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  • 1. Aagergaard, Sine
    et al.
    Andersson, Torbjörn
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Education and Society (LS), Department of Sport Sciences (IDV).
    Carlsson, Bo
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Education and Society (LS), Department of Sport Sciences (IDV).
    Skogvang, Bente
    Scandinavian women’s football in world: migration, management and mixed identity2013In: Soccer & Society, ISSN 1466-0970, E-ISSN 1743-9590, Vol. 14, no 6, p. 769-780Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This special issue has grown out of an ongoing Nordic collaborative research project (Nordcorp) using Scandinavian women’s football as a strategically selected extreme case (of organizational development) to study a Nordic sport model in transition. The common point of interest for the project group, which overlaps with the editors and authors in this issue of Soccer and Society, is a fascination with the current development of Scandinavian women’s football that stands out as an intriguing subject for bothsports research and the social sciences.

  • 2.
    Alm, Jens
    Malmö University, Faculty of Education and Society (LS), Department of Sport Sciences (IDV).
    From acquiescence to avoidance: the case of Ängelholm municipality and elite football's standardizations2020In: Soccer & Society, ISSN 1466-0970, E-ISSN 1743-9590, Vol. 21, no 1, p. 1-14Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Using the concept of standards and a framework examining strategic responses to institutional processes, this article aims to understand why a municipality has resisted to implement elite football's stadium requirements and, from this perspective, assesses the options municipalities actually have to refuse implementing them. At first, the municipality in focus, Angelholm in Sweden, demonstrated a lack of awareness of the intrinsic power of standards and the ways in which they can influence municipal decisions. However, as it emerged that the standards contradicted other municipal priorities, the municipality became more critical and eventually decided not to follow them. Another finding of the study is that municipalities, as the 'adopters' of elite football standards, cannot affect how these standards are written. Therefore, the options to accept or decline them are perceived to be limited. Consequently, standards constitute a central form of governance within local sport policy.

  • 3.
    Andersson, Torbjörn
    Malmö högskola, School of Teacher Education (LUT), Sport Sciences (IDV).
    Immigrant teams in Sweden and the case of Assyriska FF2009In: Soccer & Society, ISSN 1466-0970, E-ISSN 1743-9590, Vol. 10, no 3-4, p. 398-417Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The essay deals with the history of immigration teams in Sweden, from the post-war period until today and with the case of the successful Assyrian football club, Assyriska FF. The analysis of national newspapers shows that matches with the immigrant teams immediately became controversial. The early teams of South European background played in the lower divisions. They were referred to as hot-tempered 'foreign teams', and they made the headlines because the players and their supporters often got involved in fights on and off the field. These problems have decreased in the last ten years. One immigrant team, Assyriska FF from Sdertlje, reached the Premier League in 2005. Despite this achievement, the team lacks support from the majority of the people in Sdertlje. For the Assyrian-Syrian population the feeling is completely different as the team has helped them to become the most integrated group in Södertälje.

  • 4.
    Andersson, Torbjörn
    Malmö University, Faculty of Education and Society (LS), Department of Sport Sciences (IDV).
    The rise and fall of Umeå IK2023In: Soccer & Society, ISSN 1466-0970, E-ISSN 1743-9590, Vol. 24, no 3, p. 395-409Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This essay addresses the rise and fall of the Swedish women's club Umea IK. The question is how a team from a city almost devoid of any football culture suddenly could become one of the most successful clubs in the world during the early 2000s? The theoretical basis consists of the concepts of local identity, glocalization and Manuel Castell's analysis of the network society. The source material is a study of Umea's largest daily newspaper and eleven interviews. Umea IK worked energetically to create a strong local network for a women's club (consisting of good contacts with the municipality, high income from sponsors, good media coverage and high attendances). The university city of Umea was dynamic and progressive, with a strong middle-class character. The population could identify with the team. However, the city's volatility meant that the team did not get long-lasting significance in terms of the city's identity.

  • 5.
    Andersson, Torbjörn
    et al.
    Malmö högskola, School of Teacher Education (LUT), Sport Sciences (IDV).
    Carlsson, Bo
    Malmö högskola, School of Teacher Education (LUT), Sport Sciences (IDV).
    A diagnosis of the commercial immaturity of Swedish club football2011In: Soccer & Society, ISSN 1466-0970, E-ISSN 1743-9590, Vol. 12, no 6, p. 754-773Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article presents a critical diagnosis of Swedish club football, in light of its current shortcomings on the European football market, and in comparison with the other Scandinavian leagues. The article highlights the commercial immaturity of the Swedish clubs, in addition to the context of historical and cultural values, restricted association forms, the emphasis on internationalism, the fixed tax system, the standards of the arenas, the lack of patronage and the migration of talents. The analysis closes with a depressed depiction of Swedish club football, in relation to development in Europe, as well as in Scandinavia. Still, in a dialectical reasoning this situation is, finally, evaluated as a valuable development in relation to fairness, internal sports logics as well as ecological values.

  • 6.
    Andersson, Torbjörn
    et al.
    Malmö högskola, School of Teacher Education (LUT), Sport Sciences (IDV).
    Carlsson, Bo
    Malmö högskola, School of Teacher Education (LUT), Sport Sciences (IDV).
    Football in Scandinavia: a fusion of welfare policy and the market2009In: Soccer & Society, ISSN 1466-0970, E-ISSN 1743-9590, Vol. 10, no 3-4, p. 299-304Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 7.
    Andersson, Torbjörn
    et al.
    Malmö högskola, School of Teacher Education (LUT), Sport Sciences (IDV).
    Carlsson, Bo
    Malmö högskola, School of Teacher Education (LUT), Sport Sciences (IDV).
    Introduction: football studies in a broad perspective of centres and peripheries2011In: Soccer & Society, ISSN 1466-0970, E-ISSN 1743-9590, Vol. 12, no 6, p. 719-721Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 8.
    Andersson, Torbjörn
    et al.
    Malmö University, Faculty of Education and Society (LS), Department of Sport Sciences (IDV).
    Carlsson, Bo
    Linnaeus Univ, Dept Sport Sci, Växjö, Sweden..
    Hognestad, Hans K.
    Univ South Eastern Norway, Dept Sports Phys Educ & Outdoor Studies, Notodden, Norway..
    Nordic football: local and global impact, influences and images2023In: Soccer & Society, ISSN 1466-0970, E-ISSN 1743-9590, Vol. 24, no 3, p. 289-292Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 9. Billing, Peter
    et al.
    Peterson, Tomas
    Malmö högskola, School of Teacher Education (LUT), Sport Sciences (IDV).
    Franzén, Mats
    Paradoxes of football professionalisation in Sweden: A club approch2004In: Soccer & Society, ISSN 1466-0970, E-ISSN 1743-9590, Vol. 5, no 1, p. 82-99Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The dismantling of the amateur rules of Swedish football in 1967 initiated the professionalization of the game in Sweden. This article analyses the impact and consequences of this development by using a comparative approach based on an examination of two clubs. The expected domination by Malmo FF in the new professionalized era is contrasted with the most unexpected success achieved by Hammarby IF The paradoxical differences in the recent histories of these clubs reveal a differentiated picture of Swedish soccer professionalism.

  • 10.
    Carlsson, Bo
    Malmö högskola, School of Teacher Education (LUT), Sport Sciences (IDV).
    Insolvency and the domestic juridification of football in Sweden2009In: Soccer & Society, ISSN 1466-0970, E-ISSN 1743-9590, Vol. 10, no 3-4, p. 477-494Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We can observe an ongoing external, as well as an internal, juridification of football, which means that the legal system and a legal rationality has become to an increasingly degree mixed up with football. Whether applying an internal or an external perspective the juridification process and the regulation can be understood as an outcome of the increasing commercialization and professionalization of football. In the wake of the commercialization process various clubs have suffered, and still suffer, from overspendings, in Sweden as well as in other European countries. In this respect, the regulation of football licenses in Sweden, which was introduced in 2001, constitutes the main subject in this essay. The regulation was introduced by the Swedish Football Association, mainly as an internal response to the acceleration of expenses in Swedish football. By focusing on football licenses and their regulation the essay intends to shed light on the 'internal juridification of sport'. And by taking a departure in a socio-legal perspective, the regulation will be connected to a reflection on its impact on the development of football.

  • 11.
    Carlsson, Bo
    et al.
    Linnaues Univ, Dept Sport Sci, Växjö, Sweden..
    Backman, Jyri
    Malmö University, Faculty of Education and Society (LS), Department of Sport Sciences (IDV).
    Juridification of fandom: dealing with spectators' expressions of 'too much joy' in Swedish football2023In: Soccer & Society, ISSN 1466-0970, E-ISSN 1743-9590, Vol. 24, no 3, p. 364-377Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The essay address different forms of 'extensive joyfulness' among football spectators, and the Swedish legal responses to these actions, due to the actions' classification as pitch invasion and trespassing, in legal terms. The essay presents the legal context, by focusing on external regulation of public order and surveillance as well as internal by-laws dealing with spectator security. By using two cases, from the district court, the essay reflects on the legal systems possibility and relevance in order to react on expressions of 'too much joy', as a legal sign of pitch invasion and the disturbance of public order. The analysi focuses on the problems of juridification when the law has to handle various mundane and 'trivial' social issues. The argument is that the football management has to amalgamate different forms of 'extensive joyfulness', in a discretionary manner, to the logics of entertainment before turning them to legal issues

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  • 12.
    Eskandari, Zahra Termeh
    Malmö University, Faculty of Education and Society (LS), Department of Sport Sciences (IDV).
    'We support football in our heart': female football fandom in Iran2022In: Soccer & Society, ISSN 1466-0970, E-ISSN 1743-9590, Vol. 23, no 3, p. 258-270, article id 2037208Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite the growing research regarding sports fandom culture, the related knowledge concerning non-West female fans, specifically Muslim women, is next to absent. By drawing on gender theories alongside transnational feminism, this study critically investigates the experiences and practices of female football fans in Iran, a country with exclusive social features. Through semi-structured interviews, 25 women and 5 men talked about their lived experiences. Findings suggest that the female fandom stream is empowering, although female fans still have to overcome gender stereotypes to demonstrate the authenticity of their fandom. Also, the state still restricts female activities in different ways, such as stadium entrance ban and shortage of media coverage. However, women have followed their desires and applied strategies to remain fans and support their teams afar. In this way, alongside multiple practical opportunities, they have converted social media to a virtual stadium to demonstrate both their support and consent.

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  • 13.
    Johansson, Roger
    et al.
    Malmö University, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), Department of Urban Studies (US). Malmö University, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), Institute for Studies in Malmö's history (IMH). Department of Educational Sciences, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Ristilammi, Per-Markku
    Malmö University, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), Department of Urban Studies (US).
    Tolvhed, Helena
    Department of History, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Zlatan Ibrahimović: a monument and a mirror of his time2023In: Soccer & Society, ISSN 1466-0970, E-ISSN 1743-9590, Vol. 24, no 3, p. 333-349Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In October 2019, Zlatan Ibrahimović, the most successful and famous Swedish football player ever, was honoured with a monument by the Swedish Football Association and the city of Malmö. Born in Malmö in 1981, Ibrahimović grew up in a migrant area of the city (Rosengård). Growing up, he played football in local teams, and at the age of 19 he was sold by Malmö FF to Ajax for the highest transfer fee ever in Sweden. However, when Ibrahimović unexpectedly entered as an investor in rivalling Stockholm-based football club Hammarby in November 2019, he challenged local identities: The place is the team, the team is the family, and betrayal of the place and the team is a betrayal against the family. The monument was soon vandalized and taken down, facing an uncertain future. The aim of this article is to understand the different interpretations, eruptions of emotions, and conflicts that the monument of Zlatan Ibrahimović raised. As a theoretical frame, three disciplinary perspectives will be used: a cultural historical and a historical didactic perspective, with the intention of understanding the motives and signals send and received through public art in the city space area; a second perspective with a focus on the special use of history in sport, where gender and nation form an interpretive framework in this study; and finally, a third ethnological perspective based on ‘scaling’, where a monument as a social phenomenon can change meaning depending on geographical scale from district to city to nation and a global scale. 

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  • 14.
    Junghagen, Sven
    Malmö University, Faculty of Education and Society (LS), Department of Sport Sciences (IDV).
    Tensions in stakeholder relations for a Swedish football club: a case study2018In: Soccer & Society, ISSN 1466-0970, E-ISSN 1743-9590, Vol. 19, no 4, p. 612-629Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Swedish football is an industry not yet being as commercial as the big leagues and is regulated in terms of ownership of clubs. This implies a need for management of stakeholder relations for a Swedish football club. This paper identifies important stakeholders in Swedish football and discusses the multitude of - sometimes conflicting - objectives in managing these relations. The empirical base of the study is founded in a case study of Malmo FF, one of the dominant clubs in Sweden, with a qualitative single case research approach. Data are collected by means of semi-structured interviews and participant observations. The results of the study show a number of tensions as paradoxes for stakeholder management, suggest management dispositions to reconcile these paradoxes and suggest areas for further research.

  • 15.
    Karlén, Sara
    et al.
    Malmö University, Faculty of Education and Society (LS), Department of Sport Sciences (IDV).
    Radmann, Aage
    Norwegian Sch Sport Sci, Dept Teacher Educ & Outdoor Studies, Oslo, Norway..
    Swedish supporter culture - restrictions, conflicts, resistance2023In: Soccer & Society, ISSN 1466-0970, E-ISSN 1743-9590, Vol. 24, no 3, p. 350-363Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates the conflict between, on the one hand, the Swedish police and law enforcement and, on the other, supporters, football clubs, and the organization of Swedish Elite Football. The core of this conflict is the introduction of a new structure for maintaining order, referred to as the Condition Ladder (Villkorstrappan), aimed at addressing disturbances and pyrotechnics in the stands. The aim of this article is to chart and analyse the impact of the Condition Ladder on Swedish football culture. The methods are media analysis, analysis of police documents and interviews. The study confirms previous findings regarding the role of the media in public discourse, but also indicates that the previously negative media image of the supporter culture has changed into a more positive view. The study shows that the new restrictions create conflicts and tensions between the involved actors when these actors are to handle risk elements in Swedish supporter culture.

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  • 16.
    Martin, Montserrat
    et al.
    Univ Vic Cent Univ Catalonia, Fac Educ Translat Sports & Psychol, Sport & Phys Act Res Grp, Vic, Spain.;Univ Vic Cent Univ Catalonia, Sport & Phys Act Res Grp, Vic 7, Barcelona, Spain..
    Pla-Campas, Gil
    Univ Vic Cent Univ Catalonia, Sport Exercise & Human Movement Res Grp, Fac Educ Translat Sports & Psychol, Vic, Spain..
    Coromina, Óscar
    Malmö University, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS), Department of Computer Science and Media Technology (DVMT).
    Tejedor, Santiago
    Malmö University, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS), Department of Computer Science and Media Technology (DVMT). Univ Autonoma Barcelona, Dept Journalism & Commun Sci, Barcelona, Spain..
    "You are the best horizontal ellipsis but can you twerk?" How twitter users challenge the messaging around female professional footballers in the 2019 UEFA women's champions league final in a postfeminist context2023In: Soccer & Society, ISSN 1466-0970, E-ISSN 1743-9590, Vol. 24, no 8, p. 1125-1140Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper analyses how fans engage on Twitter with the 22 players in the starting line up during the week of the 2019 UEFA Women's Champions League final. It explores fans' entangled representations of female professional footballers on Twitter from a postfeminist sensibility. Out of 200 tweets posted by the players during the day of the final and the week after, the research focuses on the 1468 fans replies to the 20 most engaged players' tweets. To facilitate this, we developed an analysis instrument called the 3Fs Spiral, which helps to disentangle the complex meanings of the fans' replies on Twitter. Results highlight the fans' entangled representations and the continuous flow of disruption and reinforcement of the gender order that emerge from them in a set of tweets. The decentralised nature of Twitter has the potential to slowly promote the change of dominant gender narratives and frames in female football.

  • 17.
    Melkersson, Mattias
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Education and Society (LS), Department of Sport Sciences (IDV).
    Brand Management as a vantage point for revising developmental opportunities and challenges within contemporary women’s soccer in Sweden: the case of LdB FC Malmö2013In: Soccer & Society, ISSN 1466-0970, E-ISSN 1743-9590, Vol. 14, no 6, p. 834-849Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Contemporary incentives arrayed by both international and national organizations show that women’s soccer is one of the fastest growing venues for female sports in Europe at the moment and that women’s soccer is undergoing significant development. Addressing what kind of opportunities and challenges women’s soccer might be facing, whilst being influenced by developmental aspects, seems to be a justified and important question. The intention of this article is to illustrate how developmental opportunities and challenges within women’s soccer can be viewed upon whilst revising the Swedish soccer club LdB FC Malmö’s approach for attaining a prosperous position in a Swedish soccer context. The article views LdB FC Malmö’s history and tactical approach from a brand management vantage point. An overall conclusion stresses that there is significance in how identity and values are being communicated which ultimately might have an impact on how developmental strengthening aspects are being encountered and implemented.

  • 18.
    Norberg, Johan R
    Malmö högskola, School of Teacher Education (LUT), Sport Sciences (IDV).
    Football, football pools and the unexpected arrival of sports in Swedish welfare politics2009In: Soccer & Society, ISSN 1466-0970, E-ISSN 1743-9590, Vol. 10, no 2-3, p. 418-437Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the essay is to describe the establishment of football pools in Sweden during the 1920s and 1930s and how this - unexpectedly - contributed to the breakthrough of sports within the framework of Swedish welfare politics. The essay begins with a short historical background. It continues with an account of the illegal pool industry which arose in Sweden in the 1920s followed by the forming of the government-controlled gambling company Tipstjnst in 1934. After an analysis of the short- and long-term importance of pools to Swedish sports, the effects the development in Sweden had on the sports policies of the other Scandinavian countries will be discussed. The essay concludes with a discussion of the link between the Swedish sports movement and the gambling market in modern times. The fact is that the gambling policy problems current in the inter-war period have emerged in a new form - with uncertain consequences to Swedish sports' future economy and relation to the government.

  • 19.
    Peterson, Tomas
    Malmö högskola, School of Teacher Education (LUT), Sport Sciences (IDV).
    Landskrona BoIS as an Environment for Nurturing and Education2007In: Soccer & Society, ISSN 1466-0970, E-ISSN 1743-9590, Vol. 8, no 1Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    For several reasons, Landskrona BoIS is a suitable sports association to use as an example to discuss sport as a system for nurturing and education. Today, Landskrona BoIS belongs to the elite of Swedish football. At the same time the organization is largely based on voluntary work, especially within the youth training programme. Thus it constitutes an interesting area of research in order to study the increasing professionalization, capitalization and commercialization of a non‐profit organization, and in particular the role of education, its design and function in this process. This paper tests the supposition that the more professionalized a sports organization becomes, the more their youth training will resemble the public school system. The basis for this supposition is that every professional organization (inside as well as outside sport) strives for a formal, uniform and equivalent education with systematic knowledge of the subjects, a uniform pedagogy and professional teachers, as well as a uniform and consequent grading system. 

  • 20.
    Radmann, Aage
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Education and Society (LS), Department of Sport Sciences (IDV).
    Hooligans: nice guys or the last alpha males? A study of football supporters' self image2014In: Soccer & Society, ISSN 1466-0970, E-ISSN 1743-9590, Vol. 15, no 4, p. 548-563Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The article clarify how Swedish football supporters - labelled hooligans by the media, sport clubs and the general public - describe themselves, their background, how they regard hooliganism, violence and why they engage in it. The study is based on interviews, and the informants´self-image and opinions about hooliganism and hooligans will be analysed using the concept of identity as well as masculinity theory.

  • 21.
    Radmann, Aage
    et al.
    Norwegian Sch Sport Sci, Dept Teacher Educ & Outdoor Studies, Oslo, Norway..
    Hedenborg, Susanna
    Malmö University, Faculty of Education and Society (LS), Department of Sport Sciences (IDV).
    Introduction: female fandom studies in a global perspective2022In: Soccer & Society, ISSN 1466-0970, E-ISSN 1743-9590, Vol. 23, no 3, p. 241-244Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 22.
    Radmann, Aage
    et al.
    Department of Teacher Education and Outdoor Studies, Norwegian School of Sport Sciences, Oslo, Norway.
    Hedenborg White, Manon
    Department of Religious Studies, Södertörns University, Huddinge, Sweden.
    Hedenborg, Susanna
    Malmö University, Faculty of Education and Society (LS), Department of Sport Sciences (IDV).
    Segregated femininities?: Creating female fandom through social media in Sweden2022In: Soccer & Society, ISSN 1466-0970, E-ISSN 1743-9590, Vol. 23, no 3, article id 2037213Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The study analyses female fandom in Sweden, focusing on female football supporters' self-presentation on social media. We found social media to function as a forum for empowerment, where the female football fans construct and express solidarity between girls and women and challenge hegemonic notions of femininity. Female football supporters are actively involved in formulating and shaping their own agenda and self-presentation and are drawn to the supporter culture for many of the same reasons as their male peers: group community, thrill and excitement, and the love for their team. The contribution of the study is two-fold: it fills a knowledge gap regarding Swedish female fans, while also making a conceptual intervention in the study of female fandoms more broadly, demonstrating the usefulness of critical theorization on femininities and indicating how social media enables female football supporters to 'play' with different conceptions of femininity to create space within the supporter milieu.

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  • 23.
    Stott, Clifford
    et al.
    School of Psychology, University of Keele, Keele, UK.
    Khan, Sammyh
    School of Psychology, University of Keele, Keele, UK.
    Madsen, Erik
    Malmö University, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Criminology (KR).
    Havelund, Jonas
    Department of Sports Science and Clinical Biomechanics, University of Southern Denmark, Odense, Denmark;Department of Sociology and Work Science, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    The value of Supporter Liaison Officers (SLOs) in fan dialogue, conflict, governance and football crowd management in Sweden2020In: Soccer & Society, ISSN 1466-0970, E-ISSN 1743-9590, Vol. 21, no 2, p. 196-208Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Evidence of the value of increased supporter involvement in football governance is limited and existing work focuses primarily on the boardroom, rather than on managing problems associated with fan behaviour. This paper addresses these limitations by documenting and analysing the role of the Supporter Liaison Officers (SLOs) in Sweden, a country that has salient concerns and difficulties associated with football fan behaviour and policing. We argue that the SLO role in Sweden serves as a model for empowering supporter engagement because the SLOs maintain a position as prototypical members of the active fans’ in-group. This in turn increases their ability to reduce conflict by navigating the complex objective tensions and dimensions of intergroup power and legitimacy that exist between the different stakeholders. The paper explores the implications of our analysis for understandings of the value of fan involvement in governance, dialogue and crowd management strategies more generally.    

  • 24.
    Sätre, Anna
    Malmö University, Faculty of Education and Society (LS), Department of Sport Sciences (IDV).
    Female football supporters in Malmö: the struggle for space2024In: Soccer & Society, ISSN 1466-0970, E-ISSN 1743-9590, Vol. 25, no 1, p. 111-125Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article examines the lived experiences of female football supporters in Malmö. It aims to gain a deeper understanding of how female supporters relate to space and take place in the stands. Ten supporters organized in the separatist female supporter group Malmösystrar (Malmö Sisters) were interviewed. A feminist analysis was carried out using Beverley Skeggs’ theoretical understanding of gender as a social position through the concepts of space and femininity. The results show how female supporters express femininity and masculinity to gain power. Female supporters are marginalized through their social position of being women. To take space, female supporters tactically oppose feminism. Femininity is not a capital on the stands to gain power. However, when female supporters organize and their power increases, they express more femininity in looks and more masculinity in behaviour compared to before.

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