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  • 1. Abdel-Fatah, Dana
    et al.
    Schödwell, Steffen
    Kiralj, Jana
    Assadorian, Alakyaz
    Tucker, Jason
    Malmö University, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), Department of Global Political Studies (GPS). Malmö University, Malmö Institute for Studies of Migration, Diversity and Welfare (MIM).
    Ajduković, Dean
    Kluge, Ulrike
    Qualitative Field Study of Host Community/Refugee from Syria Relations in Croatia, Germany, Jordan and Sweden: FOCUS Research Project Deliverable 4.22021Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The FOCUS project is undertaking a range of research and piloting tasks which aim to improve understanding of dynamic integration and to assist the implementation of effective practices. As part of this work a detailed programme of qualitative research has been undertaken in four countries. This report presents the country-specific findings of this research, which will be further consolidated in a cross-site analysis to be completed in the coming months. Focus group discussions (FGDs) were held with members of the receiving communities and with members of the arriving communities in a total of 10 site in four countries which have different experiences of migration from Syria in recent years (Sweden, Germany, Jordan, Croatia). 

  • 2.
    Albarazi, Zahra
    et al.
    Tilburg Law School, Netherlands.
    Tucker, Jason
    University of Bath, UK.
    Citizenship as a political tool: The recent turmoil in the MENA and the creation and resolution of statelessness2014In: Recht van de Islam 28 / [ed] Pauline Kruiniger, Den Haag: Boom Juridische uitgevers , 2014, p. 73-79Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 3. Al-Dhaqm, Arafat
    et al.
    Razak, Shukor Abd
    Siddique, Kamran
    Ikuesan, Richard Adeyemi
    Kebande, Victor R.
    Malmö University, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS), Department of Computer Science and Media Technology (DVMT).
    Towards the Development of an Integrated Incident Response Model for Database Forensic Investigation Field2020In: IEEE Access, E-ISSN 2169-3536, Vol. 8, p. 145018-145032Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    For every contact that is made in a database, a digital trace will potentially be left and most of the database breaches are mostly aimed at defeating the major security goals (Confidentiality, Integrity, and Authenticity) of data that reside in the database. In order to prove/refute a fact during litigation, it is important to identify suitable investigation techniques that can be used to link a potential incident/suspect to the digital crime. As a result, this paper has proposed suitable steps of constructing and Integrated Incident Response Model (IIRM) that can be relied upon in the database forensic investigation field. While developing the IIRM, design science methodology has been adapted and the outcome of this study has shown significant and promising approaches that could be leveraged by digital forensic experts, legal practitioners and law enforcement agencies. This is owing to the fact, that IIRM construction has followed incident investigation principles that are stipulated in ISO guidelines.

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  • 4.
    Anderberg, Andreas
    Linnéuniversitetet, Polisutbildningen (PU).
    Befogat innehav av kniv2016In: Juridisk Tidskrift, ISSN 1100-7761, E-ISSN 2002-3545, no 1, p. 119-123Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 5.
    Anderberg, Andreas
    Malmö University, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Unit for Police Work.
    Boganmeldelse: Inger Marie Sunde & Nina Sunde (red.):Det digitale er et hurtigtog! Vitenskapelige perspektiver på politiarbeid, digitalisering og teknologi2018In: Nordisk Tidsskrift for Kriminalvidenskab, ISSN 0029-1528, Vol. 107, no 1, p. 87-89Article, book review (Other academic)
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  • 6.
    Anderberg, Andreas
    Malmö University, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Unit for Police Work.
    Det allmänna rättsmedvetandet och några svenska förarbeten på straffrättens område 2008–20182020In: Nordisk Tidsskrift for Kriminalvidenskab, ISSN 0029-1528, no 3, p. 251-267Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article focuses on what is often termed the general (or public) sense of justice, GSJ for short. It illustrates the influence that the GSJ has had on variouspreparatory works in Swedish criminal law during a recent decade. It is oftenclaimed that the GSJ is used as an argument in political discourse and decisionmaking in the area of criminal law, especially to motivate criminalisation andharsher penal sanctions. Political points can be scored and general elections wonby deploying a tough stance on crime. A problematic aspect is that by appealingto the GSJ, legislators create a way to legitimise punitive measures with little orno empirical support in criminological research. Furthermore, the very conceptof the GSJ is unclear, contentious, and characterised by a plethora of interpretations.This article provides background on the GSJ in the Nordic countries andthereby gives context to some recent legislative work in Sweden. The article concludesthat legislators frequently reproduce phrases which, under closer inspection,appear quite hollow. The GSJ therefore seems to be more of a vague referenceused for political purposes as opposed to a representation of actual popularvalues.

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  • 7.
    Anderberg, Andreas
    Linnéuniversitetet, Polisutbildningen (PU).
    Författningssamling i polisrätt: 20162016Collection (editor) (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Författningar i polisrätt samlar de mest centrala lagarna med relevansför den polisiära verksamheten. Här presenteras rättsnormer från olikarättsområden såsom t.ex. offentlig rätt, straffrätt, processrätt ochsocialrätt.Boken riktar sig i första hand till studerande vid polisutbildningen menkan förstås lika väl användas av polisanställda som av jurister och andramed intresse för den polisiära juridiken.Författningarna återges som de lyder den 1 juli 2016.

  • 8.
    Anderberg, Andreas
    Linnéuniversitetet, Institutionen för socialt arbete (SA).
    Författningssamling i polisrätt: 2017/182017Collection (editor) (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Författningar i polisrätt samlar de mest centrala lagarna med relevans för den polisiära verksamheten. Här presenteras rättsnormer från olikarättsområden såsom t.ex. offentlig rätt, straffrätt, processrätt ochsocialrätt.Boken riktar sig i första hand till studerande vid polisutbildningen menkan förstås lika väl användas av polisanställda som av jurister och andramed intresse för den polisiära juridiken.Författningarna återges som de lyder den 1 juli 2017.

  • 9.
    Anderberg, Andreas
    Malmö University, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Unit for Police Work.
    Författningssamling i polisrätt: 2021/222021Collection (editor) (Other academic)
  • 10.
    Anderberg, Andreas
    Linnéuniversitetet, Institutionen för socialt arbete (SA).
    Ingrid Gärde Widemar: 1912-03-24 — 2009-01-02. Jurist, justitieråd, politiker2018In: Svenskt kvinnobiografiskt lexikon, Göteborg: University of Gothenburg , 2018Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 11.
    Anderberg, Andreas
    Linnéuniversitetet, Polisutbildningen (PU).
    Oaktsamhetsbrotten i svensk (och finsk) rätt – ett halvsekel senare2016In: Tidskrift utgiven av juridiska föreningen Finland, ISSN 0040-6953, no 5, p. 497-516Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    När Carl Elwing 1963 i JFT skrev en artikel om oaktsamhetsbrotten i svensk rätt var brottsbalken visserligen beslutad men hade ännu inte trätt i kraft. Mer än ett halvt sekel har passerat och det kan väl därför vara på sin plats med en uppdatering. Även den finska strafflagstiftningen har genomgått en stor revision och utan anspråk på egentlig fördjupning skall ändå en viss utblick även till Finland göras här.

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  • 12.
    Anderberg, Andreas
    Malmö University, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Criminology (KR).
    Oaktsamma sexualbrott – en realitet i lagstiftningen.2018In: Festskrift till Håkan Hydén / [ed] Banakar, R., Dahlstrand, K. & Ryberg-Welander, L., Lund: Juristförlaget, Lund, 2018, p. 13-23Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 13.
    Andersson, Amanda
    et al.
    Malmö University, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), Department of Urban Studies (US).
    Svensson, Ebba
    Malmö University, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), Department of Urban Studies (US).
    Hur bestäms avgälden vid omprövning av tomträttsupplåtelse?2021Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 180 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Sedan 1907 har det upplåtits fastigheter med tomträtt i Sverige. Tomträtt innebär att kommun eller stat, mot en årlig avgäld, upplåter mark med nyttjanderätt till en tomträttshavare med avgäldsperioder om minst tio år. Att inneha bebyggelse på mark som är förenad med tomträtt kan, beroende på tomträttshavarens ekonomiska situation, leda till ett skräckscenario. En kombination av kraftiga markvärdestegringar och långa avgäldsperioder resulterar i chockhöjda tomträttsavgälder för tomträttshavare, på nivåer som är svåra att förutspå. I nuläget saknas tydliga direktiv för hur bestämmelse av tomträttsavgälden vid ny avgäldsperiod ska ske och trots förslag om att förenkla regleringen har inga ändringar gjorts. 

    Syftet med denna uppsats är att undersöka rättsläget kring bestämmelse av tomträttsavgälden inför ny avgäldsperiod och på så sätt försöka bringa klarhet i den problematik som finns. Genom en rättsvetenskaplig metod där rättskällor har tolkats, utretts och analyserats kunde vi dra slutsatsen att den reglering som finns kring bestämmande av tomträttsavgälden bör ses över. Tills vidare får denna undersökning och de riktlinjer vi funnit ses som en vägledning. 

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  • 14.
    Andersson, Elin
    et al.
    Malmö University, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), Department of Urban Studies (US).
    Lundgren, Malin
    Malmö University, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), Department of Urban Studies (US).
    Karlsson, Simon
    Malmö University, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), Department of Urban Studies (US).
    Innebörden av förbesiktning och dolda fel-försäkring vid fastighetsöverlåtelse.2021Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 15.
    Andersson, Jonas E.
    Malmö University, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), Department of Urban Studies (US).
    Momentary versus sequential accessibility and usability: Achieving universal design through storytelling2022In: Storytelling and Collaborative Future Making: Symposium at Malmö University, 23-25 May 2022 / [ed] Kenneth Moelbjerg Joergensen, Malmö, 2022Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Since 2015, the Swedish disability policy promotes a universally designed built environment as an ideal to reach for future building and physical planning. Breaking with an almost 50-year tradition of arguing for an accessible and usable built environment, the concept of universal design has come to supersede the old twin concept of accessibility and usability, in the following AU. Latently, this change may refer to the dual face of the AU concept: When programming AU for the built environment, architects or other similar professions focus on the identification of momentary obstacles for horizontal or vertical access to the inside of the building from the outside, or vice versa. However, while using the built environment, users focus on an accessible and usable pathway from the inside of the building to the outside, or vice versa.Common for both actors are the strive to create a series of horizontal or vertical movements that allow for accessing or egressing the building. Active in this thinking also lies an associational approach towards the built environment by the users, who expect a sequential type of AU. On the other hand, architects tend to use a perceptual approach to identify potential conflicts in the usage of the built environment, which results in a momentary identification of AU (Rapoport, 1978). In a similar manner, architects often tend to act as non-disabled proxies for potential users with disabilities, while users interact with the built environment with their disabilities and the level of AU that is provided. To narrow the gap between the two players, the traditional way of teaching AU to architects, engineers and other designers has been to implement full-scale try-outs with students with mostly fully abled bodies simulating disabilities by blocking sensory information and using assistive devices like wheelchairs, cains and rollers.There is a logical error in such training since skill in using assistive devices as a prolongation of the individual body is reduced to not being valuable. Problems in the realisation of AU in the built environment might be attributable to this lacune in knowledge and ultimately discriminatory approach towards people with disabilities. An opposite way of teaching AU for architects, engineers and other designers would be to combine the experiment with using assistive devices with listening to how people with disabilities experience appropriate and poor AU, thus, promoting an aggregated knowledge.

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    Andersson-JE-2022
  • 16.
    Andersson, Jonas E.
    Malmö University, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), Department of Urban Studies (US).
    Relinquishing power in the definition of housing qualities: universal design thinking or mere rationalisation?2022Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is still an open matter whether qualities in housing are the outcome of architects’ artistic ambitions in answer to the users’ needs or whether it is the meticulous realisation of users’ demands and needs that national authorities stipulate. Since 2020, the Swedish building legislation is undergoing a historical change. The Swedish Government has assigned the National Board for Housing, Planning and Building to revise the 30 years praxis for how to write the appurtenant building regulations. These regulations typically present both recommendations and general advice on how to meet a specific requirement, for instance, accessibility and usability for people with disabilities. Instead, the regulations shall refer to new minimum requirements that have been defined as Swedish standards for how the specific building requirements can be achieved. This new model has several similarities with building legislation in Austria, Germany, and Switzerland. However, what is alarming, is that the national authority presume that these standards shall be developed by the building industry itself, rather than as agreements between the building industry and the welfare state what minimum housing qualities are for Swedish housing. Since participation in standardisation also presume a minimum annual fee of approximate 25 000 Swedish crowns per participants, another question materializes, can the building industry act as a representative for a broad and varied group of future users, including people with disabilities?

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    Andersson-JE-2022
  • 17.
    Andersson, Mika
    et al.
    Malmö University, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Criminology (KR).
    Ivert, A-K
    Mellgren, C
    Does having friends with experiences of hate crime increase fear among women, sexual minorities, and Muslims?2018Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 18.
    Andersson, Mika
    et al.
    Malmö University, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Criminology (KR).
    Mellgren, Caroline
    Malmö University, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Criminology (KR).
    Ivert, Anna-Karin
    Malmö University, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Criminology (KR).
    How victims conceptualize their experiences of hate crime2018Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the study is to provide thevictims’perspective to the contemporary conceptualization of hate crime.Much attention has been given to the interpretational frameworks of offenders, and although victims’ definitions of hate crime are sometimes mentioned in passing in interview studies, this has never been a primary subject of study.The present study applies phenomenological analysisto 28semi-structured interviews with victims of hate crime. The results show that the participants primarily apply meaning to their experiences in social groups and use previous experiences to guide their interpretations. While the conceptualization of victims largely concurs withtheory presented by the research community and special interest organizations, they diverge from how hate crime is contextualized in hate crime legislation.

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  • 19.
    Aronsson, Johan
    Malmö University, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), Department of Urban Studies (US).
    Mäklaren, en förmedlande näringsidkare - En studie av ansvaret vid marknadsföring2020Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Den svenska fastighetsmäklaren är en näringsidkare som förmedlar en uppdragsgivares fastighet eller bostadsrätt. Till skillnad från andra näringsidkare marknadsför han inte sina egna produkter utan uppdragsgivarens privatbostad. Syftet med denna studie är att undersöka vilket ansvar mäklaren då kan ha sin marknadsföring. Ansvaret kan följa av regler i marknadsföringslagen men också av fastighetsmäklarlagen. Den förra är en allmän lagstiftning och den senare en speciallagstiftning. Arbetet undersöker i vilken omfattning det ena eller andra regelverket lämpligen kan tillämpas. Det undersöks också i vilken utsträckningen mäklaren möjligen kan bära ett strikt ansvar för sin marknadsföring. Undersökning kommer från de många intressanta frågeställningarna som bygger på en dom av förvaltningsrätten i Karlstad. Domstolen har fält en mäklare till ansvar med domskäl som antyder att frågan om mäklarens oaktsamhet inte tillmäts någon betydelse. Domstolen gick nämligen inte in på någon prövning av det besvärande eller friande omständigheterna som hade anförts av parterna. 

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  • 20.
    Axnäs, Nina
    Malmö University, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Criminology (KR).
    Utredningsbara misshandelsbrott?: En studie av polisens förutsättningar och förmåga att utreda och klara upp misshandelsbrott2024Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The police are involved in almost all phases of a criminal investigation, starting with the crime itself and ending in court. The clearance rate is a core issue. If this rate is low or decreases, perpetrators will not be prosecuted and sentenced, and the police will be criticized. If this is to be rectified it is necessary to understand why it happens (causes).The aim of this study has been to investigate the prerequisites for the investigation of assault crimes and the police's ability to solve these crimes. The objective has been to produce knowledge for a follow-up model that can provide a more multifaceted picture of the police investigation results, beyond just reported preliminary investigation protocols (FUP).The data consist of 384 police reports regarding assaults that were assessed to be non-serious. In line with the aim of the study, the study employs a Swedish equivalent of the Evidence-Based Investigative Tool (EBIT) (McFadzien et al., 2020; Sherman, 2018).Rational decision theory (March, 1994) has been applied, along with theories focused on the way street bureaucracies manage and prioritize among an incessant influx of cases (Lipsky, 2010) and on various mechanisms that influence the approaches employed (Brodkin, 2011a; Jönsson, 2021). As a measure of the prerequisites for police investigations, a number of basic variables have been employed to reflect whether there is an identified victim, who then cooperates with the investigation, and an identifiable perpetrator. Other basic variables reflect whether there are witnesses, or surveillance cameras that may have captured the incident. As a measure of the police's investigative ability, the study employs variables focused on whether victims and witnesses have been interrogated and whether the police have checked/obtained footage from surveillance cameras.The results show that the conditions for investigating assault are not optimal. Only one third of cases meet all the specified requirements. In about 75 percent of these cases, the police had carried out the investigative measures that were possible. In the remaining investigations, the victims had not been interviewed, the police had not questioned witnesses, or they had not checked and retrieve surveillance footage. To some extent this might be explained by the fact that the reported crime was minor, that the case included information about a counter allegation, the crime would be difficult to prove, or a claim of self-defense difficult to disprove.

    The study’s results are in several respects neither unexpected nor remarkable. According to the Swedish Police’s national investigative strategy, high priority must be given to cases of domestic violence and only crimes that are expected to lead to prosecution should be investigated. However, there were also some surprising findings: The police succeeded in confirming or disproving assault in 29 percent of all reported non-serious assault crimes. Solving reported crimes is not always equivalent to prosecuting.

    Finally, the results indicate that a tool for predicting clearance could be utilized to reduce the workload of Principal Investigators. However, this would require more extensive investigative measures to be undertaken at the time the crime report is initially registered. The results show that the documentation on which decisions are based is in many cases insufficient for an assessment of whether or not a prosecution is likely, since it lacks information on the presence or absence of witnesses or surveillance cameras, and whether these substantiate the crime.

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  • 21.
    Backman, Jyri
    Malmö högskola, School of Teacher Education (LUT), Sport Sciences (IDV).
    Idrottsjuridisk lagtextsamling2009Collection (editor) (Other academic)
  • 22.
    Backman, Jyri
    Malmö högskola, School of Teacher Education (LUT), Sport Sciences (IDV).
    Idrottsjuridisk lagtextsamling [sammanställd av Jyri Backman]2007Book (Other academic)
  • 23.
    Backman, Jyri
    Malmö högskola, School of Teacher Education (LUT), Sport Sciences (IDV).
    Idrottsjuridisk rättsfallssamling - med kommentarer och lästips2006Book (Other academic)
  • 24.
    Backman, Jyri
    et al.
    Malmö högskola, School of Teacher Education (LUT), Sport Sciences (IDV).
    Carlsson, Bo
    Malmö högskola, School of Teacher Education (LUT), Sport Sciences (IDV).
    Idrottsjuridisk rättsfalls- och lagtextsamling - med kommentarer och lästips2005Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Idrottsjuridik, vad är det? Idrotten och dess reglering är till stora delar självreglerande men där lagstiftning många gånger reglerar mycket av idrotten och dess förutsättningar. Det kan handla allt ifrån EG-domstolen och dess avgöranden till skatterättsliga frågor. Tankarna med detta hjälpmedel började växa fram när jag började arbeta med idrottsjuridiska frågor vid Malmö högskola och insåg behovet av ett hjälpmedel för alla som studerar eller arbetar med idrottsjuridik. Idrottsjuridiken är ett mycket omfattande område som berör många olika rättsområden vilket också är dess tjusning. Idrottsjuridiken är ett område där känslan och förståelsen för idrotten, med självreglering samt dess ideella och kommersiella inslag, går hand i hand med juridiken. Syftet med denna första upplaga är att sammanställa och åskådliggöra idrottsjuridiska rättsfall där praxis skall vara lite mer och hanterbar samt en lagtextsamling med den mest relevanta lagstiftning som berör idrotten. Sammanställningen är tänkt att fungera som ett undervisningsunderlag för föreningsaktiva, studenter och alla andra intresserade, samt en vägledning för de som arbetar mera praktiskt med idrottsjuridiska frågor. Några av rättsfallen är inte direkt kopplade till idrottsliga frågor men där viktiga likheter och olikheter till idrotten kan aktualiseras. Sammanställningen är inte heltäckande juridiskt men undertecknad har avvägt hur många och vilka rättsfall som skall ingå i denna upplaga för att fungera som pedagogiskt hjälpmedel, bl.a. inom Idrottens utbildningar eller andra typer av utbildningar som hanterar idrottens organisering och reglering. Rättsfall inom idrotten finns också i Krister Malmstens; Idrottsvåld och Idrottstvister – 138 rättsfall. Denna upplaga tar upp idrottsrelaterat våld (Brottsbalken). För Er som önskar rättsfall kring den problematiken hänvisas till Malmstens genomgång som sträcker sig fram till 1994, eftersom föreliggande sammanställning inte behandlar idrottsvåld. Sammanställningen är uppbyggd av två huvudavdelningar där första avdelningen sammanställer idrottsjuridiska rättsfall och andra avdelningen som sammanställer utdrag av lagstiftning som är aktuell för idrotten, detta för att läsaren skall kunna få en överblick av aktuell lagstiftning samtidigt som rättsfallen läses. Författaren reserverar sig mot eventuella felaktigheter och påminner att juridiken är föränderlig med nya rättsfall och lagstiftning hela tiden. Sammanställningen börjar med en inledning om idrottens förrättsliggande skriven av professor Bo Carlsson vid Lunds universitet, avdelningen för rättssociologi vid sociologiska institutionen verksam i Idrottsvetenskap vid Malmö högskola. Vissa förkortningar finns under kapitel två. Tredje kapitlet och tillika första avdelningen består av idrottsjuridiska rättsfallssamlingen. Uppbyggnaden är att rättsfallen sammanfattas kort under 3.1 för att övergå i fulltext sammanställning längre fram. Under varje rättsfall finns min kommentar med för att förklara eller ge synpunkter för att väcka intresse samt lästips för djupare studier, jag vill påminna att det finns mycket mer skrivet, och att dessa är till för att ge läsaren en snabb överblick och är inte uttömmande juridiskt på något sätt. Kommentarerna under skatterättsfallen (RÅ) kan några gånger vara likartade i början då syftet varit att ge läsaren som inte är skattejurist en förståelse för uppbyggnaden av själva skattefriheten för de ideella föreningarna (idrottsföreningarna). Rättsfallsamlingen fortsätter med Arbetsdomstolens avgöranden som finns under 3.2 följt av Högsta domstolens avgöranden under 3.3. EG-domstolens avgöranden sammanställes under 3.4 med bl.a. Bosmandomen som är kanske det mest kända rättsfallet som berör idrotten. Under 3.5 finns sammanställningen från Regeringsrätten med bl.a. HIF- och Brynäs domen. Andra avdelningen i sammanställningen är utdrag, vissa i fulltext, av den mest aktuella lagstiftningen som berör idrotten. Jag vill dock påminna att lagstiftningen är föränderlig. Andra avdelningen är inte kommenterad och har inte några lästips. Syftet med denna sammanställning är, som tidigare påpekats, att läsaren får en överblick av lagstiftning som berör idrotten på olika sätt. Avdelningen börjar med EG- och konstitutionellrätt under 4.1 för att följas under 4.2 av agerande personer. Köp- och skadeståndsrätten behandlas under 4.3 och offentlig-, miljö- samt straff- och processrätt under 4.4. Arbetsrätten behandlas under 4.5. Associations- och förmögenhetsrätten under 4.6. Obeståndsrätten finns under 4.7 och konkurrensrätten under 4.8. Skattelagstiftningen för idrotten sammanställs under 4.9. Tack Björn Lindquist för värdefulla synpunkter vid val av rättsfall. Undertecknad emottager gärna synpunkter och information om eventuella tillägg till sammanställningen. Trevlig och lärorik läsning!

  • 25.
    Barton Elmstav, Emma
    Malmö University, Faculty of Education and Society (LS), Department of School Development and Leadership (SOL).
    Undervisning av juridiska begrepp: En undersökning om framgångsfaktorer samt utmaningar vid undervisning av juridiska begrepp på gymnasienivå2024Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Skolverket beskriver i sina kursplaner för juridik att det juridiska språket ställer stora krav på exakthet, precision, saklighet och logisk skärpa. En del av det centrala innehållet i de tre juridiska gymnasiekurserna, Privatjuridik, Rätten och samhället samt Affärsjuridik, är juridiska begrepp och ett betygskriterium handlar om hur väl eleven kan förklara och använda juridiska begrepp.

     

    Syftet med studien är att undersöka de didaktiska framgångsfaktorerna och utmaningarna vid undervisning av juridiska begrepp. Undersökningen har genomförts genom semistrukturerade intervjuer med fyra gymnasielärare.

     

    Resultatet visar att lärarna organiserar undervisningen på liknande sätt genom bland annat genomgångar, begreppslistor, övningsuppgifter och rättsfall. De juridiska begreppen i sig beskrivs som såväl en framgångsfaktor som en utmaning för juridikundervisningen. 

     

    Lärarna beskriver att tala med juridiska begrepp, arbeta med begreppen, kontextualisera och en balans mellan elev- och läraraktivitet som framgångsfaktorer vid begreppsundervisningen. Lärarna framhåller även att få eleverna att förstå behovet av de juridiska begreppen samt repetition som framgångsfaktorer. Språket komplexitet beskrivs som den största utmaningen. Därtill beskrivs utmaningar såsom svaga språkkunskaper i svenska, stora grupper samt begränsat med tid.  

     

    Majoriteten av de intervjuade lärarna har svårt att initialt redogöra för grunden till de didaktiska val och överväganden som de gör vid utformningen av undervisningen. Detta kan möjligen bero på att den juridiska ämnesdidaktiken är outvecklad.

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  • 26.
    Bengtsson, Felix
    et al.
    Malmö University, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), Department of Urban Studies (US).
    Eriksson, Melvin
    Malmö University, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), Department of Urban Studies (US).
    Hur avtal kommer till stånd och när anses det bindande?: Avtalsbundenhet vid olika upplåtelseformer2021Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Contract law is complex for the uninitiated. When it comes to buying a home, there are a variety of things to keep in mind. How an agreement is concluded, when certain conditions apply, how an agreement is interpreted and when it is invalid. How do you become bound by contract when you buy a home and are there differences between different agreements regarding housing?

    When buying a property, the law is clear about what must be included in the agreement in order for it to be binding on two parties. What must be met are called formal requirements and these must be in agreed written form in order to achieve contractual binding. Occasions where a clause is included in the contract of membership, membership should be granted for the binding of the purchase. In the more unusual forms of lease, the law is more dispositive. How does a contractual obligation arise if the law does not require that the agreed writing form is a must and the same type of agreement and conditions apply to assignment and transfer?

    The purpose of the thesis is to investigate different forms of tenure, the common and the more unusual. The thesis will deal with how agreements arise in different forms of tenure. Different types of agreements will also be described and how they are used in tenure and transfers. And how parties become bound by these. To find an answer to the question, a forensic method is applied. The authors have interpreted laws, preparatory work, case law, doctrine and legal journals to get answers to the question. At the end of the essay, there is a discussion about how agreements are made and why certain types of agreements are used in various tenure and transfers. The conclusion presents a table of which forms of assignment have been taken into account, which legal space is applied over these and what type of agreement model is used in assignment and transfer. The conclusion shows that there are similarities as well as differences in how agreements are concluded in different tenure.

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  • 27.
    Björngren Cuadra, Carin
    et al.
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Health and Society (HS).
    Staaf, Annika
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Health and Society (HS).
    Vård för irreguljära migranter- exemplet Region Skåne2010In: Migrationens utmaningar inom hälsa, omsorg och vård / [ed] Jenny Malmsten, Stadskontoret, Malmö stad , 2010, p. 157-172Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 28.
    Blomkvist, Joakim
    Malmö University, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Criminology (KR).
    Symbolförbud?: Ideologi, symboler och hatbrott2023Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    IIn the essay Symbol prohibition? - Ideology, symbols and hate crimes the function of symbols in the process of manufacturing hate crimes are studied from a post- structuralist ideology-critical point of view.The paper aims to highlight how such a theoretical standpoint can explain the motives of hate crime based on a post-structural theory in terms of social economy, power, and social dominance.

    In a post-structural hypothesis, we assume that economic power gives rise to symbols used to create ideologies. In turn, ideologies are used to create institutions such as racist ideas and ethnic groups, by creating a sense of unity, among ethnical groups and a sense of superiority towards other competing groups. Through this relative position of power, the dominant group creates a sense of inferiority in those who are dominated by hate crimes.

    In this text, we analyze two documents written by the Government and its Investigation to define hate crimes by investigating whether racism and other symbols should be criminalized.This paper problematizes both of these documents’ positions, which aim to create new laws, by pointing out that the structural understanding of the symbols is lacking. And that such an ideology-critical understanding would have resulted in a more nuanced and partially different conclusion than the Government’s investigation reached. Here, the author wants to show the explanatory value of ideology criticism in criminology specially deals with hate crimes

    .

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  • 29.
    Bodewig, Katharina
    Malmö University, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), Department of Global Political Studies (GPS).
    Armed Conflicts, their Resolution, and a Post-Conflict Society’s Reality: A Qualitative Study of the Central African Republic’s Post-Conflict Society2023Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 12 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This paper will investigate what role human rights can play in the reconstruction of a post-conflict society. The true root causes of conflict are not addressed by prior peace interventions, often governments are unable to deliver to their populations what they were promised. This thesis is guided by an overarching research interest in how during these situations, peacebuilding, human rights, and the construction of a new, accountable social contract can go hand-in-hand. The case study of the Central African Republic’s conflicts will be used to investigate the hypothesis. Nurturing and restoring society’s trust in the peacebuilding process is often underestimated. To break the vicious cycle of self-enforcing conflicts and their recurrence, a revitalisation of the social contract may be a strategy to optimize working towards reconciling the post-conflict society. The research finds that a human rights-rooted social contract approach in a post-conflict society can impact the peacebuilding positively.

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  • 30.
    Camacho Doyle, Maria
    et al.
    Örebro Univ, Örebro, Sweden..
    Gerell, Manne
    Malmö University, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Criminology (KR).
    Andershed, Henrik
    Örebro Univ, Örebro, Sweden..
    Perceived unsafety and fear of crime: The role of violent and property crime, neighborhood characteristics, and prior perceived unsafety and fear of crime2022In: Deviant behavior, ISSN 0163-9625, E-ISSN 1521-0456, Vol. 43, no 11, p. 1347-1365Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Perceived unsafety, fear of crime, and avoidance were studied in relation to different types of crime, crime in different time perspectives, concentrated disadvantage, collective efficacy, urbanity, age structure, and neighborhood disorder. Four data sources were used on a large Swedish city; a community survey from 2012 and 2015 among residents, census data on socio-demographics, police data on reported violent (assault and robbery in the public environment), and property crimes (arson, property damage, theft, vehicle theft, and residential burglary) and geographical information on local bus stops and annual passengers visiting these bus stops. Collective efficacy primarily, but also concentrated disadvantage, was strongly related to perceived unsafety, across 102 neighborhoods. Collective efficacy was strongly related to fear of crime. It was not viable to relate the neighborhood variables with avoidance, however. Fear of specific violent crimes was different from fear of specific property crimes and should for future reference be examined separately. Crime, visible disorder, urbanity, and age structure do not seem as important.

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  • 31.
    Carlsson, Linnea
    et al.
    The Västra Götaland Region Competence Centre on Intimate Partner Violence; The Sahlgrenska Academy.
    Lysell, Henrik
    The Västra Götaland Region Competence Centre on Intimate Partner Violence; Swedish National Board of Health and Welfare.
    Enander, Viveka
    he Västra Götaland Region Competence Centre on Intimate Partner Violence; University of Gothenburg.
    Örmon, Karin
    Malmö University, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Care Science (VV). The Västra Götaland Region Competence Centre on Intimate Partner Violence.
    Lövestad, Solveig
    The Västra Götaland Region Competence Centre on Intimate Partner Violence; University of Gothenburg.
    Krantz, Gunilla
    The Västra Götaland Region Competence Centre on Intimate Partner Violence; University of Gothenburg.
    Socio-demographic and psychosocial characteristics of male and female perpetrators in intimate partner homicide: A case-control study from Region Västra Götaland, Sweden2021In: PLOS ONE, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 16, no 8, article id e0256064Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Risk factor studies on male-perpetrated intimate partner homicide (IPH) are often compared with studies on intimate partner violence (IPV) or non-partner homicide perpetrators. This not only excludes female perpetrators, but also fails to take socio-demographic and psychosocial differences between perpetrators and the general population into consideration. The aim of this study was to examine male- and female-perpetrated IPH cases, and to compare socio-demographic factors in IPH perpetrators and in matched controls from the general population. Data were retrieved from preliminary inquiries, court records and national registers for 48 men and 10 women, who were perpetrators of IPH committed in 2000–2016 and residing in Region Västra Götaland, Sweden. The control group consisted of 480 men and 100 women matched for age, sex and residence parish. Logistic regression, yielding odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI), was performed for male perpetrators and male controls to investigate associations for selected socio-demographic and psychosocial characteristics. This was not performed for females due to the small sample size. Female perpetrators were convicted of murder to a lesser extent than male perpetrators. No woman was sentenced to life imprisonment while five men were. Jealousy and separation were the most common motivational factors for male perpetration while the predominant factor for female perpetrators was subjection to IPV. Statistically significant differences were found between male perpetrators and male controls in unemployment rate (n = 47.9%/20.6%; OR 4.4; 95% CI 2.2–8.6), receiving benefits (n = 20.8%/4.8%; OR 5.2; 95% CI 2.3–11.7) and annual disposable income (n = 43.8%/23.3% low income; OR 5.2; 95% CI 1.9–14.2) one year prior to the crime. Female IPH perpetrators were less educated than female controls (≤ 9-year education 30%/12%) and were more often unemployed (70%/23%) one year before the crime. Male and female IPH perpetrators were socio-economically disadvantaged, compared with controls from the general population.

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  • 32.
    Chrysoulakis, Alberto P.
    Malmö University, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Criminology (KR).
    Intention to act: testing the interaction between morality and self-control using randomised scenarios2022Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 33.
    Chrysoulakis, Alberto P.
    Malmö University, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Criminology (KR).
    Morality, delinquent peer association, and criminogenic exposure: (How) does change predict change?2022In: European Journal of Criminology, ISSN 1477-3708, E-ISSN 1741-2609, Vol. 19, no 2, p. 282-303, article id 1477370819896216Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    According to the Situational Action Theory, stronger morality inhibits the perception of alternatives to law-breaking action, thus lessening the probability of crime and delinquency. Research indicates that morality might be affected by delinquent peer association and in turn affect criminogenic exposure. This article studies how morality develops during late adolescence using data from the longitudinal project Malmo Individual and Neighbourhood Development Study. Using linear growth modelling, the study finds that a decrease in morality is associated with a simultaneous increase in delinquency peer association. No change in criminogenic exposure was detected. The results are discussed alongside theoretical and methodological implications.

  • 34.
    Chrysoulakis, Alberto P.
    Malmö University, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Criminology (KR).
    Situational sources of rule-breaking acts: an analytic criminology approach2022Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Criminology has long been divided by mainly focusing on people’s propensities to commit crimes, on the one hand, and environmental characteristics conducive to crime, on the other. Such a division must be bridged to advance knowledge about why some people, but not others, commit rule-breaking acts in some environments but not in others. Furthermore, explanations require causal mechanisms explaining how the outcome, a rule-breaking act, is produced. Analytic Criminology offers a general framework for how to theoretically and empirically structure the study of crime. It does so by connecting macro- and micro-levels – structuring the convergence of certain people in certain places – through a mechanistic account. Within this framework, the situational action theory (SAT) proposes a causal mechanism explaining how said convergence triggers the perception-choice process: a rule-breaking act must first be perceived to be subsequently chosen. The main drivers during this process are the person’s crime propensity and the criminogeneity of the behaviour setting. Identifying the central components also enables the theorising of changes in crime involvement, which is the subject of the developmental ecological action (DEA) model of SAT. Drawing on data from the longitudinal project Malmö Individual and Neighbourhood Development Study, this thesis aimed to test SAT and its DEA model, thus bridging said division. It did so through four studies with specific reference to adolescents’ crime propensity, exposure to criminogenic settings, their convergence, and finally, change over time. Study I and study II investigated adolescents’ time use and connections to rule-breaking. The former examined how adolescents spend time in unsupervised and unstructured socialising with peers, during which hours of the day, in which neighbourhoods, and what level of collective efficacy the neighbourhoods have. Study II focused on adolescents’ routine activities and how they differentially place adolescents in unstructured socialising. Furthermore, it tested whether adolescents with higher crime propensity run a higher probability of reporting a rule-breaking act during unstructured socialising irrespective of their routine activities. Study III extended the situational analysis by investigating how adolescents form rule-breaking intentions in randomised scenarios depending on their morality, self-control, and the setting characteristics (varying in level of motivation and deterrence). Study IV applied a developmental perspective to key theoretical constructs derived from the DEA model, focusing on how morality, peer delinquency, and unstructured socialising change, and how the change in each is related to change in the others. Together, the studies found that adolescents with different levels of crime propensity are differently exposed to criminogenic settings but that such exposure simultaneously increases the probability of rule-breaking more for adolescents with higher crime propensity. In sum, the studies have bridged the person–place division in different ways by being rooted in a mechanistic account of rule-breaking, which is proposed as a way forward for criminology as a discipline. 

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  • 35.
    Chrysoulakis, Alberto P.
    et al.
    Malmö University, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Criminology (KR).
    Ivert, A-K
    Torstensson Levander, M
    The when, where and who of unstructured socialising: associations to crime propensity, collective efficacy and delinquency2022Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 36.
    Danfors, Jenny
    et al.
    Malmö University, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), Department of Urban Studies (US).
    Persson, Ebba
    Malmö University, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), Department of Urban Studies (US).
    Hellwer, Rebecca
    Malmö University, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), Department of Urban Studies (US).
    Ansvarsfördelningen av det inre underhållet i en bostadsrätt2021Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In accordance with the Tenant-Ownership Act the division of responsibilities for the internal maintenance of a tenant-ownership home shall be drawn at what is referred to in the law as “walls, floors and ceilings”. According to the law, however, there is also room for the tenant-ownership association to independently regulate the division of responsibilities between the tenant-ownership and the association. The regulation of such a division of responsibilities is implemented by changing the wording to some extent regarding the internal maintenance in the association's statutes. Tenant-ownership associations can be affiliated with a trustee or independently manage their association, which today has led to a problem as this creates deviating basic conditions. Associations that are affiliated with a trustee usually have basic formulations in their statutes, while independent associations themselves are based on what is stated in the law and have a lesser tendency to base their formulations on a closer analysis of more specific additions.

    As recently as 2020, a tenant-ownership association's formulation of its bylaws resulted in a major dispute that received attention. The case concerned a major demarcation problem regarding the division of responsibilities of the internal maintenance in a tenant-ownership between the tenant-owner and the association. A study of various large associations 'statutes has been carried out to investigate the extent to which associations' statutes can affect the division of responsibilities. In view of the fact that it is not precisely defined in law what the division of responsibilities looks like in the issue, in addition to the study of various associations' statutes, an analysis of legal material has also been conducted, to create a broader picture of how the statutes are formulated in practice and whether there is scope for improvement.

    This resulted in us getting a clear picture that associations that are affiliated with a outsourced management have more specific formulations that can be to the association's advantage in the event of a dispute. The associations that manage themselves largely lack equally clear wording that can lead to a major demarcation problem between the association and the tenant-owner regarding the internal maintenance.

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  • 37.
    Di Rocco, Jennie
    et al.
    Malmö University, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Criminology (KR).
    Vasiljevic, Zoran
    Malmö University, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Criminology (KR).
    Ivert, Anna-Karin
    Malmö University, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Criminology (KR).
    "Neighborhood fear of crime and disadvantaged areas: a comparative longitudinal study"2023In: Crime Prevention & Community Safety, ISSN 1460-3780, E-ISSN 1743-4629, Vol. 25, no 4, p. 427-445Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The current study explores how neighborhood fear of crime ("worry about specific crimes") changes over time in neighborhoods with different levels of disadvantage. With a comparative design, 81 and 123- neighborhoods in two cities in Sweden are followed over a six-year period. Fear of crime trajectories are assessed through growth curve modeling. We consider how differences in neighborhood processes, such as social and physical disorder, might influence fear of crime levels. The results show that fear of crime increased over time in both cities and the increase was related to higher levels of physical disorder in several areas. Furthermore, the change differed depending on the neighborhood type - in highly disadvantaged neighborhoods, the fear was stable at a high level. In contrast, the largest increases in fear could be seen in the areas with the lowest disadvantage in both cities. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.

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  • 38.
    Doyle, Maria Camacho
    et al.
    Örebro Univ, Örebro, Sweden.;Örebro Univ, Sch Behav Social & Legal Sci, Fakultetsgatan 1, S-70182 Örebro, Sweden..
    Gerell, Manne
    Malmö University, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Criminology (KR).
    Assessing Crime History as a Predictor: Exploring Hotspots of Violent and Property Crime in Malmö, Sweden2024In: International Criminal Justice Review, ISSN 1057-5677, E-ISSN 1556-3855Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: Assessing the predictive accuracy of using prior crime, place attributes, ambient population, community structural, and social characteristics, in isolation and combined when forecasting different violent and property crimes. Method: Using multilevel negative binomial regression, crime is forecasted into the subsequent year, in 50-m grid-cells. Incidence rate ratio (IRR), Prediction Accuracy Index (PAI), and Prediction Efficacy Index (PEI*) are interpreted for all combined crime generators and community characteristics. This study is partially a test of a crude version of the Risk Terrain Modeling technique. Results: Where crime has been in the past, the risk for future crime is higher. Where characteristics conducive to crime congregate, the risk for crime is higher. Community structural characteristics and ambient population are important for some crime types. Combining variables increases the accuracy for most crime types, looking at the IRR. Taking the geographical area into account, crime history in combination with both place- and neighborhood characteristics reaches similar accuracy as crime history alone for most crime types and most hotspot cutoffs. Conclusions: Crime history, place-, and neighborhood-level attributes are all important when trying to accurately forecast crime, long-term at the micro-place. Only counting past crimes, however, still does a really good job.

  • 39.
    Doyle, Maria Camacho
    et al.
    Örebro University.
    Gerell, Manne
    Malmö University, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Criminology (KR).
    Andershed, Henrik
    Örebro University.
    Exploring violent and property crime geographically: A comparison of the accuracy and precision of kernel density estimation and simple count2021In: Nordic Journal of Studies in Policing, E-ISSN 2703-7045, Vol. 8, no 1, p. 1-21Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There are multiple geographical crime prediction techniques to use and comparing different prediction techniques therefore becomes important. In the current study we compared the accuracy (Predictive Accuracy Index) and precision (Recapture Rate Index) of simply counting crimes: Simple Count with Kernel Density Estimation in the prediction of where people are reported to commit violent crimes (assault and robbery) and property crimes (residential burglary, property damage, theft, vehicle theft and arson), geographically. These predictions were done using a different number of years into the future and based on a different number of years combined to do the crime prediction, in a large Swedish municipality. The Simple Count technique performed quite well in comparison to simple Kernel Density Estimation no matter what crime was being predicted, making us conclude that it may not be necessary to use the more complex method of Kernel Density Estimation to predict where people are reported to commit crime geographically

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  • 40.
    Edman, Emma
    et al.
    Malmö University, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Criminology (KR).
    Eklund, Isabelle
    Malmö University, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Criminology (KR).
    Den slopade ungdomsreduktionen: En studie om nyckelinformanters reflektioner om slopandets konsekvenser för framtida brottslighet2023Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The study intends to investigate the abolition of the youth reduction between 18 and 21 years (with a penalty value of at least one year's imprisonment) and what effects the legislative change may have on future crime. Furthermore, the current study aims to find out what attitudes to legislative change exist among actors working with young people, crime and brain development. Therefore, lawyers, criminologists, psychiatrists and actors with a psychological and neurological background were contacted. Based on a qualitative approach, 10 semi-structured interviews were conducted and then analyzed thematically. The analysis revealed five main themes emerged: skepticism, developments in criminal policy, experts talking to deaf ears, consequences - at best no impact and alternative sentencing options. The majority of the informants share a negative view of abolition, partly due to the maturity of youths, and believe that such a consensus also exists in their work sector. When discussing possible reasons for the abolition, the interviews are permeated by the societal developments that have taken place, with an emphasis on the increase in gang crime and a hardening of criminal policy. The abolition is also expected to lead to a variety of future consequences. This includes an increase in the number of inmates in prisons. Several informants also highlighted legislative changes that have taken place in parallel with the abolition of the youth reduction and thus the difficulty of isolating the effect of a specific legislative change. Subsequently, the majority of informants discussed alternative sentencing options, such as personalization. Finally, the question remains whether the abolition of the youth reduction will lead to a sufficiently positive outcome to be worth the negative consequences discussed by the key informants. 

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  • 41.
    Egnell, Susanne
    Malmö University, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Criminology (KR).
    Examining ethnic disparities in enforced drug testing and body searches: an analysis of youth suspected of minor drug offensesManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Ethnic disparities in drug law enforcement have been noted in several previous studies investigating arrest rates, search rates, and hit-rates. Evidence also suggests that ethnic disparities tend to increase with restrictive drug law enforcement that focuses on minor drug offenses. The Swedish drug policy has a strong focus on drug use and possession offenses, where the enforcement of those offenses has increased over time. The targeted population is decreasing in age. Using police data on the success rates of enforced drug tests and body searches associated with suspicion of drug offenses among youth, this study explores both ethnic differences in exposure to enforced drug tests and ethnic disparities in the hit rates of drug tests and body searches among youth aged 15-20. The results suggest that youth exposed to enforced drug tests are more likely to be born outside Europe, be male, and have unemployed fathers. Results from the hit-rate test show that youth born outside Europe are more likely than youth born in Sweden to be body searched and drug tested with a negative result when controls are included for socioeconomic status, gender, repeat drug offending, and neighborhood drug crime characteristics. The results are discussed in the light of previous research and theoretical approaches to ethnic disparities in drug enforcement

  • 42.
    Egnell, Susanne
    Malmö University, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Criminology (KR).
    Exploring the situational characteristics of drug policing directed at youth: circumstances of detection and grounds for intervention2023In: Police Practice & Research, ISSN 1561-4263, E-ISSN 1477-271X, Vol. 24, no 6, p. 661-676Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this article is to explore the circumstances associated with police interventions and the use of enforced drug tests and body searches against youths suspected of minor drug crime in Malmo, Sweden. There is a need for research on police enforcement practices directed at young people as a result of an increased use of coercive measures against youth and young adults suspected of minor drug offences in Sweden. The research questions are addressed on the basis of police documentation covering a period of one year. Approximately 67% of police interventions involved car-stops or police responses to calls for service. The documented grounds for the use of enforced drug tests are of a subjective nature, and detail signs of intoxication. Body searches were less often documented, and provided little insight into suspicion formation. 82% of the drug tests produced positive results for illicit substances. The results highlight the need to evaluate the utility and practice of body searches and enforced drug testing focused on youth.

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  • 43.
    Ejbye-Ernst, Peter
    et al.
    Netherlands Inst Study Crime & Law Enforcement, Boelelaan 1077, NL-1081 HV Amsterdam, Netherlands..
    Moeller, Kim
    Malmö University, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Criminology (KR).
    Liebst, Lasse S.
    Netherlands Inst Study Crime & Law Enforcement, Boelelaan 1077, NL-1081 HV Amsterdam, Netherlands.;Univ Copenhagen, Dept Sociol, Copenhagen, Denmark..
    Thomas, Jo
    Netherlands Inst Study Crime & Law Enforcement, Boelelaan 1077, NL-1081 HV Amsterdam, Netherlands..
    Sexton, Melissa
    Free Univ Amsterdam, Sch Business & Econ, Amsterdam, Netherlands..
    Lindegaard, Marie R.
    Netherlands Inst Study Crime & Law Enforcement, Boelelaan 1077, NL-1081 HV Amsterdam, Netherlands.;Univ Amsterdam, Dept Sociol, Amsterdam, Netherlands..
    "It's illegal to buy drugs from street dealers": a video-based pre-post study of a behavioral intervention to displace dealers from an Amsterdam open-air drug market2023In: Journal of Experimental Criminology, ISSN 1573-3750, E-ISSN 1572-8315Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: A high number of street dealers operate in the Red Light District in Amsterdam, The Netherlands. To displace the dealers, the Municipality of Amsterdam installed text-based light projections in a street attracting a high number of dealers.

    Methods: To evaluate the intervention, we did a pre-post analysis of video footage from two CCTV cameras located in the street. In total, we analyzed 765 one-minute segments of footage from before and after the implementation.

    Results: The implementation was followed by a four percentage point reduction in street dealers. However, the estimated effect shows fragileness with wide confidence intervals and a p-value just below 0.05, and a Bayesian robustness analysis suggests that the intervention was not associated with the outcome.

    Conclusions: Analyzing CCTV-footage offers a unique avenue for evaluating small scale interventions in open-air drug markets. While we observed a decrease in the presence of dealers, the intervention still needs further validation.

  • 44.
    Ek, Moa
    et al.
    Malmö University, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), Department of Urban Studies (US).
    Ryder, Alva
    Malmö University, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), Department of Urban Studies (US).
    Transaktionsprocessen: Dissonansen mellan jordabalkens transaktionsprocess och den praktiska verklighetens transaktionsprocess.2022Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The part of the transaction process where the buyer must examine the property is an important part of the transfer, as this is when the buyer finds out more about the property he seeks to purchase. However, there is no obligation for the buyer to investigate the property but rather a division of responsibilities. Therefore, he is responsible for what he should have been able to discover. Since today's real estate market is a fast business, this may mean that the duty to inspect is neglected.  The purpose of this paper was to study whether the Swedish Land and Cadastral Legislation transaction process differed from how the transaction process takes place in practice. To do this two questions were formulated regarding how the duty to investigate and the defect liability rules relate to today's quick business and how the duty to investigate is affected by this. To get an answer to the questions, a legal dogmatic method and a legal analytical method were used,where various sources of law were studied and other sources that go beyond the doctrine of legal sources. The work concluded that the Swedish Land Code does not prescribe how a transaction process should take place, but due to the buyer's duty to inspect, the law presupposes that the buyer has time to inspect the property. Therefore, the work concluded that the transaction process in practice differs from the law. This is because the market of today is based on fast transactions meaning that there is not always time to fulfill the duty to investigate in the same way as the law presupposes. In addition, the work concluded that different types of methods are used in today's market, such as inspections and pre-inspections that affect and extends the duty to inspect. Since there is fast business, it can not always be guaranteed that the transaction process takes place in the way required by law, with special reason due to both lack of time and perhaps even knowledge. Furthermore, the need for assistance from inspectors and other added services is perhaps driven by the fast paced market and the lack of knowledgement for the common buyer.

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  • 45.
    El Khadrawi, Mohamed
    Malmö University, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), Department of Urban Studies (US).
    Artificial Intelligence and Electronic Litigation Towards A Better Future of Justice2023Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 80 credits / 120 HE creditsStudent thesis
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  • 46.
    Enander, Viveka
    et al.
    Göteborg University.
    Krantz, Gunilla
    Göteborg University.
    Lövestad, Solveig
    Göteborg University.
    Örmon, Karin
    Malmö University, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Care Science (VV). VKV – The Västra Götaland Region Competence Centre on Intimate Partner Violence.
    The killing and thereafter: intimate partner homicides in a process perspective, part II2022In: Journal of Gender-Based Violence, ISSN 2398-6808, Vol. 6, no 3, p. 501-517Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article puts intimate partner homicide (IPH) into a process perspective, and describes the latter two stages of the IPH process, that is, ‘changing the project’ and ‘the aftermath’. The focus of analysis is on the moment when the perpetrator chooses to kill the victim, and what s/he does and says in the wake of the killing. Fifty court files, from cases involving 40 male and 10 female perpetrators, underwent thematic analysis. Regarding the final trigger pertaining to changing the project, some situational factors that trigger male-perpetrated IPH seem to differ from the corresponding factors in female-perpetrated IPH. Feelings of rejection and jealousy seemed to be more common as triggers to kill for men than for women, while some cases of female-perpetrated IPH were linked to self-defence in response to IPV. Moreover, as noted previously, no female perpetrators displayed possessiveness.

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  • 47.
    Engström, Alexander
    Malmö University, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Criminology (KR). Malmo Univ, Dept Criminol, Malmo, Sweden..
    Conceptualizing Lifestyle and Routine Activities in the Early 21(st)Century: A Systematic Review of Self-Report Measures in Studies on Direct-Contact Offenses in Young Populations2021In: Crime and delinquency, ISSN 0011-1287, E-ISSN 1552-387X, Vol. 67, no 5, p. 737-782, article id 0011128720937640Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Criticism is commonly directed at research based on lifestyle-exposure theory and routine activity theory for the use of imprecise measures. To examine this issue further, this systematic review maps activities used as indicators of lifestyle and routine activities in studies on direct-contact crime among young individuals (mean age of 24 or younger). The results indicate that a broad range of activities are used as measures of lifestyle and routine activities in the 101 included studies. Studies on victimization often use illegal activities and substance use as measures of lifestyle or routine activities while studies on offending mainly rely on measures of unstructured and peer-oriented leisure activities. Overall, most studies seem more concerned with specific activities rather than routines or lifestyles.

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  • 48.
    Engström, Alexander
    Malmö University, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Criminology (KR).
    Everyday life, crime, and fear of crime among adolescents and young adults2021Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Drawing on lifestyle-routine activity theory, this dissertation explores associations between everyday life, crime, and fear of crime among adolescents and young adults. It also examines the operationalisation of the concepts of lifestyle and routine activities, and explores the use of experience methods, via a smartphone application named STUNDA, to collect data about everyday life. Of the four studies conducted, Study I shows that different specific lifestyle measures are of varying relevance for victims, offenders, and victim-offenders, which indicates that no single universal lifestyle feature is of relevance for all outcomes studied. The findings from Study II reveal that spending time with friends in the city-centre is associated with lower levels of fear of crime across months, days, and moments. However, other associations between everyday life variables and fear of crime are inconsistent across these reference periods. Study III, a systematic review of the literature, shows that measures of lifestyle and routine activities differ in the frequency with which they are used in studies on interpersonal victimisation and offending. Illegal activities are often used as lifestyle/routine activity measures in studies on victimisation while unstructured and peer-oriented activities dominate in studies on offending. However, the measures used in the included studies are diverse, which indicates that researchers use a wide range of activities that are intended to measure lifestyle/routine activities. The final paper, Study IV, explores fear of crime in relation to moments of everyday life and finds that specific features of settings, such as being in semi-public and public spaces and on public transport, increase the odds for experiencing fear of crime.

    The overall conclusions of the studies point to methodological and theoretical directions for future research. First, research in the field of lifestyle-routine activity theory needs to consider specific and potentially different activities when examining victimisation, offending, and the overlap between these two outcomes. Further, fear of crime research must consider different reference periods, such as months, days and moments, since fear may not only be defined as a more stable trait-like phenomenon but also as a momentary and transitory experience in everyday life. The types of measures used to represent everyday life also require consideration, particularly in terms of the inclusion of lifestyle/routine activity measures that are actually related to criminogenic exposure. For theory more specifically, the implications of the findings point to an overall confirmation of the view that exposure to various environmental circumstances is associated with crime and fear of crime. However, across all of the studies conducted, the findings point to potential weaknesses of the theory. In particular, the lack of an elaborated perspective on individual traits and characteristics limits the explanatory scope of lifestyle-routine activity theory. For instance, people with similar lifestyles still vary in terms of their victimisation, offending, and fear of crime, which necessitates the inclusion of additional individual-level factors that could explain these variations. Future research must thus either modify lifestyle-routine activity theory or open up for other theoretical perspectives that provide a more holistic approach to understanding the role of both environ-mental and individual factors when studying everyday life, crime, and fear of crime.

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  • 49.
    Falck, Caroline
    Malmö University, Faculty of Education and Society (LS), Department of Society, Culture and Identity (SKI).
    Ämnesdidaktiska förutsättningar inom skolämnet juridik2023Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Allt fler gymnasieelever läser juridik samtidigt som skolorna rapporterar en stor brist på ämnesbehöriga lärare i juridik. Det är inte möjligt att bli legitimerad gymnasielärare i juridik genom ämneslärarprogrammet, ämnesbehörighet i ämnet juridik kan endast nås genom kompletterande lärarutbildningar. Det finns ingen utvecklad ämnesdidaktik inom juridikämnet på gymnasial nivå och även för det akademiska ämnet är den ämnesdidaktiska forskningen begränsad. 

    Syftet med min studie är att undersöka och beskriva vilka ämnesdidaktiska förutsättningar det finns inom skolämnet juridik. Studien har utförts genom en kvantitativ enkätstudie bland juridiklärare på gymnasieskolor runtom i Sverige. Enkätresultatet har analyserats utifrån tre teman: Hur ser juridiklärares bakgrund ut i förhållande till formell pedagogisk utbildning och ämneskunskaper, hur undervisar juridiklärare och vilka ämnesdidaktiska utmaningar uppger juridiklärare att de möter i sin undervisning?

    Studiens resultat visar att juridiklärares bakgrund varierar allt ifrån att lärare har akademisk examen inom juridik till att helt sakna formell ämnesutbildning. När det kommer till undervisningsmetoder använder sig juridiklärare av flera olika undervisningsmetoder med tydliga kopplingar till ämnesplanen vilket visar på en varierad juridikundervisning. Det finns vissa skillnader mellan behöriga och obehöriga lärare gällande vilka undervisningsmetoder som används. Den främsta ämnesdidaktiska utmaningen som juridiklärare upplever rör elevernas möte med det juridiska språket. Elevernas språkliga svårigheter påverkar och begränsar undervisningen i juridik. 

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  • 50.
    Finstad, Liv
    et al.
    Institutt for kriminologi og rettssosiologi, Universitetet i Oslo.
    Mellgren, Caroline
    Malmö University, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Criminology (KR). Malmö University, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Unit for Police Work.
    Andersson, Jörgen
    Polisen.
    Polis - vad är det?2023Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Den här boken tar sig an frågan om polisens samhällsuppdrag och hur målen för polisen uppfattas av olika parter. Boken handlar om polisen som den som både öppnar och stänger dörren till rättsväsendet, liksom hur polisens auktoritet utövas, vilka maktmedel som brukas och om balansgången mellan legitim kontroll och överkontroll. Sist men inte minst handlar den om hur polisens verksamhet kan eller bör fungera. Polis – vad är det? är en översättning och omarbetning av Liv Finstads bok Hva er politi som gavs ut på norska 2018. Boken vänder sig i första hand till studerande vid polisutbildningen men fungerar även utmärkt som litteratur i andra professionsutbildningar, exempelvis inom kriminologi eller socialt arbete, som leder till yrken som på olika sätt samverkar med polisen. Myndigheter är också en given målgrupp liksom den som bara har ett intresse av att veta mer om polisen i samhället.

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