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  • 1.
    Abrahamsson, Cecilia
    et al.
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Odontology (OD).
    Ekberg, EwaCarin
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Odontology (OD).
    Henrikson, Thor
    Nilner, Maria
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Odontology (OD).
    Sunzel, Bo
    Bondemark, Lars
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Odontology (OD).
    TMD in Consecutive Patients Referred for Orthognathic Surgery2009In: Swedish Dental Journal, ISSN 0347-9994, Vol. 33, no 4, p. 201-226, article id 25Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: To answer the question whether temporomandibular disorders (TMD) were more common in a group of individuals referred for orthognathic surgery than in a control group. The null hypothesis was that neither the frequency of signs and symptoms of TMD or diagnosed TMD would differ between the patient group and a control group. Materials and Methods: A sample of 121 consecutive patients referred for orthognathic surgery at the Department of Oral Maxillofacial Surgery, Malmö University Hospital, Sweden, was interviewed and examined regarding signs and symptoms of TMD and headaches. A control group was formed by 56 age- and gender-matched individuals attending the Department of Oral Diagnosis, Faculty of Odontology, Malmö University, Sweden, and Public Dental Health Clinic in Oxie, County of Skane, Sweden. TMD diagnoses were used according to Research Diagnostic Criteria for Temporomandibular Disorders (RDC/TMD). Results: The patient group showed more myofascial pain without limited opening, disc displacement with reduction, and arthralgia according to RDC/TMD than the control group. The patient group also had more symptoms and signs of TMD in general. Conclusions: The null hypothesis was rejected because patients who were to be treated with orthognathic surgery had more signs and symptoms of TMD and higher frequency of diagnosed TMD compared with the matched control group.

  • 2.
    Abrahamsson, Peter
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Odontology (OD).
    Periosteal expansion of rabbit mandible with an osmotic self-inflatable expander2009In: Swedish Dental Journal, ISSN 0347-9994, Vol. 33, no 4, p. 201-226, article id 44Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 3. Alexander, Louise
    et al.
    Hall, Emma
    Eriksson, Lars
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Odontology (OD).
    Rohlin, Madeleine
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Odontology (OD).
    The combination of non-selective NSAID 400 mg and paracetamol 1000 mg is more effective than each drug alone for treatment of acute pain: a systematic review2014In: Swedish Dental Journal, ISSN 0347-9994, Vol. 38, no 1, p. 1-14Article, review/survey (Refereed)
  • 4.
    Al-Harthy, Mohammad
    et al.
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Odontology (OD).
    Al-Bishri, Awwad
    Ekberg, EwaCarin
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Odontology (OD).
    Nilner, Maria
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Odontology (OD).
    Temporomandibular disorder pain in adult Saudi Arabians referred for specialised dental treatment2010In: Swedish Dental Journal, ISSN 0347-9994, Vol. 34, no 3, p. 149-158Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of Temporomandibular Disorders (TMD) pain in Saudi Arabians,aged 20-40, who were referred to the Specialist Dental Centre in Makkah. The material included 325 patients (135 males,190 females) who answered a history questionnaire. Patients reportingTMD pain in the last month were offered a clinical examination. History questionnaires and clinical examinations were done according to the Arabic version of the Research Diagnostic Criteria for TMD (RDC/TMD). Fifty-eight patients (18%) reported TMD pain; 46 were clinically examined. Mean age of clinically examined TMD pain patients was 30 +/- 7 years with a male-female ratio of 1:6 (P < 0.001). All TMD pain patients had a diagnosis of myofascial pain, and 65% had diagnoses of arthralgia or osteoarthritis. Headaches or migraines in the last 6 months and headaches in the last month were reported in high frequencies in the TMD pain group, 93% and 71% respectively, with differences (P < 0.001) between the TMD pain and non-TMD pain groups. Graded Chronic Pain Scale assessments classified 45% of the TMD pain patients in grade 1, 53% in grade II, 2% in grade III, and 0% in grade IV. Severe depression scores were found in 38% of the TMD pain patients and severe somatisation scores in 60% with differences (P < 0.001) between the TMD pain and non-TMD pain groups. In conclusion, the study found a frequency of TMD pain in this Saudi Arabian cohort of 18%. The TMD pain group presented high scores of depression and somatisation but low disability grades on the Graded Chronic Pain Scale.

  • 5.
    Andersson, Gunilla
    et al.
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Odontology (OD).
    Wahlin, Åsa
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Odontology (OD).
    Bratthall, Gunilla
    The effect of Swedish and American smokeless tobacco extract on periodontal ligament fibroblasts in vitro2006In: Swedish Dental Journal, ISSN 0347-9994, Vol. 30, no 3, p. 89-97Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Use of moist snuff is widespread in Sweden. In 2004 approximately 8oo,ooo Swedes were daily users which corresponds to 22% of the male population and 3% of the female population. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of Swedish moist snuff extract on PDLfibroblast growth and hard tissue production and compare with moist snuff extract from USA. Periodontal ligament cells (PDL-cells) were obtained from 3 healthy subjects (1 female 14 years, 2 males 14 and 17 years) from the root surface of premolars extracted for orthodontic reasons. The cells were isolated from explants and grown in Dulbecco's Modified Eagle's Medium (DMEM) supplemented with 10% fetal calf serum (FBS) and cultivated in 37 degrees C with 5% CO2 in air. Snuff extract in concentrations 0.3%, 1% and 3% (in DMEM with 1% FBS) was tested. Cells from each individual were tested three times, each time in triplicate. Photographs were taken at o and 24 hours with a digital camera and analysed in terms of growth and morphology. Then the cell suspension was frozen and later thawed for examination of the production of alkaline phosphatase after exposure to different snuff concentrations. This in vitro study has shown that PDL cells from 3 different subjects demonstrated a reduced number of cells at exposure to 3% of both Swedish and American snuff extract.The production of alkaline phosphatase after 2 hours was similarly reduced from cells exposed to 3% snuff extract. Further studies have to be made to understand the effect of smokeless tobacco on periodontal tissues. However, from this study can be concluded that smokeless tobacco has biological effects in terms of reduced PDL cell growth and production of alkaline phosphatase

  • 6.
    Andersson, Gunilla
    et al.
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Odontology (OD).
    Warfvinge, Gunnar
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Odontology (OD).
    The Influence of pH and Nicotine Concentration In Oral Moist Snuff on Mucosal Changes and Salivary pH in Swedish Snuff2003In: Swedish Dental Journal, ISSN 0347-9994, Vol. 27, no 2, p. 67-75Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The use of Swedish oral moist snuff is a widespread habit in Sweden. In 1999, 25% of the adult male population and 3.1% of the female population were users of snuff. The aim of the present study was to evaluate how variations in pH and nicotine concentrations of snuff affect the oral mucosa, clinically and histologically, salivary pH and daily nicotine intake in 20 habitual users of loose snuff. The subjects were studied during use of their usual brand, after 12 weeks use of a snuff with lower pH and after another 12 weeks use of a snuff with both lower pH and lower nicotine concentration. Consumption data, oral soft tissue changes, salivary pH and nicotine intake were meas-ured. Further, biopsies were taken from the central part of the clinically observed lesions and histological changes were analysed. The subjects maintained their snuff consumption during the observation periods. The average salivary pH was higher during snuff use than in the morning. Further, it was higher shortly after the snuff was removed than during snuff use. After having switched to the snuff with both lower pH and lower nicotine concentrations, they showed a significant reduction in daily nicotine intake and developed significantly less pronounced clinical and histological changes. These results indicate that nicotine is one of the substances in snuff that has a biological effect on the oral mucosa. However, there also seems to be a synergistic effect between the pH and nicotine concentration in the snuff.

  • 7. Arneryd, Philip
    et al.
    Kindblom, Annika
    Larsson, Christel
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Odontology (OD).
    Fracture strength of low translucent and high translucent monolithic zirconia crowns with different thicknesses2014In: Swedish Dental Journal, ISSN 0347-9994, Vol. 38, no 4, p. 195-195, article id 12Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective. The aim of the study was to examine the fracture strength of fully anatomical monolithic high translucent Y-TZP, yttria-stabilized tetragonal zirconia polycrystal, crowns and to compare them with monolithic low translucent Y-TZP crowns in different thicknesses. Materials and methods. 80 standardized crowns were made out of a master model resembling a first mandibular molar made in composite material; 40 crowns made of Lava Zirconia by 3M ESPE, a monolithic low translucent Y-TZP material, and 40 crowns made of Lava Plus by 3M ESPE, a monolithic high translucent Y-TZP material. In each group ten crowns of the thicknesses 1.0 mm, 0.7 mm, 0.5 mm and 0.3 mm were made. All crowns underwent thermocycling and preload to simulate aging and normal wear. Finally the specimens were placed in a testing jig and underwent load to fracture. Results. No significant difference was found when comparing the two materials. When comparing the materials in each thickness a significant difference was found in the 0.5 mm group where the high translucent YTZ-P had a higher mean fracture strength value. A significant difference was seen between the different thicknesses within both groups. The strength increased with added thicknesses. Conclusions. The low translucent and high translucent monolithic YTZ-P perform equally well. The use of high translucent monolithic Y-TZP could result in more aesthetic results and the minimal invasive preparation could lead to a reduction in biological complications. This could be beneficial for the patient since the results suggest that even a thin restoration sustains reasonable load in an in vitro environment. Clinical studies are needed to confirm this suggestion.

  • 8.
    Axtelius, Björn
    et al.
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Odontology (OD).
    Söderfeldt, Björn
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Odontology (OD).
    Oral disease and psychosocial risk determinants in relation to self-assessments of general health in persons with chronic whiplash-related disorders2003In: Swedish Dental Journal, ISSN 0347-9994, Vol. 27, no 4, p. 185-195Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to analyse how self-assessed general health was related to oral health among persons afflicted with whiplash-associated disorders (WAD), controlling for relevant background factors, confounders and other risk factors. Questionnaires included the SF-36 Health Survey, self-assessed oral health and relevant risk factors, in total 49 questions. Multivariable regression modelling was performed. Members of a nationwide Swedish association enlisting persons who have problems concerning a whiplash injury (n = 1,928) were included. A total of 979 persons participated in the study, a response rate of 50.8%. A multivariable regression model is presented, with general health as the dependent variable, and the independent variables inserted en-bloc. The model was highly significant with an explained variance of 28%. Among background factors, only older age appeared as significantly and strongly related to poorer general health. The strongest explanatory contributions came from the health related variables. Oral disease and extra-oral body pain were both strongly related to poorer general health, most obviously for the oral disease variable. Oral disease was significantly and to a clinically relevant degree associated with self-assessed general health. Several other psychosocial indicators of stress were also significantly related to the general health. These findings are consistent with the stress-behaviour-immune model for development of disease.

  • 9.
    Bahat, Zdravko
    et al.
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Odontology (OD).
    Mahmood, Deyar Jallal Hadi
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Odontology (OD).
    Vult von Steyern, Per
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Odontology (OD).
    Fracture strength of three-unit fixed partial denture cores (Y-TZP) with different connector dimension and design2009In: Swedish Dental Journal, ISSN 0347-9994, Vol. 33, no 3, p. 149-159Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    True crystalline ceramic materials presently used in restorative dentistry are Al2O3 (alumina) and yttrium-oxide stabilised tetragonal polycrystalline zirconium-dioxide (Y-TZP). To ensure optimal clinical performance, the dimensions of the Fixed Partial Denture (FPD) framework in general and of the connectors in particular, must be adequate. Considered recommendations for connector dimensions for Y-TZP FPDs vary from 2 to 4 mm in occluso-gingival height and 2 to 4 mm in bucco-lingual width. In order to reduce the fracture probability when designing all-ceramic FPDs, the shape of the connector is an important factor to consider. The radius of curvature at the gingival embrasure plays a significant role in the load-bearing capacity. FPDs with small gingival embrasure radii are subjected to high stress concentrations in the connector area during loading, compared to FPDs with large embrasure radii. The aim of this in-vitro study was to investigate how different radii of curvature in the embrasure of the connector area and different connector dimensions could affect the fracture resistance of 3-unit all-ceramic FPDs made of Y-TZP. Forty-eight FPDs in 6 groups of 8 FPDs with different connector design were produced in Procera Zirconia Bridge material. The FPD cores were subjected to heat treatment to simulate veneering. Following cementation, the FPDs were firstly thermocycled for 5,000 cycles, then preloaded for 10,000 cycles and finally loaded to fracture. All the FPDs fractured in the connector area. All the crack propagation which led to fracture started at the gingival embrasure of the connector. Within the limitations of this in-vitro study,the recommended minimum dimension of an anterior 3-unit all-ceramic FPD of Y-TZP is 3 mm in incisal-cervical direction and 2 mm in buccal-lingual direction. By increasing the radius of the gingival embrasure from 0.6 to 0.9 mm, the fracture strength for a Y-TZP FPD with connector dimension 3 x 3 mm increases by 20%.

  • 10.
    Bengmark, Daniel
    et al.
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Odontology (OD).
    Nilner, Maria
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Odontology (OD).
    Rohlin, Madeleine
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Odontology (OD).
    Graduates' characteristics and professional situation: a follow-up of five classes graduated from the Malmö model2007In: Swedish Dental Journal, ISSN 0347-9994, Vol. 31, no 31, p. 129-135Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study describes some characteristics of graduates of the five first classes from the Malmö dental programme, their overall experience of the programme, and their professional situation. Of 166 graduates (graduated 1995-1999) who were invited to participate, 128 responded (response rate 77%). The questionnaire queried participant characteristics, undergraduate education, and professional situation. The median age of the respondents at graduation was 26 years (range: 24-43 years, female: 56%). One-fourth of the respondents were born outside Sweden.Two-thirds of the respondents answered that they enrolled in the dental education because they wanted to become a dentist. Most respondents (97%) were working as a dentist, and a majority (82%) worked full-time. The respondents thought their dental education had prepared them well for their profession. About one-third of the respondents worked outside Sweden; the majority had been born outside of Sweden. The respondents' satisfaction with their professional situation, which was high overall, correlated to how much they were able to influence their work situation. About one-fourth expressed interest in specialist training. Respondents differed on the topic of research education: 64% of the female graduates and 42% of the male graduates were interested. We conclude that the respondents were satisfied with their professional situation as a dentist and that most were interested in postgraduate education.

  • 11. Borg, Marcus
    et al.
    Vult von Steyern, Per
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Odontology (OD).
    Larsson, Christel
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Odontology (OD).
    Titanium- and zirconia-based implant-supported fixed dental prostheses. A randomized, prospective clinical pilot trial2014In: Swedish Dental Journal, ISSN 0347-9994, Vol. 38, no 1, p. 23-30Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to compare porcelain-veneered implant-supported FDPs based on zirconium dioxide and titanium respectively. Sixteen patients received 18 implant-supported partial fixed dental prostheses (FDPs); 8 titanium-based and 10 zirconia-based. The FDPs were randomized between the two material groups. Follow-up of the patients was performed at 3 months and thereafter once a year. An assessment protocol based on the California Dental Association (CDA) quality assessment system was used. Results: All patients were seen at follow-up. The mean time of clinical service at follow-up was 15,2 months (range 12-24 months). All restorations were in place and all patients were satisfied with the treatment. No technical complications were noted in either group. Minor biological complications, in the form of plaque and/or mucositis, not affecting the survival of the restorations were noted for six of the titanium-based restorations and two of the zirconia-based restorations. The difference between the two material groups was not statistically significant. The outcomes of both materials were comparable. Short term data from this study suggests that porcelain-veneered implant-supported partial FDPs based on zirconia and titanium are satisfactory and equal treatment options. This conclusion is however preliminary as it is based on a small number of patients and short-term follow-up. Long-term follow-up of larger groups of patients is needed before more definite conclusions can be made.

  • 12. Bratthall, Douglas
    et al.
    Hänsel Petersson, Gunnel
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Odontology (OD).
    Caries risk assessment: a comparison between the computer program 'Cariogram', dental hygienists and dentists2000In: Swedish Dental Journal, ISSN 0347-9994, Vol. 24, no 4, p. 129-137Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The 'Cariogram', which is an interactive PC-program for caries risk evaluation, illustrates the interaction between caries related factors and expresses the caries risk graphically. It also demonstrates a weighted impact of the different etiological factors on the risk. The aim of this paper was to use the Cariogram program on a set of patients, and to compare the outcome of its risk evaluation with those made by dental hygienists and dentists. A questionnaire, containing the descriptions of five patients with detailed information on nine factors generally associated with caries, was given to the participants. They were asked to rank the patients according to their 'chance to avoid dental caries' during the coming year. The results were compared with the assessments obtained from the Cariogram. Results: 73.5% of the dental hygienists and 78.5% of the dentists ranked the patients for caries risk either identically or with only one deviation when compared to the Cariogram. It was concluded that the 'opinion' of the Cariogram on caries risk was in agreement with that of the majority of the participants. In addition, the Cariogram program induced discussions about the relative impact of etiological factors of caries. It is envisaged that the Cariogram can serve as one further tool in the teaching of caries risk.

  • 13.
    Cederlund, Andreas
    et al.
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Odontology (OD).
    Lundgren, Frida
    Tranæus, Sofia
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Odontology (OD).
    Norlund, Anders
    Caries treatment in Swedish adults: effectiveness, costs and equity. A 4-year follow-up study of data from the Swedish national dental health register2016In: Swedish Dental Journal, ISSN 0347-9994, Vol. 40, no 2, p. 223-234Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    At a national level, planning and management of dental services should be based on assessments of equity, effectiveness and costs. In Sweden, data for the adult population are now accessible through The Swedish dental health register, at The National Board of Health and Welfare. This study, on two large cohorts of Swedish adults, is based on longitudinal follow-up data, retrieved from the Swedish dental health register. The aims were twofold:to assess frequencies and costs of fillings and crowns, including subsequent repair; secondly to study the relationship between preventive and restorative dental treatment. The Swedish dental health register provides data on the adult population which offers a new perspective on public health aspects of management of dental care at the national level. A longitudinal, prospective study model was used to follow-up two large cohorts for over four years. In the first cohort, data on 1,088,923 adult patients were analysed with reference to provision of single crowns and fillings over a period of 42 - 48 months. The second cohort comprised 1,703,147 adult patients:the data were analysed with reference to preventive interventions over a period of 48 - 54 months. Frequencies of distribution of dental care by age group showed that the cohorts were representative for the whole patient group. With respect to equity, the average number of dentist appointments per -1,00o inhabitants for all 21 regions of Sweden was 140 to 160, despite major variations in geographic conditions and population densities. With respect to effectiveness, about 76% of the teeth with index interventions required no additional intervention over four consecutive years of follow-up. For the remaining 24% of the teeth 77% had only one additional intervention. When differences of case -mix were taken into account, the costs of repairs to earlier interventions were basically similar, regardless of age-group.There were no gender differences. However, there were pronounced differences, of up to three intact teeth, among patients from different regions of Sweden. Follow-up of effects of caries prevention showed no gender differences. However, costs for reparative interventions increased with higher costs for preventive treatment. Moreover, the longer the interval between preventive interventions, the lower the costs for reparative interventions.The national dental health register is a potentially valuable source of data for dental research. In this study, longitudinal registry data on restorative and preventive treatment were retrieved and analysed, with reference to efficacy, costs and equity. The results have potential application in improving management of public dental health.

  • 14.
    Charyeva, Olga
    et al.
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Odontology (OD).
    Altynbekov, Kubeysin
    Zhartybaev, Rahmed
    Kazakh Natl Med Univ KazNMU, Dept Oral Surg, Alma Ata, Kazakhstan..
    Sabdanaliev, Asylbek
    Long-term dental implant success and survival: a clinical study after an observation period up to 6 years2012In: Swedish Dental Journal, ISSN 0347-9994, Vol. 36, no 1, p. 1-6Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the present work was to evaluate the long-term results of dental implants and the risk factors associated with implant survival and success rates. 108 patients were examined and the control consisted of medical history taking, clinical and radiographic examinations. The survival rate of dental implants was 96.0% and the success rate was 94.3%. Mucositis was found to be related to patients' age and the number of implant units placed. Peri-implantitis was often found in patients showing low standards of oral hygiene as well as in those who were not coming on regular dental visits. Mucositis was in every 5th implant site and was mostly seen in patients with prosthetic constructions consisting of 3 or more units as well as in older patients. Oral hygiene and dental control visits are important to maintain good oral health.

  • 15.
    Collin Bagewitz, Ingrid
    et al.
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Odontology (OD).
    Söderfeldt, B
    Palmqvist, S
    Nilner, K
    Social equality and dental conditions--a study of an adult population in Southern Sweden.2000In: Swedish Dental Journal, ISSN 0347-9994, Vol. 24, no 4, p. 155-64Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study aimed to: describe dental conditions--focusing on prosthodontic variables--in relation to social conditions in the late 1990s in an adult population of Southern Sweden, evaluate if a change could be traced in the pattern of socioeconomic influences on dental conditions, and study if various attitudes toward dental care were associated with social as well as dental conditions. The study was based on questionnaire responses. Significant differences in dental conditions and denture prevalence were found for age and education. To a majority of the sample it was very important to have own teeth and/or fixed restorations and the opportunity to attend regular dental care. The cost for dental care was very important for 52% of the sample especially for men, those with low education, and those wearing removable denture. Need for dental care that could not be provided for because of the costs was experienced by 9%. Eighteen percent stated that they once or more had refrained from dental care because of the cost. Those with removable dentures and low education dominated. Besides socioeconomic differences in dental conditions, there were sociodental differences in attitudes concerning the importance of costs, self-estimated needs, and cost-barriers for dental care.

  • 16.
    Dimberg, Lillemor
    et al.
    Department of Orthodontics, Postgraduate Dental Education Center, Örebro, Sweden.
    Bondemark, Lars
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Odontology (OD).
    Söderfeldt, Björn
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Odontology (OD).
    Lennartsson, Bertil
    Prevalence of malocclusion traits and sucking habits among 3-year-old children2010In: Swedish Dental Journal, ISSN 0347-9994, Vol. 34, no 1, p. 35-42Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the prevalence of malocclusion traits and sucking habits among 3-year-old children. A sample of 457 3-year-old children (234 girls and 223 boys) was obtained from three Public Dental Health clinics in Orebro County Council, Sweden. Data from clinical examination and a questionnaire were used to determine malocclusion traits, sucking habits, snoring and breathing pattern including nocturnal breathing disturbances. The results showed that 70% had one or more malocclusion traits at 3 years of age. The most common malocclusion traits were anterior open bite (50%), Class II occlusion (26%), increased overjet (23%) and posterior crossbite (19%). The prevalence of sucking habit was 66% and dummy sucking was dominating and in connection with more malocclusion traits than finger/thumb sucking. A significant association was found between the sucking habits and the most prevalent malocclusions, anterior open bite, Class II occlusion, increased overjet and posterior crossbite. In conclusion, the prevalence of malocclusion traits in 3-year-old children was high. Sucking habits was highly prevalent and dummy sucking resulted in more malocclusion traits than finger/thumb sucking did.

  • 17. Edblad, Thorsten
    et al.
    Hoffman, Maria
    Hakeberg, Magnus
    Örtengren, Ulf
    Milleding, Percy
    Wennerberg, Ann
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Odontology (OD).
    Micro-topography of dental enamel and root cementum2009In: Swedish Dental Journal, ISSN 0347-9994, Vol. 33, no 1, p. 41-48Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The focus for the present study was to characterise dental enamel and cementum at the cervical region of healthy teeth by use of interferometry. The effect of a protein-dissolving enzyme, used for cleaning (Neutrase) on the surface topography, was also evaluated. Knowledge about the normal variation of surface topography of natural teeth is limited. In the design of artificial surfaces, intended to replace the function of lost biological surfaces, detailed knowledge of the latter is therefore of great importance. Nine health caries free premolars were used. The root cementum of three teeth was used for evaluation of Neutrase on the surface. On the six remaining teeth, the differences between the surface textures of enamel and root cementum were evaluated using 3D Interferometry. No statistical significant effect of Neutrase was identified. A significant difference between enamel and root cementum concerning surface topography using the different 3D parameters was recorded. When comparing values from the literature, the topography of artificial materials used in dentistry show similarities with the topography of the enamel and root cementum surfaces evaluated.

  • 18. Ekback, Gunnar
    et al.
    Ordell, Sven
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Odontology (OD).
    Palmetun-Ekback, Maria
    Ekback, Gustav
    Unell, Lennart
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Odontology (OD).
    Johansson, Ann-Katrin
    Reporting dental caries disease in longitudinal studies: a suggestion2016In: Swedish Dental Journal, ISSN 0347-9994, Vol. 40, no 2, p. 173-179Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In general, most infectious and/or lifestyle-related diseases are defined as being present when sufficient signs or symptoms occurs in an individual. The term "sufficient" is a relative concept and a disease can therefore be measured with different degrees of certainty. These symptoms are commonly defined in such a way that it is possible to determine the incidence and prevalence of the disease and also the proportion of individuals that are cured from the disease. If dental caries is an individual disease which can be compared to other diseases regarding incidence and prevalence, it is important to determine for how long an individual must be free from new signs of the disease before being considered cured or free from the disease and to define the "sufficient" signs or symptoms needed for a diagnose. Based on these thoughts, the purpose of this study was to calculate caries incidence and prevalence in a group of adolescents from a definition of dental caries based on ICD-10. This study included all 12 year olds in 1990 who attended a clinical dental examination in 1990-1995 in Orebro County, Orebro, Sweden, yearly during these six years. Dental caries disease at the individual level was defined as Ko2.1 (dentinal caries) according to ICD-bo while freedom of caries was defined as the absence of Ko2.1 during a three-year period. In this study the yearly prevalence was 12%, the three year cumulative incidence was 18% and the incidence rate 13%. Results of this study highlight the poor outcomes in curing caries disease in this age-group, according to the criteria in this study, as only 17% of the children with caries at the outset of the study were free from the disease three years later. Defining both a practical level to measure signs of dental caries, and the period an individual must be free from them to be classified as cured from the disease create new opportunities to compare and communicate the disease of dental caries with other diseases. This way of registration is also of advantage for planning purposes as there the centre of interest must be the individual patient and not the tooth or surface.

  • 19.
    Ekberg, EwaCarin
    et al.
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Odontology (OD).
    Vallon, Danila
    Nilner, Maria
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Odontology (OD).
    Treatment Outcome of Headache After Occlusal Appliance Therapy in a Randomised Controlled Trial Among Patients with Temporomandibular Disorders of Mainly Arthrogenous Origin2002In: Swedish Dental Journal, ISSN 0347-9994, Vol. 26, no 3, p. 115-124Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to evaluate headaches before and after treatment with a stabilisation appliance and a control appliance in a randomised controlled trial in patients having temporomandibular disorders (TMD) of mainly arthrogenous origin. The effect of treatment was evaluated both in a short and in long-term perspective. 60 patients (mean age 30 years) with TMD of mainly arthrogenous origin were studied. The patients were selected from patients referred for treatment of TMD during a 3-year period to the Department of Stomathognathic Physiology, Faculty of Odontology, Malmo University. The 60 patients included in the study were randomly assigned to a treatment (T) or a control (C) group. The study was performed as a randomised controlled trial including evaluation of treatment effect on tension-type headache after 10 weeks, 6 and 12 months. At the 10 weeks follow-up, the patients who reported a negative treatment outcome and/or discomfort associated with the use of the appliances had their appliances readjusted. Patients who demanded further treatment received a stabilisation appliance (21 patients from the C-group), creating a new mixed (M) group. All the 60 patients reported frequency of headache from rarely up to daily at the start of the study. In the T-group 76% and in the C-group 83% of the patients reported headache at least once a week or more before treatment. At the 10 weeks follow-up, a statistically significant difference was found regarding headache several times a week or more between the T- and C-groups and within the T-group. At the 6 months follow-up, a statistically significant reduction was found in headache several times a week or more in the T- and M-groups. The number of patients with headache once a week or more decreased significantly in the T- and M-groups at the 12 months follow-up. We conclude that the stabilisation appliance seems to have an effect on the frequency of tension-type headache both in a short and in a long-term perspective in patients with TMD of mainly arthrogenous origin.

  • 20. Ekbäck, Gunnar
    et al.
    Näslund, Ingmar
    Montomery, Scott M
    Ordell, Sven
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Odontology (OD).
    Self-perceived oral health and obesity among 65 years old in two Swedish counties2010In: Swedish Dental Journal, ISSN 0347-9994, Vol. 34, no 4, p. 207-215Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to explore the association between oral health and obesity. The study was conducted in the spring of 2007 as a postal survey of all inhabitants born in 1942 and living in the two Swedish counties of Örebro and Östergötland. This questionnaire survey has been conducted every five years since 1992 but has been updated continually with additional questions and for the sweep used here, height and weight data were collected. A total of 8,313 individuals received the questionnaire and 6,078 of those responded (73,1%).The outcome variable oral health was measured using one global question and four detailed questions representing different aspects of oral health. The independent variable Body Mass Index (BMI) was calculated using self-reported height and weight. A difference in oral health between various BMI groups was found. The difference was both statistically significant and of clinical importance, particularly among the group with severe obesity who reported poorer self-perceived chewing capacity lower satisfaction with dental appearance, increased mouth dryness and fewer teeth and lower overall satisfaction with oral health. In view of the increased risk of poor oral health demonstrated in this study for those with severe obesity, it may be of value to increase cooperation between dental care and primary health care for these patients.

  • 21. Ekbäck, Gunnar
    et al.
    Persson, Carina
    Ordell, Sven
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Odontology (OD).
    How much information is remembered by the patients?: A selective study related to health education on a Swedish public health survey2012In: Swedish Dental Journal, ISSN 0347-9994, Vol. 36, no 3, p. 143-148Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the degree to which patients have perceived that they got questions or advice about eating habits and smoking habits at their last visit at the dental clinic and if this information was differently distributed between different age groups. A further aim was to study whether there were differences in the proportions of questions and advice given to individuals who perceived problems regarding caries and gum bleeding compared to those that did not feel they had problems. The results are based on a postal questionnaire survey,"Life and Health 2008". The study was conducted in a population of women and men aged 18-84 years in 5 counties in Sweden. A total of 68,710 questionnaires were sent out and the response rate was 59.2%. Substantial differences in proportions existed between age groups regarding who received questions and advice related to dental caries and periodontal disease. The differences between age groups regarding information were statistically significant since it was less common that older people got questions and advice than younger.These differences also exist, but less pronounced, between those with disease related problems and those without.Three factors were statistically significantly associated with information. Age, education level and problems with caries or bleeding gums had statistical effect on the prevalence of questions and advice related to eating habits or smoking habits respectively. In conclusion, it is an urgent need of education in methods for dental staff if they want to contribute to changes in life style behaviors for their patients since most patients today don't perceive that they got important disease relevant information at the last dental visit.

  • 22. Engfalk, Paul
    et al.
    Pigg, Maria
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Odontology (OD).
    Svensson, Peter
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Odontology (OD).
    List, Thomas
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Odontology (OD).
    Influence of intra- and extraoral sites and size of stimulation area on thermal detection and pain threholds. A methodological study2007In: Swedish Dental Journal, ISSN 0347-9994, Vol. 31, no 4Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: This study compared cool detection thresholds, warm detection thresholds and heat pain thresholds at intra- and extraoral locations and measured the influence of spatial summation. Material and Methods: Thirty healthy individuals (15 females and 15 males), mean age 24.9 years, range 20-31 years) participated in the study. Thresholds for warm detection (WDT), cool detection (CDT) and heat pain threshold (HPT) were measured using a thermotester (MSA–Modular sensory Analyzer, Somedic). The intraoral thermode was custom-made with a 9x9mm square surface. The average of three measurements was recorded. Four intraoral sites (gingival regions 24 and 34, tip of the tongue, lower lip) and two extraoral sites (infraorbitalis, thenar) were measured in each participant. To measure spatial summation, five acrylic covers (tip areas: 0.81 cm2, 0.50 cm2, 0.28cm2, 0.125cm2, 0 cm2) were made to fit the thermode. Five measurements on the tip of the tongue were averaged for each acrylic cover. Results: Of the extraoral sites, the cold detection threshold was significantly higher and the heat pain threshold was significantly lower at the infraorbitalis than at the thenar. Of the intraoral sites, the cold detection threshold was significantly lower at the tongue than at any of the other intraoral locations; the heat pain threshold was significantly lower on the tip of the tongue than on the lower lip. Warm detection and heat pain thresholds rose slightly with increasing thermode size, and this association was more pronounced than for cold detection thresholds. Conclusion: Temperature thresholds differed significantly between several anatomic sites, and the association between size of stimulation area and temperature thresholds was weak.

  • 23. Erixon, Caroline L.
    et al.
    Ekberg, EwaCarin
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Odontology (OD).
    Self-perceived effects of occlusal appliance therapy on TMD patients: an eight-year follow-up2013In: Swedish Dental Journal, ISSN 0347-9994, Vol. 37, no 1, p. 13-22Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There are few long-term follow-up studies of treatment of temporomandibular disorders (TMD).The aim of this questionnaire study was to evaluate eight-year outcomes of appliance therapy in patients suffering from arthralgia/osteoarthritis and/or myofascial pain. The subjects comprised 120 patients, originally randomly assigned to treatment with an occlusal or a control (palatal) appliance. Eight years later, a questionnaire was sent to 118 eligible patients: 90 (76%) responded. The outcome measures were intensity and frequency of pain, physical and emotional functioning, and overall improvement of pain and headache. Maximum pain intensity had decreased by > 30% in 54 patients (60%); frequency of pain had also decreased significantly. A majority, 57/90, reported improved physical function. Fifty-nine patients reported moderate to severe depression and 61 reported non-specific physical symptoms. Sixty-eight patients reported an overall improvement in TMD pain and 61 perceived overall improvement in severity of headaches. In the intervening years, 57 patients had undergone further treatment, most frequently in the form of another occlusal appliance. The majority of respondents reported improvement in TMD pain and headache. However, it is difficult to evaluate the long-term outcome of appliance therapy as more than 60% of the patients had additional treatments during the eight years.

  • 24. Eskafi, Mahmoud
    et al.
    Cline, Charles
    Israelsson, Bo
    Nilner, Maria
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Odontology (OD).
    A Mandibular Advancement Device Reduces Sleep Disordered Breathing in Patients with Congestive Heart Failure2004In: Swedish Dental Journal, ISSN 0347-9994, Vol. 28, no 4, p. 155-163Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Sleep disordered breathing (SDB) including obstructive and central sleep apnoea/hypopnoea as well as periodic breathing (PB) is common and is believed to increase risk for mortality in patients with congestive heart failure (CHF). Mandibular advancement device (MAD) has widely been recommended for treatment of obstructive sleep apnoea but the method has never been investigated for treatment of SDB in the patients with CHF. The aim with the present study was to examine the effect of MAD intervention on SDB in patients with CHF. The study included 17 male patients, aged 68.4+/-5.7 (mean+/-SD) with stable, mild to moderate CHF due to left ventricular systolic dysfunc-tion and with SDB, expressed as apnoea/hypopnoea index (AHI) > or = 10. The SDB was examined during a single night using an unattended, portable polysomnographic device in the patients home, prior to and following intervention with a individually adjusted MAD. The SDB was evaluated by calculating AHI, PB expressed as the percentage of the total registration time, oxygen desaturation index (ODI) and snoring time. The AHI was reduced by MAD intervention from 25.1+/-9.4 to 14.7+/-9.7 (p=0.003). ODI reduced from 21.1+/-9.0 to 10.5+/-7.8 (p=0.007) and snoring time decreased from 53+/-111 to 18+/-47 seconds (p=0.02). PB was reduced from 55.7+/-25.6 to 40.4+/-26.4 per cent without statistical significance. In conclusion, the MAD intervention may be a feasible method for reducing SDB in patients with stable, mild to moderate CHF and left ventricular systolic dysfunction.

  • 25. Eskafi, Mahmoud
    et al.
    Cline, Charles
    Petersson, Arne
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Odontology (OD).
    Israelsson, Bo
    Nilner, Maria
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Odontology (OD).
    The Effect of Mandibular Advancement Device on Pharyngeal Airway Dimension in Patients with Congestive Heart Failure Treated for Sleep Apnea2004In: Swedish Dental Journal, ISSN 0347-9994, Vol. 28, no 1, p. 1-9Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Continues positive airway pressure (CPAP) is recommended for treatment of sleep apnoea (SA) in patients with congestive heart failure (CHF) but is not easily tolerated resulting in poor patient compliance. Mandibular advancement device (MAD) is designed to inhibit pharyn-geal airway (PAW) obstruction and may be a valuable alternative. It has been proposed that MAD exerts its effect by increasing PAW dimensions. This has not, however, been clearly demonstrated. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of MAD on PAW dimensions and SA in patients with CHF. Seventeen CHF-patients with mild to moderate heart failure, aged 68 +/- 6 years, (mean +/- SD), range 54-75 years, with sleep apnoea-hypopnea index (AHI) > or = 10 were evaluated. PAW dimensions were studied with and without the MAD, using lateral radiographs in supine position. Nocturnal breathing patterns were studied using a portable polysomnographic device during a single night with and without MAD. A reduction of AHI > or = 30% (arbitrary level) for each individual was regarded as a successful treatment. Mean AHI was reduced from 25.1 +/- 9.4 to 14.7 +/- 9.7 (p = 0.003). The PAW increased in its inferior section in 13 patients (p = 0.0001). AHI decreased > or = 30% in 9 patients (p = 0.003) of whom 8 showed increased PAW dimensions. Reduction of AHI was not significantly related to increased PAW dimensions. In conclusion MAD increased PAW dimensions and reduced SA in patients with CHF. The results may indicate that MAD reduces SA by other mechanism than increasing PAW dimensions.

  • 26. Faxén Sepanian, Varoojan
    et al.
    Paulsson-Björnsson, Liselotte
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Odontology (OD).
    Kjellberg, Heidrun
    A long-term controlled follow-up study of objective treatment need on young adults treated with functional appliances2014In: Swedish Dental Journal, ISSN 0347-9994, Vol. 38, no 1, p. 39-46Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aims of this study were to 1) evaluate the objective success rate of Class II malocclusion treatment with functional appliances five years after completion of treatment and 2) to compare the remaining objective treatment need with an untreated control group. Records of all listed patients between 18-20 years (n=1054) treated in a general practice were reviewed for the purpose of finding treatments with removable functional appliances. Among all subjects (n=61) who previously had been treated, 58 accepted to participate in the study.The test group was matched with an orthodontically untreated group with no history of objective treatment need. Clinical, examination was performed and study casts and photos were taken from both groups. The objective treatment need was evaluated through clinical examination and study cast analysis with weighted Peer Assessment Rating index (wPAR). Twenty patients,.(34.5 %) (mean wPAR 13.8), succeeded with the functional appliance treatment.The wPAR score (mean 15.o) of the entire test group was significantly higher than the one of the control group (mean 7.3).The group that was treated exclusively with functional appliances had a mean wPAR score of 17.4. Eighteen patients (31.0 %) who received retreatment with fixed appliances had a slightly higher mean wPAR (8.6) than the control group. Treatments with functional appliances in a general practice showed a high failure rate and a remaining treatment need. It is the treating dentist's responsibility to motivate the patient to cooperate to the treatment, because as it previously has been shown the treatment with functional appliances is a well-functioning treatment alternative with the cooperation of the patient being sufficient. It is also of importance, already before starting treatment, to estimate the child's cooperation ability and to avoid treatment with removable appliances if the child or parents are reluctant about such a treatment.

  • 27. Flink, Håkan
    et al.
    Tegelberg, Åke
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Odontology (OD).
    Arnetz, Judy
    Birkhed, Dowen
    Patient-reported outcomes of caries prophylaxis among Swedish caries active adults in a long-term perspective2016In: Swedish Dental Journal, ISSN 0347-9994, Vol. 40, no 1, p. 101-110Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to measure patient-reported outcomes of caries prophylaxis and to compare them with previously documented efforts in dental offices. A questionnaire was mailed to 134 caries active (CA) and 40 caries inactive (CI) adult patients treated at a Swedish public dental service clinic. The overall response rate was 69%. The questionnaire included items regarding patient perceived caries prophylaxis in relation to: 1) treatment and recommendations given by the dental personnel, 2) performed self-care and 3) perceived and expected effects.The responses were studied for their association to clinical data, extracted retrospectively from the patients' dental records.The mean follow up time was > 16 years. Information about caries prophylaxis (p = 0.01) and recommendations for self-care (p = 0.04) were given more often to the CA group than to the CI group. Supplementary examinations and recommendations of self-care risk treatments were more frequent in the CA group (p < 0.001). CA patients also made more frequent extra efforts at home to avoid caries by changing their eating habits (p < 0.001), improving their oral hygiene (p = 0.04) and using extra fluoride (p = 0.001). In the CA group, 60% did not considerthat the extra prophylaxis efforts had made them caries inactive, and 40% were not satisfied with the outcome. Most patients (> 90%) hoped that the outcome of caries prophylactics would be a reduced number of cavities.The patient-perceived experiences of caries prophylaxis-were in concordance with dental records. Both the dentists and the caries active middle-aged Swedish adults were aware of the need for extra prophylaxis.The caries active patients perceived having made extra home care efforts, but had not experienced that they had become free from caries

  • 28. Frisk, Fredrik
    et al.
    Kvist, Thomas
    Axelsson, Susanna
    Bergenholz, Gunnar
    Davidson, Thomas
    Mejàre, Ingegerd
    Norlund, Anders
    Petersson, Arne
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Odontology (OD).
    Sandberg, Hans
    Tranaeus, Sofia
    Hakeberg, Magnus
    Pulp exposures in adults: choice of treatment among Swedish dentists2013In: Swedish Dental Journal, ISSN 0347-9994, Vol. 37, no 3, p. 153-160Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study comprises a survey of Swedish dentists'treatment preferences in cases of carious exposure of the dental pulp in adults.The survey was conducted as part of a comprehensive report on methods of diagnosis and treatment in endodontics, published in 2010 by the Swedish Council on Health Technology Assessment. A questionnaire was mailed to a random subsample of 2012 dental offices where one dentist at each office was requested to answer all questions. Each questionnaire contained one of three sets of questions about endodontic practice routines.Thus around one-third of the subsample received case-specific questions about treating carious exposure. Only general practitioners aged below 70 years were included.The final study sample comprised 412 participants.The dentists were presented with two case scenarios. In Case 1 a 22-year old patient had a deep carious lesion in tooth 36 and in Case 2 a 50-year old patient had a deep carious lesion in tooth 14.The participants were asked to nominate their treatment of choice: pulp capping, partial pulpotomy or pulpectomy. For Case 1, 17 per cent of the respondents selected pulpectomy; the corresponding rate for Case 2 was 47 per cent. Female gender and age group 25-49 years were predictive of selection of less invasive treatment options. However, according to recent guidelines (2011) from the National Board of Health and Wellfare, Swedish dentists are recommended to elect pulpectomy prior to pulp capping/partial pulpotomy when confronted with a tooth having a cariously exposed pulp in adults.

  • 29. Gross, Heidi
    et al.
    Nilsson, Mats
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Odontology (OD).
    Hellén-Halme, Kristina
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Odontology (OD).
    Detectability of normal anatomy in digital panoramic radiographs2014In: Swedish Dental Journal, ISSN 0347-9994, Vol. 38, no 4, p. 179-185Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the image quality of digital panoramic radiographs and its correlation with the detectability of normal anatomical structures. The effects of image enhancement on the detectability were also studied. A total of 500 panoramic images (DICOM format) obtained with a storage phosphor-based digital system were evaluated. The image quality and the detectability of selected normal anatomical structures were evaluated in all images. Images with inadequate image quality were subjected to enhancement after which the detectability of the structures was re-evaluated. Only 9% of the images were classified as having adequate technical quality. The main sources of poor image quality were that the patient's tongue was not held against the palate and incorrect positioning of the patient. Not holding the tongue against the palate was found to have a negative impact on the detectability of maxillary structures. Of the images with horizontal positioning errors the patient's head was rotated to the left in 81% (70 images). The most effective form of enhancement was a combination of increased contrast and decreased brightness. Images in which the tongue was not held against the palate were partially improved, whereas images with positioning errors remained unaffected by this enhancement. In conclusion, most of the panoramic images showed some technical flaws. The marginal bone level and the maxillary area were the most difficult areas to reproduce. Retakes could be avoided in some cases by using image enhancement. However, this should not be regarded as an option to avoid poor image quality.

  • 30.
    Göranson, Emma
    et al.
    Folktandvården Östergötland.
    Lundström, Fredrik
    Östergötlands Läns Landsting.
    Bågesund, Mats
    Östergötlands Läns Landsting.
    Outcome of orthodontic care and residual treatment need in Swedish 19-year-olds2014In: Swedish Dental Journal, ISSN 0347-9994, Vol. 38, no 3, p. 133-42Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the study was to assess the outcome of orthodontic care in Linköping, Sweden. The dental records of 207 (107 M, 100 F) 19-year-olds registered at one public dental health clinic were studied. A clinical examination was performed where malocclu- sions were registered, where after residual orthodontictreatment need was measured using the Index of Complexity, Outcome and Need (ICON). The 19-year-olds also filled in a questionnaire regarding residual subjective orthodontic treatment demand. Differences between genders were analysed. One hundred and ten (47 M, 63 F) individuals (53.1%) had partaken in orthodontic consultations. Orthodontic appliance treatment had been received by 86 (38 M, 48 F) individuals (41.6%). A residual orthodontic treatment need was registered in 28 (22 M, 6 F) individuals (13.5%). Residual subjective orthodontic treatment demand was expressed by 9 (3 M, 6 F) indi- viduals (4.3%). Eight (2 M, 6 F) of those had no residual treatment need. A higher (p = 0.006) rate of females (63.0%) than males (44.0%) had participated in ort- hodontic consultations. The proportion of males (35.5%) who had experienced orthodontic treatment was not significantly lower (p = 0.069) than among the females (48.0%). However, a lower (p = 0.009) proportion of treated males (55.3%; n = 21 out of 38) than of treated females (81.3%; n = 39 out of 48) had received their treatment by orthodontic specialists. At 19 years of age, the proportion of males with residual treatment need (20.6%) was higher (p = 0.002) than among the females (6.0%). Every patient with orthodontic treatment need and -demand at 19 years of age had previously been offered orthodontic treatment. The conclusion was drawn that the orthodontic care scheme had successfully diagnosed and treated orthodontic problems in the population. However, notable differences between genders regarding treatment modalities and the amount of residual treatment need at age 19 were found.

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  • 31. Haag, Per
    et al.
    Andersson, Martin
    Nilner, Krister
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Odontology (OD).
    Porcelain bonding to titanium with two veneering principles and two firing temperatures2013In: Swedish Dental Journal, ISSN 0347-9994, Vol. 37, no 3, p. 143-151Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Dental literature, as well as dental laboratories, has described problems with ceramic veneering of titanium, while clinical and in vitro studies have reported good results. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of firing temperature, thermo cycling, and veneering methods on bond strength between porcelain and titanium. Eighty titanium specimens were prepared with one of two methods: a bonding agent firing or an oxidation firing. During veneering, half of the specimens in each group were fired at 30 degrees C above and half at the manufacturer's recommended temperature. In the bonding agent group and in the oxidation group, half of each firing group was thermocycled. Bond strength was calculated in a three-point bending test. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) analyses of the titanium and the porcelain fracture surfaces of one specimen from each subgroup was used in order to study the composition of the interface between titanium and porcelain surfaces after fracture. No significant difference in bond strength was found when firing at a higher temperature compared with firing at the recommended temperature. An oxidation firing before veneering yielded significantly higher bond strength in a three-point bending test than when firing with a bonding agent. SEM and EDS analyses indicated a higher frequency of titanium oxide fractures in the oxidation than in the bonding agent group.The main finding is that firing at 30 degrees C above the recommended temperature does not significantly affect bond strength between titanium and porcelain. SEM and EDS analysis indicate that fractures occur in the titanium oxide layer by oxidation firing and in the interface between titanium oxide layer and veneering material by bonding agent firing.This finding might indicate that three- point bending test is not a relevant method for determining bond strength in this case, since the firing methods might influence the ductility of the samples.

  • 32.
    Haag, Per
    et al.
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Odontology (OD).
    Ciber, Edina
    Dérand, Tore
    Firing temperature accuracy of four dental furnaces.2011In: Swedish Dental Journal, ISSN 0347-9994, Vol. 35, no 1, p. 25-31Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In spite of using recommended firing and displayed temperatures, low-fired dental porcelain more often demonstrates unsatisfactory results after firing than porcelain fired at higher temperatures. It could therefore be anticipated that temperatures shown on the display are incorrect, implying that the furnace does not render correct firing programs for low-fired porcelain. The purpose of this study is to investigate deviations from the real temperature during the firing process and also to illustrate the service and maintenance discipline of furnaces at dental laboratories. Totally 20 units of four different types of dental furnaces were selected for testing of temperature accuracy with usage of a digital temperature measurement apparatus, Therma 1. In addition,the staffs at 68 dental laboratories in Sweden were contacted for a telephone interview on furnace brand and on service and maintenance program performed at their laboratories. None of the 20 different dental furnaces in the study could generate the firing temperatures shown on the display, indicating that the hypothesis was correct. Multimat MCII had the least deviation of temperature compared with displayfigures. 62 out of 68 invited dental laboratories chose to participate in the interviews and the result was that very few laboratories had a service and maintenance program living up to quality standards. There is room for improving the precision of dental porcelain furnaces as there are deviations between displayed and read temperatures during the different steps of the firing process.

  • 33.
    Hellén-Halme, Kristina
    et al.
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Odontology (OD).
    Hänsel Petersson, Gunnel
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Odontology (OD).
    Influence of education level and experience on detection of approximal caries in digital dental radiographs. An in vitro study2010In: Swedish Dental Journal, ISSN 0347-9994, Vol. 34, no 2, p. 63-69Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study evaluated whether variations in education level and experience among dental staff influence the diagnostic accuracy of carious lesions on digital radiographs. Three student groups and a fourth group of general practitioners (Dentists) with more than five years of clinical experience participated in this study.The student groups were (i) dental students in their final (tenth) semester (DS-10), (ii) dental students in the sixth semester (DS-6) who just finished dental radiology training, and (iii) dental hygiene students (DHS) in their final (fourth) semester. Seven observers from each group participated. Standard radiographs of 100 extracted teeth (premolars and molars) were taken. The 28 observers evaluated the images for approximal carious lesions on a standard monitor. All evaluations were made in ambient light below 50 lux. Receiver operating characteristic curves were plotted to assess results. The standard criterion for healthy or carious lesions was a histological examination of sliced teeth. Kappa statistics evaluated intra-observer agreement. For carious lesions that had extended into the dentine, significant differences were found between (i) Dentists and all other groups, (ii) Dentists and DS-10 (p < 0.01), and (iii) Dentists and DS-6 and DHS (p < 0.001). Differences between DS-10 and DHS (p < or = 0.05) were also significant. In this study, education level and experience clearly influenced the diagnostic accuracy of approximal carious lesions that had extended into the dentine on digital radiographs.

  • 34.
    Hellén-Halme, Kristina
    et al.
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Odontology (OD).
    Johansson, Per-Magnus
    Håkansson, Jan
    Petersson, Arne
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Odontology (OD).
    Image Quality of Digital and Film Radiographs in Applications Sent to the Dental Insurance Office in Sweden for Treatment Approval2004In: Swedish Dental Journal, ISSN 0347-9994, Vol. 28, no 2, p. 77-84Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In July 2002, a new dental insurance program was introduced in Sweden. For all patients over 65 years, prior approval for all prosthetic work would need to be obtained from the Dental Insurance Office. From October to December 2002, 540 cases were randomly selected for evaluation from the 14,624 applications that had been sent from throughout Sweden to the Dental Insurance Office in Lund. Our aims were to appraise the quality of the radiographic examinations and to compare the quality of the digital with the film (X-ray film) radiographs. The radiographic examinations were evaluated as a whole in relation to the proposed treatment and in detail using specific criteria such as density, contrast, unsharpness, angulation, and receptor position error. The quality variables were evaluated as acceptable or unacceptable. A total of 4,687 intra-oral and 206 panoramic radiographs were evaluated. Thirteen per cent of the intra-oral radiographs and 9% of the panoramic radiographs were taken with a digital technique. Most of the digital radiographs—-70% of the intra-oral and 61% of the panoramic radiographs-—were submitted on microdisk. Twentyeight per cent of the intra-oral digital radiographs, however, were submitted on paper. The radiographic quality in 150 cases (28%) were found to be unacceptable for assessment of the proposed treatment. The most common error-—both in digital and X-ray film radiographs-—was in receptor position. Significantly more errors were found in the intra-oral digital radiographs compared to the radiographs taken with X-ray film. Most of the errors in the digital radiographs were detected in the paper copies. In conclusion, it is possible to improve the radiographic quality in applications for treatment approval, and the dentists had more difficulties with the digital technique than with X-ray film.

  • 35.
    Hellén-Halme, Kristina
    et al.
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Odontology (OD).
    Rohlin, Madeleine
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Odontology (OD).
    Petersson, Arne
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Odontology (OD).
    Dental digital radiography: a survey of quality aspects2005In: Swedish Dental Journal, ISSN 0347-9994, Vol. 29, no 2, p. 81-87Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim was to evaluate the experiences of Swedish general dental practitioners (GDPs) with digital radiography and their opinion on the same, particularly regarding quality issues. A letter was sent to all GDPs in private care in Region Skåne, Sweden, asking whether they used digital radiography (n=513). The response rate was 79%. The number of private GDPs who replied that they used digital radiography was 106. The Public Dental Service in Region Skåne listed 33 GDPs who worked with digital radiography. Based on these answers, a questionnaire was sent to the GDPs working with digital radiography (n=139). The questionnaire comprised 27 questions about the dentists, the system of intra-oral digital radiography, and the GDPs’ experiences of and opinions on issues regarding image quality and quality control. The response rate to the questionnaire was 94%. Almost all, 92%, worked with charge-coupled device (CCD) and complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) sensors. Most GDPs were satisfied with their digital radiographic system. The majority (65%) experienced problems. Detector failure and trouble with the software were common. The GDPs wrote that they used lower exposure times in digital radiography than traditional film radiography. The estimated reduction in exposure time was said to be between 51% and 75%. Thirtyfive per cent continued to use film parallel with digital radiography. The answers indicated that less than half of the equipment (40%) underwent quality control. Quality controls, when conducted, were undertaken once or twice a year, mainly by technicians from the companies that had sold the digital equipment. Based on the results of the questionnaire, there seems to be a need to improve the maintenance and the quality of digital radiography. It is also important that the GDPs become more aware of the problems that can occur when a new technique is introduced and that they develop the skills to handle these problems.

  • 36. Henrikson, Thor
    et al.
    Ekberg, EwaCarin
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Odontology (OD).
    Nilner, Maria
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Odontology (OD).
    Can orthodontic treatment improve mastication? A controlled, prospective and longitudinal study2009In: Swedish Dental Journal, ISSN 0347-9994, Vol. 33, no 2, p. 59-65Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVES: To prospectively and longitudinally evaluate the self-perceived masticatory ability and the tested masticatory efficiency in orthodontically treated and untreated groups. DESIGN: Prospective observational cohort. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Three groups of age matched adolescent girls were included. Sixty-five Class II subjects received orthodontic treatment fixed appliance treatment (Orthodontic group), 58 subjects were orthodontically untreated (Class II group) and 60 subjects had a normal occlusion (Normal group).The self-perceived masticatory ability was assessed on a visual analogue scale while the masticatory efficiency was evaluated with a masticatory efficiency test using round silicon tablets. Registrations were performed at the start and after two years when all subjects in the Orthodontic group had finished orthodontic treatment. RESULTS: Over the two-year period the self-perceived masticatory ability increased significantly in the Orthodontic group. After treatment, the Orthodontic group perceived their masticatory ability as high as the Normal group did. The masticatory efficiency increased significantly, during the two years, in all three groups. However,the normal occlusion group presented a significantly better masticatory efficiency than both the Orthodontic group and the Class II group on both registrations. CONCLUSIONS: Orthodontic treatment was beneficial for the self-perceived masticatory ability. The masticatory efficiency increases with age during adolescence. Normal occlusion subjects had a better masticatory efficiency than subjects with orthodontically treated as well as untreated Class II malocclusion.

  • 37.
    Hjalmers, Karin
    et al.
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Odontology (OD).
    Söderfeldt, Björn
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Odontology (OD).
    Axtelius, Björn
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Odontology (OD).
    Psychosomatic symptoms among female unpromoted general prac-tice dentists2003In: Swedish Dental Journal, ISSN 0347-9994, Vol. 27, no 1, p. 35-41Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Unpromoted female general practice dentists have a working situation with hard work conditions. The aim of the present study was to describe the perceived health for unpromoted female general practice dentists in comparison with others laving a somewhat similar working situation. Questionnaires were sent to all unpromoted female general practice dentists (n=183) within the Public Dental Health Service in a region in Sweden. The response rate was 94%. Comparisons have been done with personnel in the Social Insurance Organization in Sweden and Children Clinics in the Public Health Care in a region in Sweden. The dentists in this study suffered from many physical and mental troubles and also linked them to the working situation. They reported high prevalences of tiredness (70%) and back, neck and shoulder pain (76%) and related these symptoms to the job situation in 83% and 95%, respectively. The study showed statistically significant differences (p < 0.0001) in the comparison between all the samples that were investigated. In conclusion, the results show problems concerning self-perceived health for the unpromoted female dentists. We have shown that they are feeling unhealthy, worse than other high-risk-groups in a human service working situation, and they suffer from a multitude of problems also connected to their working environment.

  • 38.
    Hoszek, Anders
    et al.
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Odontology (OD).
    Ericson, Dan
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Odontology (OD).
    Transient reduction of mutans streptococci on tooth surfaces using a chlorhexidine-containing glass ionomer cement varnish1999In: Swedish Dental Journal, ISSN 0347-9994, Vol. 23, no 2-3, p. 97-105Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Chlorhexidine (CHX) has been incorporated in polymer-based varnishes to reduce mutans streptococci (ms) by the sustained release of CHX. Such varnishes often adhere well to teeth initially but are easily peeled off. To be effective, repeated application is necessary. Glass ionomer (GI) cements interacts with tooth minerals to form a stronger bond, and the inherent brittleness of the cement makes it difficult to remove in large fragments. The fluoride content may also reduce demineralisation. The aim of this study was to observe whether ms could be reduced interproximally and in saliva by a single application of a GI cement containing 3.3% CHX gluconate (CHX-GI). After professional tooth cleaning and a mouth rinse for 2 min with 0.2% CHX, the teeth of six subjects were coated with CHX-GI cement. An additional six subjects were treated with a GI cement that did not contain CHX, and seven subjects received professional tooth cleaning only. Ms samples were taken interproximally with the tooth pick method before and after treatment. Interproximal levels were classified according to the number of colony-forming units (c.f.u.) found: 0, 1-20, 21-100, and > 100. Saliva ms were sampled with the Strip Mutans method. After four weeks, the interproximal levels of ms had decreased only in the CHX-GI group (p < 0.05). In this group 9 of 14 highly colonised sites (> 100 c.f.u.) remained reduced throughout this period. In the GI and the untreated group a slight increase of ms interproximally was seen after one week. The interproximal ms scores in all groups approached baseline levels after 8 weeks. There were no significant differences in saliva ms levels between the groups during the test period. GI cement may be a possible vehicle for CHX in reducing ms interproximally.

  • 39.
    Hoszek, Anders
    et al.
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Odontology (OD).
    Struzycka, Isabel
    Josefovicz, Agata
    Wojcieszek, Danuta
    Wierzbicka, Maria
    Wretlind, Katarina
    Ericson, Dan
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Odontology (OD).
    Chlorhexidine-containing Glass Ionomer Cement. A Clinical Investigation on the Fissure Caries Inhibiting Effect in First Permanent Molars2005In: Swedish Dental Journal, ISSN 0347-9994, Vol. 29, no 3, p. 89-96Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Glass ionomer cement with addition of chlorhexidine used as a varnish on tooth surfaces has been shown to reduce the number of inter-proximal mutans streptococci (ms). The effect of a single application of such a varnish containing 2.5% chlorhexidine on occlusal caries development of the first permanent molars on 6-year-old children in a high caries incidence area was investigated. The children were examined according to WHO criteria and 262 children with 2 caries free contralateral molars were selected for treatment. Salivary ms samples were collected using the Strip-mutans (SM) method. After brushing the occlusal surfaces with a toothbrush and pumice in water slurry, rinsing and drying with a cotton roll, glass ionomer cement containing chlorhexidine (GI-CHX) and glass ionomer (GI) were applied randomly with a micro brush and the varnish was covered with occlusal wax. At baseline, the mean defs was 18.18 and DMFS was 0.25 and after one year 18.24 and 0.83 respectively. The salivary ms scores were high or very high (SM 2 and 3) in 85.6% at baseline. At the one-year follow up, the GI-CHX and GI materials could not be detected in the fissures. Also, a large number of fissure sealants had been placed in the molars outside the study protocol; thus 4% of the GI-CHX and GI, and 70% of the untreated were sealed at year one. Overall, there was no significant difference between the caries-reducing effect of GI-CHX and GI, but a trend towards a higher effect was seen for GI-CHX. Excluding the sealed molars the reduction was 74% in the GI-CHX-group, and 71% in the GI-group. Conclusion: Addition of 2.5% chlorhexidine to glass ionomer did not seem to increase the caries-reducing effect of the varnish in this high caries incidence population.

  • 40.
    Hänsel Petersson, Gunnel
    et al.
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Odontology (OD).
    Fure, Solveig
    Twetman, Svante
    Bratthall, Douglas
    Comparing Caries Risk Factors and Risk Profiles between Children and Elderly2004In: Swedish Dental Journal, ISSN 0347-9994, Vol. 28, no 3, p. 119-128Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to compare the caries risk profiles of children and elderly, the actual annual caries increment and the impact of some selected caries related factors.The risk profiles were created by a computerised risk assessment program, the Cariogram, which evaluates data and presents the weighted and summarized result as one figure, illustrating the 'percent chance of avoiding caries' in the future. The data used originated from two separate longitudinal studies illustrating the Cariogram's capacity to assess caries risk. One study comprised about 400 children; the other included about 150 elderly. At baseline, information on past caries experience, diet, oral hygiene and use of fluoride was obtained. Saliva analyses included mutans streptococci and lactobacilli, buffering capacity and secretion rate. The caries risk was assessed and after two and five years, respectively, caries was re-evaluated and the incidence was compared with the predictions. Fifty percent of the children, but only two percent of the elderly appeared in the lowest caries risk group. Of the elderly, 26% belonged to the highest caries risk group versus 3 % of the children.The mean DFS increment per year for the total group of children was 0.4 +/- 0.8 (SD) and 1.2 +/- 1.9 for the elderly. Individual factors contributing significantly to the higher risk profiles for the adults were higher plaque scores, higher counts of mutans streptococci and lower buffering capacity. Over all, the risk for caries, as assessed by the Cariogram, was twice as high for the elderly.

  • 41. Isaksson, Rita
    et al.
    Söderfeldt, Björn
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Odontology (OD).
    Oral status and treatment needs among elderly within municipal long-term care 2002-20042007In: Swedish Dental Journal, ISSN 0347-9994, Vol. 31, no 1, p. 45-52Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A supplementary regulation in the Swedish National Dental Health Care Insurance stipulates an increased economic support to those, who are dependent permanently due to disease or handicap. Once enlisted to care, they are entitled to an annual dental examination and individual prophylactic advice free of charge, and to necessary dental treatment, offered within the ordinary medical care, regulated and funded by the county council. A population of persons, > or = 65 years of age and enrolled in municipal long-term care (LTC) in a county in the south of Sweden, was followed regarding changes in oral status and treatment needs for two years. The number of persons examined the year 2002 was 2416 and the corresponding figure for 2004 was 2846. Totally 1170, i.e. 48.4%, of those examined 2002 were deceased two years after the initial examination. Only 914, assessed in 2002, were available for assessment with full data at follow up 2004 and the results are based upon assessments in this group. Analyzing the assessed variables (dental status, oral hygiene status, oral mucosal inflammation, oral mucosal friction) revealed a change during these two years. Significant impairments were recognised, regarding mucosal inflammation and mucosal friction. Regarding treatment needs assessed by a dentist and a dental hygienist, there was a maintained and even increased need for extensive treatment, both by the dentist and, to a greater extent, by the dental hygienist. In sum, prevention efforts both from the dental profession and from other care providers are important to achieve and maintain acceptable oral status.

  • 42. Jalali, Yones
    et al.
    Lindh, Liselott
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Odontology (OD).
    A randomized prospective clinical evaluation of two desensitizing agents on cervical dentine sensitivity: A pilot study2010In: Swedish Dental Journal, ISSN 0347-9994, Vol. 34, no 2, p. 79-86Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this prospective clinical pilot study was to evaluate the pain alleviation effectiveness of two desensitizing agents (VivaSens® and Seal&Protect®) on 30 patients suffering from cervical dentine sensitivity (CDS) over a six month period. Analysis of possible differences in pain alleviation effect between the agents and over time was performed. Further, the experienced pain was registered in a questionnaire regarding to what extent the treatment improved oral health/life quality among the patients. The patients (23 female, 7 male) were randomly divided into two groups. Each group was treated with one of the two desensitizing agents. Sensitivity measurements were recorded before treatment (baseline) and after treatment at time points of one week and six months. The patients were asked to rate the sensitivity experienced in the area during air stimulation by marking on a Visual Analogue Scale (VAS). At six months, 27 patients (90 %) had completed the clinical trial. The results showed that a significant reduction of CDS was achieved by using VivaSens® or Seal&Protect® after both one week and six months. However, there were no differences found on treatment effects between the two desensitizing agents. The results from the questionnaire showed that the patients experienced improved oral health/life quality when comparing the status before and after treatment (0.000 < p < 0.021) and there were no statistically significant difference in treatment effects between the products. In conclusion, both desensitizing agents were effective in relieving cervical dentin hypersensitivity during the time course of the study as evaluated both by air stimulation and a questionnaire related to oral health/quality of life status.

  • 43.
    Jansson, Henrik
    et al.
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Odontology (OD).
    Hamberg, Kristina
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Odontology (OD).
    Söderholm, Göran
    Bratthall, Gunilla
    The Microbial Outcome Observed with Polymerase Chain Reaction in Subjects with Recurrent Periodontal Disease following local treatment with 25% metronidazole gel2004In: Swedish Dental Journal, ISSN 0347-9994, Vol. 28, no 2, p. 67-76Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the microbial outcome in patients with recurrent periodontal disease following treatment with 25% metronidazole gel using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Twenty subjects in a maintenance care program but with recurrent periodontal disease participated. Three months after scaling and root planing a total of 40 sites, 2 in each patient, with pocket probing depth of > or = 5 mm were selected. One site randomly selected was treated with 25% metronidazole gel (test) and the other site with a placebo gel (control). A bacterial sample was collected on paperpoint from each test and control site at baseline and 12 weeks after treatment. The following pathogens were analysed and detected with PCR:Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans (A.a.), Porphyromonas gingivalis (P.g.) and Prevotella nigrescens (P.n.). At baseline, A.a., P.g. and P.n. were detected in 30, 60 and 70% of all test sites and in 32, 58 and 21% of all control sites. There was a statistically significant difference between the test and control sites for P.n. at baseline. The major difference after treatment with 25% metronidazole gel was the increase of positive control sites for P.g. and P.n. However, there were no statistically significant differences in the occurrence rate of A.a., P.g. and P.n. at test and control sites after treatment. This study has shown that 25% metronidazole gel treatment did not seem to influence the microbial outcome, when PCR was used to analyse the presence/absence of A.a., P.g. and P.n. in this group of subjects with recurrent periodontal disease.

  • 44.
    Jansson, Henrik
    et al.
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Odontology (OD).
    Lyssenko, Valeriya
    Gustavsson, Åsa
    Hamberg, Kristina
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Odontology (OD).
    Söderfeldt, Björn
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Odontology (OD).
    Groop, Leif
    Bratthall, Gunilla
    Analysis of the interleukin-1 and interleukin-6 polymorphisms in patients with chronic periodontitis. A pilot study2006In: Swedish Dental Journal, ISSN 0347-9994, Vol. 30, no 1, p. 17-23Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to analyse whether the interleukin-1 (IL-1) and IL-6 gene polymorphisms were associated with the susceptibility of chronic periodontitis. Genomic DNA was obtained from 20 patients with chronic periodontitis and 31 periodontally healthy subjects. All subjects were of North European heritage. The test subjects were kept in a maintenance program after periodontal treatment but yet showing signs of recurrent disease. Genotyping of the IL-1alpha [+4845C>T], IL-1beta [-3954C>T] and IL-6 [-174G>C] polymorphisms was carried out using an allelic discrimination Assay-by-Design method on ABI PRISM 7900 Sequence Detection System. All genotypes were analyzed using the GeneMapper 2.0 software. A similar distribution of Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) was seen in both groups. Analysis by logistic regression including gender, IL-1alpha [+4845C>T], IL-1beta [-3954C>T], IL-6 [-174G>C] genotypes, the composite IL-1 genotype, the combination of the composite IL-1 genotype and the IL-6 -174G>C genotype and adjusting for smoking did not result in any statistically significant difference. SNPs in IL-1alpha [+4845C>T], IL-1beta [-3954C>T] and IL-6 [-174G>C] do not seem to increase the susceptibility to chronic periodontitis in this group of subjects.

  • 45.
    Jansson, Henrik
    et al.
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Odontology (OD).
    Norderyd, Ola
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Odontology (OD).
    Evaluation of a periodontal risk assessment model in subjects with severe periodontitis. A 5-year retrospective study2008In: Swedish Dental Journal, ISSN 0347-9994, Vol. 32, no 1, p. 1-7Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to evaluate a well-established periodontal risk assessment tool in patients with severe periodontitis included in a supportive periodontal treatment (SPT) program. In total 20 individuals were included in the analysis. All subjects were randomly selected after successful periodontal treatment and at least 5 years SPT. Clinical and radiographic measurements were collected from patient records and analyzed according to the periodontal risk assessment model. Using the periodontal risk assessment model all subjects were classified as low, moderate, or high-risk patients. According to the model 7 patients were classified as moderate risk patients and 13 as high-risk patients. When comparing all the patients using only bleeding on probing (BoP) mean prevalence of 20% as a cut-off point, 15 patients were categorised as having low-moderate risk for periodontitis progression and 5 subjects as having high-risk for disease progression. The periodontal risk assessment model seems to overestimate the risk for disease progression. However the model is a suitable tool to visualize for both the clinician and the patient different variables of importance for periodontal health. The model is also beneficial to show how periodontal treatment can reduce further risk for periodontal disease.

  • 46. Johansson, Ann-Katrin
    et al.
    Nohlert, Eva
    Johansson, Anders
    Norring, Claes
    Tegelberg, Åke
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Odontology (OD).
    Dentists and eating disorders: knowledge, attitudes, management and experience2009In: Swedish Dental Journal, ISSN 0347-9994, Vol. 33, no 1, p. 1-9Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aims of the present study were to explore the level of knowledge and attitudes among dentists in relation to patients with eating disorders (ED) and evaluate the extent to which patients with ED are identified and/or treated in the dental setting. A postal questionnaire was constructed and sent to all dentists (n = 367) in two Swedish counties during November 2005. The questionnaire comprised 29 questions or statements in the following categories: demographics, general knowledge of ED and its oral consequences, experience of and attitudes towards patients with ED and interaction within the health care system, for example, referrals and treatment options regarding this patient group. The response rate was 70% (n = 258). Perceived knowledge about ED was most commonly obtained from media sources, namely newspapers, television, etc. Few dentists knew that there existed specialized referral units for ED patients in their county. The majority of dentists stated that they had seen only a few such patients during their practice. Even though the perceived level of general knowledge about ED among female dentists appeared to be better than among male dentists, they also found it more difficult to inform the patient/relatives about their suspicion of the condition. Female dentists referred to specialists significantly more frequently than did males. Eighty-six percent of responders reported that they needed more training in dental management of patients with ED. Knowledge and clinical experience of dentists as regards patients with ED were found to be low. The level of education in this area needs to be improved, which would have the potential to encourage dentists to become more involved in secondary and tertiary prevention and management of ED.

  • 47. Johansson, Gunvi
    et al.
    Söderfeldt, Björn
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Odontology (OD).
    Gerdin, Elisabeth W
    Halling, Arne
    Axtelius, Björn
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Odontology (OD).
    Östberg, Anna-Lisa
    Measuring oral health from a public health perspective2008In: Swedish Dental Journal, ISSN 0347-9994, Vol. 32, no 3, p. 125-137Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper aims to analyse measures of oral health-related quality of life (OHQOL) from a Public Health perspective. Twenty-two measures were analysed conceptually as to their mirroring of the Public Health principles: empowerment, participation, holism and equity. Elements of empowerment were found in connection with application of the measures. Participation was found in using lay opinions during development in 12 measures. All measures analysed had elements of a holistic approach so far that they were not wholly biological. Two measures captured positive health effects. Measures were available for all ages, various languages and populations, an element of equity. No measure was wholly compatible with Public Health. They were based on a utilitarian theory not in full accordance with modern health promotion. There is a need to develop measures that more obviously capture the positive aspects of health and health as a process, as well as the personal perspective of oral health

  • 48.
    Johansson, Veronica
    et al.
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Odontology (OD).
    Axtelius, Björn
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Odontology (OD).
    Söderfeldt, Björn
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Odontology (OD).
    Sampogna, Francesca
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Odontology (OD).
    Paulander, Jörgen
    Sondell, Katarina
    Patients' health in contract and fee-for-service care: I. A descriptive comparison2007In: Swedish Dental Journal, ISSN 0347-9994, Vol. 31, no 1, p. 27-34Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Fee-for-service care, paying afterwards for services provided, is the traditional adult patient financial system in dentistry in Sweden. The public dental health service (PDHS) in the county of Värmland has since 1999 also an alternative system, contract care. There, a fixed sum of money is paid annually for dental care, which then is received without additional costs. This study compares the demographics, general health and oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) in the patient financial systems fee-for-service and contract care in the PDHS in Värmland. A questionnaire was answered by 1,324 patients, response rate 57%. A non-response analysis was undertaken. The non-response analysis showed that the likelihood for answering the questionnaire was higher for women, for respondents in contract care and for increasing age. Further analyses revealed that the non-respondents were healthier than the respondents and that experience of pain in the mouth was the only variable increasing the likelihood of response. General health was studied with the SF-36 and OHRQoL with the OHIP-14. The demographics studied were gender, age, birth country, marital status, education and social network. The results showed that there were differences in patients' health between the patient financial systems. Respondents in contract care had better OHRQoL than those in fee-for-service care. They also had better general health in four of the dimensions of SF-36, were younger, better educated, born in Sweden and were married/living with somebody to a larger extent than fee-for-service care respondents. Fee-for-service care respondents experienced higher social affinity with their housing area. In conclusion, patients in contract care had better general health and OHRQoL than patients in fee-for-service care. There were social differences in choice of financial system and biased non-response.

  • 49. Jälevik, Birgitta
    et al.
    Klingberg, Gunilla
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Odontology (OD).
    Pain sensation and injection techniques in maxillary dento-alveolar surgery procedures in children: a comparison between conventional and computerized injection techniques (The Wand)2014In: Swedish Dental Journal, ISSN 0347-9994, Vol. 38, no 2, p. 67-75Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Local anesthesia, especially palatal injection, is often associated with fear and anxiety. The aim was to compare the sensation of pain when using palatal block technique with computerized injection technique (CIT), to conventional infiltration technique with traditional syringe in surgical procedures involving the palate. Patients referred for bilateral minor maxillary surgical treatments were randomized for traditional infiltration anesthesia on one side and palatal block anesthesia with CIT on the other side. AMSA and P-ASA approaches were used with CIT. The sensation of pain was scored by the VAS scale. Twenty-eight patients were included in the study, where of 17 (61%) were girls. The median age was 14.8 yrs. (12.6 - 17.8). Bilateral exposure of palatal impacted canines was the most common treatment. The injection pain was significantly lower, (p = 0.009), when using the CIT injection compared to conventional injection. However, with time-consuming surgery, additional CIT analgesic solution had to be injected in the buccal gingiva when suturing, in one fourth of the cases. Patients sedated with nitrous oxide seemed to benefit less from CIT. Computerized injection techniques, including P-ASA and AMSA approaches, reduces the sensation of pain when carrying out less time-consuming palatal dental surgery, especially in non-sedated teenagers.

  • 50. Koole, Sebastiaan
    et al.
    Thevissen, Eric
    Linden, Ulf
    Klinge, Björn
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Odontology (OD).
    De Bruyn, Hugo
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Odontology (OD).
    Using clinical cases to stimulate active learning in a short periodontal continuing professional development course2015In: Swedish Dental Journal, ISSN 0347-9994, Vol. 39, no 1, p. 1-10Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A case-based approach was used in a two-day periodontal continuing professional development course as a strategy to stimulate active learning. The present study investigates the outcome of this course format in terms of feasibility, perceived efficiency as a learning approach and reported individual learning goals. The study was performed in five identical courses entitled 'risk analysis and treatment in periodontal patients' at Malmo University between 2011-2014. Before the course, clinical cases were used to activate participants' prior knowledge and to attune their focus on the course content. During the course, cases were discussed to synchronise theory with practical application. A pre- and end-course questionnaire were developed to evaluate participants' characteristics (age, clinical expertise, experience and expectations), perceptions on feasibility and instructiveness and emerged individual learning goals. The participants (39 dentists and 78 dental hygienists) reported an average preparation time of 62 minutes (range 2-190) and had positive perceptions on the accessibility, instructiveness and difficulty of cases. Expectations ranged between refreshing, acquiring new knowledge and mastering the course subject. Most reported learning goals were related to daily clinical practice including the development of a treatment plan, when to continue non-surgical treatment or to extract teeth/perform surgery, the approach to periodontitis, how to motivate non-compliant patients and when to refer. Conclusion:The use of clinical cases to stimulate active learning in a short-term continuing professional development periodontal course was positively perceived by the dentists and dental hygienists in terms of feasibility and learning potential.

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  • asciidoc
  • rtf