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  • 1. Amundsdotter, Eva
    et al.
    Anderssson, Susanne
    Muhonen, Tuija
    Malmö University, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), Department of Urban Studies (US). Malmö University, Centre for Work Life and Evaluation Studies (CTA).
    Liljeroth, Cristina
    ”Kvinnor talar ju också mycket på möten, så vad är problemet?”: Möten, makt och kön: Rapport från ett FoU-projekt vid Malmö universitet2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Projektet Möten, makt och kön som redovisas i den här rapporten har fokuserat på hur genus görs och (åter)skapas under olika möten på Malmö universitet. Att fokus kom att handla om bemötande och möteskultur baserades på en tidigare rapport om jämställdhet och akademiskt ledarskap. I tidigare rapport framkom att det fanns ett behov av att öka den kvalitativa jämställdheten i organisationen där bemötande av kvinnor är en central aspekt. Det aktuella projektet har haft två syften: 1) att öka kunskap och medvetenhet om hur genus och andra former av kategoriseringar påverkar och ges betydelse i chefskapet i vardagen, med ett särskilt fokus på möten, 2) att skapa stödjande strukturer för att utveckla nya handlingsmönster för inkludering, jämställdhet och jämlikhet. Sammanlagt femton akademiska ledare (nio kvinnor och sex män) med olika ledarskapsuppdrag vid lärosätet har deltagit i projektet. Projektet har baserats på teorier om genus och lärande samt en processmodell i tre steg: framkallning, mobilisering och förändring. För att främja deltagarnas lärande och stärka förändringsarbetet var arbetet organiserat i mindre grupper. Grupperna genomförde bland annat mötesobservationer som sedan diskuterades och analyserades tillsammans med alla deltagare och processledare. Jämfört med den tidigare jämställdhetsrapporten framkommer det i nuvarande projekt en större öppenhet att prata om genus och dess betydelse i den organisatoriska vardagen. Samtidigt kvarstår i organisationen genusrelaterade mönster och strukturer som synliggörs i form av ointresse, olika typer av motstånd, härskartekniker, brist på transparens vid beslut, talutrymme och bekräftelsemönster. Projekt visar även på att ett stort talutrymme inte automatiskt leder till inflytande och social makt. Trots att kvinnor i olika sammanhang talar mycket får de mindre bekräftelse än männen, vilket begränsar deras sociala makt och inflytande över viktiga beslut. Ett jämställdhetsintegrerat universitet förutsätter medvetenhet och kunskap om hur kön och makt görs i den dagliga verksamheten. För att öka jämställdheten i organisationen behöver vi identifiera, analysera och åtgärda negativa genusrelaterade mönster och strukturer. Genom att definiera ojämställdhet som ett organisatoriskt problem flyttas fokus från individuella insatser till organisatoriska lösningar såsom beskrivs i rapporten. Det är därför viktigt att universitet även i framtiden fortsätter att bedriva såväl kvantitativt som kvalitativt jämställdhetsarbete.

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  • 2.
    Axelsson, Malin
    et al.
    Malmö University, Faculty of Education and Society (LS), Department of Society, Culture and Identity (SKI).
    Håkansson, Peter Gladoic
    Malmö University, Faculty of Education and Society (LS), Department of Society, Culture and Identity (SKI). Malmö University, Centre for Work Life and Evaluation Studies (CTA).
    Studie- och yrkesvägledning i kombinationsutbildning: Avrapportering av ett forskningsuppdrag2022Report (Other academic)
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  • 3.
    Axelsson, Malin
    et al.
    Malmö University, Faculty of Education and Society (LS), Department of Society, Culture and Identity (SKI).
    Håkansson, Peter Gladoic
    Malmö University, Faculty of Education and Society (LS), Department of Society, Culture and Identity (SKI). Malmö University, Centre for Work Life and Evaluation Studies (CTA).
    Studie- och yrkesvägledning i kombinationsutbildning. Del 2.: Avrapportering av ett forskningsuppdrag2023Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Som en konsekvens av, och i linje med, den nya arbetslinjen som växte fram i början av det nya milleniet blev utgångspunkten för kombinationsutbildning att nyanländas etablering i samhället och på arbetsmarknaden ska öka. Utbildningsformen har således en tydlig koppling till arbetsmarknaden. Att göra ett väl övervägt studie- och yrkesval kräver en god kunskap om arbetsmarknaden, vilket kan tillgodoses genom generell vägledning och arbetsmarknadsorientering.I denna studie har vi undersökt vägledningens roll i kombinationsutbildning. En slutsats är att en fungerande och hållbar vägledning kräver organisatoriska förutsättningar och en genomtänkt styrning. Den generella vägledningen bygger på en samverkan mellan olika yrkesgrupper, men även samverkan måste få organisatoriska förutsättningar och rätt styrning. Det kan handla om att strategiska dokument formuleras av kommunledningen (SYV-plan), att yrkesvägledarna placeras tillsammans med den pedagogiska verksamheten, eller att olika yrkesgrupper får i uppdrag att tillsammans utveckla moment med inriktning arbetslivsorientering och generell vägledning.

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  • 4.
    Berthelsen, Hanne
    Malmö University, Centre for Work Life and Evaluation Studies (CTA). Malmö University, Faculty of Odontology (OD).
    Att arbeta inom människobehandlande organisationer2022In: Plats för vem?: Om arbetets inkludering och exkludering / [ed] Elin Ennerberg & Peter Gladoić Håkansson, Lund: Nordic Academic Press, 2022, p. 261-281Chapter in book (Other academic)
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  • 5.
    Berthelsen, Hanne
    Malmö University, Centre for Work Life and Evaluation Studies (CTA). Malmö University, Faculty of Odontology (OD).
    Slutrapport. Etablering av nationella normvärden avseende den organisatoriska och sociala arbetsmiljönpå svenska arbetsplatser2022Report (Other academic)
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  • 6.
    Berthelsen, Hanne
    et al.
    Malmö University, Faculty of Odontology (OD). Malmö University, Centre for Work Life and Evaluation Studies (CTA).
    Conway, Paul Maurice
    Clausen, Thomas
    Is organizational justice climate at the workplace associated with individual-level quality of care and organizational affective commitment? A multi-level, cross-sectional study on dentistry in Sweden2018In: International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, ISSN 0340-0131, E-ISSN 1432-1246, Vol. 91, no 2, p. 237-245Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose The aim of this study is to investigate whether organizational justice climate at the workplace level is associated with individual staff members’ perceptions of care quality and affective commitment to the workplace. Methods The study adopts a cross-sectional multi-level design. Data were collected using an electronic survey and a response rate of 75% was obtained. Organizational justice climate and affective commitment to the workplace were measured by items from Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire and quality of care by three self-developed items. Non-managerial staff working at dental clinics with at least five respondents (n = 900 from 68 units) was included in analyses. A set of Level-2 random intercept models were built to predict individual-level organizational affective commitment and perceived quality of care from unit-level organizational justice climate, controlling for potential confounding by group size, gender, age, and occupation. Results The results of the empty model showed substantial between-unit variation for both affective commitment (ICC-1 = 0.17) and quality of care (ICC-1 = 0.12). The overall results showed that the shared perception of organizational justice climate at the clinical unit level was significantly associated with perceived quality of care and affective commitment to the organization (p < 0.001). Conclusions Organizational justice climate at work unit level explained all variation in affective commitment among dental clinics and was associated with both the individual staff members’ affective commitment and perceived quality of care. These findings suggest a potential for that addressing organizational justice climate may be a way to promote quality of care and enhancing affective commitment. However, longitudinal studies are needed to support causality in the examined relationships. Intervention research is also recommended to probe the effectiveness of actions increasing unit-level organizational justice climate and test their impact on quality of care and affective commitment.

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  • 7.
    Berthelsen, Hanne
    et al.
    Malmö University, Centre for Work Life and Evaluation Studies (CTA). Malmö University, Faculty of Odontology (OD).
    Ertel, Michael
    Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsschutz und Arbeitsmedizin, DE.
    Geisler, Martin
    Malmö University, Centre for Work Life and Evaluation Studies (CTA).
    Muhonen, Tuija
    Malmö University, Centre for Work Life and Evaluation Studies (CTA).
    Validating the Psychosocial Safety Climate Questionnaire: Integration of Findings from Cognitive Interviews in Germany and Sweden2019In: Scandinavian Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, E-ISSN 2002-2867, Vol. 4, no 1, p. 1-12Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Work-related stress and stress-related ill health are major concerns in modern Western societies. In the European Union, the joint Occupational Safety and Health (OSH) framework obliges employers to ensure the health and safety of workers in every aspect related to work, including psychological safety and health. Against this background, the aim of the present study was to gain a deeper understanding of the cross-cultural validity of the Psychosocial Safety Climate (PSC) instrument as a measure for organizational and managerial commitment to employee psychological health. By integrating findings from cognitive interview studies conducted in Germany and in Sweden, we found participants considered the focus of PSC on managerial and organizational perspectives as an important contribution to workplace surveys. However, we were also able to identify some challenges (e.g., in relation to translation of key concepts, the intended shift of referent, and the use of the intermediate response options) as difficulties in identifying a homogeneous PSC within an organization was also observed to some extent. We can conclude that integrating findings from cognitive interviews conducted in two European countries expands the existing knowledge of the PSC measure. This is achieved by a deeper understanding of problems that might occur when transferring PSC to a different context. The overall findings of the present study corroborate the cross-cultural validity of transferring the PSC measure from an Australian to a European context, and we consider PSC to be a valid and useful framework for targeting psychosocial risks and organizational procedures in a European setting.

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  • 8.
    Berthelsen, Hanne
    et al.
    Malmö University, Faculty of Odontology (OD). Malmö University, Centre for Work Life and Evaluation Studies (CTA).
    Hakanen, Jari J.
    Westerlund, Hugo
    Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire: A validation study using the Job Demand-Resources model2018In: PLOS ONE, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 13, no 4, article id e0196450Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: This study aims at investigating the nomological validity of the Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire (COPSOQ II) by using an extension of the Job Demands-Resources (JD-R) model with aspects of work ability as outcome. Material and methods: The study design is cross-sectional. All staff working at public dental organizations in four regions of Sweden were invited to complete an electronic questionnaire (75% response rate, n = 1345). The questionnaire was based on COPSOQ II scales, the Utrecht Work Engagement scale, and the one-item Work Ability Score in combination with a proprietary item. The data was analysed by Structural Equation Modelling. Results: This study contributed to the literature by showing that: A) The scale characteristics were satisfactory and the COPSOQ instrument could be integrated in the JD-R framework; B) Job resources arising from leadership may be a driver of the two processes included in the JD-R model; and C) Both the health impairment and motivational processes were associated with WA, and the results suggested that leadership may impact WA, in particularly by securing task resources. Conclusion: In conclusion, the nomological validity of COPSOQ was supported as the JD-R model can be operationalized by the instrument. This may be helpful for transferral of complex survey results and work life theories to practitioners in the field.

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  • 9.
    Berthelsen, Hanne
    et al.
    Malmö University, Centre for Work Life and Evaluation Studies (CTA). Malmö University, Faculty of Odontology (OD).
    Muhonen, Tuija
    Malmö University, Centre for Work Life and Evaluation Studies (CTA). Malmö University, Faculty of Education and Society (LS), Department of School Development and Leadership (SOL).
    Utveckling av gränsvärden för bedömning av arbetsmiljörisker med hjälp av en kort version av Psychosocial Safety Climate Scale (PSC-4)2021In: FALF 2021: Konferensbok, 2021Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund

    Sedan föreskriften Organisatorisk och social arbetsmiljö (AFS 2015:4) introducerades har fokus riktats på betydelsen av organisatoriska förutsättningar för en hälsosam arbetsmiljö. Till skillnad från bedömning och mätning av fysiska arbetsmiljörisker, är de organisatoriska och psykosociala arbetsmiljörisker svårare att hantera. Ett relevant teoretiskt begrepp i sammanhanget är Psychosocial Safety Climate – PSC), som kan definieras som medarbetarnas delade uppfattningar om organisationens riktlinjer, praxis och procedurer för att skydda deras psykologiska hälsa och säkerhet. Med hjälp av PSC skalan undersöks hur medarbetarna upplever att den högsta ledningen 1) engagerar sig, 2) prioriterar, 3) kommunicerar och 4) involverar medarbetarna, i psykosociala arbetsmiljöfrågor. Forskning visar att PSC kan predicera arbetsmiljöfaktorer såsom känslomässiga och kvantitativa jobbkrav, mobbing, inflytande och utvecklingsmöjligheten, som i sin tur påverkar till exempel medarbetarnas arbetsengagemang, stress-, utmattnings- och depressionssymptom. Medan den tidigare forskningen huvudsakligen har bedrivits i Australien, bidrar den aktuella studien med att undersöka tillförlitligheten och användbarheten av den korta versionen av PSC-4 i den svenska kontexten.  

    Syfte

    Syftet med studien är att presentera en kort svensk version av Psychosocial Safety Climate (PSC-4, Dollard, 2019) samt hur PSC-4 kan användas för att identifiera risknivåer i den organisatoriska och sociala arbetsmiljön.  

    Metod

    Studien är baserad på en enkätundersökning som genomfördes bland ett slumpmässigt urval av anställda i åldern 25–65 år (N = 2847) samt enkätdata från ett icke-slumpmässigt urval av 94 arbetsplatser (N = 3066). Som kriterier för utveckling av gränsvärden för PSC-4 risknivåer användes organisationers upplevda efterlevnad av arbetsmiljöföreskrifter.

    Resultat

    Resultaten visade att PSC-4 hade relevanta samband med andra arbetsmiljöfaktorer såsom kvantitativa krav, ledarskapskvalitet, engagemang i organisationen, arbetsengagemang, arbetstillfredsställelse samt stress och utbrändhet. Vidare framstår PSC-4 som en valid och användbar verktyg för att kunna identifiera risknivåer i relation till hur arbetsmiljöarbetet 2 praktiseras på svenska arbetsplatser. PSC-4 värden över 12 indikerar en god arbetsmiljöpraktik med låg risknivå, medan PSC-4 värden ≤ 8 indikerar bristande arbetsmiljöpraktik med hög risknivå. Värden mellan 12 och 8 indikerar otillräcklig arbetsmiljöpraktik med måttlig risknivå. Arbetsplatser med hög risk rekommenderas att sätta till åtgärder omedelbart, medan de med måttlig risknivå bör ge det systematiska arbetsmiljöarbete mer uppmärksamhet. Sammanfattningsvis, den svenska versionen av PSC4 kan betraktas som en valid och tillförlitlig instrument för både forskning och praktisk användning för riskbedömning på arbetsplatser. 

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  • 10.
    Berthelsen, Hanne
    et al.
    Malmö University, Centre for Work Life and Evaluation Studies (CTA). Malmö University, Faculty of Odontology (OD).
    Muhonen, Tuija
    Malmö University, Centre for Work Life and Evaluation Studies (CTA). Malmö University, Faculty of Education and Society (LS), Department of School Development and Leadership (SOL).
    Bergström, Gunnar
    Centre for Musculoskeletal Research, Department of Occupational Health Sciences and Psychology, University of Gävle, 801 76 Gävle, Sweden; Unit of Intervention and Implementation Research for Worker Health, Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institute, 171 77 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Westerlund, Hugo
    Department of Psychology, Stress Research Institute, Stockholm University, 106 91 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Dollard, Maureen F
    PSC Observatory, Centre for Workplace Excellence, Justice and Society, University of South Australia, Adelaide, SA 5001, Australia.
    Benchmarks for Evidence-Based Risk Assessment with the Swedish Version of the 4-Item Psychosocial Safety Climate Scale.2020In: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, ISSN 1661-7827, E-ISSN 1660-4601, Vol. 17, no 22, article id E8675Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the present study was to validate the short version of The Psychosocial Safety Climate questionnaire (PSC-4, Dollard, 2019) and to establish benchmarks indicating risk levels for use in Sweden. Cross-sectional data from (1) a random sample of employees in Sweden aged 25–65 years (n = 2847) and (2) a convenience sample of non-managerial employees from 94 workplaces (n = 3066) were analyzed. Benchmarks for three PSC risk levels were developed using organizational compliance with Occupational Safety and Health (OSH) regulations as criterion. The results support the validity and usefulness of the Swedish PSC-4 as an instrument to indicate good, fair, and poor OSH practices. The recommended benchmark for indicating good OSH practices is an average score of >12.0, while the proposed cutoff for poor OSH practices is a score of ≤8.0 on the PSC-4. Scores between these benchmarks indicate fair OSH practices. Furthermore, aggregated data on PSC-4 supported its reliability as a workplace level construct and its association with quantitative demands, quality of leadership, commitment to the workplace, work engagement, job satisfaction, as well as stress and burnout. Thus, the Swedish version of PSC-4 can be regarded as a valid and reliable measure for both research and practical use for risk assessment at workplaces.

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  • 11.
    Berthelsen, Hanne
    et al.
    Malmö University, Centre for Work Life and Evaluation Studies (CTA).
    Muhonen, Tuija
    Malmö University, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), Department of Urban Studies (US). Malmö University, Centre for Work Life and Evaluation Studies (CTA).
    Toivanen, Susanna
    What happens to the physical and psychosocial work environment when activity-based offices are introduced into academia?2018In: Journal of Corporate Real Estate, ISSN 1463-001X, E-ISSN 1479-1048, Vol. 20, no 4, p. 230-243Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – There is an increased interest for introducing activity-based offices at universities. The purpose of this study is to contribute to the knowledge about the importance of the built environment for the psychosocial work environment within academia by analyzing how staff at a large Swedish university experienced the physical and psychosocial work environment before and after moving to activity-based offices. Design/methodology/approach – A Web-based survey was distributed to all employees at two faculties at a university three months before (2015, n = 217, response rate 51 per cent) and nine months after (2016, n = 200, response rate 47 per cent) relocation to a new activity-based university building. Findings – In the new premises, a vast majority (86 per cent) always occupied the same place when possible, and worked also more often from home. The social community at work had declined and social support from colleagues and supervisors was perceived to have decreased. The participants reported a lower job satisfaction after the relocation and were more likely to seek new jobs. No aspects in the physical or psychosocial work environment were found to have improved after the relocation. Research/limitations implications – The study had a two-wave cross-sectional design, which does not allow establishing causal relations. Practical implications – There is reason to be cautious about relocation to activity-based offices at universities. The potential savings in costs for premises may lead to may be followed by an increase in other costs. The risk that staff cannot concentrate on their work in activity-based university workplaces and lose their sense of community with colleagues are factors, which in the long run may lead to decreased efficiency, more conflicts and poorer well-being. Originality/value – This paper contributes with new knowledge concerning changes in the physical and psychosocial work environment when relocating from cell offices to activity-based offices in a university setting.

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  • 12.
    Berthelsen, Hanne
    et al.
    Malmö University, Centre for Work Life and Evaluation Studies (CTA). Malmö University, Faculty of Odontology (OD).
    Owen, Mikaela
    University of South Australia.
    Westerlund, Hugo
    Stockholm University.
    Does workplace social capital predict care quality through job satisfaction and stress at the clinic? A prospective study2021In: BMC Public Health, E-ISSN 1471-2458, Vol. 21, no 1, article id 1320Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Welfare societies like Sweden face challenges in balancing the budget while meeting the demand for good quality healthcare. The aim of this study was to analyse whether care quality, operationalized as survival of dental fillings, is predicted by workplace social capital and if this effect is direct or indirect (through stress and/or job satisfaction among staff at the clinic), controlling for patient demographics.

    METHODS: The prospective design includes A) work environment data from surveys of 75 general public dental clinics (aggregated data based on 872 individual ratings), and B) register-based survival of 9381dental fillings performed during a 3-month period around the time of the survey, and C) patient demographics (age, gender, income level and birth place). Using a multi-level discrete-time proportional hazard model, we tested whether clinic-level social capital, stress, and job satisfaction could predict tooth-level filling failure, controlling for patient demographics. One direct and two indirect pathways, moderated by filling tooth, location, and filling type, were tested.

    RESULTS: High workplace social capital reduced the risk of early failure of fillings in molar teeth, mediated by group-perceived job satisfaction (indirect path: OR = 0.93, p < .05, direct path from job satisfaction: OR = 0.89, p < .05). Contrary to expectations, we found no support for a direct effect from social capital on care quality or for the indirect pathway via stress at the clinic level.

    CONCLUSIONS: Workplace social capital boosted the quality of dental fillings through increased levels of job satisfaction. In addition, staff at clinics with higher social capital reported less stress and higher levels of job satisfaction. These results indicate that promotion of social capital may improve both occupational health and care quality.

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  • 13.
    Berthelsen, Hanne
    et al.
    Malmö University, Centre for Work Life and Evaluation Studies (CTA). Malmö University, Faculty of Odontology (OD).
    Owen, Mikaela
    Centre for Workplace Excellence, University of South Australia, Adelaide, Australia.
    Westerlund, Hugo
    The Stress Research Institute, Department of Psychology, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Leadership, work environment and caries prevention: what is good for the staff, is also good for the patients2023In: Acta Odontologica Scandinavica, ISSN 0001-6357, E-ISSN 1502-3850, Vol. 81, no 3, p. 196-201Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVES: Dental caries is a health problem that can be prevented. The aim of this study is to analyse if the quality of leadership, in Swedish Public Dental Health clinics, influences the extent to which patients with caries receive preventive care, and if any such effect is mediated through a collaborative work climate, clear role expectations and a low average level of burnout among staff.

    METHODS: The multilevel cross-sectional design includes work environment data from surveys of 75 general public dental clinics, register-based data on preventive measures provided to 5398 patients who received a dental filling due to a caries diagnosis, and patient demographics. Using a multilevel path analysis with logistic regression, we tested a model with one direct and three indirect pathways, controlling for the potential confounding effect of patient demographic factors.

    RESULTS: Leadership quality, as assessed by the staff at the clinic, was associated with increased odds of patients with caries receiving prevention, controlling for patient demographic factors. Leadership quality was also positively related to a collaborative work climate, clear role expectations and a low average level of burnout among staff. Against expectations, however, no indirect effect from leadership quality on prevention through the other work environment factors was found.

    CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, the quality of leadership in Swedish Public Dental Health clinics was positively related to a good work environment for staff and to delivery of preventive care to patients experiencing caries.

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  • 14.
    Berthelsen, Hanne
    et al.
    Malmö University, Faculty of Odontology (OD). Malmö University, Centre for Work Life and Evaluation Studies (CTA). Malmö University.
    Owen, Mikaela
    Centre for Workplace Excellence, University of South Australia.
    Wretlind, Katharina
    Public Dental Service Västra Götaland.
    Westerlund, Hugo
    Does staff-assessed care quality predict early failure of dental fillings?: a prospective study2020In: Community Dentistry and Oral Epidemiology, ISSN 0301-5661, E-ISSN 1600-0528, Vol. 48, no 5, p. 387-394Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to evaluate staff-assessed care quality as an indicator of register-based measures of care quality at dental clinics, more specifically register-based measures of survival of dental fillings and initiation of preventive treatments for caries patients.

    METHODS: This prospective study includes data from cross-sectional workplace psychosocial risk assessment surveys at dental clinics and register data on survival of dental fillings, and initiation of preventive treatment for caries patients obtained from the Swedish Quality Registry for Caries and Periodontal Disease (SKaPa) Demographic background data on the age, gender, income level and place of birth of patients was obtained from Statistics Sweden (SCB). The data were analysed using discrete-time multilevel survival analysis and multiple linear regression analysis.

    RESULTS: The results showed that staff-assessed care quality rated by the total staff or by dental nurses at the clinic predicted the risk of replacement of dental fillings made due to a caries diagnosis during the 3-year follow-up period, controlling for potential confounding due to patient demographic characteristics (age, sex, income and country of birth). In contrast, the better the staff-assessed care quality at the clinic, the smaller the proportion of the patients received preventive care in addition to operative caries therapy when controlling for potential confounding due to patient demographics. Care quality assessed by dentists at the clinic did not predict either of these outcome measures.

    CONCLUSIONS: Premature failure of dental fillings is costly for both patients and society, which leads to a need for relevant measures for following dental care quality. Our findings indicate that staff-assessed care quality - a cheap and easy measure to collect and follow continuously in dental practice - can be used to monitor aspects of quality in real time in order to facilitate continuous improvement and quickly amend quality problems. Also, it can be used for integrating quality improvement in systematic work environment risk management.

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  • 15.
    Berthelsen, Hanne
    et al.
    Malmö University, Centre for Work Life and Evaluation Studies (CTA). Malmö University, Faculty of Odontology (OD).
    Westerlund, Hugo
    Department of Psychology, Stress Research Institute, Stockholm University.
    Bergström, Gunnar
    Institute of Environmental Medicine, Unit of Intervention and Implementation Research for Worker Health, Karolinska Institute.
    Burr, Hermann
    Division 3Work and Health, Federal Institute of Occupational Safety and Health (BAuA),.
    Validation of the Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire Version III and Establishment of Benchmarks for Psychosocial Risk Management in Sweden2020In: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, ISSN 1661-7827, E-ISSN 1660-4601, Vol. 17, no 9, article id E3179Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study presents the Swedish standard version of the Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire, COPSOQ III, and investigates its reliability and validity at individual and workplace levels with the aim of establishing benchmarks for the psychosocial work environment. Cross-sectional data from (1) a random sample of employees in Sweden aged 25-65 years (N = 2847) and (2) a convenience sample of non-managerial employees at 51 workplaces (N = 1818) were analysed. Internal consistency reliability was evaluated as well as the effects of sex, work sector and blue/white-collar work. Population benchmarks and mean scores for major occupational groups were computed based on weighted data. ICC(1) and ICC(2) estimates were computed to evaluate aggregation to the workplace level and Pearson inter-correlations to evaluate construct validity at individual and aggregated levels. The reliability and scale characteristics were satisfactory, with few exceptions, at both individual and workplace levels. The strength and direction of correlations supported the construct validity of the dimensions and the amount of variance explained by workplace justified aggregation to the workplace level. The present study thus supports the use of COPSOQ III for measurement at the workplace level and presents benchmarks for risk management as well as for research purposes.

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  • 16.
    Berthelsen, Hanne
    et al.
    Malmö University, Faculty of Odontology (OD). Malmö University, Centre for Work Life and Evaluation Studies (CTA).
    Westerlund, Hugo
    Pejtersen, Jan Hyld
    Hadzibajramovic, Emina
    Construct validity of a global scale for Workplace Social Capital based on COPSOQ III2019In: PLOS ONE, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 14, no 8, article id e0221893Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background and aim: Workplace Social Capital has been suggested as a useful concept when addressing organizational and social factors of the work environment. The overall aim of the present study is to establish and evaluate the construct validity of a measure of Workplace Social Capital based on the operationalization suggested in the third version of the Copenhagen Psychosocial questionnaire. Methods: The present study is based on data collected as part of a validation and development project for the use of the Swedish version of COPSOQ at workplaces and includes responses from 1316 human service workers answering a workplace survey. Six items from scales for organizational justice, vertical trust and horizontal trust in COPSOQ III were included in the analyses. Rasch Analysis was used for scale validation. Results: The analyses showed that the psychometric properties of the suggested COPSOQ scale for Workplace Social Capital were satisfactory after accommodation for local dependency. Each individual item worked as intended, the scale was unidimensional and functioned invariantly for women and men, and for younger and older employees. The scale was furthermore found to be valid for use for distinguishing groups, not individuals. Conclusion: We have established that the scale for Workplace Social Capital measured by COPSOQ III is valid for distinguishing groups, e.g. work teams. The scale exhibits good construct validity as it satisfies the measurement criteria defined by the Rasch model.

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  • 17.
    Borgström, Benedikte
    et al.
    Malmö University, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), Department of Urban Studies (US).
    Ringblom, Lisa
    Malmö University, Centre for Work Life and Evaluation Studies (CTA). Malmö University, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), Department of Urban Studies (US).
    Beyond hegemonic masculinity and knights of the road A gender perspective of road freight transport2021In: 10th annual Swedish transportation research conference, Malmö, Sweden 19-20 October 2021, 2021Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 18.
    Burr, H.
    et al.
    Unit 3.2 Psychosocial Factors and Mental Health, Federal Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (BAuA), 13017 Berlin, Germany.
    Müller, G.
    Federal Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (BAuA), 10317 Berlin, Germany.
    Rose, U.
    Unit 3.2 Psychosocial Factors and Mental Health, Federal Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (BAuA), 13017 Berlin, Germany.
    Formazin, M.
    Unit 3.0 Work and Health, Federal Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (BAuA), 10317 Berlin, Germany.
    Clausen, T.
    National Research Centre for the Working Environment, 2100 Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Schulz, A.
    Unit 3.2 Psychosocial Factors and Mental Health, Federal Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (BAuA), 13017 Berlin, Germany.
    Berthelsen, Hanne
    Malmö University, Centre for Work Life and Evaluation Studies (CTA). Malmö University, Faculty of Odontology (OD).
    Potter, G.
    Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Duke University, Durham, NC 27701, USA.
    D’errico, A.
    Department of Epidemiology, Local Health Unit ASL TO 3, Piedmont Region, 10095 Turin, Italy.
    Pohrt, A.
    Department of Medical Psychology, Charité-Universitätsmedizin, 10317 Berlin, Germany.
    The demand–control model as a predictor of depressive symptoms—interaction and differential subscale effects: Prospective analyses of 2212 German employees2021In: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, ISSN 1661-7827, E-ISSN 1660-4601, Vol. 18, no 16, article id 8328Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Testing assumptions of the widely used demand–control (DC) model in occupational psychosocial epidemiology, we investigated (a) interaction, i.e., whether the combined effect of low job control and high psychological demands on depressive symptoms was stronger than the sum of their single effects (i.e., superadditivity) and (b) whether subscales of psychological demands and job control had similar associations with depressive symptoms. Logistic longitudinal regression analyses of the 5-year cohort of the German Study of Mental Health at Work (S-MGA) 2011/12–2017 of 2212 employees were conducted. The observed combined effect of low job control and high psychological demands on depressive symptoms did not indicate interaction (RERI = −0.26, 95% CI = −0.91; 0.40). When dichotomizing subscales at the median, differential effects of subscales were not found. When dividing subscales into categories based on value ranges, differential effects for job control subscales (namely, decision authority and skill discretion) were found (p = 0.04). This study does not support all assumptions of the DC model: (1) it corroborates previous studies not finding an interaction of psychological demands and job control; and (2) signs of differential subscale effects were found regarding job control. Too few prospective studies have been carried out regarding differential subscale effects. 

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  • 19. Burr, Hermann
    et al.
    Berthelsen, Hanne
    Malmö University, Faculty of Odontology (OD). Malmö University, Centre for Work Life and Evaluation Studies (CTA).
    Moncada, Salvador
    Nübling, Matthias
    Dupret, Emilie
    Demiral, Yucel
    Oudyk, John
    Kristensen, Tage S.
    Llorens, Clara
    Navarro, Albert
    Lincke, Hans-Joachim
    Bocéréan, Christine
    Sahan, Ceyda
    Smith, Peter
    Pohrt, Anne
    The Third Version of the Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire2019In: SH@W Safety and Health at Work, ISSN 2093-7911, E-ISSN 2093-7997, Vol. 10, no 4, p. 482-503Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction A new third version of the Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire (COPSOQ III) has been developed in response to trends in working life, theoretical concepts, and international experience. A key component of the COPSOQ III is a defined set of mandatory core items to be included in national short, middle, and long versions of the questionnaire. The aim of the present article is to present and test the reliability of the new international middle version of the COPSOQ III. Methods The questionnaire was tested among 23,361 employees during 2016–2017 in Canada, Spain, France, Germany, Sweden, and Turkey. A total of 26 dimensions (measured through scales or single items) of the middle version and two from the long version were tested. Psychometric properties of the dimensions were assessed regarding reliability (Cronbach α), ceiling and floor effects (fractions with extreme answers), and distinctiveness (correlations with other dimensions). Results Most international middle dimensions had satisfactory reliability in most countries, though some ceiling and floor effects were present. Dimensions with missing values were rare. Most dimensions had low to medium intercorrelations. Conclusions The COPSOQ III offers reliable and distinct measures of a wide range of psychosocial dimensions of modern working life in different countries; although a few measures could be improved. Future testing should focus on validation of the COPSOQ items and dimensions using both qualitative and quantitative approaches. Such investigations would enhance the basis for recommendations using the COPSOQ III.

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  • 20.
    Cowen Forssell, Rebecka
    Malmö University, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), Department of Urban Studies (US). Malmö University, Centre for Work Life and Evaluation Studies (CTA).
    Cyberbullying in a boundary blurred working life: Distortion of the private and professional face on social media2019In: Qualitative research in organization and management, ISSN 1746-5648, E-ISSN 1746-5656, Vol. 15, no 2Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose The purpose of this paper is to explore what characterizes cyberbullying when it is performed in digital space and in an increasingly boundary blurred working life context. Design/methodology/approach Cyberbullying is explored through the lens of Erving Goffman’s theories on everyday life interaction and social media scholars understanding of social life on the internet today. The empirical material for the study is grounded in eight in-depth interviews with individuals who have been subjected to cyberbullying behavior in their professional life. The interview data were analyzed by means of thematic analysis. Findings Three key themes were identified: spatial interconnectedness, colliding identities and the role of the audience. The empirical data indicate that in order to understand cyberbullying in working life, it is necessary to consider the specific context that emerges with social network sites and blogs. Moreover, this study shows how social network sites tend to blur boundaries between the private and the professional for the targeted individual. Originality/value Cyberbullying in working life is a relatively under-researched area. Most existing research on cyberbullying follows the tradition of face-to-face bullying by addressing the phenomenon with quantitative methods. Given the limited potential of this approach to uncover new and unique features, this study makes an important contribution by exploring cyberbullying with a qualitative approach that provides in-depth understanding of the new situations that emerge when bullying is performed online.

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  • 21.
    Denvall, Verner
    et al.
    Socialhögskolan, Lunds universitet.
    Nordesjö, Kettil
    Malmö University, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Social Work (SA). Malmö University, Centre for Work Life and Evaluation Studies (CTA).
    Ulmestig, Rickard
    Institutionen för socialt arbete, Linnéuniversitetet.
    Dunderhonung för socialt arbete?: En studie av MI:s användbarhet inom försörjningsstöd2020In: Socialvetenskaplig tidskrift, ISSN 1104-1420, E-ISSN 2003-5624, Vol. 27, no 3-4, p. 227-248Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    MI, motivational interviewing, is a counselling method for increasing a person’s motivation for behaviour change that is prevalent in social work. MI emphasizes building trusting social worker-client relationships and is presented as concrete and simple to follow. The benefit of MI is limited by actual opportunities for change through poverty, the labour market and health. The article aims to critically examine the usefulness of MI in connection with the handling of social assistance. It is based on a study of the use of an assessment instrument and of individual action plans (contracts) in a municipality where MI is a central tool. The study is based on analyses of documents, individual interviews and group interviews with staff as well as observations of meetings and training. The results show that MI has been integrated into a comprehensive implementation of other elements to standardize initiatives within income support. The client’s obligations are emphasized through a strong individual focus, although extensive efforts may be needed from surrounding actors. The action plans have inherent problems in terms of clarity and legal certainty. The authors argue that it is paradoxical to use a method based on alliances and collaboration in connection with conditional decisions. The use of MI becomes a commitment that lacks reciprocity and whose activation of self-technologies can be questioned.

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  • 22.
    Duarte, Joana
    et al.
    Malmö University, Centre for Work Life and Evaluation Studies (CTA).
    Berthelsen, Hanne
    Malmö University, Centre for Work Life and Evaluation Studies (CTA). Malmö University, Faculty of Odontology (OD).
    Owen, Mikaela
    Centre for Workplace Excellence, University of South Australia.
    Not All Emotional Demands Are the Same: Emotional Demands from Clients' or Co-Workers' Relations Have Different Associations with Well-Being in Service Workers.2020In: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, ISSN 1661-7827, E-ISSN 1660-4601, Vol. 17, no 21, article id E7738Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There has been an increased interest in the study of emotional demands (ED) at work and its impact on workers' well-being. However, ED have been conceptualized as a unitary concept, focused on interactions with clients, and excluding other potential sources of ED at work. Therefore, the aim of the current study is to explore the relation between ED from different relational sources (clients/patients/customers and colleagues, supervisors, and employees) and service workers' exhaustion and engagement. Cross-sectional data from a sample of 2742 service workers were analysed using structural equation modelling. Results showed that ED from both sources (clients and colleagues) were associated with more emotional exhaustion, particularly if dealing with clients was not an integrated part of the role. Further, ED from clients' relations were negatively associated with engagement for managers with staff responsibility, but positively for managers without staff responsibility. We also found moderating effects of psychosocial safety climate (PSC), whereby ED had the strongest effect on emotional exhaustion when PSC was low. This study suggests that different relational sources of ED at work have a different impact on employees' well-being. Strategies that promote a reduction of extra-role ED, and the development of a PSC in the organization, could therefore offer possible solutions to promote employees' psychological well-being and motivation.

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  • 23.
    Edvik, Anders
    et al.
    Malmö University, Centre for Work Life and Evaluation Studies (CTA). Malmö University, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), Department of Urban Studies (US).
    Geisler, Martin
    Malmö University, Centre for Work Life and Evaluation Studies (CTA).
    Muhonen, Tuija
    Malmö University, Centre for Work Life and Evaluation Studies (CTA). Malmö University, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), Department of Urban Studies (US).
    Witmer, Hope
    Malmö University, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), Department of Urban Studies (US). Malmö University, Centre for Work Life and Evaluation Studies (CTA).
    Björk, Josefin
    Malmö University, Centre for Work Life and Evaluation Studies (CTA). Malmö University, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), Department of Urban Studies (US).
    Credence in the Organization's Ability to Respond to Change: Implications on Work Engagement and Job Satisfaction in the Church of Sweden2020In: Frontiers in Psychology, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 11, article id 995Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    As part of society, religious organizations are exposed to contextual conditions and challenges. However, adapting to external conditions is an act of balance since too much compromising may risk having a negative effect on employees' perception of organizational authenticity and, in turn, employees' well-being and attitudes toward work. In this study, we examined how specific characteristics of the work, in terms of job demands (role conflict and emotional demands) and job resources (influence at work and social community at work), as well as employees' credence in the organization's ability to respond to change, relate to employee well-being within the Church of Sweden. In total 2,112 employees (58% participation rate) answered a web-based survey. The results of regression analyses showed that job resources and credence in the organization's ability to respond to change provided a clear contribution to the explanation of variance in work engagement and, especially, job satisfaction. However, the contribution of job demands was less clear. Moreover, to further the understanding of the association between employees' credence in the organization's ability to respond to change and employee well-being, the mediating effect of job resources was tested. The results showed that the association between credence and well-being is in part mediated by job resources. In sum, the study demonstrate that employees' credence in the organization's ability to respond to change is important to consider for understanding employee well-being within religious organizations. In conclusion, our study suggest that organizations that are built up on strong values and institutionalized beliefs, such as religious and faith-based organizations, need to tread carefully in the process of adapting to conformal pressure for change. This, since the actions and choices of the organization are important for employees' credence in the organization and, in turn, employee well-being. Implications and recommendations for future research are discussed.

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  • 24.
    Edvik, Anders
    et al.
    Malmö University, Centre for Work Life and Evaluation Studies (CTA). Malmö University, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), Department of Urban Studies (US).
    Muhonen, Tuija
    Malmö University, Centre for Work Life and Evaluation Studies (CTA). Malmö University, Faculty of Education and Society (LS), Department of School Development and Leadership (SOL).
    A Work Environment Blind Spot: Exploring School Principals’ Organisational and Social Work Environments2022In: Scandinavian Journal of Public Administration, ISSN 2001-7405, E-ISSN 2001-7413, Vol. 26, no 4, p. 47-71Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article examines principals’ social work environment in the context of a series of school reforms inspired by new public management. With the point of departure in Job Demands and Resources, we put forward the following overall research question: which job demands and job resources are related to principals’ job satisfaction? The article has a mixed methods approach, combining material from questionnaires (466 participants) and interviews (15 participants). The results of the questionnaire indicate that job resources such as role clarity, influence, meaningfulness, and social community with senior managers were related to job satisfaction, while lacking job resources (influence, social community with senior managers) and experiencing role conflicts were associated with a higher intention to leave the profession. The interviews provide a more in-depth understanding of the shift of institutional logics within the school sector, enforcing boundaries between principals’ professional and managerial roles in accordance with New Public Managerial Ideas. The separation between profession and management contributes to principals’ organisational and social work environments being in a blind spot. This is not only a problem for the principals, but also a risk factor for the organisations themselves, as stress and ill-health among leaders tend to affect the entire organisation. 

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  • 25.
    Edvik, Anders
    et al.
    Malmö University, Centre for Work Life and Evaluation Studies (CTA). Malmö University, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), Department of Urban Studies (US).
    Muhonen, Tuija
    Malmö University, Centre for Work Life and Evaluation Studies (CTA). Malmö University, Faculty of Education and Society (LS), Department of School Development and Leadership (SOL).
    Being in a work environment blind spot – a study of school principals’ organizational and social work environments2022In: FALF 2022 - Framtidens arbete – arbetets framtid: Book of abstracts, 2022, p. 16-17Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction

    As part of the welfare sector, Swedish schools have undergone several reforms during the past few decades resulting in increasing and often conflicting demands on principals. Additional to implementing new grading systems and curricula, the sector has been impacted by market-oriented logic (new public management), resulting in a mix of professional and bureaucratic governance structures. Many of these reforms demand daily responses because principals are the key actors in both organizing and leading pedagogical practices, being the head of business and main respondent to local political initiatives. Hence, principals’ work environments have gradually deteriorated, with many experiencing high stress levels, which has led to high turnover and difficulty recruiting and retaining principals.  

    Aim

    Using JD-R theory as the point of departure, the aim of this study is to examine principals’ organizational and social work environment and attempt to answer the following research question: which job demands and job resources are related to principals’ job satisfaction and their intention to leave the job, and how do these job demands and job resources relate to changes within the institutional landscape as a result of the major political reforms the Swedish school sector has undergone over the last few decades?  

    Method

    We use a mixed methods approach combining responses to questionnaires (466 participants) and interviews (15 participants).  Participants were principals who were members of the school leader section (Lärarförbundet Skolledare) of the Swedish Teachers Union.  

    Results

    The questionnaire responses indicated that job resources such as role clarity, influence, meaningfulness, and social community with senior managers were related to job satisfaction, while a lack of job resources (influence, social community with senior managers) and role conflict were associated with higher intention to leave the profession. The interviews deepened the understanding of the shift in institutional logic within the school sector that has created boundaries between principals’ professional and managerial roles in accordance with new public management thinking. The separation of their professional and managerial roles has contributed to the development of a blind spot in principals’ organizational and social work environments. This is a problem for principals and a risk factor for the organizations themselves because stress and ill-health experienced by leaders tend to affect the entire organization. 

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  • 26.
    Ennerberg, Elin
    et al.
    Malmö University, Faculty of Education and Society (LS), Department of Society, Culture and Identity (SKI).
    Gladoic Håkansson, PeterMalmö University, Faculty of Education and Society (LS), Department of Society, Culture and Identity (SKI). Malmö University, Centre for Work Life and Evaluation Studies (CTA).
    Plats för vem?: Om arbetets inkludering och exkludering2022Collection (editor) (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Arbetet har stor betydelse i de flesta människors liv. Ett jobb innebär, i bästa fall, en meningsfull sysselsättning och social samvaro. Exkludering från arbetsmarknad och arbetsliv har däremot motsatta, negativa effekter. I Plats för vem? diskuterar forskare inom arbetsvetenskap vid Malmö universitet inkludering i, och exkludering från, arbetslivet utifrån tre övergripande teman. I det första ligger fokus på vem som får och kan ta plats på arbetsmarknaden. Skribenterna resonerar kring detta genom att granska de varierande förutsättningar olika grupper av människor har att delta i arbetslivet. Bokens andra tema kretsar kring vilken roll plats och kompetens kan spela i förhållande till yrkesval, men författarna problematiserar också arbete som en central beståndsdel i människors liv. Det tredje temat fokuserar hur arbetssituationen kan påverkas av arbetsmiljö, relationer och organisationerpå arbetsplatsen.

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  • 27.
    Ernst, Jette
    et al.
    Roskilde University.
    Koll, Henrik
    Malmö University, Faculty of Education and Society (LS), Department of School Development and Leadership (SOL). Malmö University, Centre for Work Life and Evaluation Studies (CTA).
    Pedagogy and symbolic violence in leadership: When the modes and tools of neoliberal capitalism met the Nordic model of work and welfare2021In: BSA WES: Connectedness, Activism and Dignity at work in a Precarious Era, Online, August 25-27, 2021., 2021Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we explore the idea of managerial struggle and pedagogy as modes of manoeuvring in our examination of prolonged organizational transition and change inertia in the wake of privatisation of a Scandinavian telecommunications company (Telco). There is a lack of studies that, from the perspective of (middle) managers, attempt to understand seemingly inefficient leadership and how managers manoeuvre the complexities of change inertia, including how managers seek to gain control when they face difficult and complex and paradoxical conditions of leadership (Denis et al., 2010; Lüscher and Lewis, 2008; Filstad et al., 2020; Gatenby et al., 2015; McCabe, 2014; Alvesson and Sveningsson, 2003). We suggest a Bourdieusian conceptualisation of manoeuvring using Bourdieu’s (1990) concepts of field, habitus, symbolic violence and pedagogy, where we see pedagogy as an overlooked part of managers manoeuvring practices that emphasises the use of power and relations of power in managerial practice (Kamoche and Pinnington, 2012; Tomlinson et al., 2013). We develop our arguments through empirical studies of seemingly inefficient leadership by a team of frontline managers in the operations department of Telco. Comprising 185 hours of participant observation studies and 25 interviews with the regional director, frontline managers, and technicians, our study examines how the frontline managers struggle to manage during prolonged attempts at organisational transition from state-owned monopoly to shareholder-owned corporation. The capitalist visions and ideas of the American owners contrast sharply with the socalled Nordic Model of work and welfare according to which the company had been run and whose central features are a high rate of unionization among employees, a national hierarchical system of collective bargaining, and the powerful presence of trade unions at workplace and national policy making levels (Ervasti et al., 2008; Kettunen, 2012). The shift to a more active and intervening role has placed the frontline managers in the eye of a storm. We show how the frontline managers perceive themselves as tasked with supplying the technicians with the understandings, beliefs and dispositions for action that will enable them to meet demands associated with corporate neoliberal capitalism (Visser, 2020; Arturo, 1994) and how they must respond to outspoken yet subtle contradictions in their manoeuvring space (Filstad et al., 2020) or their possibilities for ‘playing the game’(Bourdieu, 1990). The idea of managerial pedagogy as practices of inculcation of beliefs and dispositions, in particular, and its connection to relations of power and symbolic violence (Lakomski, 1984; Tomlinson et al., 2013; Kerr and Robinson, 2009; Kamoche and Pinnington, 2012), allows us to extend the use of Bourdieu in studies of management and organization when we provide new insights into prolonged organizational change inertia and managerial struggle. We argue that pedagogy, as part of middle managerial manoeuvring, enables a vision of the multitude of power relations at play in organizational change, and beyond, including the fastening of these power relations in structural and historical conditions of the field in which the organization is embedded.

  • 28.
    Farley, Samuel
    et al.
    Univ Sheffield, Management Sch, Sheffield, England..
    Cowen Forssell, Rebecka
    Malmö University, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), Department of Urban Studies (US). Malmö University, Centre for Work Life and Evaluation Studies (CTA).
    Holm, Kristoffer
    Malmö University, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), Department of Urban Studies (US).
    Berthelsen, Hanne
    Malmö University, Faculty of Odontology (OD).
    Predictors of work-related cyberaggression in a random sample of the Swedish working population2024In: International Journal of Workplace Health Management, ISSN 1753-8351, E-ISSN 1753-836X, Vol. 17, no 1, p. 57-71Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: With greater numbers of employees using computer-mediated communication, cyberaggression is becoming a more pressing problem for employees and their organizations. However, while a growing body of research illustrates its harmful effects, little is known about the factors that drive its occurrence. The authors therefore sought to identify factors that increase the risk of cyberaggression among employees.

    Design/methodology/approach: A random sample of the Swedish working population (N = 11,556) was surveyed via Statistics Sweden (SCB), which produced a final sample of N = 2,847 (response rate = 24.6%).

    Findings: Logistic regression analysis showed that emotionally demanding work, availability expectations, low perceived work quality, public sector work and being in a managerial position were related to higher levels of experienced cyberaggression. In addition, exploratory analyses indicated that some of these factors were more strongly related to cyberaggression enacted by organizational insiders compared to organizational outsiders.

    Originality/value: Together, the authors' findings suggest that situational factors are stronger antecedents of cyberaggression victimization than personal factors. This has implications for organizations, as practical steps can be taken to reduce cyberaggression among employees.

  • 29.
    Flädjemark, Ulrika
    Malmö University, Centre for Work Life and Evaluation Studies (CTA). Malmö University, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), Department of Urban Studies (US).
    Viljan att vara reko: biopolitik och professionsetik – rehabkoordineringens janusansikte2023Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The Rehabilitation coordinator (ReCo) has been added as a new, statutory function in line with making return to work for those on sick leave a priority area in healthcare. ReCo´s task is to support the patient, coordinate the internal organization in the sick leave process and collaborate with external actors; such as an employer and Swedish Social Insurance Agency (Försäkringskassan) administrator. The taken-for-granted metaphor is that the ReCo acts as the "spider-in-the-web" to accomplish this.

    This thesis aims to study the ReCo´s role in the sick leave process within the framework of organizational and professional studies. Based on the purpose, two main questions have been formulated; how the ReCo´s role and function are made visible in a professional care context, as well as how the ReCo appears as organizational subjectivity in relation to the function's assignment. The thesis' theoretical frame of reference is based on Michel Foucault's political philosophy with governmentality in the fore.

    The dissertation's 19 semi-structured interviews with rehab coordinators, together with observations and public documents where the ReCo's tasks are described, have been analyzed with a thematic network analysis. In the analysis, an abductive approach based on a dispositive analytical strategy has been used. 

    The analysis shows that the function needs to be clarified in daily operations. Ambiguities in how the assignment should be designed are expressed in relation to the ReCo's own experience and are also expressed in relation to how local operational management and colleagues experience the assignment. Despite the ambiguity, a willingness to help and support the patient is expressed. Thus, the ambiguity and the motivation of doing good will in relation to how the rehab coordinator chooses to act in the role, create two themes that go hand in hand and interact with each other.

    In governing documents, the manifestation is that the logic of the care profession with its intuitive individual centering and biopolitical logic as overall legal governance, can easily be brought together in the one and same role, which gives the appearance of a Janus-face of rehabilitation coordination that is unproblematic. However, the dual nature of the Janus-face requires clarification. Clarification is achieved by the ReCo using different strategies, for example through clothing and using spatiality in a way that the ReCo finds appropriate based on the personal interpretation of how the role should be formed. Developing strategies regarding how the role should act in relation to other care professions, preferably the physician, are other ways to create clarity.

    Based on public documents, an action on the part of the ReCo is anticipated that transfers expected norms to the patient and others within the care organization in a way that makes the patient understand their own best interest and act accordingly. In the role of subject, the ReCo moulds how the function will express itself through compliance or resistance to the expected norms that prevail in governing documents. In the subjectivation process, the rehab coordinator as an individual chooses with which knowledge in the foreground the action is exercised and through this, how subjectivity is formed.  Here, metaphors other than the taken-for-granted “spider-in-the-web” help express how the subjectivity is formed; e. g. to act as a detective, valve, pilot, bridge.

    The thesis contributes to understanding how state-run governance constitutes self-governance and formation of organizational subjectivities. In this case, the shaping that the rehab coordinator expresses through the subjectivity that is enacted to clarify the ambiguity that can be seen from two perspectives, as enabling and as hindering. In order to not lead to role ambiguity, a two-way communication needs to take place within the care organization – with managers and with colleagues – with the starting point of speaking clearly about the controversial nature of the ReCo assignment where actions are expected to be guided by the insurance medical paradigm.

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  • 30.
    Forssell, Rebecka
    Malmö University, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), Department of Urban Studies (US). Malmö University, Centre for Work Life and Evaluation Studies (CTA).
    Gender and organisational position: predicting victimisation of cyberbullying behaviour in working life2020In: International Journal of Human Resource Management, ISSN 0958-5192, E-ISSN 1466-4399, Vol. 31, no 16, p. 2045-2064Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to investigate possible predictors of cyberbullying behaviour in working life by examining previously known predictors of face-to-face bullying as well as demographic variables such as gender and formal position in the work organisation. Multiple regression analyses were conducted on a random sample of 3371 respondents. The results show that a poor social climate at work predicted exposure to cyberbullying behaviour. The study also found differences related to gender and organisational position. While low support from managers was related to higher exposure to cyberbullying behaviours for men managers, men non-managers and women non-managers, this relation did not apply to women managers. For women managers alone, low support from colleagues was associated with exposure to cyberbullying behaviours. Further, only for women managers age had no protective effect of exposure to cyberbullying behaviour. These findings imply that men and women have different social experiences in terms of holding power in working life. As women managers are in a minority in working life, other factors may be involved in predicting exposure to cyberbullying behaviour for women managers than for the other three groups. This article contributes to the sparse knowledge on cyberbullying in working life by recognising triggering factors.

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  • 31.
    Forssell, Rebecka
    et al.
    Malmö University, Centre for Work Life and Evaluation Studies (CTA). Malmö University, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), Department of Urban Studies (US).
    Berthelsen, Hanne
    Malmö University, Centre for Work Life and Evaluation Studies (CTA). Malmö University, Faculty of Odontology (OD).
    Jönsson, Sandra
    Malmö University, Centre for Work Life and Evaluation Studies (CTA). Malmö University, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), Department of Urban Studies (US).
    Negotiating for influence and resources: A study of Swedish teachers' and principals' experiences of aggressive emails from parents2024In: Educational Management Administration & Leadership, ISSN 1741-1432, E-ISSN 1741-1440Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article focuses on teachers’ and principals’ experiences of aggressive emails in home–school collaborations with parents. Semi-structured interviews with 31 teachers and principals from primary, lower and upper secondary schools in Sweden were conducted. Three categories were identified in the material which illuminate the phenomenon of cyberaggression towards principals and teachers from parents: ‘aggressive emails as reactions to principals and teachers’ performances’, ‘aggressive emails as a way of imposing power’ and ‘aggressive emails as a source of anxiety, loss of joy, and decreased focus on core tasks’. The study concludes that cyberaggression in emails from parents is centred around the act of negotiating and that email communication opens up spaces for negotiation to take place. The study also concludes that email cyberaggression tends to be instrumental in character, intended to result in a specific outcome rather than to cause harm. However, cyberaggression influences professional practice and can create a vicious circle of administrative obligation.

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  • 32. Gautié, Jérome
    et al.
    Ahlstrand, Roland
    Malmö University, Faculty of Education and Society (LS), Department of Society, Culture and Identity (SKI). Malmö University, Centre for Work Life and Evaluation Studies (CTA).
    Wright, Sally
    Green, Ann
    Innovation, Job Quality and Employment Outcomes in the Aerospace industry: Evidence from France, Sweden and the UK2018In: Virtuous circles between innovations, job quality and employment in Europe? Case study evidence from the manufacturing sector, private and public service sector; / [ed] Karen Jaehrling, QuInnE , 2018, p. 35-88Chapter in book (Other academic)
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  • 33.
    Geisler, Martin
    et al.
    Malmö University, Centre for Work Life and Evaluation Studies (CTA).
    Berthelsen, Hanne
    Malmö University, Centre for Work Life and Evaluation Studies (CTA). Malmö University, Faculty of Odontology (OD).
    Hakanen, Jari J
    No job demand is an island: interaction effects between emotional demands and other types of job demands2019In: Frontiers in Psychology, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 10, p. 1-11, article id 873Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Emotional demands are an inevitable feature of human services, and suggested to be a defining antecedent for workers’ stress and ill health. However, previous research indicate that emotional demands can have a favorably association to certain facets of human service workers’ motivation and well-being. Furthermore, recent research report that the effect of emotional demands on workers’ health and well-being seem to be contingent on the parallel level of other job demands. Still, initial investigations of interaction effects between emotional demands and other types of job demands have primarily focused on negative outcomes in terms of stress-related concerns and absenteeism. The present study investigated interaction effects between emotional demands and other types of job demands in relation to positive outcomes. In a larger sample of human service workers (social workers, n = 725), interaction effects were investigated between emotional demands and other job demands (quantitative demands, work pressure, and role conflict) for meaning in work and quality of work. Hypotheses stated that other job demands would moderate the relationship between emotional demands and positive outcomes, so that emotional demands would have a positive relation (i.e., act as a challenge) when the level of other demands is lower, but have a negative relation (i.e., act as a hindrance) when the level of other demands is high. Overall, the results provided support for the idea that emotional demands may act as a challenge. We found small but significant interaction effects between emotional demands and work pressure – in relation to meaning of work, as well as between emotional demands and quantitative demands, work pressure, and roleconflict, respectively – in relation to quality of work. Yet, the results did not support the assumption that emotional demands act as a hindrance when the level of other types of job demands is high. In sum, the results contribute by showing that emotional demands may promote human-service workers’ job attitudes when the level of parallel job demands is lower. We discuss the contribution of the study and the potential practical implications of the results, and give some suggestions for future research.

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  • 34.
    Geisler, Martin
    et al.
    Malmö University, Centre for Work Life and Evaluation Studies (CTA).
    Berthelsen, Hanne
    Malmö University, Centre for Work Life and Evaluation Studies (CTA).
    Muhonen, Tuija
    Malmö University, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), Department of Urban Studies (US). Malmö University, Centre for Work Life and Evaluation Studies (CTA).
    Retaining social workers: The role of quality of work and psychosocial safety climate for work engagement, job satisfaction, and organizational commitment2019In: Human service organizations, management, leadership & governance, ISSN 2330-3131, E-ISSN 2330-314X, Vol. 43, no 1, p. 1-15Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study investigated how psychosocial safety climate (PSC), job demands (role conflict and work-family conflict), job resources (social support from superiors and social community at work), and assessments for quality of work relate to social workers’ work engagement, job satisfaction, and organizational commitment. The results of the questionnaire study (N = 831) showed that quality of work was strongly related to all three outcomes, whereas PSC was found to be related to social workers’ job satisfaction. The contribution of the study is discussed in relation to understanding the retention of social workers.

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  • 35.
    Gladoic Håkansson, Peter
    et al.
    Malmö University, Faculty of Education and Society (LS), Department of Society, Culture and Identity (SKI). Malmö University, Centre for Work Life and Evaluation Studies (CTA).
    Ennerberg, Elin
    Malmö University, Faculty of Education and Society (LS), Department of Society, Culture and Identity (SKI).
    Introduktion: Om arbetets inkludering och exkludering2022In: Plats för vem?: Om arbetets inkludering och exkludering / [ed] Elin Ennerberg & Peter Gladoic Håkansson, Lund: Nordic Academic Press, 2022, p. 9-18Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 36.
    Grander, Martin
    et al.
    Malmö University, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), Department of Urban Studies (US). Malmö University, Institute for Urban Research (IUR).
    Westerdahl, Stig
    Malmö University, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), Department of Urban Studies (US). Malmö University, Institute for Urban Research (IUR). Malmö University, Centre for Work Life and Evaluation Studies (CTA).
    Marknadens kalkyler och rätten till bostad2022In: Allas rätt till bostad: Marknadens begränsningar och samhällets ansvar / [ed] Bo Bengtsson; Emma Holmqvist; Markus Holdo, Göteborg: Daidalos, 2022, p. 295-312Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 37.
    Hedenus, Anna
    et al.
    University of Gothenburg.
    Backman, Christel
    University of Gothenburg.
    Håkansson, Peter
    Malmö University, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), Department of Urban Studies (US). Malmö University, Centre for Work Life and Evaluation Studies (CTA).
    Whom do you know? Recruiters’ motives for assessing jobseekers’ online networks2021In: International Journal of Human Resource Management, ISSN 0958-5192, E-ISSN 1466-4399, Vol. 32, no 8, p. 1754-1777Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Network recruitment has become an essential part of the modern labour market. However, there are significant research gaps: 1) the development of social media has been crucial to the growth of social networks, yet we know little about its influence on network recruitment; 2) studies on network recruitment generally focus on employees’ rather than employers’ perspectives; 3) the context of most research is the US labour market, which then identifies a need for contributions relating to other countries. The aim of this study is to analyse and discuss recruiters’ use of SNS to evaluate the networks of potential candidates. To understand how and why recruiters assess online networks, we used qualitative data from a Swedish study. Our analysis showed that recruiters search the internet either to find information that helps them ascertain the candidate as trustworthy, or to evaluate the candidate’s social capital through the size and composition of their networks. For certain job positions especially, active management of one’s online networks thus becomes crucial. Finally, this study illustrates how network connections may undermine rather than build trust, and thereby challenges a belief in the positive impact of networks.

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  • 38.
    Holm, Kristoffer
    et al.
    Malmö University, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), Department of Urban Studies (US). Malmö University, Centre for Work Life and Evaluation Studies (CTA).
    Cowen Forssell, Rebecka
    Malmö University, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), Department of Urban Studies (US). Malmö University, Centre for Work Life and Evaluation Studies (CTA).
    Jönsson, Sandra
    Malmö University, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), Department of Urban Studies (US). Malmö University, Centre for Work Life and Evaluation Studies (CTA).
    Preliminära effekter av en arbetsplatsintervention som syftar till att främja hövlighet och respekt i organisationer2023In: Program och abstrakt: FALF 2023 Arbetets gränser, Historiska institutionen, Lunds universitet , 2023, p. 58-Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 39.
    Holm, Kristoffer
    et al.
    Malmö University, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), Department of Urban Studies (US). Malmö University, Centre for Work Life and Evaluation Studies (CTA).
    Cowen Forssell, Rebecka
    Malmö University, Centre for Work Life and Evaluation Studies (CTA). Malmö University, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), Department of Urban Studies (US).
    Jönsson, Sandra
    Malmö University, Centre for Work Life and Evaluation Studies (CTA). Malmö University, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), Department of Urban Studies (US).
    Utveckling och tillämpning av en evidensbaserad metod för att främja hövlighet i organisationer: En projektöversikt och resultat från en pilotstudie2022In: Konferens FALF 2022 13–15 juni Kiruna Framtidens arbete – arbetets framtid: Book of abstracts, 2022Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Inledning

    Internationell forskning har under de senaste åren visat att ohövliga beteenden i arbetslivet är en tydlig källa till stress, knutet till negativa konsekvenser för både individer och organisationer (Schilpzand m fl., 2016). Ohövliga beteenden kan beskrivas som både avsiktliga och oavsiktliga lågintensiva negativa beteenden som bryter mot normer för respekt på arbetsplatsen (Andersson & Pearson, 1999), t ex nedlåtande kommentarer, att inte bli lyssnad till, eller ett nonchalant eller avfärdande bemötande från kollegor (Cortina m fl., 2013). Ohövlighet skiljer sig från grövre typer av kränkningar, som arbetsplatsmobbning, genom att det har en lägre intensitet, och att intentionen bakom beteendet är mer tvetydig (Leiter m fl., 2015).

    Forskning har även visat att ohövliga beteenden är vanligt förekommande på den svenska arbetsmarknaden (Torkelson m fl., 2016). En svensk avhandling visade nyligen att vittnen till ohövliga beteenden har en ökad tendens att själv utöva ohövliga beteenden mot andra, och att ohövlighet kan knytas till arbetsplatsens kultur (Holm, 2021). Trots att ohövliga beteenden är vanligt förekommande och riskerar att spridas, har relativt få systematiska insatser utvecklats för att förebygga och motverka ohövliga beteenden i arbetslivet. Ett undantag är den amerikanska interventionsmodellen Civility, Respect and Engagement in the Workplace (CREW), som utvecklats specifikt för att främja hövlighet och respekt i bemötandet mellan kollegor inom den amerikanska sjukvården (Osatuke m fl., 2009; 2013). CREW har utvärderats i par studier, där insatsen visat på effekter som en ökad nivå av hövliga beteenden över tid, mindre ohövlighet, ökad tillit till ledningen, ökad arbetstillfredsställelse och mindre frånvaro (Osatuke m fl., 2009; Leiter m fl., 2011). Förändringen av rapporterad hövlighet visade även på en trend som fortsatte att utvecklas i positiv riktning ett år efter insatsen avslutats (Leiter m fl., 2012).

    Det saknas däremot fortfarande kunskap om vilka faktorer (organisatoriskt och socialt) som leder till en positiv förändring, och hur effektiv insatsen är utanför sjukvården, såväl som i andra nationella kontexter. Det finns därför ett behov av att vidareutveckla interventionen, pröva den på den svenska arbetsmarknaden, och identifiera vilka faktorer som får metoden att fungera. Med bakgrund av detta pågår ett forskningsprojekt som syftar till att utveckla och implementera en hövlighetsinsats i ett antal olika organisationer, som präglas av olika förutsättningar, styrning, målbilder, och arbetsformer. Detta för att möjliggöra en utvärdering av insatsens gångbarhet i olika organisatoriska kontexter.

     

    Syfte

    Projektet har två huvudsakliga syften. Det första syftet är att utveckla och implementera en hövlighetsintervention, och undersöka om förändringen av beteenden och arbetsrelaterad hälsa påverkar, eller påverkas av, den organisatoriska och sociala arbetsmiljön. Projektet syftar även till att, utifrån interventionens resultat, sammanställa ett metodstöd med konkreta riktlinjer för hur organisationer kan arbeta preventivt mot kränkande särbehandling och ohälsa.

     

    Metod

    Insatsen kommer att genomföras som en workshopserie med arbetsgrupper under sex månaders tid, och jämföras med kontrollgrupper i samma verksamheter. Projektet tillämpar en väntliste-kontroll-design, vilket innebär att personer som ingår i kontrollgruppen också erbjuds möjlighet att delta i insatsen när insatsgruppen slutfört sin workshopserie. 

    Insatsen består av diskussionsmoment under månadsvisa träffar med fokus på kommunikation och socialt klimat på arbetsplatsen. Insatsen tar utgångspunkt i individernas egna erfarenheter, där de är aktiva agenter i processen. Arbetsgrupperna bidrar därmed genom att identifiera vad de ser som hövligt, och sätter själva mål för hövlighet som utgår från gruppens delade upplevelser av vad hövlighet är (Osatuke m fl., 2009). 

    Totalt planeras insatsen att genomföras i fem organisationer. Det rör sig om två större förvaltningar i Malmö stad som bedriver människobehandlande arbete, såväl som förskoleverksamheter, en organisation med kulturarbetare, och ett privat företag med tekniskt orienterat arbete. För att utvärdera insatsen genomförs enkäter före, direkt efter, och sex månader efter insatsen. Uppföljande intervjuer kommer även att genomföras med medverkande i insatsen. 

     

    Resultat

    Under våren 2022 genomförs en pilotstudie för att pröva ut det frågeformulär som planeras att användas i projektet. Pilotdata kommer att samlas in från ett bekvämlighetsurval av yrkesverksamma individer. Resultat kring frågeformulärets psykometriska egenskaper, såväl som samband mellan hövlighet/ohövlighet, normer kring hövlighet, och social arbetsmiljö kommer att presenteras. Initiala resultat från pilotstudien kring samband mellan hövlighet, ohövlighet, normer och den sociala arbetsmiljön förväntas generera viktig kunskap om vilka potentiella effekter insatsen kan komma att resultera i.

     

    Finansiering

    Projektet finansieras av AFA försäkring (dnr 210121).

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  • 40.
    Holm, Kristoffer
    et al.
    Malmö University, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), Department of Urban Studies (US). Malmö University, Centre for Work Life and Evaluation Studies (CTA).
    Cowen Forssell, Rebecka
    Malmö University, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), Department of Urban Studies (US). Malmö University, Centre for Work Life and Evaluation Studies (CTA).
    Jönsson, Sandra
    Malmö University, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), Department of Urban Studies (US). Malmö University, Centre for Work Life and Evaluation Studies (CTA).
    Björk, Josefin
    Malmö University, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), Department of Urban Studies (US). Malmö University, Centre for Work Life and Evaluation Studies (CTA).
    Testing the effects of an intervention aimed to increase civility in Swedish workplaces2023In: The future is now - the changing world of work: Book of abstracts, 2023Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Research goals and why the work was worth doing

    Over the past two decades, research has demonstrated that workplace incivility is a ubiquitous work environment issue, which can have deleterious consequences for both individuals and organizations (Schilpzand et al., 2016; Cortina et al., 2017). Workplace incivility refers to low-intensity rude behavior in the workplace (Andersson & Pearson, 1999). The effects of incivility can be far-reaching, as it may spread in the workplace (Foulk et al., 2016; Holm et al., 2021). 

    One promising avenue to address incivility has been the use of civility interventions. Actively promoting civility in the workplace may reduce the risk for incivility, and increase civility and respect (Leiter et al., 2011; 2012). However, recent research has shown less consistent results of civility interventions when applied in other cultural contexts than North America (e.g., Sawada et al., 2021), or in other workplaces than hospitals (e.g., Grantham, 2019). More information is therefore needed on the effects of implementing civility interventions in the workplace, particularly exploring mechanisms and moderators in the intervention process. The aim of the present study is to test the effects of an intervention aimed to increase civility in Swedish workplaces.

     

    Theoretical background

    The present study is based on the principles developed in the Civility, Respect and Engagement in the Workplace (CREW) intervention (Osatuke et al., 2013).  CREW was developed by the United States Department of Veteran Affairs in 2005. CREW was a culture-based workplace intervention promoting civility in the workplace in the departments’ VA-hospitals, with documented successful outcomes (Osatuke et al., 2009). Two research studies tested the effect of the CREW intervention in hospitals in North America, showing both short- and long-term effects of the intervention on workplace behavior, attitudes, and absence (Leiter et al., 2011; 2012). However, little is still known about how civility interventions operate in other contexts than hospitals, and which mechanisms or boundary conditions that influence the impact of civility interventions.  

     

    Design/Methodology/Approach/Intervention

    The present study has a quasi-experimental waitlist-control design. Participating workplaces are assigned to one of two conditions, an intervention condition or waitlist. The intervention group participates in a series of monthly workshops during the period of September 2022 – January 2023. The workshops address topics such as workplace culture, with the aim to promote workplace civility and reduce the risk of workplace incivility. The waitlist serves as the control group. Pre- and post-surveys are conducted to investigate possible effects of the intervention on measures of workplace (in)civility, norms for civility, social work environment factors, as well as work-related well-being. 

     

    Results (expected)

    Baseline survey data have currently been gathered from about 200 individuals across 13 workplaces in a Swedish municipality. The intervention group is currently undergoing the workshop series. The follow up post-survey is planned for January of 2023. When post-measures have been completed, possible change in measures of workplace civility, norms for civility, and workplace incivility will be explored. Change in social work environment factors, as well as work-related well-being, will also be explored. The intervention is expected to result in increased civility and norms for civility, as well as reduced incivility over time. 

     

    Limitations

    Workplaces were not assigned to the intervention or control condition via cluster randomization. Instead, it was based on practical aspects such as feasibility and scheduling in the participating organizations. Moreover, the follow-up measure is carried out only a few weeks after completion of the final workshop. Possible effects on behavior or well-being may take longer time to develop. Lastly, the measures are self-reported by participants.

     

    Conclusions – research and or practical implications/Originality/Value

    Results from the post-measure surveys will be presented at the congress. The originality of the project lies in exploring the effects of an updated version of a civility intervention, in a context outside of hospital settings in North America. The study will also provide information about potential mechanisms and moderators involved in the intervention process. Practically, the knowledge that results from the study could be of use in future attempts to improve the social work environment in workplaces by working with the workplace culture.

     

    Relevance to the Congress Theme

    The study is relevant to several of the congress themes, e.g. 6. Group dynamics, 8. Organizational design and development, 15. Stress and dysfunction, and 18. Well-being.

     

    Relevant UN SDGs

    Goal 3. Good health and well-being

    Goal 8. Decent work and economic growth

  • 41.
    Holm, Kristoffer
    et al.
    Malmö University, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), Department of Urban Studies (US). Malmö University, Centre for Work Life and Evaluation Studies (CTA).
    Jönsson, Sandra
    Malmö University, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), Department of Urban Studies (US). Malmö University, Centre for Work Life and Evaluation Studies (CTA).
    Muhonen, Tuija
    Malmö University, Centre for Work Life and Evaluation Studies (CTA). Malmö University, Faculty of Education and Society (LS), Department of School Development and Leadership (SOL).
    Can Job Demands and Job Resources Predict Bystander Behaviour in Workplace Bullying? A Longitudinal Study2023In: International Journal of Bullying Prevention, ISSN 2523-3653Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Bystanders can affect workplace bullying by engaging in active or passive behaviours. However, there is a knowledge gapregarding how perceived work environment factors relate to bystander behaviour. The study aim was to investigate how job demands, and job resources are associated with bystander behaviour in workplace bullying. An online questionnaire wasdistributed to a sample of health care workers at two time points. Longitudinal data were obtained from 1144 respondents. Cross-lagged panel models were used to investigate associations between job demands, job resources, and bystander behaviours over time. The results showed that social support was positively related to active behaviours, whereas influence at work was negatively related to both active and passive behaviours. Perceived illegitimate tasks were negatively related to active and positively related to passive behaviours, whereas emotional demands had an unanticipated opposite pattern of relationships. The findings provide new information about how factors in the organisational and social work environment are associated with active and passive bystander behaviours in workplace bullying. Specifically, the results expand current understanding of workplace bullying by relating bystander behaviour to the organisational context.

  • 42.
    Holm, Kristoffer
    et al.
    Malmö University, Centre for Work Life and Evaluation Studies (CTA). Malmö University, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), Department of Urban Studies (US).
    Jönsson, Sandra
    Malmö University, Centre for Work Life and Evaluation Studies (CTA). Malmö University, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), Department of Urban Studies (US).
    Muhonen, Tuija
    Malmö University, Faculty of Education and Society (LS), Department of School Development and Leadership (SOL). Malmö University, Centre for Work Life and Evaluation Studies (CTA).
    How are witnessed workplace bullying and bystander roles related to perceived care quality, work engagement, and turnover intentions in the healthcare sector?: A longitudinal study2023In: International Journal of Nursing Studies, ISSN 0020-7489, E-ISSN 1873-491X, Vol. 138, article id 104429Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BackgroundWorkplace bullying is widespread in the healthcare sector and the negative effects are well known. However, less attention has been paid to bystanders who witness bullying in the workplace. Bystanders can affect the bullying process by engaging in active, passive, or destructive behaviors. There is a need to study work-related and organizational consequences of witnessing bullying and bystander behaviors.ObjectiveThe aim was to explore how witnessed workplace bullying and bystander behaviors are associated with work-related and organizational consequences, such as perceived quality of care, work engagement, and turnover intentions, among healthcare workers over time.DesignLongitudinal design. An online questionnaire was administered twice over the course of six months.Setting(s)Employees in the healthcare sector in Sweden, such as physicians, nurses, and assistant nurses, responded to the questionnaire.Participants1144 participants provided longitudinal data.MethodsStructural equation modeling was used to explore the associations between witnessed bullying, bystander behavior, work-related and organizational factors over time.ResultsWitnessed workplace bullying (B = − 0.18, 95 % CI [− 0.23 to − 0.12]) and the bystander outsider role (B = − 0.24, 95 % CI [− 0.29 to − 0.19]) were statistically significantly related to a decrease in perceived quality of care. Work engagement was statistically significantly predicted by all three bystander roles over time; positively by the defender role (B = 0.11, 95 % CI [0.05–0.17]), and negatively by the outsider role (B = − 0.23, 95 % CI [− 0.29 to − 0.16]), and the assistant role (B = − 0.32, 95 % CI [− 0.41 to − 0.24]). The outsider role (B = 0.12, 95 % CI [0.02–0.22]), the assistant role (B = 0.17, 95 % CI [0.03–0.30]), and witnessed workplace bullying (B = 0.18, 95 % CI [0.08–0.29]), all positively predicted increased turnover intentions at a subsequent time point.ConclusionsIn addition to the direct negative impact workplace bullying has on those targeted by it, witnessing bullying and taking different bystander roles can have work-related and organizational consequences by influencing perceived care quality, employees' work engagement, and their intention to leave the organization.

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  • 43.
    Holm, Kristoffer
    et al.
    Malmö University, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), Department of Urban Studies (US). Malmö University, Centre for Work Life and Evaluation Studies (CTA).
    Jönsson, Sandra
    Malmö University, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), Department of Urban Studies (US). Malmö University, Centre for Work Life and Evaluation Studies (CTA).
    Muhonen, Tuija
    Malmö University, Centre for Work Life and Evaluation Studies (CTA). Malmö University, Faculty of Education and Society (LS), Department of School Development and Leadership (SOL).
    Witnessing Workplace Bullying: Antecedents and Consequences related to the Organizational Context of the Health Care Sector2022In: 13th International Association on Workplace Bullying and Harassment Conference, September 20-24, 2022, Book of Abstracts, 2022, p. 87-88Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background and Aims

    Workplace bullying is a severe global problem that affect individuals, organizations and society (e.g. Salin & Notelears, 2020). Studies have indicated that workplace bullying is more prevalent in health care than in other sectors. According to a recent systematic review of bullying among health care employees, up to one in four health care professionals are exposed to bullying regularly (Lever et al., 2018).

    There has been a growing interest in the area of bystanders of workplace bullying (Coyne et al. 2017), but the role of the bystander, and research focusing on understanding the rationale for bystander behavior, remains an important area of investigation (Thompson et al., 2020). Specifically, additional research is needed in order to achieve a deeper understanding of the connection between the organizational context and bystanders’ behavior. Consequently, the aim of this study is to investigate how different organizational factors relate to bystanders’ behavior in a bullying situation.

    In order to analyze the organizational context in relation to workplace bullying and bystanders’ behavior, the Job Demands-Resources theory (JD-R; Bakker & Demerouti, 2017), and the theory of Psychosocial Safety Climate (PSC; Dollard & Bakker, 2010) form the theoretical framework for the study.

    Design/Methodology

    The present study is a quantitative survey study conducted in the health care sector, with physicians, nurses and assistant nurses as participants. Longitudinal data have been collected through questionnaires at two occasions, about six months apart (N = 1144 responded at both t1 and t2). Demographic questions, as well as scales from the Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire (COPSOQ II; Pejtersen et al., 2010), and measures of bystander behavior in response to witnessed bullying (Salmivalli et al., 1996; 2011), were included in the survey at both time points. Longitudinal structural equation modelling was conducted to investigate associations between psychosocial factors and bystander behavior over time.

    Results

    Results indicated that PSC was positively associated with bystanders’ reports of defending the victim. Social support from coworkers, social community at work and perceived illegitimate tasks predicted constructive, passive, and destructive bystander behaviors in expected directions. Conversely, influence, as well as quantitative and emotional demands were counterintuitively related to bystander behaviors over time.

    Practical Implications

    It is predicted that the health care sector will have a substantial need for staff in the future, while many of the current employees, especially nurses, leave their occupation. Providing a good work environment will be one of the key issues in order to attract, recruit and retain staff in the future. The study generates knowledge that creates opportunities for managers and organizations to work preventively, and increases their ability to understand and handle different types of bullying situations from both the victim’s and witnesses’ perspective.

    Originality/Value

    This study adds knowledge to the area of bystander behavior in the health care sector, by relating bystander behavior to the organizational context.

  • 44.
    Holm, Kristoffer
    et al.
    Malmö University, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), Department of Urban Studies (US). Malmö University, Centre for Work Life and Evaluation Studies (CTA).
    Torkelson, Eva
    Lunds Universitet.
    Bäckström, Martin
    Lunds Universitet.
    Coping with workplace incivility in the foodservice industry2023In: Journal of Human Resources in Hospitality & Tourism, ISSN 1533-2845, E-ISSN 1533-2853, Vol. 22, no 3, p. 489-512Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the study was to explore employees’ appraisals and coping responses to workplace incivility in the foodservice industry. Five group interviews with foodservice workers were conducted. 13 different types of experienced or witnessed incivility were identified. Positive-benign, irrelevant, and negative appraisals were found, as well as four major coping themes. These were active, passive, and proactive coping as well as reappraisal, encompassing twelve forms of coping behaviors. Additionally, workplace incivility was described as a daily stressor which can be expressed as a part of the workplace culture in the foodservice industry.

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  • 45.
    Holm, Kristoffer
    et al.
    Malmö University, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), Department of Urban Studies (US). Malmö University, Centre for Work Life and Evaluation Studies (CTA).
    Torkelson, Eva
    Department of Psychology, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Bäckström, Martin
    Department of Psychology, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Workplace incivility as a risk factor for workplace bullying and psychological well-being: a longitudinal study of targets and bystanders in a sample of swedish engineers2022In: BMC Psychology, E-ISSN 2050-7283, Vol. 10, no 1, p. 1-14, article id 299Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The aim of the present study is to explore whether (experienced and witnessed) workplace incivility is a risk factor for (experienced and witnessed) workplace bullying. An additional aim is to explore whether experienced workplace incivility is associated with psychological well-being above and beyond the influence of (experienced and witnessed) workplace bullying on well-being.

    Methods: A survey was distributed via e-mail to a panel of Swedish engineers. The survey was administered at three time points over one year. In total, N = 1005 engineers responded to the survey. Of these, N = 341 responded to more than one survey, providing longitudinal data. N = 111 responded to all three surveys.

    Results: The results showed that the likelihood of being targeted by workplace bullying was higher for those who had previously experienced incivility, even when taking previous bullying exposure into account. There was also partial support for a higher likelihood of witnessing bullying at a later time point for those that had previously witnessed incivility. Additionally, the results showed that experienced workplace incivility was negatively related to psychological well-being over time, even when controlling for previous levels of experienced and witnessed workplace bullying and well-being. However, this result was only found over one of the two time lags.

    Conclusion: The findings of the present study suggests that workplace incivility can be a risk factor for future bullying. In addition, the findings suggest that experienced workplace incivility exerts a unique negative effect on psychological well-being, even when accounting for exposure to workplace bullying. 

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  • 46.
    Håkansson, Peter Gladoic
    et al.
    Malmö University, Faculty of Education and Society (LS), Department of Society, Culture and Identity (SKI). Malmö University, Centre for Work Life and Evaluation Studies (CTA). Malmö University, Institute for Urban Research (IUR).
    Bejakovic, Predrag
    Institute of Public Finance, Zagreb, Croatia.
    The double-edged sword of the tourism economy: mobility and the quality of life on the croatian islands2023In: Preserving, evaluating and developing the Mediterranean / [ed] Jurcevic, K., Kaliterna Lipovcan, L., Medic, R., & Ramljak, O., Institute of Social Sciences Ivo Pilar, VERN’ University , 2023, p. 123-130Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many island municipalities depend upon the tourist industry, but this industry can be a double-edged sword. On the one hand, it provides a source of income to people in the region, using the natural resources they have. On the other hand, the low-skill services that are connected to tourism have low wages and productivity, and the possibilities of productivity increases are low. This article aimed to analyse the possibilities for economic development in the Croatian islands, using a conceptual model inspired by Harris and Todaro’s theoretical outline (Harris & Todaro, 1970; Todaro, 1969). We analysed 18 municipalities located on the islands. The conceptual model classified municipalities by three criteria: unemployment rate, employment growth, and wage. We found 18 island municipalities that have low unemployment, high employment growth, but still low wages, which is a contradiction in neo-classical economic theory. However, it can be explained by the existence of amenities and the tourist industry being low-skilled and therefore having a low wage level. We used population data to analyse demographic trends and the propensity to move from these municipalities. Regardless of the high quality of life on islands, employment possibilities are very limited, particularly for persons with tertiary educational attainment. Therefore, in the past, people born on islands have had to seek education and employment on the mainland. However, telework and digital nomadism have dramatically changed the situation. With digitalisation and flexible work, there are new possibilities for the islands to attract people to both work and spend leisure time. This has led to a number of issues, not least the question of taxation.

  • 47.
    Håkansson, Peter Gladoic
    et al.
    Malmö University, Centre for Work Life and Evaluation Studies (CTA). Malmö University, Faculty of Education and Society (LS), Department of Society, Culture and Identity (SKI).
    Bejaković, Predrag
    Institute of Public Finance, Croatia.
    Can digital nomads solve the problem of tourist economy? The case of Croatian islands2023In: Eastern Journal of European Studies, ISSN 2068-651X, E-ISSN 2068-6633, Vol. 14, no Special Issue, p. 116-134Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many Croatian island municipalities depend on tourism, which provides income by usingnatural resources; however, traditional tourism is labour intensive and low-skilled whichleads to low wages and low possibilities to increase productivity. This paper aims toanalyse and discuss other possibilities than traditional tourist industry for the Croatianislands to develop. We will turn towards the concept of digital nomads to discuss if digitalnomads can be a solution for the Croatian islands. As a starting point, we use aconceptual model inspired by Harris and Todaro’s theoretical outline. We discuss thenew possibilities that digitalisation has opened for these islands. The digital economyhas made where and when work is performed less important. Thus, the lines betweenwork and non-work are blurred. Tourist industry must look ahead for new forms ofmobility and new kinds of work and non-work, which may bring positive exogenouseffects to the islands in the form of higher educational level, cultural activities, andpurchase power. Our main point is that turning towards attracting digital nomads can,to some extent, be a solution. 

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  • 48.
    Håkansson, Peter Gladoic
    et al.
    Malmö University, Faculty of Education and Society (LS), Department of Society, Culture and Identity (SKI). Malmö University, Centre for Work Life and Evaluation Studies (CTA). Malmö University, Institute for Urban Research (IUR).
    Lundin, Johan A.
    Malmö University, Faculty of Education and Society (LS), Department of Society, Culture and Identity (SKI).
    Nätverkens betydelse: Invandrares väg in på den svenska arbetsmarknaden2022In: Plats för vem?: Om arbetets inkludering och exkludering / [ed] Elin Ennerberg & Peter Gladoic Håkansson, Lund: Nordic Academic Press, 2022, p. 43-66Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 49.
    Håkansson, Peter
    et al.
    Malmö University, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), Department of Urban Studies (US). Malmö University, Centre for Work Life and Evaluation Studies (CTA).
    Karlsson, Tobias
    På spaning efter springpojken: Ungdomsjobb och sociala nätverk vid sekelskiftet 19002018In: Historisk Tidskrift, ISSN 0345-469X, E-ISSN 2002-4827, Vol. 138, no 1, p. 33-62Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    During the decades around 1900 increasing numbers of young men and women in Sweden worked as errand boys and girls. There are diverging ideas in the literature of what these jobs actually meant. Some scholars regard them as the starting point of a future career, others as ”dead-end jobs”. This article investigates and discusses the errand boy job with regard to recruitment and career prospects. Drawing on theories of social capital and social networks, we analyze three volumes of workers’ memories published by the Nordic Museum, namely: workers in commerce, municipal workers and workers in the woodworking industry. The informants in our sample typically entered the labour market in the late nineteenth and early twentieth century. Our study reveals the diversity of experiences of young people in the labour market. We find examples of family-based recruitment (strong ties) among municipal workers and in the woodworking industry, but not among commercial workers. Compared to apprenticeships, young men could be attracted to working as errand boys by higher wages. The errand boy job content could include learning and we find examples of mobility into and from apprenticeships. In the studied setting, the position as errand boy was hardly a dead-end job. The reviewed evidence instead suggests that errand boys could form networks that were useful in their future careers.

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  • 50.
    Håkansson, Peter
    et al.
    Malmö University, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), Department of Urban Studies (US). Malmö University, Centre for Work Life and Evaluation Studies (CTA).
    Nilsson Mohammadi, Robert
    Malmö University, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), Department of Urban Studies (US). Malmö University, Centre for Work Life and Evaluation Studies (CTA).
    Folkhögskolornas verksamhet för nyanlända2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Flyktingmottagandet under hösten 2015 satte stora delar av samhället under hård press. Folkbildningens organisationer klev då in som en viktig aktör, och har sedan dess utvidgat sitt arbete med nyanlända genom utbildningar som Etableringskurs på folkhögskola, Svenska från dag 1 och Vardagssvenska. Den här kartläggningen ger en bild av vad folkhögskolorna i Skåne gör för nyanlända, hur de gör det och hur arbetet har utvecklats över tid. Kartläggningen utgår ifrån Överenskommelsen mellan folkbildningen i Skåne och Region Skåne (2016-11-11), som behandlar folkbildningens och regionens samverkan för Skånes utveckling. Rapporten svarar på frågeställningarna: • Hur har processen sett ut? Vad har hänt över tid? • Hur arbetar folkhögskolorna med nyanlända? • Vad erbjuder folkhögskolorna som syftar till integration? • På vilket sätt arbetar folkhögskolorna med kulturaktivitet mot gruppen? Hur motiverar man det? Rapporten bygger på en datainsamling i tre steg: förberedande studiebesök, en enkät och kvalitativa intervjuer. Kartläggningen har också sammanställt och kommenterat data från Folkbildningsrådet. Studiebesöken gav insikter i folkhögskolornas arbete med nyanlända och hjälpte oss att formulera frågorna i den enkät vi skickade ut till samtliga folkhögskolor i Skåne. Enkäten ger en bild av vilka kurser folkhögskolorna erbjuder som riktar sig till nyanlända, vad dessa kurser innehåller och hur mycket. De kvalitativa intervjuerna ger information om hur personal som är inblandad i vissa av dessa kurser uppfattar sina uppgifter och hur de berättar om vad som har hänt över tid. De viktigaste resultaten är: Verksamheterna riktade till nyanlända tog fart 2014. Etableringskurs på folkhögskola är den största av kurserna. Svenska från dag 1, som fick stora regeringsanslag under 2015 och 2016, ligger på andra plats. Studiemotiverande folkhögskolekurs med språkstöd finns på vissa platser som en möjlighet för dem som bedöms stå särskilt långt från arbetsmarknaden. Folkhögskolornas internat har använts som bland annat internat, eller för den kommunalt finansierade verksamheten Folkhögskolespåret. Flera folkhögskolor har fått betygsrätt i Svenska för invandrare (SFI). Traditionella undervisningsformer dominerar. Undervisning i klassrummet är den vanligaste aktiviteten, även om studiebesök på exempelvis arbetsplatser, folkbibliotek och konsthallar också förekommer. Kulturkonsumtion är vanligare än kulturskapande. Undervisningen innehåller framför allt kulturkonsumerande aktiviteter, såsom gå på teater eller se på konst. Aktiviteter som gör deltagarna till kulturskapare förekommer mer sällan. Folkbildningens pedagogik och folkhögskolornas institutionella miljöer uppfattas som verkningssamma. Folkbildningens holistiska inställning till människan, samt det explorativa förhållningssättet till lärande beskrivs i intervjuerna som välanpassat för arbetet med nyanlända. Även folkhögskolornas institutionella miljö, präglad av möten mellan människor med olika bakgrunder och ambitioner, beskrivs som verksam. Folkbildningen utjämnar och ger egenmakt, bland annat genom att skapa tillträde till nätverk och släppa in i offentliga rum såsom folkbibliotek. I folkhögskolornas verksamheter upplöses kategorin nyanländ. I folkhögskolemiljön blir de nyanlända människor som arbetar med det som just nu är svårt i livet, liksom många andra av folkhögskolornas deltagare gör. Med andra ord upplöses kategorin ”nyanländ” i någon av de större kategorierna ”deltagare” eller ”människor”. Vissa bruk av kulturbegreppet har återinfört gränsdragningar mellan föreställda kulturella gemenskaper. Medan folkbildningens idéer och praktiker synes upplösa kategorin nyanländ, sorterar vissa bruk av kulturbegreppet deltagarna i kulturellt åtskilda grupper. Folkbildningen beskrivs som en svensk institution och som en förmedlare av svensk kultur, medan de nyanlända deltagarna kan ses som bärare av sina olika kulturer.

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