Malmö University Publications
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  • 1.
    Håkansson, Peter Gladoic
    et al.
    Malmö University, Faculty of Education and Society (LS), Department of Society, Culture and Identity (SKI). Malmö University, Institute for Urban Research (IUR).
    Bejakovic, Predrag
    Institute for Public Finance, Zagreb, Croatia.
    Labour market resilience, bottlenecks and spatial mobility in Croatia2020In: Eastern Journal of European Studies, ISSN 2068-651X, E-ISSN 2068-6633, Vol. 11, no 2, p. 5-25Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    After the Great Recession, unemployment rose quickly. During 2013–2014, Croatia noticed unemployment rates above 17%, which were way over the EU 28 average. Today, Croatia instead experiences bottlenecks on the labour market: Job vacancies are increasingly lacking suitable skilled candidates. Thus, the Croatian labour market adapts badly to both recession and to a booming economy; namely, the Croatian labour market has low resilience. An economy with high labour market resilience can benefit from a booming economy, while an economy with the opposite faces wage inflation and loss of competitiveness. This article aims to analyse and discuss the role of labour mobility in reducing labour market bottlenecks and thereby increasing labour market resilience in Croatia. The method is tentative, and we use secondary, national, and international data and previous studies and findings. As we will show, the government has acknowledged skill shortages, and there are some (minor) reforms dealing with them. However, the connection between spatial mobility and labour market resilience in Croatia has not been noticed. Herein lies the novelty of this article. In this study, we find that Croatia has very low residential mobility, which we believe explains Croatia’s low labour market resilience. Croatia’s low mobility can be explained by tradition as well as by high transaction costs of moving. Our policy recommendations are (1) to lower transaction costs and simplify the moving process and (2) to increase occupational mobility through lifelong education and adult learning.

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  • 2.
    Håkansson, Peter Gladoic
    et al.
    Malmö University, Centre for Work Life and Evaluation Studies (CTA). Malmö University, Faculty of Education and Society (LS), Department of Society, Culture and Identity (SKI).
    Bejaković, Predrag
    Institute of Public Finance, Croatia.
    Can digital nomads solve the problem of tourist economy? The case of Croatian islands2023In: Eastern Journal of European Studies, ISSN 2068-651X, E-ISSN 2068-6633, Vol. 14, no Special Issue, p. 116-134Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many Croatian island municipalities depend on tourism, which provides income by usingnatural resources; however, traditional tourism is labour intensive and low-skilled whichleads to low wages and low possibilities to increase productivity. This paper aims toanalyse and discuss other possibilities than traditional tourist industry for the Croatianislands to develop. We will turn towards the concept of digital nomads to discuss if digitalnomads can be a solution for the Croatian islands. As a starting point, we use aconceptual model inspired by Harris and Todaro’s theoretical outline. We discuss thenew possibilities that digitalisation has opened for these islands. The digital economyhas made where and when work is performed less important. Thus, the lines betweenwork and non-work are blurred. Tourist industry must look ahead for new forms ofmobility and new kinds of work and non-work, which may bring positive exogenouseffects to the islands in the form of higher educational level, cultural activities, andpurchase power. Our main point is that turning towards attracting digital nomads can,to some extent, be a solution. 

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  • 3. Terzyan, Aram
    The EU vs. Russia in the foreign policy discourse of Armenia: the fragility of normative power or the power of Russian coercion?2017In: Eastern Journal of European Studies, ISSN 2068-651X, E-ISSN 2068-6633, Vol. 8, no 2, p. 185-203Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Constructivist-driven conventional wisdom posits that ideas and beliefs are pivotal to shaping foreign policy trajectories. Thus, the explanatory power ascribed to material forces falls back on ideas and cultural practices (Wendt, 1999). Whereas the case of Armenia, characterized by the co-existence of European foreign policy identity with Russia-led foreign policy preferences suggests that identity and beliefs may well be outweighed by material forces. This paper seeks to explain the evolution of how the European Union (EU) and Russia have been conceptualised within the foreign policy discourse of Armenia. The study relies on the critical discourse analysis of relevant speeches and statements of Armenia’s foreign policy-makers and, particularly, on those of the President. It scrutinizes the core notions and discursive structures, employed in the Armenian foreign policy discourse for justifying the choice of the Russia-led path. It suggests that Armenia’s deviation from the identity driven path towards the EU has been broadly justified in terms of the country’s economic and, particularly, security needs, which prompted to treat Russia as an indispensable ally. Yet, a closer scrutiny of external constraints indicates that Russian coercive policy left little room for Armenia to achieve a Russian-European balance.

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  • 4.
    Åberg, John H.S.
    et al.
    Malmö University, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), Department of Global Political Studies (GPS).
    Terzyan, Aram
    Malmö University, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), Department of Global Political Studies (GPS).
    Structure or Agency? Explaining Armenia's Foreign Policy Evolution2018In: Eastern Journal of European Studies, ISSN 2068-651X, E-ISSN 2068-6633, Vol. 9, no 1, p. 151-172Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The article scrutinizes Armenia’s foreign policy trajectory since its independence. It applies a model of foreign policy analysis that takes into account structural, dispositional, and intentional dimensions and outlines a more dynamic structureagency interplay. By contrast to reductionist system-level explanations, the argument is that individual-level factors such as the perceptions and beliefs of Armenia’s presidents are central to understanding why Armenia embarked on a foreign policy path where it became economically and militarily absorbed by Russia. The case study of Armenia’s foreign policy serves as a plausibility probe that illustrates the relevance of individual-level factors in foreign policy decision making. The article thus offers insights into the foreign policy of a small state.

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