be considered before assessing eligibility for HOT, and identification of areas for further research.

    Conclusions: Multiple factors need to be considered in the benefit/risk evaluation of HOT in active smokers. A systematic approach is suggested to guide healthcare professionals in evaluating HOT in relation to smoking.

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  • 3.
    Ajavakom, Natnida
    Malmö University, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Criminology (KR).
    A CROSS-SECTIONAL STUDY OFCORRELATION BETWEEN VIOLENTVIDEO GAMES EXPOSURE, AGGRESSIVE AND IMPULSIVEBEHAVIOR IN THAILAND GAMERCOMMUNITY2020Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Violent video games have been questioned in its influence toward violence and aggressivebehavior in nowadays especially with adolescents and young adults which usually spend theirtime playing games more than other activity. The aim of this research is to find a correlationbetween violent video games exposure, aggressive behavior and self-control in an individual toanswer the question that “Is playing violent video games can lead a person to be more violence,aggressive and lack of self-control more than it should be?” The research will be studied with351 people in the Thailand Gamer Community. An aggressive behavior and impulsive behaviorwill be look into by self-questionnaire: Buss – Perry aggression questionnaire: BPAQ – ShortForm to measure aggressive behavior, the short version of the Self-Control Scale to measure animpulsive behavior and for a violent video games exposure, it will be measured by the time thatparticipants playing video games and how violent it exposure to violent video games andaggressive behavior but the results only show a slightly correlation between these two variables.Nevertheless, the results show no correlation between violent video games exposure andimpulsive behavior. 

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  • 4.
    Aly Mohamed, Hossam Mohamed Salah El-Din
    Malmö University, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Criminology (KR).
    COMPARISON BETWEEN CLIENTS IN FORENSIC-PSYCHIATRIC TREATMENT AND PRISON IN SWEDEN 1995-20182020Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    Purpose: The study aims to establish a summary of the main characteristics of gender, age, types of crimes and previous criminal records of the offenders sentenced to forensic-psychiatric care in the time period 1995 to 2018 in Sweden and to compare them with offenders sentenced to imprisonment for the same types of crime types in the same time period in Sweden as well as to link different types of crimes to mental illness. Furthermore, the study attempts to find correlations between the group sentenced to forensic-psychiatric care and different types of crimes.

    Method: Using official statistical data from BRÅ, serious crimes, age, gender and criminal records for all individuals sentenced to forensic-psychiatric care during 1995 to 2018 are described together. This group was compared to all individuals which were convicted to prison in the same period. Furthermore, correlations between types of crimes and the group of individuals sentenced to forensic-psychiatric care were examined in order to find any statistical difference between the two groups.

    Result: A few differences between the groups were found. The individuals in the forensic-psychiatric care group did not differentiate much in age, and also had similar criminal records, unlike the prison- group. Additionally, a meaningfully higher amount of women was prevalent in the forensic psychiatric care-group compared to the prison-group. A small correlation between individuals sentenced to forensic psychiatric treatment and arson were confirmed as well as stronger correlations with offenders sentenced to FPT and crimes of theft, vehicle theft, arson and homicide were found.

    Conclusion: These findings provide data for future research as well as potential support for courts to identify more suitable treatment for offenders with a mental illness. Additionally, the findings in this paper presents the health care system and social services with opportunities to analyse and prevent trajectories into more serious offending in particular regards to individuals who are young and/or have a mental disorder.

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  • 5.
    Anderberg, Andreas
    Malmö University, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Criminology (KR).
    Bevistalan: några ytterligare synpunkter2018In: Svensk Juristtidning, ISSN 0039-6591, no 10, p. 876-880Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 6.
    Anderberg, Andreas
    Malmö University, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Criminology (KR).
    Oaktsamma sexualbrott – en realitet i lagstiftningen.2018In: Festskrift till Håkan Hydén / [ed] Banakar, R., Dahlstrand, K. & Ryberg-Welander, L., Lund: Juristförlaget, Lund, 2018, p. 13-23Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 7.
    Andersen, Bengt
    et al.
    Oslo Metropolitan University.
    Gerell, Manne
    Malmö University, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Criminology (KR). NOA UND, Polisen.
    Sandkjær Hanssen, Gro
    Oslo Metropolitan University.
    NOU 2020:16: Levekår i byer. Gode lokalsamfunn for alle.2021In: Nordic Journal of Urban Studies, ISSN 2703-8866, Vol. 1, no 1, p. 78-90, article id 6Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Urban issues such as poverty or marginality and disadvantage, unrest, crime, housing, segregation and social cohesion are on the political and academic agenda in Europe and in the US (Andersen, 2002; Atkinson, 2019; Galster, 1990; Gerell & Kronkvist, 2017; Mayer, Thörn, & Thörn, 2016; Uslaner, 2012; Wacquant, 2008). As indicated, policymakers devise strategies to address such problems (Andersson, Wimark, & Malmberg, 2020; Damm, Nielsen, Mattana, & Rouland, 2020; Davis, 2019; George & Patrick, 2017; van Gent et al., 2018; van Gent & Musterd, 2013). This also holds true for Norway (e.g. Andersen & Brattbakk, 2020).

    In Norway, the Government or a specific ministry may appoint a committee to report on an issue of relevance. The results are published as an Official Norwegian Report – Norges offentlige utredninger (NOU) in Norwegian. While it can be argued that urban issues are not a political priority in Norway, the current conservative Government – led by prime minister Erna Solberg – did appoint a committee to examine living conditions in Norwegian cities. The Norwegian Commission for City and Living Conditions presented its NOU on 16 December 2020 (NOU 2020:16). The report is important as it summarizes the latest knowledge on the topic and provides recommendations for future Norwegian urban policies. Hence, it is worth a thorough and critical review.

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  • 8.
    Andersen, Rikke Hoelgaard
    Malmö University, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Criminology (KR).
    The Filtering Out Of Hate Crime In The Criminal Justice System: A Qualitative Study Of Police Investigation In Denmark2022Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Hate crime has emerged as a new ‘crime problem’ in Denmark, which has led to legislative adjustments and requirements of the police to improve identification, registration and handling of hate crime. International research shows that the investigation of hate crime is a complex issue not least because hate crime is legally not a crime category but an aggravating circumstance in principle to any crime. There exist no studies of hate crime policing in Denmark, and this study aims to fill a knowledge gap by a qualitative exploration of the processing of hate crime in the criminal justice system in a Danish context and from the perspective of the police, which is a relatively overlooked perspective. Specifically, the study explores why many hate crimes are filtered out through the criminal justice system, and through a thematic analysis the study identifies a number of challenges on a legal, organizational and practise level, that all contributes to a filtering out of hate crime throughout the Danish criminal justice system. Goldstein’s theory of problem-oriented policing is used as framework to discuss the implications of law in hate crime policing. The Danish police is expected to deal more effectively with the hate crime problem, and more knowledge on what works in hate crime policing is needed.

     

    Keywords: Hate crime, investigation, criminal justice processing, problem-oriented policing, thematic analysis.  

     

  • 9.
    Andersson, Claes
    Malmö University, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Criminology (KR).
    Att förebygga ANDT-bruk, främja psykisk hälsa och social inkludering hos unga vuxna i migration: Utvärdering av tre särskilt utlysta ANDT-utvecklingsprojekt2021Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Folkhälsomyndigheten har på regeringens uppdrag utlyst medel till tre projekt med syfte att förebygga ANDT-bruk, främja psykisk hälsa och social inkludering hos unga vuxna i migration som är 18-29 år. Till projekten kopplades ett uppdrag som följeforskare. Denna slutrapport har sammanställts av följeforskaren. Inledningsvis beskrivs projektens mål och organisation. Därefter presenteras resultat från följeforskarens arbete, en avgränsad litteraturöversyn, en processutvärdering, en mål-resultatutvärdering, och en enkätundersökning, som tillsammans syftar till att belysa projektens innehåll, utveckling och resultat. Rapporten avslutas med en sammanfattning som behandlar projektens tillgångar respektive begränsningar och en diskussion som fokuserar på formen för utvecklingsmedel.

    Samtliga av de tre projekten har genomfört vad man förutsatt i ansökan om projektmedel. Projektet Hälsofrämjarna har genomförts av Vuxenutbildningen i Kramfors kommun. Här har fyra hälsomoduler utvecklats och sedan implementerats i undervisningen i svenska för invandrare (SFI). Projektet Främja Hälsa Ung har genomförts av Rädda Barnen och Region Jämtland Härjedalen. I projektet har individer med språklig och kulturell kompetens rekryterats och utbildats för att genom gruppmöten främja målgruppens hälsokompetens. Projektet TB for YOU har genomförts av föreningen Tegelbruket i Örebro. I projektet har verksamhetens ungdomscoacher identifierat och erbjudit målgruppen den egna verksamhetens program inom kultur, bildning och idrott.

    Samtliga program uppvisar såväl positiva som negativa tendenser. Resultat från följeforskarens enkätundersökning visar att de unga vuxna i migration som medverkat i projekten har betydande behov av förebyggande insatser. I jämförelse med nationella referensdata visade det sig att studiedeltagarna var särskilt utsatta vad avser sociala relationer. Allvarlig psykisk ohälsa i form av depression och suicidförsök var också vanligt förekommande. Alkohol och droganvändande var dock inte särskilt omfattande. Projekten har utvecklats i olika utsträckning under projekttiden, vilket sannolikt kan härledas till såväl interna som externa faktorer. Enkätundersökningen och effektutvärderingen har metodologiska tillkortakommanden som framförallt avser begränsade populationer och låga uppföljningsfrekvenser. Effektutvärderingen har till följd av den begränsade populationen inte kunnat identifiera några statistiskt säkerställda resultat. De tendenser som presenteras ska tolkas med försiktighet.

    Unga vuxna i migration är inte en homogen grupp. Rapportens innehåll understryker behovet av att utveckla förebyggande program som kan nå målgruppen på så många tillgängliga sätt som möjligt. Förhoppningen är att många låter sig inspireras av de projekt som beskrivs i denna rapport. 

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  • 10.
    Andersson, Claes
    Malmö University, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Criminology (KR).
    Personalized normative feedback interventions targeting hazardous alcohol use and alcohol-related risky sexual behavior in Swedish university students: A randomized controlled replication trial2020In: Addictive Behaviors Reports, ISSN 2352-8532, Vol. 12, article id 100300Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: This study replicates two US intervention studies using personalized normative feedback (PNF) on alcohol-related risky sexual behavior (RSB).

    Methods: In a randomized controlled trial, 654 Swedish university students were assigned to an alcohol only intervention, an alcohol-related RSB only intervention, a combined alcohol and alcohol-related RSB intervention, an integrated alcohol and alcohol-related RSB intervention, or control. Follow-up assessments were made at 3 and 6 months post-intervention.

    Results: In comparison to controls, drinks per week were reduced at 3 months in the Alcohol Only, Combined, and Integrated intervention groups. Frequency and quantity of drinking before sex were reduced at 3- and 6-month follow-up for the Sex Only, Combined, and Integrated intervention groups. The Alcohol Only intervention showed significant results on frequency of drinking before sex at 3 months, and on quantity of drinking before sex at 6 months. The Combined intervention had reduced outcomes on alcohol-related consequences and on alcohol-related sexual consequences at both follow-ups. Alcohol Only and Integrated interventions showed effects on both outcomes regarding consequences at 6 months, and the Sex Only group showed effects on sexual consequences at 6 months.

    Conclusions: It is concluded that PNF interventions offer considerable positive effects, and could be used to reduce alcohol-related RSB in Swedish university students.

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  • 11.
    Andersson, Claes
    Malmö University, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Criminology (KR).
    Skills Training for Reducing Risky Alcohol Use in App Form Among Adult Internet Help-seekers2020In: Annals of Behavioral Medicine, ISSN 0883-6612, E-ISSN 1532-4796, Vol. 54, no S1, p. S418-S418Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Problematic alcohol use in Sweden occurs among 16 % of the adult population. Digital interventions of varying intensity have shown positive effects in contributing to reductions in problematic use, and the TeleCoach app has shown positive effects in non-treatment-seeking university students with excessive drinking (Gajecki et al., 2017). This pilot study evaluates the app among adult internet help-seekers. This pilot study evaluated the app among adult internet help-seekers, and motivated continued data collection in the current target group Methods: Adult internet-help seekers, recruited via advertisement, were included if they scored ³6 (women) or ³8 (men) on the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT). Those with depression scores of ³31 on the Montgomery Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS-S) or problematic drug use scores of ³8 on the Drug Use Disorders Identification Test (DUDIT) were contacted for a telephone interview and included following clinical assessment; if not reached they were excluded. Participants randomized at a 1:1 ratio to the TeleCoach™ web-based app or to a web-based app with information texts from primary care-based self-help material for changing problematic alcohol use. At six-week follow-up, the primary outcome was the number of standard drinks per past week (Timeline-Followback). Results: Of 147 persons assessed for eligibility, 89 were assigned to the intervention group (n=42) or control group (n=47). Average AUDIT levels at baseline were ³18.The baseline number of standard drinks per week was 32.73 (SD 21.16) for the intervention group, and 26 (4.08) for the control group; at 6-week follow-up it was 12.73 (10.52) and 13.48 (11.13) for the intervention and control groups, respectively. No significant between-groups effects occurred, but withingroup changes over time were significant (F(1, 55)=43.98; p< 0.000), with an effect size of 1.37 for the intervention group and 0.92 for the control group. Conclusions: The results suggest that web-based apps can be of help to internet help-seekers motivated to reduce problematic alcohol use. We have proceeded with the planned larger randomized, controlled study and will present 6-week follow-up data for the entire study sample (n=∼1000) in this presentation.

  • 12.
    Andersson, Claes
    Malmö University, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Criminology (KR).
    Validation of the Alcohol-Related Sexual Consequences Scale in Swedish University Students2023In: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, ISSN 1661-7827, E-ISSN 1660-4601, Vol. 20, no 2, article id 1035Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Alcohol-related sexual consequences are common in college students. A newly developed 41-item Alcohol-Related Sexual Consequences Scale has recently been evaluated in at-risk young adults in the U.S. The current study aims to validate the Scale in Swedish college students. Methods: The occurrence of alcohol-related sexual consequences was assessed by birth gender, relationship status, gender identity/sexual orientation, and age. Negative binomial regression was used to assess convergent and divergent validity. Results: On average, 5.4 (SD 5.1) alcohol-related sexual consequences were experienced past three months. Greater scores were reported in singles, LGBTQ (Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender, Queer/Questioning), and younger students. All sex-related covariates showed robust associations with alcohol-related sexual consequences while most alcohol-related covariates were not associated (e.g., convergent validity). All alcohol-related covariates showed robust associations with alcohol consequences while most sex-related covariates were not associated (e.g., divergent validity). In the full model predicting alcohol-related sexual consequences, being a woman, single, and younger were identified as independent predictors. Conclusions: This newly developed scale assessing alcohol-related sexual consequences could be used in both epidemiological studies and intervention studies targeting at-risk students.

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  • 13.
    Andersson, Claes
    et al.
    Malmö University, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Criminology (KR). Uppsala Univ, Dept Psychol, Uppsala, Sweden..
    Bendtsen, Marcus
    Linkoping Univ, Dept Hlth Med & Caring Sci, Linkoping, Sweden..
    Lindfors, Petra
    Stockholm Univ, Dept Psychol, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Molander, Olof
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Clin Neurosci, Ctr Psychiat Res, Stockholm, Sweden.;Stockholm Hlth Care Serv, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Lindner, Philip
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Clin Neurosci, Ctr Psychiat Res, Stockholm, Sweden.;Stockholm Hlth Care Serv, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Topooco, Naira
    Linkoping Univ, Dept Behav Sci & Learning, Linkoping, Sweden..
    Engström, Karin
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Global Publ Hlth, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Berman, Anne H.
    Uppsala Univ, Dept Psychol, Uppsala, Sweden.;Karolinska Inst, Dept Clin Neurosci, Ctr Psychiat Res, Stockholm, Sweden.;Stockholm Hlth Care Serv, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Does the management of personal integrity information lead to differing participation rates and response patterns in mental health surveys with young adults?: A three-armed methodological experiment2021In: International Journal of Methods in Psychiatric Research, ISSN 1049-8931, E-ISSN 1557-0657, Vol. 30, no 4, article id e1891Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives This study evaluates whether initiation rates, completion rates, response patterns and prevalence of psychiatric conditions differ by level of personal integrity information given to prospective participants in an online mental health self-report survey. Methods A three-arm, parallel-group, single-blind experiment was conducted among students from two Swedish universities. Consenting participants following e-mail invitation answered the World Health Organization (WHO) World Mental Health-International College Student (WMH-ICS) mental health self-report survey, screening for eight psychiatric conditions. Random allocation meant consenting to respond (1) anonymously; (2) confidentially, or (3) confidentially, where the respondent also gave consent for collection of register data. Results No evidence was found for overall between-group differences with respect to (1) pressing a hyperlink to the survey in the invitation email; and (2) abandoning the questionnaire before completion. However, participation consent and self-reported depression were in the direction of higher levels for the anonymous group compared to the two confidential groups. Conclusions Consent to participate is marginally affected by different levels of personal integrity information. Current standard participant information procedures may not engage participants to read the information thoroughly, and online self-report mental health surveys may reduce stigma and thus be less subject to social desirability bias.

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  • 14.
    Andersson, Claes
    et al.
    Malmö University, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Criminology (KR).
    Bendtsen, Marcus
    Department of Health, Medicine and Caring Sciences, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Molander, Olof
    Centre for Psychiatry Research, Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, & Stockholm Health Care Services, Region Stockholm, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Granlund, Lilian
    Department of Psychology, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Topooco, Naira
    Department of Behavioral Sciences and Learning, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Engström, Karin
    Department of Global Public Health, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Lindfors, Petra
    Department of Psychology, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Berman, Anne H.
    Department of Psychology, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden; Centre for Psychiatry Research, Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, & Stockholm Health Care Services, Region Stockholm, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Associations between compliance with covid-19 public health recommendations and perceived contagion in others: a self-report study in Swedish university students2021In: BMC Research Notes, E-ISSN 1756-0500, Vol. 14, no 1, article id 429Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: During the COVID pandemic, government authorities worldwide have tried to limit the spread of the virus. Sweden's distinctive feature was the use of voluntary public health recommendations. Few studies have evaluated the effectiveness of this strategy. Based on data collected in the spring of 2020, this study explored associations between compliance with recommendations and observed symptoms of contagion in others, using self-report data from university students.

    Results: Compliance with recommendations ranged between 69.7 and 95.7 percent. Observations of moderate symptoms of contagion in "Someone else I have had contact with" and "Another person" were markedly associated with reported self-quarantine, which is the most restrictive recommendation, complied with by 81.2% of participants. Uncertainty regarding the incidence and severity of contagion in cohabitants was markedly associated with the recommendation to avoid public transportation, a recommendation being followed by 69.7%. It is concluded that students largely followed the voluntary recommendations implemented in Sweden, suggesting that coercive measures were not necessary. Compliance with recommendations were associated with the symptoms students saw in others, and with the perceived risk of contagion in the student's immediate vicinity. It is recommended that voluntary recommendations should stress personal relevance, and that close relatives are at risk.

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  • 15.
    Andersson, Claes
    et al.
    Malmö University, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Criminology (KR). Department of Psychology, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Bendtsen, Marcus
    Department of Health, Medicine and Caring Sciences, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Molander, Olof
    Centre for Psychiatry Research, Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, & Stockholm Health Care Services, Region Stockholm, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Granlund, Lilian
    Department of Psychology, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Topooco, Naira
    Department of Behavioral Sciences and Learning, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Engström, Karin
    Department of Global Public Health, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Lindfors, Petra
    Department of Psychology, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Berman, Anne H
    Department of Psychology, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden; Centre for Psychiatry Research, Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, & Stockholm Health Care Services, Region Stockholm, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Symptoms of COVID-19 contagion in different social contexts in association to self-reported symptoms, mental health and study capacity in Swedish university students.2022In: BMC Research Notes, E-ISSN 1756-0500, Vol. 15, no 1, article id 131Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: The present study investigates if symptoms of COVID-19 contagion in different social contexts (cohabitants, family, acquaintances, and others) are associated with university students' own self-reported symptoms of COVID-19 contagion, mental health, and study capacity. This was investigated by a cross-sectional survey administrated in Sweden during the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic, at the time when universities were locked down to limit viral spread and contagion.

    RESULTS: Mild to moderate symptoms of COVID-19 in cohabitants and family members were associated with student's self-reported symptoms of contagion, while no associations could be seen in relation to mental health and study capacity. Symptoms of COVID-19 contagion in acquaintances and others were not associated with students' self-reported symptoms, nor with their mental health and study capacity. To conclude, during the initial lockdown of universities students' self-reported symptoms of contagion were mainly associated with cohabitants and family members, while symptoms of contagion in different social contexts were not associated with mental health and study capacity. Findings suggest that lockdown of universities may have contributed to limiting infection pathways, while still allowing students to focus on their studies despite significant contagion among others known to the student.

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  • 16.
    Andersson, Claes
    et al.
    Malmö University, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Criminology (KR). Department of Psychology, Uppsala university, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Bendtsen, Marcus
    Department of Health, Medicine and Caring Sciences, Linköping university, Linköping, Sweden.
    Molander, Olof
    Centre for Psychiatry Research, Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, & Stockholm Health Care Services, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Lindner, Philip
    Centre for Psychiatry Research, Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, & Stockholm Health Care Services, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Granlund, Lilian
    Department of Psychology, Uppsala university, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Topooco, Naira
    Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Linköping university, Linköping, Sweden.
    Engström, Karin
    Department of Global Public Health, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Lindfors, Petra
    Department of Psychology, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Berman, Anne H.
    Department of Psychology, Uppsala university, Uppsala, Sweden;Centre for Psychiatry Research, Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, & Stockholm Health Care Services, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Academic self-efficacy: Associations with self-reported COVID-19 symptoms, mental health, and trust in universities’ management of the pandemic-induced university lockdown2022In: Journal of American College Health, ISSN 0744-8481, E-ISSN 1940-3208Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: To investigate perceived changes in academic self-efficacy associated with self-reported symptoms of COVID-19, changes in mental health, and trust in universities’ management of the pandemic and transition to remote education during lockdown of Swedish universities in the spring of 2020. Methods: 4495 participated and 3638 responded to self-efficacy questions. Associations were investigated using multinomial regression. Results: Most students reported self-experienced effects on self-efficacy. Lowered self-efficacy was associated with symptoms of contagion, perceived worsening of mental health and low trust in universities’ capacity to successfully manage the lockdown and transition to emergency remote education. Increased self-efficacy was associated with better perceived mental health and high trust in universities. Conclusion: The initial phase of the pandemic was associated with a larger proportion of students reporting self-experienced negative effects on academic self-efficacy. Since self-efficacy is a predictor of academic performance, it is likely that students’ academic performance will be adversely affected. 

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  • 17.
    Andersson, Claes
    et al.
    Malmö University, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Criminology (KR).
    Håkansson, Anders
    Department of Clinical Sciences Lund.
    Associations between Risk Factors in Late Adolescence and Problem Behaviors in Young Adulthood: A Six-Year Follow-Up of Substance Related and Behavioral Addictions in Swedish High School Seniors2021In: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, ISSN 1661-7827, E-ISSN 1660-4601, Vol. 18, no 23, article id 12766Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Risk factors of traditional substance use related problems in young adults are more well-known than for behavioral addictions such as gambling and gaming problems. The present study aims to provide knowledge about the longitudinal patters of substance use related and behavioral addictions in early adulthood. Methods: Using self-report surveys, substance-related, psychiatric, and demographic predictors were assessed in Swedish high school seniors and re-assessed six years later along with gambling and gaming problems, n = 800. Associations (Risk Ratios) between risk factors in late adolescence and problem behaviors in young adulthood were analyzed. Results: Tobacco use, illicit drug use, and hazardous drinking in young adulthood were associated with tobacco use, illicit drug use, alcohol use, conduct problems, and impaired impulse control in late adolescence. Gambling problems in young adulthood were only associated with heredity of alcohol problems, while gaming was not associated to any problem behavior in late adolescence. Conclusion: It is concluded that predictors for traditional substance-related addictions differ from predictors for behavioral addictions, and that this difference is more pronounced for gaming problems than for gambling problems.

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  • 18.
    Andersson, Claes
    et al.
    Malmö University, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Criminology (KR).
    Vasiljevic, Zoran
    Malmö University, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Criminology (KR).
    Höglund, Peter
    Öjehagen, Agneta
    Berglund, Mats
    Daily Automated Telephone Assessment and Intervention Improved 1-Month Outcome in Paroled Offenders2020In: International journal of offender therapy and comparative criminology, ISSN 0306-624X, E-ISSN 1552-6933, Vol. 64, no 8, p. 735-752Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This randomized trial evaluates whether automated telephony could be used to perform daily assessments in paroled offenders (N = 108) during their first 30 days after leaving prison. All subjects were called daily and answered assessment questions. Based on the content of their daily assessments, subjects in the intervention group received immediate feedback and a recommendation by automated telephony, and their probation officers also received a daily report by email. The outcome variables were analyzed using linear mixed models. The intervention group showed greater improvement than the control group in the summary scores (M = 9.6, 95% confidence interval [CI] = [0.5, 18.7], p = .038), in mental symptoms (M = 4.6, CI = [0.2, 9.0], p = .042), in alcohol drinking (M = 0.8, CI = [0.1, 1.4], p = .031), in drug use (M = 1.0, CI = [0.5, 1.6], p = .000), and in most stressful daily event (M = 1.9, CI = [1.1, 2.7], p = .000). In conclusion, automated telephony may be used to follow up and to give interventions, resulting in reduced stress and drug use, in paroled offenders.

  • 19.
    Andersson, Mika
    Malmö University, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Criminology (KR).
    Hate crime victimization: consequences and interpretations2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The field of hate crime studies is a young one and as such it is characterized by a high proportion of explorative and inductive studies. This methodological approach is well founded when a field is unfolding as they often generate theoretical conclusions or assumptions. Since I began working with the present dissertation in 2013, I have observed an increased tendency towards deductive studies testing the conclusions and assumptions made by field pioneers. The present dissertation is part of this branch and has two primary aims; 1) to test field assumptions and 2) develop present theoretical frameworks on causes and consequences of hate crime.In Article 1, me and my co-author examine the assumption that hate crime victimization result in higher levels of fear in comparison to non-bias crime. The assumption is tested by comparing fear of crime, behavioral adaptations and place-based worry among students with an immigrant and/or national minority background. The results show that hate crime victims reported significantly higher levels of fear of crime in comparison to non-victims and non-bias victims. However, there were few significant differences in behavioral adaptations and place-based worry. From interviews with hate crime victims we learned that place-based worry is not primarily associated with the physical characteristics of a certain area, but geographical concentrations of racist attitudes. Moreover, the behavioral adaptations that the interview participants used to avoid future victimization were often based upon de-identification. From these results we can conclude that traditional measures of place-based worry and behavioral adaptations does not adequately capture consequences of hate crime.In Article 2, me and my co-authors examine the assumption that police reporting is lower among victims of hate crime that target more than one of their identity categories. Contrarily to the assumption, we find that victims of hate crime with multiple motives report their experiences to the police to a higher extent in comparison to victims of hate crime with single motives. We also found that participants with several intersecting group identities endowed with stigma were more likely to be targets of hate crime with multiple motives, but not more likely to experience repeat victimization. These results support the branch of intersectional theory holding that group belongings primarily influence the expressions of violence rather than the risk of being subjected to violence.In Article 3, me and my co-authors examine the assumption that hate targets the identity of the victim and thereby attack the core of the victim’s self. We found that hate crime targets a negative stereotype associated with the perceived identity of the victim. Consequently, interview participants did not regard hate crime as a direct attack on their selves as they did not identify with the negative stereotype. However, hate crime remain a violation of the self as it denies the victims self-representation. The results also showed that the meaning-making regarding hate crime victimization is reflexive as the participants used earlier experiences when assigning meaning to incidents. This process was also recursive as new incidents lead to re-interpretations of previous experiences. In sum, the participants developed and negotiated their experiences of hate crime over time.In Article 4, me and my co-authors examine the assumption that vicarious victims respond in similar ways as direct victims since hate crime signal the presence of threat beyond the initial victim, sometimes referred to as the in terrorem effect. We examine the in terrorem effect by comparing fear of crime between non-victims, vicarious victims of hate crime, and direct victims of hate crime in three communities; women, Muslims and sexual minorities. The results showed that direct victims were generally more afraid of crime in comparison to non-victims in all communities. Though not all differences were significant, the reaction pattern among non-victims, vicarious victims and direct victims in the studies commu-nities showed the pattern of a stair, with the lowest rates among non-victims and the highest rates among direct victims. These results thereby contradict the proposed pattern of the in terrorem effect in which vicarious victims and direct victims are held to react in similar ways.In sum, the results of the present dissertation call for a more complex understanding of both individual and community effects of hate crime. The theoretical development and integration in Chapter 3 along with the results of Articles 1-4 results in hypotheses for future research on causes and consequences of hate crime in Chapter 6.

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  • 20.
    Andersson, Mika
    et al.
    Malmö University, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Criminology (KR).
    Ivert, A-K
    Mellgren, C
    Does having friends with experiences of hate crime increase fear among women, sexual minorities, and Muslims?2018Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 21.
    Andersson, Mika
    et al.
    Malmö University, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Criminology (KR).
    Mellgren, Caroline
    Malmö University, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Criminology (KR).
    Ivert, Anna-Karin
    Malmö University, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Criminology (KR).
    How victims conceptualize their experiences of hate crime2018Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the study is to provide thevictims’perspective to the contemporary conceptualization of hate crime.Much attention has been given to the interpretational frameworks of offenders, and although victims’ definitions of hate crime are sometimes mentioned in passing in interview studies, this has never been a primary subject of study.The present study applies phenomenological analysisto 28semi-structured interviews with victims of hate crime. The results show that the participants primarily apply meaning to their experiences in social groups and use previous experiences to guide their interpretations. While the conceptualization of victims largely concurs withtheory presented by the research community and special interest organizations, they diverge from how hate crime is contextualized in hate crime legislation.

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  • 22.
    Angelidis, Georgios
    Malmö University, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Criminology (KR).
    The case of domestic violence in western societies during the last two years of the pandemic and the role of the victim2022Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
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  • 23.
    Anna, Johansson
    et al.
    Malmö University, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Criminology (KR).
    Petra, Veres
    Malmö University, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Criminology (KR).
    Lika men Olika: - En tematisk analys av riskbedömningsverktyg i offentlig sektor2022Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In Sweden, social services have the primary responsibility for providing support to victims of domestic violence. Initially, a risk assessment of the victim's situation should be carried out to identify the need for support. The way in which risk assessments are carried out varies between services, which may have an impact on how the case is managed at a later stage. Therefore, as recommended, the assessment should be carried out in accordance with a standardised methodology. The aim of this study is to contribute with increased knowledge about the risk assessment tools FREDA and SARA: SV's ability to detect particular vulnerability and different social groups in the work with domestic violence. Through a qualitative, deductive method, thematic analysis is used to investigate the content of the assessment tools from an intersectional perspective with the aim of highlighting whether different vulnerability factors and social groups are made visible. The analysis resulted in four themes, 1) vulnerability of different parties, 2) social vulnerability, 3) relational vulnerability, and 4) the complex objectivity of the tools.

    The results show that a variety of vulnerability factors are taken into account when assessing, albeit to a relatively small extent. However, these are particularly relevant in connection with the perpetrator and the assessment of the risk of continued domestic violence. In addition, it is discussed whether the tools' neutral wording only has an inclusive effect or whether it also risks making groups with special needs invisible.

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  • 24.
    Antonsson, Amanda
    et al.
    Malmö University, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Criminology (KR).
    Svensson, Ellen
    Malmö University, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Criminology (KR).
    KAMERAÖVERVAKNING - INTEGRITETSKRÄNKANDE ELLER INTE?: PÅVERKAS INDIVIDERS VARDAGLIGA LIV?2023Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the present study is to examine what citizens think about camera surveillance and how it affects their day to day life. The question at issue was answered through structured interviews carried out at Stortorget in central Malmö. The interviews resulted in 119 participants and the material was processed with both a qualitative and quantitative approach. The result corresponds with previous research which shows that Swedish citizens view camera surveillance positively, the overall trend is that approximately  80% of Swedes are positive towards camera surveillance in public places. Furthermore, the results show a conflict between integrity and security, as the study shows that camera surveillance violates the integrity of certain individuals. In addition, the results are linked to theories of power and Foucault's thoughts on Panopticon. Where a constantly monitoring eye can affect individuals' life patterns, as they are normalized into what is seen as right by whoever is in power. However, the study shows that only a few individuals consider themselves affected by camera surveillance in their everyday life. Suggestions for further research are to conduct more in-depth and open interviews with participants, this in order to more deeply understand their reasoning. It would also be interesting to research how material from camera surveillance is being processed according to laws and regulations. 

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  • 25.
    Avratoglou, Alexandros
    Malmö University, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Criminology (KR).
    Witnessing moral educators breaking (their) moral teachings, morality and self-reported crime: A study on adults in two countries, Sweden and Greece2021Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The present paper extends previous research in terms of integrating social learning with morality theories, under the framework of moral educators’ and their conflicting moral influences. Specifically, this study aims to investigate the impact of witnessing moral educators breaking (their) moral teachings on individual’s morality and criminal behavior using a sample of two countries, Sweden and Greece, with similar population but entirely different cultural and social characteristics. We focus on three research questions regarding the correlations and (i) the explanatory influence of witnessing this conflict on moral emotions and values by gender and country, (ii) its impact on traditional crime by gender and country and (iii) the impact that witnessing the conflict and morality mutually have on traditional crime in the two countries. Our findings emerge in three key points. First, we found that witnessing moral educators influenced both moral emotions differentially in each country and gender, but only affected Swedish males’ moral values. Secondly, our results showed that witnessing moral educators can explain a moderate to small variance of traditional crime only for males in the two countries. Lastly, we found that witnessing moral educators together with morality can explain a moderate variance of traditional crime in the two countries, while gender is highly important for both countries. Findings are discussed in relation to theory and previous research. Future research is recommended in order to expand the understanding of the cultural and social learning processes that inhibit (im)moral contexts and subsequently affect morality and offending.

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  • 26.
    Axnäs, Nina
    Malmö University, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Criminology (KR).
    Utredningsbara misshandelsbrott?: En studie av polisens förutsättningar och förmåga att utreda och klara upp misshandelsbrott2024Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The police are involved in almost all phases of a criminal investigation, starting with the crime itself and ending in court. The clearance rate is a core issue. If this rate is low or decreases, perpetrators will not be prosecuted and sentenced, and the police will be criticized. If this is to be rectified it is necessary to understand why it happens (causes).The aim of this study has been to investigate the prerequisites for the investigation of assault crimes and the police's ability to solve these crimes. The objective has been to produce knowledge for a follow-up model that can provide a more multifaceted picture of the police investigation results, beyond just reported preliminary investigation protocols (FUP).The data consist of 384 police reports regarding assaults that were assessed to be non-serious. In line with the aim of the study, the study employs a Swedish equivalent of the Evidence-Based Investigative Tool (EBIT) (McFadzien et al., 2020; Sherman, 2018).Rational decision theory (March, 1994) has been applied, along with theories focused on the way street bureaucracies manage and prioritize among an incessant influx of cases (Lipsky, 2010) and on various mechanisms that influence the approaches employed (Brodkin, 2011a; Jönsson, 2021). As a measure of the prerequisites for police investigations, a number of basic variables have been employed to reflect whether there is an identified victim, who then cooperates with the investigation, and an identifiable perpetrator. Other basic variables reflect whether there are witnesses, or surveillance cameras that may have captured the incident. As a measure of the police's investigative ability, the study employs variables focused on whether victims and witnesses have been interrogated and whether the police have checked/obtained footage from surveillance cameras.The results show that the conditions for investigating assault are not optimal. Only one third of cases meet all the specified requirements. In about 75 percent of these cases, the police had carried out the investigative measures that were possible. In the remaining investigations, the victims had not been interviewed, the police had not questioned witnesses, or they had not checked and retrieve surveillance footage. To some extent this might be explained by the fact that the reported crime was minor, that the case included information about a counter allegation, the crime would be difficult to prove, or a claim of self-defense difficult to disprove.

    The study’s results are in several respects neither unexpected nor remarkable. According to the Swedish Police’s national investigative strategy, high priority must be given to cases of domestic violence and only crimes that are expected to lead to prosecution should be investigated. However, there were also some surprising findings: The police succeeded in confirming or disproving assault in 29 percent of all reported non-serious assault crimes. Solving reported crimes is not always equivalent to prosecuting.

    Finally, the results indicate that a tool for predicting clearance could be utilized to reduce the workload of Principal Investigators. However, this would require more extensive investigative measures to be undertaken at the time the crime report is initially registered. The results show that the documentation on which decisions are based is in many cases insufficient for an assessment of whether or not a prosecution is likely, since it lacks information on the presence or absence of witnesses or surveillance cameras, and whether these substantiate the crime.

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  • 27.
    Badu, Grace Akose
    Malmö University, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Criminology (KR). None.
    Challenges of Community Policing and Community Safety in the slum Community of Westpoint. District Number 7, Monsterrado County, Liberia: None2022Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Police are most at risk, and so are the residents due to the vulnerability in the slum community of WestPoint. Despite the efforts of the government to improve community living standards by encouraging the role of Community policing in crime prevention, there is instead an increase in the crime rate and insecurity in the neighborhoods. Aim: To assess the development and practice of Community policing to understand the challenges and the reasons for the ineffectiveness of policing in WestPoint, Greater Monrovia, Liberia. Methods: A qualitative method was employed using open-ended survey questions. Malmö University library and google scholar search engines were utilized with several inclusion criteria to arrive at 48 articles and books for this review. Results: To be able to implement Community policing, there should be competency among police officers and more trained officers in the force, Police also need to have a good view of their power or authority and administer their duties in the appropriate form and manner, increasing good communication between the Police and the residents.Conclusion: In the light of the restraints, implementation of Community policing in WestPoint has failed due to its inadequacy to collaborate with partners between security agencies and communities; failure to protect volunteers of information among the community resident; failure to provide awareness to WestPoint residents on the importance to uphold the existing laws and procedures of the public safety and security.Keywords: Community policing; Efficacy; Disorganization Neighborhood; Crime prevention.

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  • 28.
    Bahtiri, Dorentina
    et al.
    Malmö University, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Criminology (KR). Tina.
    Murici, Blerta
    Malmö University, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Criminology (KR).
    “GO FOR THE MONEY”: - EN MÅL-PROCESSUTVÄRDERING AV OPERATION KLÖVER2021Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The government assignment Tillsammans mot brott has increased the prioritization of and interest in inter-agency collaboration. This forms the background to Operation Klöver where eight different swedish actors were involved; the Police, Customs, Enforcement officer, Work-environment authority, Environmental administration, Tax agency, Northwest rescue service and the Social Insurance Agency. The risk with these kinds of collaborations is that such forms of work are initiated as a pure intrinsic value and without taking into account the necessary conditions needed for their collaboration to enhance their crime-fighting and crime prevention rather than inhibit it. The purpose of this goal-process evaluation is therefore to give the actors involved in Operation Klöver an overview of their work in relation to the operation's second goal, to develop inter-agency collaborations. The hope is that their workmethods can be developed to, if possible, become more suitable for its purpose and that their crime-fighting and crime prevention can be developed and continued in the future. The central queries are: What are the guidelines or conditions for collaboration between the various actors? and How have the involved actors experienced that the collaboration has worked before, during and after Operations Klöver’s implementation? The results from this show that the actors have very good conditions for collaboration and that all actors have been satisfied with each other's work and are positive about future inter-agency collaboration. 

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  • 29.
    Basic, Amir
    Malmö University, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Criminology (KR).
    COVID-19’s effect on Domestic Violence in Sweden during the first 6 months of 2020.: A deeper look into gender differences, weekly crime rates, and the relationship between the victim and offender.2021Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The COVID-19 pandemic has brought about several restrictions throughout society which has limited people's outdoor activities and forced individuals to stay home. These circumstances have possibly had an impact on the prevalence of domestic violence and other types of assault. This paper uses police crime data from the first six months of 2020 to analyse if any changes in domestic violence can be attributed to the implementation of COVID-19 restrictions in Sweden. Using the LUPP method, developed by The Swedish Council for Crime Prevention (BRÅ), this paper investigates weekly changes in crime compared to the same period in 2019 while additionally studying the prevalence of different types of relationships between the victim and offender. Results indicate that partner violence for men has doubled in relation to all assault crimes, and that partner violence for women has also increased substantially, accounting for 46 % of total assault crimes in the observed period. Abuse by family members, other acquaintances, and unknown persons have seemingly gone down in 2020, compared to the same period in 2019. A concluding regression analysis reveals weak to moderate correlations between changes in domestic violence- and non-domestic violence crimes and COVID-19 restrictions, even when changes in seasonality is accounted for. While the increase in domestic violence crimes does not directly coincide with the emergence of COVID-19, results indicate that the implemented restrictions have played an important role in maintaining heightened levels throughout the observed period. Future research is advised to continue testing for correlations to COVID-19 restrictions, while also considering other variables which could be related to domestic violence, such as increased alcohol consumption at home, family isolation, and economic stress. 

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  • 30.
    Baudot, Coralie
    Malmö University, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Criminology (KR).
    CRIME TRENDS OF WOMEN PROSECUTED FOR A CRIME AGAINST LIFE AND HEALTH BETWEEN 2000 AND 2020 IN SWEDEN2022Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    An apparent consistent finding, in Sweden and in the rest of the Western World, is that female criminality is increasing more than male criminality: if men still commit way more crimes, the gap between the sexes is narrowing.The aim of this thesis is to continue previous research, by studying female crime trends in Sweden. The data used comes from Swedish official crime statistics regarding women prosecuted for or suspected of a crime and covers a time period going from 2000 to 2020. The crimes of relevance in this thesis are the crimes of murder and manslaughter, assault, and gross assault. Finally, women are divided into various age groups to compare the evolution of each of them.The main findings of this study are that the number of women prosecuted for crimes against life and health seems to be overall decreasing, but this decrease is more pronounced for women aged below 21, and for the most serious crimes. On the other hand, the gap between suspected and prosecuted women is increasing, especially for women aged 21 or more. Finally, it seems that if at the beginning of the century women aged below 21 were the main female perpetrators of assault, this has changed, with older women now being more suspected and prosecuted for this crime.

  • 31.
    Benjet, Corina
    et al.
    Department of Epidemiology and Psychosocial Research National Institute of Psychiatry Ramón de la Fuente Muñiz Mexico City Mexico.
    Orozco, Ricardo
    Department of Epidemiology and Psychosocial Research National Institute of Psychiatry Ramón de la Fuente Muñiz Mexico City Mexico.
    Albor, Yesica C.
    Department of Epidemiology and Psychosocial Research National Institute of Psychiatry Ramón de la Fuente Muñiz Mexico City Mexico.
    Contreras, Eunice V.
    Facultad de Ciencias Administrativas y Sociales Universidad Autónoma de Baja California Ensenada Mexico.
    Monroy‐Velasco, Iris R.
    Facultad de Psicología Universidad Autónoma de Coahuila Saltillo Mexico.
    Hernández Uribe, Praxedis C.
    Secretaría de la Unidad Cuajimalpa Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana Mexico City Mexico.
    Báez Mansur, Patricia M.
    Coordinación de Desarrollo Académico y Servicios Educativos Universidad la Salle Ciudad Victoria.
    Covarrubias Díaz Couder, María A.
    Coordinación de Investigación Universidad la Salle Noroeste Ciudad Obregón Mexico.
    Quevedo Chávez, Guillermo E.
    Coordinación de psicología Universidad la Salle Cancún Cancún Mexico.
    Gutierrez‐García, Raúl A.
    Facultad de Ciencias Sociales y Humanidades Universidad De La Salle Bajío Salamanca Mexico.
    Machado, Nydia
    Departamento de Psicología Instituto Tecnológico de Sonora Ciudad Obregón Mexico.
    Andersson, Claes
    Malmö University, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Criminology (KR).
    Borges, Guilherme
    Department of Epidemiology and Psychosocial Research National Institute of Psychiatry Ramón de la Fuente Muñiz Mexico City Mexico.
    A longitudinal study on the impact of Internet gaming disorder on self‐perceived health, academic performance, and social life of first‐year college students2023In: American Journal on Addictions, ISSN 1055-0496, E-ISSN 1521-0391, Vol. 32, no 4, p. 343-351Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background and objectives: Internet gaming disorder (IGD) is associated with health, social, and academic problems but whether these are consequences of the disorder rather than precursors or correlates is unclear. We aimed to evaluate whether IGD in the 1st year of university predicts health, academic and social problems 1 year later, controlling for baseline health, academic and social problems, demographics, and mental health symptoms.

    Methods: In a prospective cohort study, 1741 university students completed both a baseline online survey in their 1st year and a follow-up survey 1 year later. Log-binomial models examined the strength of prospective associations between baseline predictor variables (IGD, baseline health, academic and social problems, sex, age, and mental health symptoms) and occurrence of health, academic and social problems at follow-up.

    Results: When extensively adjusted by the corresponding outcome at baseline, any mental disorder symptoms, sex, and age, baseline IGD was associated only with severe school impairment and poor social life (risk ratio [RR] = 1.77; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.14-2.75, p = .011; RR = 1.22; 95% CI = 1.07-1.38, p = .002, respectively).

    Conclusions and scientific significance: University authorities and counselors should consider that incoming 1st-year students that meet criteria for IGD are likely to have increased academic and social impairments during their 1st year for which they may want to intervene. This study adds to the existing literature by longitudinally examining a greater array of negative outcomes of IGD than previously documented.

  • 32.
    Berglund Molin, Ellen
    Malmö University, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Criminology (KR).
    THE DEVELOPMENT OF VISHING FRAUD DURING THE COVID PANDEMIC2021Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
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  • 33. Berman, Anne H
    et al.
    Andersson, Claes
    Malmö University, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Criminology (KR).
    Gajecki, Mikael
    Rosendahl, Ingvar
    Sinadinovic, Kristina
    Blankers, Matthijs
    Smartphone Apps Targeting Hazardous Drinking Patterns among University Students Show Differential Subgroup Effects over 20 Weeks: Results from a Randomized, Controlled Trial.2019In: Journal of Clinical Medicine, E-ISSN 2077-0383, Vol. 8, no 11, article id 1807Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Overconsumption of alcohol, from hazardous to excessive, heavy, and harmful levels, is common among university students. Consenting Swedish students were assigned to one of two smartphone apps offering feedback on estimated blood alcohol concentration (eBAC; Promillekoll/PartyPlanner) or assessment only (n = 2166; 1:1:1 ratio). App participants with excessive drinking according to public health criteria (>9/>14 drinks/week for women/men, respectively) at a 7 week follow-up were additionally assigned to the skills-based TeleCoach app or waitlist (n = 186; 1:1 ratio). All participants were followed at 14 and 20 weeks. At 7 weeks, Promillekoll users showed higher risk of excessive drinking (odds ratio (OR) = 1.83; p

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  • 34.
    Berman, Anne H.
    et al.
    Karolinska Inst, Stockholm, Sweden.;Uppsala Univ, Uppsala, Sweden..
    Andersson, Claes
    Malmö University, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Criminology (KR).
    Lindner, Philip
    Karolinska Inst, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Engstrom, Karin
    Karolinska Inst, Stockholm, Sweden.;Swedish Publ Hlth Agcy, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Bendtsen, Marcus
    Linkoping Univ, Linkoping, Sweden..
    Lindfors, Petra
    Stockholm Univ, Stockholm, Sweden..
    National assessment and e-health interventions for mental health problems among university students: Swedish partnership in the WHO-World Mental Health International College Student (WHM-ICS) consortium2021In: International Journal of Behavioral Medicine, ISSN 1070-5503, E-ISSN 1532-7558, Vol. 28, no SUPPL 1, p. S101-S101Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 35.
    Berman, Anne H
    et al.
    Uppsala University; Karolinska Institutet and Stockholm Health Care Services.
    Bendtsen, Marcus
    Linköping University.
    Molander, Olof
    Karolinska Institutet and Stockholm Health Care Services.
    Lindfors, Petra
    Stockholm University.
    Lindner, Philip
    Karolinska Institutet and Stockholm Health Care Services.
    Granlund, Lilian
    Uppsala University.
    Topooco, Naira
    Linköping University.
    Engström, Karin
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Andersson, Claes
    Malmö University, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Criminology (KR). Uppsala University.
    Compliance with recommendations limiting COVID-19 contagion among university students in Sweden: associations with self-reported symptoms, mental health and academic self-efficacy2022In: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1403-4948, E-ISSN 1651-1905, Vol. 50, no 1, p. 70-84, article id 14034948211027824Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    AIMS: The COVID-19 containment strategy in Sweden uses public health recommendations relying on personal responsibility for compliance. Universities were one of few public institutions subject to strict closure, meaning that students had to adapt overnight to online teaching. This study investigates the prevalence of self-reported recommendation compliance and associations with self-reported symptoms of contagion, self-experienced effects on mental health and academic self-efficacy among university students in Sweden in May-June 2020.

    METHODS: This was a cross-sectional 23 question online survey in which data were analysed by multinomial regression, taking a Bayesian analysis approach complemented by null hypothesis testing.

    RESULTS: A total of 4495 students consented to respond. Recommendation compliance ranged between 70% and 96%. Women and older students reported higher compliance than did men and younger students. Mild to moderate COVID-19 symptoms were reported by 30%, severe symptoms by fewer than 2%; 15% reported being uncertain and half of the participants reported no symptoms. Mental health effects were reported by over 80%, and changes in academic self-efficacy were reported by over 85%; in both these areas negative effects predominated. Self-reported symptoms and uncertainty about contagion were associated with non-compliance, negative mental health effects, and impaired academic self-efficacy.

    CONCLUSIONS: Students generally followed public health recommendations during strict closure of universities, but many reported considerable negative consequences related to mental health and academic self-efficacy. Digital interventions should be developed and evaluated to boost coping skills, build resilience and alleviate student suffering during the pandemic and future similar crises.

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  • 36. Berman, Anne H.
    et al.
    Bewick, Bridgette
    Fodor, Marina C.
    Andersson, Claes
    Malmö University, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Criminology (KR).
    Satterfield, Jason
    Meacham, Meredith
    Satre, Derek D.
    Current State of the Art in Digital Interventions for Addictive Behaviors2020In: Annals of Behavioral Medicine, ISSN 0883-6612, E-ISSN 1532-4796, Vol. 54, no S1, p. S417-S417Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Two years ago, a Special Issue on E-health Interventions for Addictive Behaviors was published in the International Journal of Behavioral Medicine. The issue included 16 articles, addressing topics like methodologies for developing e-health interventions, how to engage intervention users and establish a working alliance, and empirical findings from randomized controlled trials and a naturalistic study. The issue began with two articles offering a wide perspective on the field, with a systematic review of reviews on digital interventions for problematic alcohol use, as well as a too for describing e-health interventions as a step towards standardized reporting in order to facilitate communication about the interventions and comparisons between them. This symposium will follow up on the Special Issue by bringing together some of the contributors for presentations of their current work and a discussion on the current state-of-the-art in digital interventions for addictive behaviors. This symposium is sponsored by SBM’s Scientific and Professional Liaison Council (SPLC), in partnership with the International Society of Behavioral Medicine (ISBM).

  • 37.
    Berman, Anne H.
    et al.
    Uppsala Univ, Uppsala, Sweden..
    Kraepelien, Martin
    Karolinska Inst, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Sundstrom, Christopher
    Uppsala Univ, Uppsala, Sweden.;Karolinska Inst, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Molander, Olof
    Karolinska Inst, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Andersson, Claes
    Malmö University, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Criminology (KR). Uppsala Univ, Uppsala, Sweden..
    Andersson, Gerhard
    Linköping Univ, Linköping, Sweden..
    Bendtsen, Marcus
    Linköping Univ, Linköping, Sweden..
    Lindfors, Petra
    Stockholm Univ, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Olsson, Erik
    Uppsala Univ, Uppsala, Sweden..
    Strid, Catharina
    Lund Univ, Lund, Sweden..
    Topooco, Naira
    Uppsala Univ, Uppsala, Sweden.;Linköping Univ, Linköping, Sweden..
    Teaching digital mental health treatment in theory and practice: A proof-of-concept pilot and feasibility study2023In: International Journal of Behavioral Medicine, ISSN 1070-5503, E-ISSN 1532-7558, Vol. 30, p. S67-S67Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Improving relationship dynamics positively impacts both partners’ health among couples. However, few studies have investigated sexual and gender minority (SGM) couples’ relationship goals and their experiences toward achieving them.

    Purpose: The present study investigated SGM couples’ experiences that centered on them working toward or maintaining their relationship goals over time.

    Method: From a cohort study with SGM couples, a purposive sample of 40 couples was selected and interviewed over Zoom. Interviews were individual-level, semi-structured, and recorded. Thematic analysis was used to analyze the transcripts.

    Results: Approximately half of the 40 couples identified as gay male couples, a third as lesbian couples, and about one-fifth as queer or gender minority couples. Top three reported relationship goals were 1) improving communication, 2) working on finances, and 3) enhancing intimacy. Feeling emotionally connected, career-related decisions, and improving sexual satisfaction were other commonly reported goals. Overall, most partners felt they made progress toward at least 1 of their 3 relationship goals within the prior 6 months. However, perceived relationship goal progress varied extensively between partners across couple groups. Facilitator-related themes about relationship goal progress included dyadic efforts, having a support system including professional help, and planning. Barrier-related themes included nonexistent or minimal effort, different communication styles, employment and economical struggles, and competing life and health priorities.

    Conclusion(s): Dyadic efforts and support systems were key toward someone working toward or maintaining their relationships goals. Findings suggest key relationship functioning areas to target in a future multiple health behavior change intervention for SGM couples.

  • 38. Berman, Anne H
    et al.
    Molander, Olof
    Tahir, Miran
    Törnblom, Philip
    Gajecki, Mikael
    Sinadinovic, Kristina
    Andersson, Claes
    Malmö University, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Criminology (KR).
    Reducing Risky Alcohol Use via Smartphone App Skills Training Among Adult Internet Help-Seekers: A Randomized Pilot Trial2020In: Frontiers in Psychiatry, E-ISSN 1664-0640, Vol. 11, article id 434Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Alcohol is one of the leading risk factors for global disease burden and overconsumption leads to a wide variety of negative consequences in everyday life. Digital interventions have shown small positive effects in contributing to reductions in problematic use. Specific research on smartphone apps is sparse and the few studies published indicate effects ranging from negative or null to small or moderate. TeleCoach™, a web-based skills training smartphone app, has shown positive effects in non-treatment-seeking university students with excessive drinking. This pilot trial aimed to evaluate app effects in a sample of internet help-seekers from the general population in Sweden. A total of 89 participants were recruited via online advertisement. Following baseline assessment for hazardous use, they were randomized to TeleCoach or a web-based control app offering brief information and advice regarding problematic alcohol use. The primary outcome was number of standard drinks per week; secondary outcomes included drinking quantity and frequency, binge drinking and blood alcohol count measures as well as app user data and comorbidity related to depression, anxiety, and drug use. Analysis of baseline and 6-week follow-up outcomes showed significant within-group effects on alcohol consumption but no significant between-group differences. Effect sizes for the within-group changes in the primary outcome over time were significant [F(1, 55)=43.98; p < 0.001], with a Cohen's d of 1.37 for the intervention group and 0.92 for the control group. This difference in effect sizes indicated that continuation of the study as a large randomized, controlled trial with up to 1,000 participants could be worthwhile.

    Clinical Trial Registration: www.ClinicalTrials.gov, identifier NCT03696888.

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  • 39. Berman, Anne H.
    et al.
    Molander, Olof
    Tahir, Miran
    Törnblom, Philip
    Gajecki, Mikael
    Sinadinovic, Kristina
    Andersson, Claes
    Malmö University, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Criminology (KR).
    Skills Training for Reducing Risky Alcohol Use in App Form Among Adult Internet Help-seekers2020In: Annals of Behavioral Medicine, ISSN 0883-6612, E-ISSN 1532-4796, Vol. 54, no S1, p. S417-S417Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Problematic alcohol use in Sweden occurs among 16 % of the adult population. Digital interventions of varying intensity have shown positive effects in contributing to reductions in problematic use, and the TeleCoach app has shown positive effects in non-treatment-seeking university students with excessive drinking (Gajecki et al., 2017). This pilot study evaluated the app among adult internet help-seekers, and motivated continued data collection in the current target group. Methods: Adult internet-help seekers, recruited via advertisement, were included if they scored ³6 (women) or ³8 (men) on the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT). Those with depression scores of ³31 on the Montgomery Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS-S) or problematic drug use scores of ³8 on the Drug Use Disorders Identification Test (DUDIT) were contacted for a telephone interview and included following clinical assessment; if not reached they were excluded. Participants randomized at a 1:1 ratio to the TeleCoach™ web-based app or to a web-based app with information texts from primary care-based self-help material for changing problematic alcohol use. At six-week follow-up, the primary outcome was the number of standard drinks per past week (Timeline-Followback). Results: Of 147 persons assessed for eligibility, 89 were assigned to the intervention group (n=42) or control group (n=47). Average AUDIT levels at baseline were ³18.The baseline number of standard drinks per week was 32.73 (SD 21.16) for the intervention group, and 26 (4.08) for the control group; at 6-week follow-up it was 12.73 (10.52) and 13.48 (11.13) for the intervention and control groups, respectively. No significant between-groups effects occurred, but withingroup changes over time were significant (F(1, 55)=43.98; p< 0.000), with an effect size of 1.37 for the intervention group and 0.92 for the control group. Conclusions: The results suggest that web-based apps can be of help to internet help-seekers motivated to reduce problematic alcohol use. We have proceeded with the planned larger randomized, controlled study and will present 6-week follow-up data for the entire study sample (n=∼1000) in this presentation.

  • 40.
    Berman, Anne H.
    et al.
    Uppsala Univ, Uppsala, Sweden..
    Perski, Olga
    Uppsala Univ, Uppsala, Sweden..
    Lindfors, Petra
    Stockholm Univ, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Bendtsen, Marcus
    Linköping Univ, Linköping, Sweden..
    Topooco, Naira
    Uppsala Univ, Uppsala, Sweden..
    Andersson, Claes
    Malmö University, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Criminology (KR). Uppsala Univ, Uppsala, Sweden..
    Mental wellbeing in swedish university students: Protective and risk factors in a crosssectional study2023In: International Journal of Behavioral Medicine, ISSN 1070-5503, E-ISSN 1532-7558, Vol. 30, p. S66-S67, article id 302Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: Mental wellbeing is a fundamental aspect of the broader notion of quality of life. Little is known about the mental wellbeing of university students in general and Swedish university students in particular. As emerging adults, university students typically experience substantial changes to their living conditions, relationships, and academic stress, and depression and anxiety are prospectively associated with lower academic achievement at the end of the first year.

    Methods: Data from five cross-sectional cohorts (n = 7423), collected between spring 2020 and spring 2022, were compared descriptively, regarding sociodemographic factors, lifetime and past 30-day symptoms of mental health problems, experiences of bullying, feeling loved and measures of well-being. Linear regression identified protective factors for wellbeing according to the Short Warwick-Edinburgh Mental Wellbeing Scale (SWEMWBS), and risk factors for lower wellbeing.

    Results: Participants were > 70% women, 24–27 years old, 75–83% born in Sweden. About one-third had experienced physical bullying at school and about 70% felt loved and cared for. About two-thirds had medium levels of wellbeing, with one-third having low levels and about 5% having high levels. Protective factors for wellbeing included older age, male gender, feeling loved most of the time, and the grit construct. Risk factors included being an international student, non-heterosexual sexual orientation, having symptoms of depression or anxiety most of the time, and experiencing effort/reward imbalance.

    Conclusions: A large proportion of students experience less than optimal wellbeing. Interventions to enhance positive, nurturing relationships and reinforce grit-related factors could support students in this challenging period of life.

  • 41. Berman, Anne H.
    et al.
    Sundstrom, Chris
    Sinadinovic, Kristina
    Gajecki, Mikael
    Johansson, Magnus
    Andersson, Claes
    Malmö University, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Criminology (KR).
    Digital Paths to Changing Problematic alcohol Use: Effectiveness of Unguided and Guided Interventions in a Stepped Care Model2018In: International Journal of Behavioral Medicine, ISSN 1070-5503, E-ISSN 1532-7558, Vol. 25, no Supplement 1, p. S43-S44, article id P126Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction & Purpose: Digital interventions for changing problematic alcohol use have shown small effect sizes in relation to control groups. A meta-analysis (Riper et al., 2014) found an overall effect size of 0.20, with slightly higher effect sizes of 0.23 for interventions with a human guide, compared to 0.20 for unguided interventions. This presentation describes five different interventions, from unguided low-intensity to high-intensity guided interventions, evaluated in separate randomized controlled trials (RCT). Methods: Target groups included internet help-seekers and university students, with hazardous drinking according to the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT), excessive drinking based on national public health guidelines, or diagnosed alcohol use disorder (AUD). Study 1 evaluated eScreen.se, offering minimal screening and personal feedback, and alkoholhjalpen.se, a self-help program, with 633 internetbased participants reporting hazardous drinking. Study 2 evaluated the PartyPlanner and Promillekoll smartphone apps with 1932 university students reporting hazardous drinking. Study 3 evaluated the TeleCoach skills-based app with 186 university students who drank excessively. For studies 1-3 assessment-only controls were comparison groups. Study 4 compared the unguided eChange 10-week program to a guided version with 80 internet-based participants having at least hazardous use. Study 5 with 166 participants compared the high-intensity ePlus 13-week program to the unguided eChange program in a 13-week version, and a small wait-list control group. Results: Studies 1-5 are compared with one another in terms of baseline characteristics and results. Although inclusion criteria varied, baseline AUDIT levels out of a maximum of 40 points for studies 1-5 respectively were 20.82 (SD 6.93), 10.55 (3.90); 13.46 (4.69); 21.00 (4.90) and 23.70 (1.40). Within-group and between-group results are compared, showing greater effects for more intensive interventions. Conclusions: Effects vary by target groups, severity levels and interventions, but it is clear that digital interventions contribute to reduced problematic alcohol use.

  • 42.
    Björn, Wilma
    et al.
    Malmö University, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Criminology (KR).
    Björkman, Ida
    Malmö University, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Criminology (KR).
    Klevmarken, Elin
    Malmö University, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Criminology (KR).
    "Vi bryr oss": En processutvärdering av det drogpreventiva arbetet på gymnasieskolan Knut Hahn2023Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Youth drug use is considered a societal problem which can cause serious consequences for both the individual and society at large. Drug prevention aimed towards young people is thus a prioritized issue at a national level and schools are emphasized to have an important role in the drug preventative work. Knut Hahn High School in Ronneby has been nominated for its successful drug preventative work, which includes drug tests as well as cooperation with the police and social services. The drug preventative work was initiated due to observed drug use among students at Knut Hahn. The current process evaluation aims to evaluate Knut Hahn's drug preventative work with the intention of developing knowledge in order to further the process. Consequently, the evaluation mean to investigate the implemented drug preventative measures at Knut Hahn High School in relation to their developed plan of action. Furthermore, the study aims to highlight experiences from different actors involved in the drug preventative work, in order to identify potential success factors and possible shortcomings. Ten semi-structured interviews with involved actors were conducted. The results show that the initiatives of the school's plan of action have been followed. The interviews also indicate implemented measures beyond what’s mentioned in the plan of action. Furthermore, a consensus among the actors regarding positive experiences of the drug prevention work at Knut Hahn was found. Several success factors are mentioned, whereupon commitment, effective communication and long term perspective are mainly emphasized. Secrecy and lack of resources are in turn highlighted as obstacles to effective drug preventative work.

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  • 43.
    Björnram Daniel, Simon
    et al.
    Malmö University, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Criminology (KR).
    Johanna, Seger
    Malmö University, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Criminology (KR).
    Områdesvärdarna Öster för ett tryggare Rosengård?2021Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The background of this study was the desire to increase the understanding of the community hosts in Malmö East and their work for a safer Rosengård. The aim of the study is split in two, the first refers to examine local youth’s experiences of the community hosts work to reduce fear of crime in Rosengård and the second refers to examine what experiences local stakeholders have towards the community hosts. The sample consists of twelve interviews with local youths and eight interviews with local stakeholders which includes employees of the local library and police working in the area. The result of the study indicates that there is a positive perception of the community hosts from both the local youth and from local stakeholders working in Rosengård. The experiences from the youths can be interpreted as that the community hosts and their work is reducing the fear of crime for youths in Rosengård. The local stakeholders claim that the community hosts are important for many functions in the area, this is possible through their visibility and presence.

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  • 44.
    Blomkvist, Joakim
    Malmö University, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Criminology (KR).
    Symbolförbud?: Ideologi, symboler och hatbrott2023Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    IIn the essay Symbol prohibition? - Ideology, symbols and hate crimes the function of symbols in the process of manufacturing hate crimes are studied from a post- structuralist ideology-critical point of view.The paper aims to highlight how such a theoretical standpoint can explain the motives of hate crime based on a post-structural theory in terms of social economy, power, and social dominance.

    In a post-structural hypothesis, we assume that economic power gives rise to symbols used to create ideologies. In turn, ideologies are used to create institutions such as racist ideas and ethnic groups, by creating a sense of unity, among ethnical groups and a sense of superiority towards other competing groups. Through this relative position of power, the dominant group creates a sense of inferiority in those who are dominated by hate crimes.

    In this text, we analyze two documents written by the Government and its Investigation to define hate crimes by investigating whether racism and other symbols should be criminalized.This paper problematizes both of these documents’ positions, which aim to create new laws, by pointing out that the structural understanding of the symbols is lacking. And that such an ideology-critical understanding would have resulted in a more nuanced and partially different conclusion than the Government’s investigation reached. Here, the author wants to show the explanatory value of ideology criticism in criminology specially deals with hate crimes

    .

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  • 45.
    Blomquist, Clara
    et al.
    Malmö University, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Criminology (KR).
    Lindblom, Felicia
    Malmö University, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Criminology (KR).
    Prostitution och sexhandel på dolda arenor: Det förebyggande arbetet på övernattningsanläggningar i Malmö2021Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Detta examensarbete har syftet att undersöka om och i så fall hur övernattningsanläggningar i Malmö stad arbetar förebyggande mot prostitution och sexköp. Urvalet består av 11 övernattningsanläggningar i Malmö. Uppsatsen studerar dels hur policys och riktlinjer används av övernattningsanläggningarna vid misstanke eller upptäckt av sexköp, samt dels hur samverkan med polisen ser ut och hur det fungerar i ett preventivt syfte. Datamaterialet består av flertalet återkommande teman, där policy, åtgärder och samverkan är studiens tre huvudteman tillsammans med respektive underteman. Resultatet av studien påvisar att 10 av 11 övernattningsanläggningar har en policy alternativt riktlinjer att följa vid misstanke eller upptäckt av sexhandel. Vidare framkom det även att hälften av anläggningarna samverkar med Polismyndigheten, samt att ytterligare preventiva åtgärder tillämpas av personalen på övernattningsanläggningarna. 

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  • 46.
    Breski, Robert
    Malmö University, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Criminology (KR).
    Crime Concentration in Sweden: An Explorative Test of a Criminological Law2021Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    According to the law of crime concentration, a certain percentage of crime is predicted to be concentrated at a certain percentage of microgeographic units, and relatively large amounts of crime are predicted to be accounted for by a small percentage of places. Given the lack of research testing the law in a Swedish context and for a whole country, this study set out to examine the concentration of crime at all densely populated areas in Sweden. Analyzing national grid net data, where all densely built-up areas of Sweden were divided into 250 x 250 meter pixels with added police recorded crime data, the study aimed to examine how many percent of the pixels are required to account for 25, 50 and 80% of the crimes in all densely populated areas; how the concentrations differ between small, medium-sized and big cities; how the concentrations differ between violent and property crimes in all of the country; and how an observed crime concentration compares to a counterfactual, randomized concentration. The results indicated a crime concentration that is stronger than the ones observed in most previous studies, with just 0.4, 2.3 and 10.2% of the pixels accounting for 25, 50 and 80% of all crimes in all densely populated areas, respectively. In line with previous research, the results also showed that crime is more strongly concentrated in smaller cities compared to the big ones, that violent crime is more strongly concentrated than property crime, and that the observed concentration of violent crime is considerably stronger than a counterfactual, randomized concentration in the form of a Poisson distribution. Further research on crime concentration in Sweden is requested to build on these findings.

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  • 47.
    Breski, Robert
    Malmö University, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Criminology (KR).
    Juvenile Firesetting in Malmö, Sweden: The Interaction between Morality and Self-Control2022Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Deliberate firesetting is a dangerous behavior that is associated with considerable costs annually. It has been estimated that young people under the age of 18 are responsible for a large proportion of all firesetting incidents. Moreover, firesetting has been linked to serious antisocial and aggressive behaviors and behavioral difficulties among juveniles and has been found to predict later delinquency, which makes this an important area to study. Some previous studies have found support for the importance of factors akin to self-control, e.g., impulsivity, for juvenile firesetting. This study applied an aspect of situational action theory (SAT), where self-control is viewed as part of crime propensity, but of lesser importance than morality, to the study of juvenile firesetting for the first time. Analyzing self-report data from two waves of the longitudinal Malmö Individual and Neighbourhood Development Study (MINDS), this study examines a key proposition of situational action theory, namely that morality is more important than self-control and that self-control is relevant in the explanation of crime (firesetting) only for individuals with lower levels of morality. The results indicate support for this proposition.

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  • 48.
    Brodén, Markus
    et al.
    Malmö University, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Criminology (KR).
    Ranby, Fredrik
    Street-racing: Snabbt och vårdslöst: En fallstudie i Helsingborg2021Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Street-racing is a worldwide and growing phenomenon, and is the source of a lot of amusement for the participants, although at the same time it is the cause of several deaths and injuries on both people and property every year. In Sweden, the problems that follow street-racing are mainly crimes against the traffic ordinance and other traffic-related laws, as well as the danger posed for both drivers, bystanders and the general public. Helsingborg as a city has long appeared on the street-race scene, and been associated with a large interest in motor and vehicles, a lot thanks to the yearly recurring Vallåkraträffen, which expresses itself through unstructured vehicle gatherings, drifting and street-racing. The following study examines and clarifies the presence of street-racing in Helsingborg, in its fullest extent, and also how affected authorities and institutions have worked to combat the problem. The most central subject of the research questions of the study was to look into how street-racing is described in Helsingborg, what kind of non-criminal problems as well as crimes it brings, and in which way can the crime preventive work improve and develop? To accomplish this, semistructured interviews were held with key informants from the Police, Helsingborg municipalities Traffic Office and crime preventive coordinator as well as representatives of The swedish motorclub. In addition to this, reports of street-racing in news articles from Helsingborg were also analyzed. This study takes the shape of an explorative case study and therefore has a qualitative and inductive focus. The results of the interviews and news-articles showed that street-racing is an increasing problem in Helsingborg and it attracts both participants and spectators not just nationally but also from other countries. Street-racing is described as a difficult challenge to solve, and the problem has a tendency of moving rather than being solved when an effort is made. By looking at previous research from countries where street-racing is even more strongly rooted, in combination with newly gathered knowledge on how the work continues on a local level in Sweden, suggestions are given on how to work effectively against street-racing. 

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  • 49.
    Bruchet, Brittani
    Malmö University, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Criminology (KR).
    Exploring the Narratives of a Formerly Incarcerated Trinidadian Woman through the Life Course Perspective: A Case Study2021Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Through qualitative interviewing and narrative analysis, this study sought to illuminate and examine the life story of a formerly incarcerated Trinidadian woman. To gain insight into her experiences across the life course, criminal and conventional, I conducted two semi-structured interviews with the same woman in the context of Trinidad and Tobago, focusing on experiences of motherhood, interpersonal relationships, employment, and those of incarceration. The aim was to uncover the events and relationships that the study participant presented as the most significant and determinative in her life story. Through narrative analysis, I also sought to understand how they could be further interpreted through four tenets of life course theory: agency, interpersonal relationship effects, events’ timing and sequence, and the historical context. Narrative analysis identified victimisation, the subsequent undermining of personal agency, motivated advocacy and motherhood’s responsibilities as the narratives that were most central to the participant’s presentation of her life story’s trajectories. Identifying both events and personal interpretations of those events, I have posited that qualitative narrative analysis paired with a life course approach can identify experiences crucial to the development and motivation of criminal behaviour. I have also put forward that a greater focus on qualitative research into female offenders’ life histories in the Caribbean region would serve to deepen both the global and regional knowledge bases, and to better inform public policy with offender-oriented insight.

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  • 50.
    Bujak, Wiktoria
    et al.
    Malmö University, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Criminology (KR).
    Persson, Kimmy
    Malmö University, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Criminology (KR).
    Det brottsförebyggande arbetet i skolan: Upplevelser sett ur lärarens perspektiv2023Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The essay aims to (1) examine teachers’ experiences regarding their role in crime preventionand (2) determine which prerequisites the teacher themselves considers having in order tocarry out this work. The following essay adopts a qualitative approach; individual semi-structured interviews have been conducted with primary school teachers and secondary schoolteachers. The results from the thematic analysis reflect the following themes: diverse workrole, lack of knowledge base, positive relationships, team effort, conditions and studentabsenteeism. The results of the thematic analysis and the discussion carried out with these inmind highlight how teachers feel that they today have a multifaceted work role that includesboth subject teaching and continuous work with social norms. Furthermore, teachersexperience their role as fragmented in certain aspects with an emphasis on the lack of a sharedknowledge base. The teachers also feel that their role in the crime prevention work that takesplace in the school environment is part of a larger context that includes and is dependent onother actors, such as the parents, the police and social services. According to the teachers,there are a number of prerequisites such as resources and competence that affect their crimeprevention work at school. Another aspect of the prerequisites that teachers feel is central totheir crime prevention work is the problem of absenteeism among students.

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