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  • 1.
    Aamodt Bentsen, Beint Magnus
    Malmö University, Malmö Institute for Studies of Migration, Diversity and Welfare (MIM).
    Intergroup Contact and Negative Attitudes Towards Immigrants Among Youth in Sweden: Individual and Contextual Factors2022In: Journal of International Migration and Integration, ISSN 1488-3473, E-ISSN 1874-6365, Vol. 23, p. 243-266Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Negative attitudes towards out-groups have been of academic interest for many years — and even more so with the increased levels of migration to European countries in recent years. Building on insights from intergroup contact theory, this paper seeks to extend our knowledge of the association between contact and negative attitudes toward immigrants among youth in Sweden. Multiple regression analysis and fixed effects models are used to analyze a large, high-quality dataset on Swedish adolescents based on representative survey information, complemented with extensive registry data and official statistics. Our objective is to measure contact on different levels in order to better understand the importance of these different contact variables’ associations with negative attitudes. The results of the analysis indicate that high-quality contact in the form of friendship is associated with a reduction in negative attitudes among Swedish adolescents, even after controlling for background variables. Superficial forms of contact — measured on the school level — are, on the other hand, associated with an increase in negative attitudes.

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  • 2.
    Abdelhady, Dalia
    et al.
    Lund Univ, Dept Sociol, Lund, Sweden..
    Holley, Peter
    Univ Helsinki, Fac Social Sci, Helsinki Inequal Initiat INEQ, Helsinki, Finland..
    Irastorza, Nahikari
    Malmö University, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), Department of Global Political Studies (GPS). Malmö University, Malmö Institute for Studies of Migration, Diversity and Welfare (MIM).
    NJMR: Over 10 Years of Commitment to Publishing Excellent Research2022In: Nordic Journal of Migration Research, E-ISSN 1799-649X, Vol. 12, no 4, p. 376-378Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    When Nordic Migration Research (NMR) was launched in 2008, there was total agreement among the founding members that one of the primary objectives of the organization was to establish a high-quality, interdisciplinary Nordic journal for research on international migration and migration-related issues in an international and transnational setting. Accordingly, the NMR statutes define the aim of the Nordic Journal for Migration Research (NJMR) as "devoted to publishing high-quality, peer -reviewed research in different aspects of international migration and ethnic relations, such as integration, ethnicity/race, culture, religion, marginalization, citizenship, nationalism, discrimination and racism". The statutes further specify that the NJMR aims to develop into "a forum for both applied and theoretical research, seeking to attract high-quality, original contributions from both Nordic and non-Nordic countries", and that an important part of its mission and raison d'etre would be to focus particularly, although not exclusively, on the areas mentioned above with respect to their relevance to and impact on "the Nordic countries in a global perspective" (Hedetoft & Sicakkan 2011: 1).

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  • 3. Abdulla, Rania
    Cultural shock in negotiating Identity crisis: Discovering the different impacts of culture shock on Syrian migrants in Sweden.2020Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
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  • 4.
    Abdulmohsen, Adel
    Malmö University, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), Department of Global Political Studies (GPS).
    Varför begår ungdomar antisemitiska hatbrott?: En intervju studie som undersöker orsakerna till hatbrott bland några förövare2024Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study explores the causes of hate crimes, especially among young people in Malmö,using a qualitative approach. Three young individuals with a personal connection to hatecrime participate in discussions about motivation, views of victims and strategies to combathate crime. Strain theory is used as a theoretical framework to explain how dissatisfaction can lead to deviant behavior, including hate crimes. The results point to negative behavior patterns, nationalist tendencies and intolerance towards religions or ethnicities with areligious connection as contributing factors to hate crimes. The importance of this study is highlighted by the limited amount of research in a Swedish context where perpetrators havebeen interviewed.

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  • 5.
    Abo Hassan, Hadil
    Malmö University, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), Department of Global Political Studies (GPS).
    Refugees’ perspectives toward the Extra Service jobs: A case study about how refugees view their participation within the Extra Service job2021Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis aims to investigate the refugees' experiences when it comes to their participation within the Extra Service job; which is the subsidized job that the Public Employment Service offers to the refugees as part of their integration process. This thesis investigates the thoughts, perspectives, and experiences of the refugees involved in the Extra Service jobs based on conducting fifteen semi-structured interviews. The research findings indicate that the Extra Service job had a positive impact on many refugees, as they used their refugees' agency to gain new human capital, however, this thesis suggests that being involved in such a subsidized job could lead to imprisoning the refugees within the low ranked jobs in the labor market. Throughout this thesis, Human Capital Theory, Segmented Dual Labor Market Theory, and the refugees' agency were used as the theoretical background of the thesis. The thesis contributes to understanding the subjective side of integration in addition to enriching the literature of subsidized jobs when they are to be used for the sake of the refugees' integration.

    Keywords: Extra Service job, subsidized job, refugee agency, human capital, dual labor market, secondary segment. 

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  • 6.
    Abou Chakra, Mariam
    Malmö University, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), Department of Global Political Studies (GPS).
    "Vad finns det att klaga över?": En studie av hur de ensamkommande barnens upplevelser av den kommunala hanteringen av transit- och asylboenden i Malmö ser ut samt till vilken del de upplever att deras behov tillfredsställs på asylboendet.2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract 

    The purpose of the study is to unaccompanied children's experiences of the communal management of transit and asylum accommodation in Malmo looks as well as to what part they feel that their needs are satisfied in the asylum accommodation. The study is accomplished on an asylum accommodation in Malmö. Five unaccompanied children/youth were interviewed for this study.  

    The main question is: How do the children experience municipality's handling of their asylum accommodation while awaiting a decision from the Swedish Migration Board regarding their asylum applications? 

    The following questions are: 

    1. How do the unaccompanied children experience treatment and the receiving from the authorities like the Social Services and the Migration Board? 
    1. How does the unaccompanied children understand their being at the accommodation? 
    1. What social network (family, residential staff, friends, public officials) are understand as important by unaccompanied children while in transit? 
    1. What are the unaccompanied children future plans? 

    This study shows a satisfaction about the authorities receiving the unaccompanied children. The method that have been used is interviews. The theories that have been used in the analysing discussion is Bourdieu´s theories about field, habitus and capitals and Maslows need stairway. 

    Keywords: unaccompanied children, authorities, asylum accommodations, Malmö.  

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    Kandidatuppsats - Mariam
  • 7.
    Adeniyi, Oluwafemi
    Malmö University, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), Department of Global Political Studies (GPS).
    Integration challenges for quota refugees in Skåne and its implication: The receiving municipality's perspectives2021Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study aims to investigate challenges within the provision of integration support to quota refugees and municipal integration staffs understanding of these challenges in Skåne. It was conducted through questionnaires and semi-structured interviews with municipal integration staffs in Skåne. The research findings indicate three key challenges in the reception of quota refugees namely lack adequate housing, lack of financial resources from the region and government, and lack of provision of psychosocial support. Further challenges are connected to the lack of translators available to municipalities in the quota refugees’ mother tongue, the lack of English or major refugee languages among quota refugees, and often poor mental health which slow down Swedish language learning process and affect integration negatively. As its contribution, this study provides a broader view on challenges with the provision of integration support by municipalities regarding reception capacity, housing, and integration programs to quota refugees simultaneously. Thereby, it points out the differences among municipalities in terms of resource allocation for integration, as well as the political will to integrate quota refugees which create unequal chances for integration.

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  • 8.
    Aganovic, Ilda
    Malmö University, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), Department of Global Political Studies (GPS).
    Vem tillhör jag?: En kvalitativ studie om andra generationens invandrares tillhörighet2021Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The theme of the work is very central and is often addressed during debates, in the media and in general in society. Second-generation immigrants may find it difficult to understand the conflicts that exist around fitting into a society and shaping themselves according to social reality.

    Therefore, the aim of this study is to highlight, on the basis of second-generation immigrants with roots in the Balkans, the concept of identity that is formed at the intersection of the values of the majority society and the cultural background of immigrant parents. 

    This study consists of primary data through qualitative, semi-structured interviews. Interview technology is based on predetermined questions based on my chosen themes. The chosen theoretical perspectives include: Symbolic Interactionism and the impact of ethnicity in social interaction.

    The conclusions of this study are that second-generation immigrants are being squeezed with their cultural affiliation because they cannot be fully accepted, either in Sweden or in their parents home country. Furthermore, second-generation immigrants are formed on the basis of both their parents cultural background and the majority society. 

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  • 9.
    Aguirre, Maite Zamacona
    et al.
    Svenska Röda Korset.
    Hökfelt, Emelie
    Svenska Röda Korset.
    Riktlinjer för utredning och bedömning av kvinnors skyddsbehov: ett fungerande verktyg?2009In: Asylsökande i Sverige: ett rättssäkert och värdigt mottagande för barn och vuxna? / [ed] Björn Fryklund, Anna Lundberg, Department of International Migration and Ethnic Relations (IMER) , 2009, p. 119-145Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    I kapitlet behandlas hur kvinnor kommer till tals i asylprocessen. Genom att analysera implementeringen av Migrationsverkets riktlinjer under utredningsstadiet i asylprocessen påvisas invanda strukturer och förhållningssätt i Migrationsverkets implementering som försämrar kvinnors möjlighet att komma till tals. Vad gäller exempelvis ifall handläggare på verket ställer frågan om en kvinna har önskemål om handläggaren, tolken och det offentliga biträdet efter kön indikerar aktstudien att den oftast inte ställs. Dessutom förklarar handläggarna ofta inte varför de ställer denna fråga, vilket kan riskera att motivet till frågan blir oklar. I de fall som rör asylsökande kvinnors hälsa, i synnerhet hos dem som utsatts för sexuella övergrepp, finns det på mottagningsenheterna mycket begränsad dokumentation. Det förekommer även bristande dokumenterad samverkan mellan mottagnings- och asylenheter i fall som rör könsrelaterad förföljelse. Vissa grupper av asylsökande kvinnor har inte samma möjlighet att komma till tals i asylprocessen. “Kvinnor i familj” får ofta mindre tid vid utredningen av sina asylskäl än ensamkommande kvinnor. Vidare utreds kvinnor utifrån mannens berättelse, för att antingen komplettera eller bekräfta denna. Dessutom belyser undersökningen att lågutbildade eller icke läs- och skrivkunniga kvinnor, samt kvinnor som har varit utsatta för sexuellt våld, ofta befinner sig i en extra utsatt situation. Det ska också framhållas att det även förekommer bristande kännedom om riktlinjerna på Migrationsverket. Det finns en okunskap om vilka konsekvenser deras arbete med utredningsaspekterna på asylprocessens initiala stadier – i synnerhet i frågan om kön på det offentliga biträdet, handläggaren och tolken, samt i den separata utredningen – kan ha för bedömningen av kvinnors asylskäl.

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  • 10.
    Ahrens, Jill
    et al.
    Faculty of Law, Economics and Governance, Utrecht University, Utrecht, The Netherlands; School of Global Studies, University of Sussex, Brighton, Falmer, UK.
    King, RussellMalmö University, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), Department of Global Political Studies (GPS). Malmö University, Malmö Institute for Studies of Migration, Diversity and Welfare (MIM). Department of Geography, University of Sussex, Brighton, Falmer, UK.
    Onward Migration and Multi-Sited Transnationalism: Complex Trajectories, Practices and Ties2023Collection (editor) (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This open access book brings novel perspectives to the scholarship on transnational migration. The book stresses the complexity of migration trajectories and proposes multi-sited field studies to capture this complexity. Its constituent chapters offer examples of onward migration spanning all major world regions. The contents exemplify a range of interdisciplinary approaches, including both qualitative and quantitative methodologies. The result is an impressive remapping and reconceptualisation of global migration and mobility, of interest to students and policy-makers alike. 

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  • 11.
    Ahrens, Jill
    et al.
    Faculty of Law, Economics and Governance, Utrecht University, Utrecht, The Netherlands; School of Global Studies, University of Sussex, Brighton, Falmer, UK.
    King, Russell
    Malmö University, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), Department of Global Political Studies (GPS). Malmö University, Malmö Institute for Studies of Migration, Diversity and Welfare (MIM). Department of Geography, University of Sussex, Brighton, Falmer, UK.
    Onward Migration and Transnationalism: What Are the Interconnections?2023In: Onward Migration and Multi-Sited Transnationalism: Complex Trajectories, Practices and Ties / [ed] Jill Ahrens; Russell King, Springer, 2023, p. 1-22Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This introductory chapter sets the scene for the book. It defines onward migration as a migration trajectory that involves extended stays in two or more destination countries and distinguishes it from competing and overlapping terms like stepwise and transit migration. Onward migration is a growing phenomenon within overall global migration dynamics, although statistics to document the scale and trends of this type of migration are scarce. The main aim of the chapter is to examine how onward migration and transnationalism are connected. This is achieved both by reference to a range of existing literature and by citing evidence from the succeeding chapters in the volume. We demonstrate both how transnationalism can shape onward migration and, the reverse, how different onward migration trajectories may result in different forms of transnationalism. In this latter context, we identify inter-generational, split, widening and re-routed transnationalism, again drawing on examples both from the book and from the wider literature. The final section of the chapter consists of a methodological discussion on the practicalities of researching onward migration and multi-sited transnationalism, in which the technique of multi-sited ethnography is discussed, critiqued and modified.

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  • 12.
    AJETOMOBI, SEUN OLUSOLA
    Malmö University, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), Department of Global Political Studies (GPS).
    Migration trajectories of Nigerian students in the United Kingdom: A study of their social integration experiences2024Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 180 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis aims to investigate social integration experiences of Nigerian students in the United Kingdom, focusing on the influence off participating in social activities and building connections with the local community. The research aims to understand how these factors contribute to the overall social integration of Nigerian students in the United Kingdom. Study shows that many of the participants form meaningful social connections with natives in their host communities. However, few expressed a preference for maintaining cultural boundaries and avoiding social connections. Findings show that, sense of belonging within the host community was found to be influenced by personal ideologies, experiences, cultural background, and attitudes. The outcome of this study provides deeper understanding of the challenges faced by migrants during the process of acculturation, it also reiterates the significance of establishing inclusive and supportive environments to facilitate migrants’ integration into the host community.

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  • 13.
    Ajou, Shirin
    Malmö University, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), Department of Global Political Studies (GPS).
    Pervers sexualitet i ett civiliserat samhälle: En diskursanalys av en kolonial antisodomilag2023Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study has analyzed five different judgments from the colonial anti-sodomy law Section 377 of the Indian Penal Code using the frameworks of Foucauldian genealogical discourse, and Judith Butler’s heterosexual matrix. The aim was to understand and expose how sexuality and lesbianism were constructed within these judgments and to make the norms within the discourses visible.

    The findings showed sexuality as dependent on a heterosexual and gender-binary norm. Gender hierarchy creates structures of the gender binary that positioned the man in the center of sexual interaction, desire, and sexuality. In contrast, the woman played a passive and often invisible, and nonsexual role. Further, the gender hierarchy produced a sexual hierarchy with natural heterosexuality as the most desirable. To maintain good heterosexuality, differentiation was crucial hence the undesirable and perverted male homosexuality acted as a hostile opposition. Due to the role of women as passive lesbianism appeared invisible. The discourse of the nonsexual woman made lesbian sexuality unimaginable. As a consequence, the lesbian was assumed asexual.

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  • 14.
    Al Gazawi, Alaa
    Malmö University, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), Department of Global Political Studies (GPS).
    Romers upplevelser och konsekvenser av social utsatthet2020Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 15.
    Al-Ahsab, Ebtehal Ali
    Malmö University, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), Department of Global Political Studies (GPS).
    The Portrayal of Refugees and Immigrants by the Swedish Media: During Autumn of 20152021Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis attempts to analyse how refugees and immigrants were portrayed by some of the major Swedish newspapers that have high readability in Sweden, and thus probably may highly impact public opinion in Sweden, mainly during the autumn of 2015. This is achieved by analysing 19 articles from the three biggest newspapers Dagens Nyheter (DN), Aftonbladet, and Sydsvenskan out of which 10 are editorials and 9 are quotes from interviews with politicians. Content analysis is used to analyse the articles. Securitization theory is applied as the theoretical framework. The analysis found that there was an approach of welcoming refugees and promoting immigration in the autumn of 2015, which changed to a negative one just a few months later by the same Swedish media calling that influx of refugees a “refugee crisis”. The newspapers have similar political positions on the refugee issue regarding favouring reduced immigration. 

  • 16.
    Alaibi, Rima
    Malmö University, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), Department of Global Political Studies (GPS).
    Att leva i ett mellanförskap: En kvalitativ studie om ungdomars upplevelser av mellanförskap2020Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 17.
    Ala-Iso, Inka
    Malmö University, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), Department of Global Political Studies (GPS).
    A Critical Discourse Analysis on Finland's Rejection of The Reform of Sámi Parliament Act: A Critical Postcolonial Perspective2023Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Finland is recognized as a country with high human rights standards including the rights of the indigenous people that are protected by various declarations, conventions, and international human rights laws. Finland first enacted a Sámi Parliament Act in 1995 and has most recently in 2019 received criticism from the UN Human Rights Committee for not guaranteeing the rights for the legally recognized indigenous Sámi people living within Finland’s borders. Government proposal to reform the Act sparked the discussion of Sámi rights in Finland in the fall of 2022. Through a critical postcolonial perspective together with examining purposeful sampling material and the reform opposing discourse in the Finnish parliament, this thesis aims to get a view for the reason of the dismissal of the reform. It suggests that Finland’s position as a human rights model country in indigenous people’s rights is questionable in the matter of the Sámi rights.

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  • 18.
    Al-Hashimi, Fatima
    Malmö University, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), Department of Global Political Studies (GPS).
    "Der er noget med mig som ikke stemmer overens med forventningerne”: Et kvalitativt studie om stigmatiseringen af svenske, kvindelige konvertitter til islam2022Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The approach of this study is that conversion to Islam leads to stigmatization. Based on that the aim of this study is to examine what reactions and treatment Swedish Muslim converts have experienced from their families regarding their conversion to Islam, how they prepare for revealing their conversion, what strategies they use to handle their families’ reactions and whether this has any significance in their self-perception.

    The study is qualitative and was made with semi-structured interviews with five Swedish female converts. The theories used are Erving Goffman’s stigma and the concepts of Islamophobia and Swedishness. The results show that the converts prepare the revealing of their conversion by speaking openly and positively about Islam a long time before the revealing. The reactions received indicate reproduced Islamophobic prejudices and aversions and take form of grief, shame, and despair to more far-reaching reactions such as negative violations, distancing, lack of support and exclusion from the family unity and from Swedishness. The women explain that they hide the fact that they pray, and, in some cases, they take off their headscarves when visiting their families. Furthermore, they wear a turban or put on headscarves and clothes with bright colors to look more ‘normal’. Finally, their self-perception is affected by all the negative reactions and treatment, and they clarify that they feel ambiguities about how to perceive themselves: as ‘real’ Swedes or not since their families tell them they areno longer considered as such

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  • 19.
    Alhayali, Mustafa
    et al.
    Malmö University, Faculty of Health and Society (HS).
    Hamza, Zaid
    Malmö University, Faculty of Health and Society (HS).
    1Ensamkommande flyktingbarnProblematik med socialsekreterares utförande i förhållande till derasuppdrag: Problematik med socialsekreterares utförande i förhållande till derasuppdrag2022Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The subject of this study deals with the work of social workers with unaccompanied

    children. The problem is presented from a perspective where statistics show that a large

    proportion of unaccompanied children are compulsorily cared for in youth care for

    problems such as substance abuse, crime and vagabondage. The study's hypothesis is

    insofar as there is a problem in the performance of the social services regarding their

    assignment towards unaccompanied children. Based on the problem, the purpose of the

    study is to investigate whether social workers experience a problem or obstacle in their

    work with unaccompanied children in relation to social workers' assignments and

    professional role, and what factors may have an obstacle. The essay has therefore been

    carried out according to a qualitative methodology and includes semi-structured

    interviews with three social workers that describe their experiences of working with

    unaccompanied children. The conclusions show that the main problems that social

    workers experience in their work with unaccompanied children are time pressure and a

    high workload.

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  • 20.
    Al-Nahar, Lina
    Malmö University, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), Department of Global Political Studies (GPS).
    Bakom fördragna gardiner gömmer ohälsan sig: En studie om normalisering av ohälsosamma bostäder i Herrgården - Rosengård2020Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 21.
    Al-Nahar, Lina
    Malmö University, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), Department of Global Political Studies (GPS).
    Structural otherism and the pandemic transmission: A qualitative study on Covid-19, non-European immigrants’ life conditions and health inequality in Sweden2022Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
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  • 22.
    Alrukaia Alshabaani, Rama
    Malmö University, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), Department of Global Political Studies (GPS).
    Invandrade akademiker på väg in till den svenska arbetsmarknaden: En kvalitativ studie om invandrade akademikers situation på den svenska arbetsmarknaden2022Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This paper is a qualitative study with the aim of investigating how immigrants who have an academic  education from their home country experience their situation in the Swedish labor market. The study  aims to find out immigrants' own experiences regarding the obstacles they encounter in the pursuit of a  job that matches their level of education and work experience. Six Arabic-speaking immigrants have  participated in this study through the interviews I have conducted with them, which have been the  empirical material for this study. In this study and on the basis of what my interviewees have told me,  I have been able to identify various obstacles that make it difficult for them to get a job that corresponds  with the education they have. The assessment of the foreign degree, language skills, and lack of social  networks seemed to be obstacles for immigrant academics to find the right job. Most of the interviewees  felt that it is important to work, but what is also equally important is that they put their skills and  knowledge to use. Therefore, they have expressed different wishes regarding different forms of support  that they think can enable them to have the chance to show what they can and what knowledge and  competence they have. Support that they think can benefit their situation in the labor market is a clear  guide, better language teaching and a guide to internships that are linked to their education and work  experience.

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  • 23.
    Alves Canteiro, Julie
    Malmö University, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), Department of Global Political Studies (GPS).
    "No Justice, No Peace, No Racist Police": A diachronic comparative study and analysis of the power relations revealed in French media discourses2021Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    On May 26th, 2020, the world was shocked after learning that George Floyd had died at the hands of the police while being wrongfully arrested. Protests took place worldwide, demanding justice for Floyd as well as the end of the systematic racism present institutionally in police forces. In Europe, people started raising their voices, denouncing that this phenomenon was no stranger to the Old Continent. Indeed, the last few years have witnessed the media coverage of multiple cases of police violence based on ethnic grounds. The media play a key role as the source of information for the population, they decide what is going to be on the headline, catching people’s eye. France has especially attracted attention with its racial profiling practices that go against the 2001 European Code of Police Ethics acting as recommended guidelines for the Member States. Therefore, this study aims to analyse media discourses depicting three specific cases of police violence: the Adama Traoré Case, the Theo Luhaka Case, and the Michel Zecler Case. Following the model of Norman Fairclough’s Critical Discourse Analysis, the point of this thesis is to find whether the power relations regulating the world can be identified within these discourses. By analysing the articles and finding similarities in how they portray the events then an idea of the institutional and societal power relations in France.

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  • 24.
    Andersson, Julia
    Malmö University, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), Department of Global Political Studies (GPS).
    “Jag pallar inte kriga hela tiden. Vem fan är det som krigar för mig när det händer mig någonting?”: En kvalitativ studie om vardagsrasismens uttryck och påverkan på fem kvinnor.2021Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study is to describe and explain how five women with a non-European background find the expression of everyday racism in today’s Swedish society, how everyday racism can affect their mental health and how they experience that the Swedish majority population handle and respond to everyday racism. The study is qualitative and was made with semi-structured interviews. The theories used are the theory of everyday racism, "we" and "the Others" and Goffman’s stigma. The results indicate that everyday racism is manifested through the population's ignorance and silence, comments, prejudices and stereotypes and is mainly expressed in arenas where there are many people at the same time. According to the women, the school and the labor market are the two most common arenas for the expression of everyday racism. They witness that the Swedish majority population rarely deal with the occurrence of everyday racism. Their mental health is negatively affected by everyday racism and can lower the individual's self-esteem. The study’s three theories that include everyday racism, “we” and “the Others” and stigma can be applied to the women's stories about their experiences and feelings about everyday racism in the Swedish society.

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    Julia Andersson - Kandidatuppsats 2021, IMER
  • 25.
    Andreassen, Rikke
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), School of Arts and Communication (K3).
    Whose skin does a skin colored plaster match?2006In: Speak Up, Vol. 1, no 1, 2006Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The article examines how categories of race, incl. whiteness, is construced in everyday interactions. It emphasizes how power relies in the norm, i.e. the 'normal'. It illustrates how interactions, which might appear as neutral, are not neutral; rather the interactions contributes to discriminative structures.

  • 26.
    Andrén, Anna
    Malmö University, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), Department of Global Political Studies (GPS). Malmö University, Malmö Institute for Studies of Migration, Diversity and Welfare (MIM).
    MIM Academic Record 20192020Collection (editor) (Other academic)
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  • 27.
    Anvin, Matts
    Malmö University, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), Department of Global Political Studies (GPS).
    Racial Representation in Swedish Children´s Picture Books: A Reflection of Hegemonic Whiteness2021Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In this thesis, through critically analysing images and text in a selection of Swedish children's picture books, the aim is to investigate how white and non-white bodies are represented, and how racial differences between these white and non-white bodies are depicted and racial meanings addressed. Theoretical concepts from within the field of Critical race- and Whiteness studies are applied, to demonstrate how hegemonic whiteness and colour-blindness as discourse is prevalent in these children´s books, which is achieved by using non-white characters as tokens. Moreover, this study of representation is an illustrative case for how race can function as social construct, and thus should have value as an analytical concept also in IMER-studies performed in the Swedish context. It can additionally lift a discussion about the importance for children at an early age, to develop awareness and understanding of how race can affect individual lives.

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  • 28.
    Appelqvist, Maria
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS).
    Mottagningens integration? Flyktingmottagning som ett organisatoriskt fält2006Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Studien baserar sig på ett treårigt fältarbete i relation till de utvecklingspartnerskap som finansierats av medel från Europeiska Socialfondens programinitiativ EQUAL under dess femte tema – asyl. Utvecklings- och förändringsarbete kännetecknas av honnörsordet samverkan. Detta utgör också i och med en central överenskommelse grunden för de svenska myndigheternas arbete med mottagningen av nyanlända. Den teoretiska inspirationen kommer från nyinstitutionell teori och handlar om hur vi kan förstå den svenska flyktingmottagningen i ett interorganisatoriskt sammanhang. Analysen möjliggörs genom att betrakta intentionen om samverkan kring mottagningen av asylsökande som ett särskilt organisatoriskt fält, som benämns flyktingintroduktion. Detta för att överbrygga den diskrepans som idag finns mellan de traditionella formerna av asyl- och flyktingmottagning. Medan den förra har setts som Migrationsverkets ansvar är den senare ett uppdrag för kommunerna. Studien visar att det är först i samspel och samverkan med andra som de egna institutionella förutsättningarna, hindren och begränsningarna blir tydliga för de verksamma aktörerna inom ramen för det organisatoriska fältet flyktingintroduktion.

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  • 29.
    Arifzade, Evelina Zulfiya
    Malmö University, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), Department of Global Political Studies (GPS).
    “Min pappa ströp mig när jag var jätteliten”: En Kvalitativ Studie om Hedersförtryck Inom Nära Relationer2023Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    Honor-related violence and oppression is a major problem in our society. Many individuals live in fear and don't dare to seek help from public authorities. The most targeted group of individuals are young girls and women. Most often, the perpetrators are the men in the family and relatives, but the women can also be the perpetrators. Many lives are taken because of collective norms in honor groups and many suffer in silence.The purpose of this study is to increase the knowledge about the practices of the honor culture and the consequences with a particular focus on honor-related violence and oppression within close relationships. The study contains experiences of individuals who live in collective groups with honor norms. Previous studies on honor-related violence and oppression show that it has been difficult to map how many individuals are victims of this kind of crime. The chosen theories in this study are: stigma, individualism and collectivism and gender.These will be a tool to gain a deeper understanding of different kinds of honor norms and how they affect the victims.The collected material in this study consists of semi-structured interviews which were then analyzed with the help of the chosen theories and previous research. The results and the analysis show that honor norms express themselves differently depending on the gender and what kind of society you are in. It also shows that there is a lack of competence on honor-related violence and oppression. The respondents in the interviews demonstrate that standards of honor exist and that it must be talked about more in our society.

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  • 30. Babones, Salvatore
    et al.
    Åberg, John H. S.
    Malmö University, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), Department of Global Political Studies (GPS).
    Hodzi, Obert
    China's Role in Global Development Finance: China Challenge or Business as Usual?2020In: Global Policy, ISSN 1758-5880, E-ISSN 1758-5899, Vol. 11, no 3, p. 326-335Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    China's economic success has prompted both academic political economists and applied policy analysts to speculate about the implications of a new 'China model' of economic development and global economic governance. A particular issue is the degree to which the China model involves developing in opposition to or in cooperation with the pre-existing norms of global economic governance. Recognizing the ambiguity of the China model, we consider two alternative interpretations of China's role in global economic governance: China Challenge (CC) and Business as Usual (BaU). We flesh out these contrasting interpretations using evidence from the lending behavior of four major development finance institutions in which China plays a leading or determinative role: the Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank (AIIB), the New Development Bank (NDB), the Silk Road Fund (SRF), and the China-Africa Development Fund (CADF) of the China Development Bank. We find that (at least in the restricted domain of international development finance) China's role in global economic governance is largely characterized by BaU behavior, and although on a regional level this does represent a challenge to the historical role of Japan, it nonetheless suggests that the China model is not so revolutionary as many analysts suppose.

  • 31.
    Backman, Richard
    Malmö University, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), Department of Global Political Studies (GPS).
    Empty promises of a new dawn: A quantitative study on education and employment in South Africa2021Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Building on the existing framework of educational returns in South Africa, this quantitative study uses statistical data from the Quarterly Labour Force Surveys for the years 2008-2018 with the aim to research educational returns on employment in South Africa. Findings from the logistic regressions models used indicate that tertiary education is essential for employment, and that returns for each additional school year below grade 12 are moderate. In addition, the Coloured and Black population groups receive lower returns than the White population group, and men have higher returns than women. By running independent regressions, new observations occurred that impact some race and gender combinations while being moderate for others, which contributes to the research on education and employment in South Africa.

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  • 32.
    Barth, Julius F.
    Malmö University, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), Department of Global Political Studies (GPS).
    Att vara svart kvinna i Sverige: En kvalitativ studie om vardagsrasism2021Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This bachelor’s thesis is an effort to understand how black women in Sweden experience 'race' and racism in everyday life. The theoretical framework includes a postcolonial theory from Sara Ahmed, with the concept of 'race' as a key element. Additional to that, Judith Butler’s gender performativity theory contributes to a broader understanding of the informants’ situation. The material consisting of interviews with four young black women implies that everyday racism is present in Swedish society to that extent that 'race' is a major aspect of these women’s life. In everyday encounters with the white majority of the society, they often feel different, marginalized, objectified and exotified. Furthermore, the informants experience that their skin color and phenotypic markers are a magnet for white people’s fetish and fantasies, but also an obstacle to obtain legitimacy in interactions with them. To those reasons, the informants are considering migrating to a country where black people are forming a larger minority in society than it is the case in Sweden. That opens up the possibility to interact with more black people who have similar experiences of being exposed to everyday racism.

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    Barth 2021 - Att vara svart kvinna i Sverige
  • 33.
    Basciani, Martina
    Malmö University, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), Department of Global Political Studies (GPS).
    Embodying the Alternative: Indigenous Activism Online in Response to Reconciliation with Canada.2023Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 13 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis investigates strategies of digital activism pursued by Indigenous activists in the age of Reconciliation in Canada. The point of departure is the relationship between Indigenous people and the settler establishment, which has been historically informed by several attempts to assimilate the Natives into the white majority. Discarding the integration concept in IMER research as colonial, this study focuses instead on anticolonial advocacy strategies pursued through Indigenous knowledge within digital environments. It does so by adopting digital ethnography as method and conducting participant observation of one selected Indigenous association on Instagram. In line with these premises, Indigenous theories are operationalized into a context-specific analytical framework. This approach leads to two overarching results. On the one hand, four recurrent motifs are identified as key in Indigenous digital advocacy in the age of Reconciliation in Canada. On the other hand, a full set of anticolonial strategies is recognized as the alternative response to Reconciliation.

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  • 34.
    Bauböck, Rainer
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS).
    Multinational Federalism: Territorial or Cultural Autonomy?2001Report (Other academic)
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  • 35.
    Bauböck, Rainer
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS).
    Public Culture in Societies of Immigration2001Report (Other academic)
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  • 36.
    Bauduin, Mirana
    Malmö University, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), Department of Global Political Studies (GPS).
    Post-Migration Fatherhood: Immigrants' Experiences of Swedish Gender and Family Norms2023Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Sweden is a country known for its gender-equal family policies, which prompt fathers toshare childcare responsibilities with their partners. However, lots of immigrants living inSweden might face cultural clashes, if they come from countries where family norms assignfathers the role of breadwinners and mothers that of homemakers. This thesis therefore aimsat studying the experience of fatherhood in Sweden for immigrants from different culturalbackgrounds. It attempts to understand how they relate to the Swedish state's incentives, howthey navigate between their two cultures, and how their social networks influence theirexperience. The findings are presented in the form of a typology of the forms of fatherhoodthat immigrants can develop in a post-migration context. Three types were identified:Modernized-Traditional fathers, Adaptive fathers and Allowed-To-Be-New fathers. Thisresearch thus contributes to the literature on post-migration parenthood and offers insightsinto immigrants’ realities for professionals and policymakers.

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  • 37.
    Bergman, Fanny
    Malmö University, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), Department of Global Political Studies (GPS).
    Understanding the impact of nature-based integration activities on immigrants' positive place-attachment2022Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this research is to acquire an in-depth understanding of how organized nature-based integration activities can impact recently arrived immigrants’ place attachment. This qualitative study is based on participant-observation of organized nature-based integration activities in Helsinki, Finland, and semi-structured interviews with five of the participants. The research combines social integration theory used in previous studies of nature-based integration with Scannell and Gifford’s (2010) model of place-attachment. The results of the research show how nature-based integration activities had a positive impact on recently arrived immigrants’ place-attachment, as they 1.) promoted health and wellbeing, 2.) increased social interactions, 3.) transferred culture-specific knowledge and 4.) increased independence and confidence in a new environment.

  • 38.
    Bevelander, Pieter
    Malmö University, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), Department of Global Political Studies (GPS). Malmö University, Malmö Institute for Studies of Migration, Diversity and Welfare (MIM).
    How Immigrants Fare in European Labor Markets2022In: Understanding Global Migration / [ed] James F. Hollifield; Neil Foley, Stanford University Press, 2022Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Bevelander observes that economic and structural changes in the European economy have led to a gradual increase in the low-skilled service sector, as well as an increased demand for educated workers in the production of high-tech content. The increase in the number of humanitarian migrants being received by European states, as well as the subsequent family reunion migration, has further weakened the economic integration of migrants in Europe. In addition to this, these migrants have to overcome a number of thresholds to be successful in the labor market. Policies addressing this problem have primarily focused on an individual migrant's shortcomings but have not addressed the structural barriers individual migrants face, which hamper their economic integration. Continuation of this state of affairs will both increase marginalization and segregation of immigrants and contribute to growing anti-immigrant sentiment, thus undermining the legitimacy of migration and welfare states. 

  • 39.
    Bevelander, Pieter
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS).
    Immigration patterns, economic integration and residential segregation: Sweden in the late 20th century2004Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper offers an overview of immigration to Sweden in the last decades of the twentieth century, including the labour market integration and residential segregation of immigrants. The character of immigration has gradually changed from primarily labour migration up to the middle of the 1970s to refugee immigration and family reunification during the last decades of the twentieth century. Since the 1970s economic integration of immigrants has gradually decreased while residential segregation has increased. This development reached its peak in the early 1990s, when refugee immigration increased considerably at the same time as the economy deteriorated. Integration policies have not blocked this negative process.

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  • 40.
    Bevelander, Pieter
    Malmö University, Malmö Institute for Studies of Migration, Diversity and Welfare (MIM). Malmö University, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), Department of Global Political Studies (GPS).
    The Labour Market Integration of Immigrants2023In: Elgar Encyclopedia of Labour Studies / [ed] Tor Eriksson, Edgar Elgar , 2023, p. 122-124Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Labour market integration of immigrants, the extent to which and the pace with which immigrants reach (close) parity with natives regarding labour force participation, employment and earnings is a major public concern. Human capital theory suggest labour immigrants are positively selected and that the disadvantage at arrival are expected to diminish as they learn new valuable skills. However, a growing diaspora at destination and migration for non-economic reasons reduces the selection.

    Empirical studies show the importance of accounting for differences between cohorts of migrants; early cohorts typically perform better than later ones. Another important thing to note is the large and highly persistent differences in integration between labour migrants, family re-union migrants and refugees. The two latter categories, which never catch up with the labour migrants have been increasing over time. Their difficulties to reach same levels are not well understood, however.

  • 41.
    Bevelander, Pieter
    et al.
    Malmö University, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), Department of Global Political Studies (GPS). Malmö University, Malmö Institute for Studies of Migration, Diversity and Welfare (MIM).
    Hollifield, J. F.
    Tower Center, SMU, India; Wilson Center, United States.
    Managing migration in modern welfare states: One-size policy does not fit all2022In: Handbook on Migration and Welfare / [ed] Markus M. L. Crepaz, Edward Elgar Publishing, 2022, p. 13-44Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter provides an overview of migration trends in the principal welfare states with a focus on (1) employment of migrants - as a key indicator of integration - and (2) the factors that affect labor market integration of immigrants in the host societies. We look next at (3) the fiscal impact of first-generation immigrants before (4) developing a comparison of labor market and social inclusion programs designed to enhance the integration of immigrants. Finally, (5) we explore four national models of migration management to illustrate the policy dilemmas that welfare states face, including the challenge of delivering public services to asylum seekers. We argue that there is not a single policy that encapsulates best practice for managing migration in welfare states, but that granting rights to immigrants up front is the key to integration and to long-term positive outcomes for the immigrants, the economy, and the welfare state.

  • 42.
    Bevelander, Pieter
    et al.
    Malmö University, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), Department of Global Political Studies (GPS). Malmö University, Malmö Institute for Studies of Migration, Diversity and Welfare (MIM).
    Irastorza, Nahikari
    Malmö University, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), Department of Global Political Studies (GPS). Malmö University, Malmö Institute for Studies of Migration, Diversity and Welfare (MIM).
    The Labour Market Integration of Humanitarian Migrants in OECD Countries: An Overview2020In: Handbook on the Economic Geography of Cross-Border Migration / [ed] Kourtit, K., Newbold, B., Nijkamp, P. and Partridge, M., Springer , 2020, p. 157-184Chapter in book (Refereed)
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  • 43.
    Bevelander, Pieter
    et al.
    Malmö University, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), Department of Global Political Studies (GPS).
    Mata, Fernando
    Pendakur, Ravi
    University of Ottawa, Ontario, Canada.
    Housing Policy and Employment Outcomes for Refugees2019In: International migration (Geneva. Print), ISSN 0020-7985, E-ISSN 1468-2435, Vol. 57, no 3, p. 134-154Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 44.
    Bevelander, Pieter
    et al.
    Malmö University, Malmö Institute for Studies of Migration, Diversity and Welfare (MIM). Malmö University, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), Department of Global Political Studies (GPS).
    Slotwinski, Michaela
    University of Basel.
    Stutzer, Alois
    University of Basel.
    Ökar röstande aptiten på medborgarskap?2023Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    I Policy Briefen undersöker författarna effekterna och värdet av formella politiska rättigheter, såsom rösträtten. Författarna ställer frågan om huruvida möjligheten att rösta för utländska medborgare i kommunal- och landstingsval i Sverige påverkar individernas benägenhet att bli svenska medborgare.

    I Policy Briefen analyseras svenska administrativa data som i kombination med institutionella förhållanden skapat en kvasi-slumpmässig fördelning av rösträtten, det vill säga variationen av invandrarnas invandringsdatum. Här undersöks nettoeffekten för tre grupper av invandrare. Detta utifrån levnadsstandarden i ursprungsländerna, som skiljer sig åt i hur de reagerar på möjligheten av att få delta i den demokratiska processen i Sverige.

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  • 45.
    Bevelander, Pieter
    et al.
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), Department of Global Political Studies (GPS).
    Spång, Mikael
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), Department of Global Political Studies (GPS).
    From Aliens to Citizens: The Political Incorporation of Immigrants2015In: Handbook of the economics of international migration / [ed] Barry Chiswick, Paul Miller, North Holland , 2015, p. 443-489Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 46.
    Blagajcevic, Adelita
    Malmö University, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), Department of Global Political Studies (GPS).
    ”Vi är lika, vi är svenskar trots våra rötter”: Bosniska flyktingar om deras liv och intryck av integrationen i det nya hemlandet – Sverige!2020Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 47. Blauvelt, Timothy
    et al.
    Berglund, Christofer
    Malmö University, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), Department of Global Political Studies (GPS). Malmö University, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), Russia and the Caucasus Regional Research (RUCARR).
    Driscoll, Jesse
    Matched-Guise Reloaded: Revising a Classic Experiment for Complex Multi-Lingual Settings2022In: Russian Studies, Political Science, and the Philosophy of Technology / [ed] Guoli Liu and Joanna Drzewieniecki, Lanham: Lexington Books, 2022, p. 149-167Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 48.
    Bluestocking, Mary
    Malmö University, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), Department of Global Political Studies (GPS).
    Legitimacy in Flux: A Case Study of Immigrant Sanctuary Policy in New York City2021Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This paper seeks to understand policy in the City of New York which limits cooperation with federal authorities for purposes of immigration control. It does so by qualitatively analyzing a set of legal-administrative documents. The key, policy features are identified along with the interests and forces which shaped those features over time. An arsenal of supplemental, legal material as well as the findings of legal scholars are consulted for interpretation in hermeneutic fashion. Using a theoretical framework consisting of the structure of the legal system of the United States and it norms, plus certain immigration-related, national trends, this research concludes this policy is the legacy of an unbroken, bi-partisan lineage of administrations dating back to the 1980s – an evolving product of the tensions between the legal norms and the national trends. The policy reinforces sovereignty from the federal government, and it does so largely for purposes of constitutionality, administrative functionality and civil rights.

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  • 49.
    Bolland, Amber
    Malmö University, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), Department of Global Political Studies (GPS).
    Stuck in Times of COVID-19: Representation of Migrants in New Zealand during the COVID-19 pandemic2021Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis examines the representation of temporary migrants in the OCVID-19 pandemic in New Zealand. The aim of the study is to understand how the pandemic effected this early decision making by the New Zealand Parliament in correlation with migration, more specific, the temporary migrants who are stuck within New Zealands borders. These issues can be linked with shock mobility, more specific, with immobility within shock. The material is analysed with the WPR method. The study concludes that there is a changing discourse and a changing representation of the temporary migrants. Where at first the New Zealand citizens have to be protected, later on in the discourse the migrants need to be helped and it is followed by financial gain that the temporary migrants bring with their labour and spending. The findings create a contribution in the field of shock mobility, with a focus on the immobility within shock mobility.

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  • 50. Borevi, Karin
    et al.
    Myrberg, Gunnar
    Välfärdsstaten och de nyanlända: En flyktingplaceringspolitisk probleminventering2010Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this paper is to make an inventory overview of challenges and problems in the area of refugee settlement policies. An analysis is made of the political development, from the mid 1980s and onwards, of this hotly debated issue in Swedish politics. Then we identify a number of principal themes and problems which arise in relation to questions of dispersal programmes and refugee reception. The paper is based on an ongoing research project at Uppsala University, where refugee settlement policies are studied from a comparative Scandinavian perspective, focusing both on the national level and on the local level.

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