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  • 1.
    Agyemang, Alberta
    Malmö University, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Biomedical Science (BMV).
    Investigation of vitamin K interaction and transdermal delivery at skin barriers:study using k4 model2021Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Vitamin K is a fat soluble compound which is synthesized by the gut microbiota and produced in many tissues within the body. Considering its role in the liver as a cofactor for gamma carboxylase enzymes, treatment of dark circles and pigments under the eye among others. It is clear that is some circumstances vitamin K has to cross biological barriers, particularly, when the vitamin is produced by microbiota in the intestine or applied topically on skin. Thus it is important to develop methods that allow studies of vitamin K permeability through the skin including its participation in redox reactions and transdermal permeability. Taking into account that transdermal permeability is strongly limited for high molecular weight compounds, i.e., compounds with higher than 500Da, the study was conducted with vitamin K of  lower molecular weight. Specifically vitamin K4 model, i.e., 1,4-dihydroxy-2 naphthoic acid, with molecular weight of 204g/mol. Vitamin K4 is suitable for this kind of study , because it can work as reducing (antioxidant) compound as well as has relatively beneficial physicochemical characteristics for transdermal permeability. Permeability studies were conducted with skin covered oxygen electrode and franz diffusion cell. Data from measurements were analyzed to estimate diffusion coefficients, apparent Michaelis-Menten constants and flux of a vitamin K4 model whilst contribution of different permeability pathways was determined theoretically.

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  • 2.
    Andersson, Anni
    Malmö University, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Biomedical Science (BMV).
    Utvärdering av biomarkörerna PD-L1 och calretinin i parade histologiska och cytologiska provmaterial från patienter med mesoteliom2023Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Malignant mesothelioma is a rare and aggressive cancer. It is most common in the pleura, called pleural mesothelioma. The most common reason for developing pleural mesothelioma is exposure to asbestosis. Patients that get sick have a poor prognosis and limited treatment options. X-ray can in a first stadium give diagnose of the disease. A biopsy is often necessary to confirm the diagnosis. Even sampling of pleural fluid can give valuable diagnostic information. Immunohistochemistry is a common additional analysis for diagnosis with biopsy and cell block. Immunohistochemistry implies staining with antibodies. For example, for pleural mesothelioma the antibodies PD-L1 and calretinin can be used for diagnosis. In this study 10 paired pleural biopsies and cell blocks from pleural fluid from patients with malign mesothelioma were immunostained. The study aimed to evaluate expression of PD-L1 and calretinin. All the stained glasses were evaluated by a light microscope. For PD-L1, only membranous staining was considered positive and for calretinin cytoplasmic and/or nuclear staining was considered positive. Percentage number of positive tumor cells were evaluated at two cutoff values, ≥1 % and ≥10 %. Percentage number <1 % at cutoff ≥1 % and percentage number <10 % at cutoff ≥10 % were considered negative. The same criteria were applied for both antibodies. The number of positive and negative biopsies as well as cell blocks and the concordance were reported. Overall percentage agreement (OPA), Cohen’s kappa (κ) and confidence interval (CI) was also calculated. Result showed lower number of positive staining for the cell blocks than for the biopsies for both antibodies. The concordance was shown to be equal for PD-L1 and calretinin at cutoff ≥1 % but higher for PD-L1 than for calretinin at cutoff ≥10 %.

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  • 3. Andersson, Linda
    et al.
    Eriksson, Håkan
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Health and Society (HS).
    Detection of endocytosis using de-aluminated zeolite2006Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Nano-meter sized particles of de-aluminated zeolite Y has a high adsorption capacity of both low molecular weight bio-molecules and macromolecules. In this study we used de-aluminated zeolite Y as a novel approach to study the mechanisms of endocytosis in immature human peripheral blood dendritic cells (DCs). Probes detecting pH neutral and acidic endosomes were adsorbed to the zeolite and used as a tracer of the endosomal pathway of a cell in the form of acidification and lysosomal function. Both the myeloid (M-DCs) and the plasmacytoid (P-DCs) dendritic cell subsets showed an endocytosing capacity comparable to peripheral blood monocytes but only the M-DCs were able to form acidic endosomes after internalization of zeolite particles. Furthermore, during lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulation of the DCs population, an enhanced induction of acidic endosomes was only seen in the M-DC population. Proteolytic degradation of endocytosed proteins was detected using self-quenched DQ-ovalbumin adsorbed to zeolite particles and our results showed a clear difference between the two DC populations. The M-DC population, that showed formation of acidic endosomes, also showed proteolytic degradation of ovalbumin. The P-DC population on the other hand, showed no formation of acidic and no proteolytic degradation of ovalbumin. Various bio-molecules can be adsorbed by de-aluminated zeolites and in conclusion we propose the use of zeolite particles as a useful tool in the study of the endocytosing mechanisms of a cell.

  • 4.
    Arnebrant, Thomas
    et al.
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Health and Society (HS).
    Joiner, Andrew
    Elofsson, Ulla
    Adsorption of chlorhexidine and black tea onto in vitro salivary pellicles, as studied by ellipsometry2006In: European Journal of Oral Sciences, ISSN 0909-8836, E-ISSN 1600-0722, Vol. 114, p. 337-342Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The adsorption from 0.2% (w/w) chlorhexidine and black tea solutions onto an in vitro pellicle from whole unstimulated saliva on hydroxyapatite discs was studied by ellipsometry. It was found that chlorhexidine adsorbed to the pellicle causing a modification of the pellicle properties, leading to a subsequent increase in adsorption of salivary and black tea components. There was a distinct order of addition effect, whereby chlorhexidine followed by black tea gave an overall greater adsorption of components compared to black tea followed by chlorhexidine. This increase in adsorption gave a concomitant increase in colour or stain as measured by a reflectance chromameter. The increase in adsorbed amounts and stain was modified in part by the adsorption of salivary fractions between the chlorhexidine and black tea treatments. In all cases, the chlorhexidine and black tea modified pellicles were not readily removed by either phosphate or sodium dodecyl sulphate rinses. Thus, following chlorhexidine exposure, the accelerated adsorption of salivary and black tea components can ultimately lead to increased staining of the pellicle.

  • 5.
    Arnebrant, Thomas
    et al.
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Health and Society (HS).
    Malmsten, M
    Elofsson, U.M.
    Joiner, Andrew
    Adsorption from Black Tea and Red Wine onto IN Vitro Salivary Pellicles Studied by Ellipsometry2003In: European Journal of Oral Sciences, ISSN 0909-8836, E-ISSN 1600-0722, Vol. 111, no 5, p. 417-422Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The adsorption of black tea and red wine components onto a pellicle-like protein layer formed in vitro by adsorption from whole unstimulated saliva on hydroxyapatite discs were studied by in situ ellipsometry. It was found that components from black tea readily adsorbed to the pellicle. Subsequent exposure to saliva led to further adsorption of salivary components to give an overall increase in the amounts adsorbed. The amounts adsorbed increased still further following a third tea and saliva exposure. Components of red wine gave significantly greater amounts of adsorption to the pellicle than black tea. The adsorption of components of black tea gave a concomitant increase in colour or stain as measured by a reflectance chromameter. In all cases, the black tea- and red wine-modified pellicles were not eluted by either phosphate buffer or sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) rinses. Thus, black tea and red wine components have been shown to have a profound effect on in vitro pellicle maturation, causing thickened layers of stained material to build up, which are not readily removed.

  • 6.
    Arnebrant, Thomas
    et al.
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Health and Society (HS).
    Rutland, M. W
    Hahn Berg, IC
    Lubricating Properties of the Initial Salivary Pellicle2003In: Biofouling (Print), ISSN 0892-7014, E-ISSN 1029-2454, Vol. 19, no 6, p. 365-369Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The role of saliva in the oral cavity is manifold; an important function is to serve as lubricant between hard (enamel) and soft (mucosal) tissues. Intraoral lubrication is of crucial importance in order to maintain functions such as deglutition, mastication and the faculty of speech. A large number of people suffer from impaired salivary functions, displaying symptoms such as 'dry mouth'. This results in a need for methods to assess the lubricating properties of both native saliva and potential artificial saliva formulations. Here, normal as well as lateral forces, acting between adsorbed salivary films, have been measured for the first time by means of colloidal probe atomic force microscopy (AFM). It was found that the presence of salivary pellicles between hard surfaces reduces the friction coefficient by a factor of 20. This reduction of friction is consistent with the long-range purely repulsive nature of the normal forces acting between the salivary films. The lubricating mechanism is presumably based on a full separation of the sliding surfaces by the salivary films. The friction between salivary films has been investigated at normal loads that cover the clinical jaw closing forces, and it can be concluded that the lubricating properties are maintained within this load interval. The present study indicates the usefulness of colloidal probe AFM, which offers a direct and quantitative measure of lubrication at a molecular level, in the study of biotribological phenomena. In particular, the results obtained here may have implications for the development of saliva substitutes.

  • 7.
    Bechmann, Fredrike
    Malmö University, Faculty of Health and Society (HS). Klinisk mikrobiologi och vårdhygien.
    PCR-baserad screening av gener som kodar för karbapenemresistens2023Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
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  • 8. Bergenstål, B
    et al.
    Alsins, J
    Arnebrant, Thomas
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Health and Society (HS).
    Landström, K
    Competitive Protein Adsorption between B-Casein and B-Lactoglobulin During Spray-Drying: Effect of Calcium induced Association2003In: Food Hydrocolloids, ISSN 0268-005X, E-ISSN 1873-7137, Vol. 17, no 1, p. 103-116Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Competitive adsorption between B-casein and B-lactoglobulin (B-Lg) during spray-drying was studied by the new surface sensitive technique using fluorescence quenching of pyrene labelled protein at the powder surface. The difference in competitiveness of B-casein when present as monomers and as associated into micellar like structures were studied. Results were compared with the adsorption of single proteins at the powder surface. The adsorption of monomeric B-casein alone gave an apparent surface load of 1 mg/m2 at a protein concentration of 0.3% dry weight and then remained constant with an increasing protein concentration. In the presence of Ca2+, associated B-casein gave a lower affinity adsorption than monomeric B-casein and did not reach a plateau value, instead it continued to increase with an increasing protein concentration. B-Lg showed a low-affinity adsorption during spray-drying compared to monomeric B-casein, although not as low as associated B-casein. Competitive adsorption between monomeric B-casein and B-Lg resulted in a higher apparent surface load of B-casein than B-Lg at both protein concentrations studied (total 0.3 and 3.3% dry weight). However, in an associated form B-casein was less competitive than B-Lg. At a low bulk protein concentration (0.3% dry weight) B-Lg dominated the powder surface, whereas at a higher concentration (3.3% dry weight) there was little difference between the proteins. The results indicate that the competitiveness of a protein during spray-drying is highly influenced by the ability of the protein to attach and rearrange at the droplet's air?water interface during the spray-drying process.

  • 9.
    Bernal Salazar, Juan Manuel
    Malmö University, Faculty of Health and Society (HS).
    Effectivization of GAD ELISA: Method-transfer from Dynex DSX to Tecan Freedom EVOlyzer2022Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Due to a growing demand and need for faster results, effectivization as a concept has been pushed to the forefront of medical research. Here, a method transfer between 2 fully automized ELISA instruments is highlighted. The instruments were the Tecan Freedom EVOlyzer and the Dynex DSX.  The Tecan instrument is a more modern instrument with a more extensive LIMS integration, better automatization and increased capacity for samples and assays. The method being transferred was an Anti-GAD ELISA for the diagnosis of Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus. The study design was a result comparison of 20 samples with varying Anti-GAD concentration and 15 replicates of a single sample for a precision study. To successfully transfer the method, acceptance criteria concerning percentual difference in result, intermediate precision, and repeatability had to fall below 20 %. The assay was set up as a sandwich ELISA in accordance with the kit used at the laboratory (Euroimmun), where each sample was set as duplicates. Preliminary programming and testing was performed to ensure proper function. An average bias of +33 % was reported, as was an intra-run variation and an inter-run variation of ca 11 %. Additionally, a recurring issue with samples and calibrators in specific locations on the plate was reported. The issue was deemed systemic and possible solutions include changing programming parameters, or instrument part replacement. Ultimately the method transfer was left incomplete, and several technical details must be overcome before taking Anti-GAD analysis into routine use on the instrument.

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  • 10.
    Björngren Cuadra, Carin
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Odontology (OD). Malmö högskola, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS).
    Tandhygienisters arbete med patienter i ett mångkulturellt samhälle - en studie av migrationsrelaterade frågeställningar och samtal2005Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim is to illuminate aspects of dental hygienists' work in multiethnic/multicultural societies, with focus on the intersection between the institutional activity and migration, ethnic diversity and culture issues. Hence, a tension between equality and diversity are discussed. The thesis has two analytical approaches, practice and discourse. The focus is on talk-in-interaction with patients (practice) and how the dental hygienist conceptualise their work when treating people with migrant background (discourse). The theoretical and methodological considerations are drawn from the sociological tradition of "Verstehen", Foucault and discourse analysis. The empirical material is based on documented observations (VCR) and interviews with dental hygienists and patients. The analysis of practice suggests that the interaction is organised by the institutional activity type. A patient’s readiness to position oneself as a "knowing subject", opposed to ethnicity, is crucial to how the interaction is structured. Migration related categories and phenomenon are related to the institutional task and understood as situated including practices. In discourse, ethnicity intersects with gender and class. The patient's power resources are of vital importance in a discourse on "immigrant patients". The hygienists relates to culture, in terms of relationship with dental care. References in exclusionary discourses were also found. Based on multilayered findings and theories of multiculturalisms, the concept of culture is discussed in connection to agency, ethics of care and equal treatment.

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  • 11. Blomqvist Rippner, B
    et al.
    Benjamins, J-W
    Nylander, Tommy
    Arnebrant, Thomas
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Health and Society (HS).
    Ellipsometric characterization of ethylene oxide-butylene oxide diblock copolymer adsorption at the air-water interface2005In: Langmuir, ISSN 0743-7463, E-ISSN 1520-5827, Vol. 21, no 11, p. 5061-5068Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 12.
    Boyd, Hannah
    Malmö University, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Biomedical Science (BMV). Malmö University, Biofilms Research Center for Biointerfaces.
    On the structure and mechanical properties of in vitro salivary pellicles2021Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Salivary pellicles display exceptional hydration and lubrication performance. At present, there are still gaps in the understanding of how this is achieved. The aim of this thesis was therefore to increase our knowledge on the mechanisms underlying these properties and deepen the understanding of how they are related to the composition and structure of pellicles, with a focus on those formed under in vitro conditions. This has applications ranging from the development of artificial saliva and lubricating coatings for biomedical applications to methodological approaches for initial testing of oral healthcare products. For this, we also focused on developing suitable methodological approaches for these studies, centering on atomic force microscopy, quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring, ellipsometry and neutron reflectometry techniques, to investigate in vitro and model salivary pellicles.

    First, we confirmed a two-layer structure for in vitro salivary pellicles and showed that the outer layer is mainly composed by the oral mucin MUC5B, but that it also contains other salivary components that enhance swelling and hydration. In the presence of bulk saliva, the outer layer also contains a reversibly and loosely bound fraction. This fraction increases the adhesiveness of the pellicle but unexpectedly has no significant effect on its lubrication performance. We also investigated the effect of mechanical confinement on model salivary pellicles by means of Neutron Reflectometry, revealing that at a pressure of 1 bar they are already completely compressed and dehydrated. Finally, with the aim to advance towards better oral healthcare products, we investigated the effect of nonionic and amphoteric surfactants on salivary pellicles, showing that they have a gentler effect on pellicle structure than the commonly employed anionic surfactants.

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  • 13.
    Börjesson, Linus
    Malmö University, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Biomedical Science (BMV).
    Vasopressinmarkören Copeptin: Beskrivning av analysförfarande och användningsområde2022Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Vasopressin is an important hormone that has many physiological functions, including the maintenance of fluid balance in the body. Measurement of this hormone is however complicated and therefore the "shadow fragment" copeptin is used, which is derived from the same precursor. Using the BRAHMS copeptin proAVP KRYPTOR method, copeptin was measured in this study. The purpose of the study is to calculate the coefficient of variation, and thus examine the reproducibility of the measured values ​. Furthermore, the aim will be to use the EpiHealth cohort study was used to validate the link between copeptin and elevated blood sugar through a multivariate linear regression. The majority of the multiple measurements of copeptin values had an inter-assay CV <8%, which indicates that the method has a good reproducibility. Examination of the EpiHealth cohort revealed that elevated copeptin was cross-sectionally associated with a number of metabolic risk markers, including fasting plasma glucose, after multivariate adjustment, a finding that is in line with previous findings from epidemiological studies. The fact that copeptin was significantly related to this potent metabolic risk marker may indicate a causal role of the vasopressin system in elevated blood glucose and may play a role in the development of type 2 diabetes metillus. Previous experimental and genetical studies have indicated a causal association between elevated vasopressin and diabetes development. Currently, a randomized clinical trial is ongoing (the H2O-metab-study) in order to investigate a possible causal association between elevated vasopressin and glucose. In the study, increased water intake is used to lower plasma vasopressin (measured as copeptin), and the glucose-lowering potential of this water treatment is tested. There are hopes that copeptin can in the future be used in clinical practice for risk assessment with respect to cardiometabolic diseases (including type 2 diabetes).

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  • 14.
    Bøwadt, Thea
    Malmö University, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Biomedical Science (BMV). Malmö university.
    Mitigating the impact of antidrug antibodies against insulin on ELISA assay2021Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Diabetes has, in the past three decades, surged immensely. Because of this, new insulin analogues are constantly in the making. 

    In clinical studies, the presence of antidrug antibodies can prove a challenge when measuring insulin. In order to overcome the interference from antidrug antibody complexes on the total insulin measurement in human serum, several pre-treatment methods on insulin and polyclonal antibodies spiked samples were tried using ELISA analysis.

    Several different methods were tried, acid dissociation using a glycine buffer with and without ethanol in different concentrations, high ionic strength dissociation using MgCl2, Polyethylene glycol (PEG) and filtration.

    The best results were found when using the acid dissociation technique. Using glycine promising results were achieved, especially when 20 % ethanol was added to the acid mixture. Pre-treatment using PEG, MgCl2 and filtration was unsuccessful with the methods used.

    The main goal was reached through the use of glycine with the addition of 20% ethanol for acid dissociation. The proposed method still leaves significant room for optimisation and needs further verification on real patient samples. However, it is a good step in the direction of a global methodology using ELISA to overcome antidrug antibody interference for total insulin measurement in human serum.

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  • 15.
    Campos Pacheco, Jesus Enrique
    et al.
    Malmö University, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Biomedical Science (BMV). Malmö University, Biofilms Research Center for Biointerfaces.
    Riaz, Azra
    Malmö University, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Biomedical Science (BMV). Malmö University, Biofilms Research Center for Biointerfaces.
    Falkman, Peter
    Malmö University, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Biomedical Science (BMV). Malmö University, Biofilms Research Center for Biointerfaces.
    Feiler, Adam
    Nanolog AB publ, Södertälje, Sweden.;KTH Royal Inst Technol, Surface & Corros Sci, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Ekstrom, Mikael
    Iconovo AB, Lund, Sweden..
    Pilkington, Georgia
    Nanolog AB publ, Södertälje, Sweden..
    Valetti, Sabrina
    Malmö University, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Biomedical Science (BMV). Malmö University, Biofilms Research Center for Biointerfaces.
    Encapsulation of clofazimine in mesoporous silica as a potential dry powder formulation for treating tuberculosis2023In: Journal of Aerosol Medicine, ISSN 1941-2711, E-ISSN 1941-2703, Vol. 36, no 6, p. A13-A13, article id A13Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 16. Carlsson, F
    et al.
    Hyltner, E
    Arnebrant, Thomas
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Health and Society (HS).
    Malmsten, M
    Linse, Per
    Lysozyme Adsorption to Charged Surfaces. A Monte Carlo Study2004In: Journal of Physical Chemistry B, ISSN 1520-6106, E-ISSN 1520-5207, Vol. 108, no 28, p. 9871-9881Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 17.
    Chuy, Gechsiem
    Malmö University, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Biomedical Science (BMV).
    ISOLERING OCH KVANTIFIERING AV GENOMISKT DNA FRÅN MAKROFAGER STIMULERADE MED ALUMINIUMADJUVANT2022Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 180 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    ISOLERING OCH KVANTIFIERING AV GENOMISKT DNA FRÅN MAKROFAGER STIMULERADE MED ALUMINIUMADJUVANT

     

    GECHSIEM CHUY

     

    Chuy, G. Isolering och kvantifiering av genomiskt DNA från makrofager stimulerade med aluminiumadjuvant. Examensarbete i biomedicinsk laboratorievetenskap, 15 högskolepoäng. Malmö universitet: Fakulteten för hälsa och samhälle, Institutionen för biomedicinsk laboratorievetenskap, 2022.

     

    Makrofager har flera funktioner i immunförsvaret och förekommer i olika fenotyper beroende på stimulering. M1 makrofager är pro-inflammatoriska och stimuleras av lipopolysackarider och interferon-gamma. M2 makrofager är anti-inflammatoriska som stimuleras av interleukin-4 (IL-4) och IL-13 medan M0 makrofager är icke polariserade. Dessa olika former av makrofager utför olika funktioner och behöver därför uttrycka olika delar av genomet. Reglering av genuttrycket sker bland annat genom metylering av cellernas DNA. Aluminiumadjuvant har under lång tid använts som tillsatser i vaccin och fungerat som förstärkare för immunförsvaret mot antigenet som ingår i vaccinet. För att kunna undersöka om aluminiumadjuvant också påverkar makrofagers metyleringsgrad måste genomiskt DNA kunna isoleras från cellerna både med och utan stimulering av aluminiumadjuvant. Syftet med studien var att undersöka om differentiering och polarisering av makrofager i cellodlingsplattor med bottenytor av 3,8 respektive 9,5 cm2 i brunnarna ger nog med celler för att reproducerbart kunna isolera och kvantifiera genomiskt DNA med en koncentration av minst 1 ng/μl från makrofager stimulerade med aluminiumadjuvant. Resultatet från denna studie visar att differentiering och polarisering av makrofager i cellodlingsplatta med bottenyta 9,5 cm2/brunn ger tillräckligt med celler för att kunna extrahera genomiskt DNA med koncentrationer högre än 1 ng/μl. Betydligt högre mängder DNA erhölls när cellerna eluerades från cellodlingsplattan innan cellerna lyserades inför isolering DNA. Det är därför av största vikt att adherenta celler elueras och att lysering av celler inför isolering av genomiskt DNA görs på celler i suspension. Vidare visade resultaten att för makrofagerna som stimulerade med aluminiumadjuvant gav lägre DNA utbyte jämför med cellerna utan stimulering. Studien har visat ett förfarande för optimering av preparationssteg inför DNA extraktion som gör det möjligt att isolera DNA på ett reproducerbart sätt inför fortsatta studier.

     

    Nyckelord: Aluminiumadjuvant, DNA, immunförsvaret, makrofager, polarisering.

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  • 18.
    Cárdenas, Marité
    et al.
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Health and Society (HS).
    Barauskas, Justas
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Health and Society (HS).
    Schillén, Karin
    Brennan, Jennifer
    Brust, Mattias
    Nylander, Tommy
    Thiol-Specific and Non-Specific Interactions Between DNA and Gold Nanoparticles2006In: Langmuir, Vol. 22, p. 3294-3299Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The contribution of nonspecific interactions to the overall interactions of thiol-ssDNA and dsDNA macromolecules with gold nanoparticles was investigated. A systematic investigation utilizing dynamic light scattering and cryogenic transmission electron microscopy has been performed to directly measure and visualize the changes in particle size and appearance during functionalization of gold nanoparticles with thiol-ssDNA and nonthiolated dsDNA. The results show that both thiol-ssDNA and dsDNA do stabilize gold nanoparticle dispersions, but possible nonspecific interactions between the hydrophobic DNA bases and the gold surface promote interparticle interactions and cause aggregation within rather a short period of time. We also discuss the adsorption mechanisms of dsDNA and thiol-ssDNA to gold particles.

  • 19.
    Dahlgren, Angelica
    Malmö University, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Biomedical Science (BMV).
    Metabolic Crisis Induced by Antiepileptic Drugs in Patients with Mitochondrial Epilepsy: The Effect of Valproic Acid, Topiramate and Propofol on Mitochondrial Function2023Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Mitochondria are important cytosolic organelles present in nearly all eukaryotic cells. The main function of mitochondria are to generate the vast majority of ATP through the process of oxidative phosphorylation. Mitochondria have key roles regarding other systems in the body as well, such as regulation of apoptosis, calcium homeostasis, reactive oxygen production etc. Mitochondrial diseases are caused by impaired mitochondrial function, originating from mutations in either the mitochondrial DNA or the nuclear DNA. Epilepsy is a common symptom of mitochondrial disease, especially in children. The pathophysiology behind mitochondrial epilepsy is primarily based on ATP deficit, leading to a negative effect on a range of different nervous system related functions that in the end leads to seizures. The study aimed to investigate the effect on mitochondrial respiration of two commonly used antiepileptic drugs, namely valproic acid and Topiramate, and the anesthesic drug propofol, commonly used in case of refractory status epilepticus. The three drugs were titrated in different concentrations in a high-resolution respirometer from Oroboros Instruments (n=6). Propofol seemed especially inhibiting of mitochondrial function, and both propofol and topiramate had a significant decrease in mitochondrial respiration within the clinical concentrations. The result of the study supported research stating that propofol should be used with caution in patients with a mitochondrial disease, but further research should be done regarding all three drugs in order to draw definite conclusions.

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  • 20. Dahlström, Mia
    et al.
    Jonsson, Per R
    Lausmaa, Jukka
    Arnebrant, Thomas
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Health and Society (HS).
    Sjögren, Martin
    Holmberg, Krister
    Mårtensson, Lena G E
    Elwing, Hans
    Impact of polymer surface affinity of novel antifouling agents2004In: Biotechnology and Bioengineering, ISSN 0006-3592, E-ISSN 1097-0290, Vol. 86, no 1, p. 1-8Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 21. Dahm, Å
    et al.
    Eriksson, H
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Health and Society (HS).
    Ultra-stable zeolites - a tool for in-cell chemistry2004In: Journal of Biotechnology, ISSN 0168-1656, E-ISSN 1873-4863, Vol. 111, no 3, p. 279-290Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 22.
    Daneback, Kristian
    et al.
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Health and Society (HS).
    Cooper, Al
    Månsson, Sven-Axel
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Health and Society (HS).
    An Internet Study of Cybersex Participants2005In: Archives of Sexual Behavior, ISSN 0004-0002, E-ISSN 1573-2800, no 3, 34, p. 321-328Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 23.
    Dybowska, Patrycja
    Malmö University, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Biomedical Science (BMV).
    Jämförelse mellan två olika metoder för elimination av specifika blodgruppsantikroppar från plasma2021Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Vid organtransplantation finns det en möjlighet att transplantera organ över blodgruppsgränserna, det vill säga att ett organ transplanteras mellan individer med olika blodgrupper. Det är i dag en etablerad teknik som ökar möjligheten till fler transplantationer. Innan en sådan transplantation kan ske måste mottagaren genomgå en behandling som går ut på att manipulera immunsystemet samtidigt som de inkompatibla blodgruppsantikropparna extrakorporealt minskas till en given nivå hos recipienten före transplantation. Behandlingarna görs vanligtvis konsekutivt av recipienten tills det att en för transplantation accepterad antikroppsnivå underskrids (titer<1:8) och görs för att minimera risken för bortstötning av det transplanterade organet. För att eliminera de inkompatibla blodgruppsantikropparna är affinitetskromatografi genom interaktioner mellan antikroppar och antigener en lovande separationsmetod. Syftet med arbetet var att jämföra upptag av specifika antikroppar från en given plasmavolym genom att upptaget via en kontinuerlig adsorptionsprocess mot fraktionerad adsorption studerades. Syftet undersöktes genom att testa två olika immobiliserade A-trisackarider. Albuminförlusterna undersöktes även för att se om någon metod tog bort mer proteiner från plasman då det kan ha stor betydelse för patientens blödningsbenägenhet. Resultatet visade inte på någon skillnad mellan kontinuerlig metod jämfört med fraktionerad metod och ytterligare undersökning måste göras för att konstatera vilken metod som skulle vara att föredra.

  • 24.
    Edlund, Sofie
    Malmö University, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Biomedical Science (BMV).
    Optimering av vätskekromatografiska parametrar vid kvantifiering av läkemedel i serum med LC-MS/MS för klinisk diagnostik2021Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The quantification of antipsychotics and antidepressants in human serum with LC-MS/MS is usually performed with acetonitrile (ACN) as mobile phase. ACN is one of the most common organic solvents in reversed phase (RP) chromatography thanks to its high elution strength but is also highly toxic and can at times suffer from major delivery problems. The present study investigated the possibility of replacing ACN with methanol (MeOH) as primary organic solvent with the purpose of reducing the total ACN-usage. Three newly developed methods for chromatographic analysis of antipsychotic and antidepressant drugs using MeOH as organic solvent as part of the mobile phase were compared to the routine method in regard to analyte separation and retention, as well as the relative quantification of substance. In one of the methods only the mobile phase and elution gradient was changed whereas different types of RP columns were applied in addition to the changed mobile phase in the other two. All substances showed acceptable separation and retention when eluted with MeOH but displayed large fluctuations in the quantification of the analyzed substances, more specifically olanzapine, desmethylolanzapine and mirtazapine, in comparison to the reference method. Similar deviations in terms of regression and quantification bias were observed when analytes were eluted with MeOH through other types of RP columns. This indicates that further optimization of other parameters relating to the chromatography and mass spectrometer should be performed before validation.

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  • 25.
    Elatiya, Amir
    Malmö University, Faculty of Health and Society (HS).
    INVESTIGATION OF CYTOKINE PRODUCTION IN MACROPHAGES IN INTERACTION WITH SARS-COV-2 virus RECEPTOR BINDING DOMAIN2022Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the virus that causes coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19). The virus was first identified in December 2019, spread worldwide, and caused many deaths. The World Health Organization (WHO) declared a global public health crisis on 30 January 2020 and a pandemic on 11 March 2020. SARS-CoV-2 is a single-stranded RNA virus belonging to the genus Coronavirus and the family Coronaviridae. SARS-CoV-2 has four structural proteins, Envelope (E), Membrane (M) and Nucleocapsid (N) and Spike (S) proteins. The S protein consists of S1 and S2 subunits. The receptor-binding domain (RBD) of the virus is located in the S1 subunit and binds the virus to the surface receptor angiotensin convertase-2 (ACE2) of the host cell. This study aimed to better understand the production of proinflammatory cytokines in macrophages after in vitro interaction with the RBD of SARS-CoV-2. Gene expression of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), interleukin 6 (IL-6) and interleukin-1 Beta (IL-1β) in RBD stimulated mouse macrophage cell line RAW 264.7 was detected with quantitative Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-qPCR). In addition, the concentration of secreted TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-1β was quantified with sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The study indicated that mouse macrophages produce TNF-α upon exposure to SARS-CoV-2 RBD after 6 and 24 hours of cell stimulation, but neither IL-6 nor IL-1β were increased after stimulation. The future goals of the study are to understand how the immune system responds to the SARS-CoV-2 infection, and how this can help in treating COVID-19.

  • 26.
    Filekovic, Edina
    Malmö University, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Biomedical Science (BMV).
    Antioxidativ kapacitet i växtextrakt från Rhodiola rosea L, Plantago major L och Silybum marianum L2021Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 27.
    Fsahaye, Andebrhan
    Malmö University, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Biomedical Science (BMV).
    Permeation studies of Niacinamide and its effect on human skin2023Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

     Background: Niacinamide (NIA) is one of the most commonly used cosmetic ingredients. It belongs to the vitamin-B3 family and has extensive dermatological therapeutic benefits. NIA has been proven to be a useful skincare product in serving as anti-acne agent, preventing skin hyperpigmentation, removal of wrinkles from the face etc. 

    Aim: To investigate permeability patterns of NIA, its effect on electrical impedance of the skin membrane and the role it plays in maintaining the hydration of stratum corneum (SC). For this, permeation, chromatography, sorption isotherm and X-ray studies were performed.

    Results: NIA permeation was observed to correlate with pH and it permeated more when delivered in PBS at pH 7.4 as compared to its permeation in citrate buffer at pH 5. Moreover, skin resistance also increased by Ca. 47% in relation to NIA permeation at pH-5 while it decreased by an average of 45% at pH 7.4. In addition, vapor sorption analysis showed that NIA increased the hydration of SC at 95%RH as compared to buffer controls. This was also supported by X-ray data where NIA treated SC samples were shown to have larger interchain spacing in their keratin filaments in comparison to SC in buffer controls. This increase is usually associated with an increase in the water content of SC and thus NIA might have similar beneficial effects as water and can even be more advantageous as it doesn’t evaporate in dehydrated states unlike water. Moreover, artificial skin model has also been tested in parallel, and it was significantly more permeable to NIA than the human skin. Hence some modifications are necessary before it can be used to replace human/porcine skin.

    Conclusion: The study showed that pH influences NIA permeation and resistance of skin membrane. Additionally, NIA play beneficial roles by increasing water content of SC at high relative humidity (RH%).

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  • 28.
    Ghajraoui, Amani
    Malmö University, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Biomedical Science (BMV).
    CYTOKINPRODUKTION AVALVEOLÄRA MAKROFAGER: JÄMFÖRELSE MED MAKROFAGER FRÅN BENMÄRG OCH MJÄLTE2021Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Innate immunity is an important part of the immune system and includes, among other things, mononuclear phagocytes. The mononuclear phagocyte system includes macrophages with two large groups, M1 macrophages and M2 macrophages, as well as the non-polarized form, M0 macrophages, respectively with different vital functions. Alveolar macrophages colonize the lung tissue from birth and are independent of other tissue macrophages and monocytes present in the bloodstream. The immune cells in the lung must be maintained in a subdued state to rule out excessive reactions with subsequent damage to the lung tissue. The aim of this project was to confirm and quantify the presence of osteopontin, IL-28 A / B and CCL6 / C10 in media from alveolar macrophages and compare this with the cytokine production from macrophages, differentiated and polarized from spleen and bone marrow cells. The quantification of cytokine production was performed with ELISA kit on media from alveolar macrophages and macrophages derived from bone marrow and spleen cells with and without stimulation with MPLA and an aluminium adjuvant. The analysis confirmed the presence of osteopontin and CCL6, however, the cells did not show any significant IL-28 production. Furthermore, the analysis of alveolar macrophages, M1 macrophages from bone marrow, and M2 macrophages from spleen showed similarities in the cytokine production. For this reason, parallels are drawn between alveolar macrophages' expression of surface markers derived from M1 and M2 macrophages and cytokine production.

  • 29.
    González Arribas, Elena
    Malmö University, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Biomedical Science (BMV).
    Flexible and transparent biological electric power sources based on nanostructured electrodes2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The thesis is focused on biological electric power sources based on transparent and flexible nanostructured electrodes. The power generating part of these biodevices was decorated with different biomaterials electrically wired to transparent electrodes based on either thin gold films, or indium tin oxide. Planar electrodes were additionally nanostructured by applying different nanomaterials to the electrode surfaces (such as indium tin oxide nanoparticles, graphene, carbon nanotubes) or by using nanoimprint lithography to increase the real surface area and thus boost enzyme loading. Bilirubin oxidase was used a cathodic biocatalyst for oxygen electroreduction, whereas different biomaterials were exploited as anodic bioelements, viz. redox enzymes (cellobiose and glucose dehydrogenase, as well as glucose oxidases) and thylakoid membranes, for glucose electrooxidation and light harvesting, respectively. Charge-storing parts of biodevices were based on electroconducting polymers, e.g. poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene), carbon nanotubes, graphene, and indium tin oxide nanoparticles. The bioelectrodes were characterised in detail electrochemically, and also using scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy. Transparent, membrane-free enzymatic fuel cells, as well as chemical and solar biosupercapacitors were assembled and basic parameters of biodevices, viz. open-circuit voltages, power and charge density, as well as stability, were studied in continuous and pulse operating modes.

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  • 30.
    Hellman, Peter
    et al.
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Health and Society (HS).
    Eriksson, Håkan
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Health and Society (HS).
    EARLY ACTIVATION MARKERS EXPRESSED BY HUMAN PERIPHERAL DENDRITIC CELLS2006Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    EARLY ACTIVATION MARKERS EXPRESSED BY HUMAN PERIPHERAL DENDRITIC CELLS Peter Hellman and Håkan Eriksson University of Malmoe, Department of Biomedical Laboratory Science E-mail address: peter.hellman@hs.mah.se Two major populations of immature dendritic cells, myeloid (M-DCs) and plasmacytoid (P-DCs) can be identified in human peripheral blood. Activation of these subsets through their Toll-like receptors (TLRs) (TLR4 for M-DCs and TLR9 for P-DCs) induced production of the chemokine Il-8, already within two hours of stimulation. The production of IL-8 preceded the expression of the activation marker CD40 in both M-DCs and P-DCs. Although both populations of DCs secreted Il-8 upon activation, the levels of Il-8 produced was several times higher in the M-DCs compared to the P-DCs population. Before activation both subsets of DCs expressed the IL-8 receptor type B (CD128b), however, upon stimulation the Il-8 receptor became undetectable in both M-DCs and P-DCs. Increased expression of MHC class II molecules is regarded as an early activation marker of DCs. However, only the P-DCs showed a significantly increased expression of MHC class II after 4 hours of stimulation through TLR9. Noteworthy, the M-DCs showed an unexpected increase of MHC class II molecules after conditioning in medium for 4 hours, and no further increase in MHC class II expression after stimulation through TLR4 was observed. In conclusion, we propose that during activation of human DCs the production of Il-8 and loss of CD128b are the earliest signs of activation preceding both MHC class II, CD40, CD80 and CD86 expression.

  • 31.
    Henriksson, Filippa
    Malmö University, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Biomedical Science (BMV).
    Evaluation of antimycobacterial molecules' capacity to kill mycobacteria and their toxic effect on human cells.2023Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Tuberculosis is a fatal airborne disease caused by bacteria from the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC). The incidence of contracting tuberculosis is estimated to be around 10.6 million cases each year. Increased drug resistance among mycobacteria has led to the need to develop new treatments. The study's purpose was to determine the antimycobacterial ability of drug complexes and how toxic these complexes are against human cells. Drug complexes from "phage derived endolysins" and "A pyrazine amide-4 aminoquinoline hybrids" were studied to possibly be included as a treatment against tuberculosis in the future. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of the drug complexes were analyzed by the method Resazurin microtiter assay (REMA), where the results were assessed visually. The toxicity of the drug complexes was studied by growing THP1-Blue™ NF-κB cells, which then were exposed to the drug complexes. The results could then be obtained by absorbance measurement with spectrophotometry. One-way ANOVA showed a non-significant value, as the P-value was 0.44 (P>0.05). However, more supplementary studies need to be carried out to obtain a significant result. All performed concentrations of the drug complexes were assessed as non-toxic against human THP1-Blue™ NF-κB cells.

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  • 32.
    Hernandez, Aura Rocio
    et al.
    Malmö University, Biofilms Research Center for Biointerfaces. Malmö University, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Biomedical Science (BMV).
    Bogdanova, Ekaterina
    Malmö University, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Biomedical Science (BMV). Malmö University, Biofilms Research Center for Biointerfaces.
    Campos Pacheco, Jesus Enrique
    Malmö University, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Biomedical Science (BMV). Malmö University, Biofilms Research Center for Biointerfaces.
    Kocherbitov, Vitaly
    Malmö University, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Biomedical Science (BMV). Malmö University, Biofilms Research Center for Biointerfaces.
    Feiler, Adam
    Nanolog AB, Södertälje, Sweden..
    Pilkington, Georgia
    Nanolog AB, Södertälje, Sweden..
    Ekstrom, Mikael
    Iconovo AB, Lund, Sweden..
    Valetti, Sabrina
    Malmö University, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Biomedical Science (BMV). Malmö University, Biofilms Research Center for Biointerfaces.
    Disordered mesoporous silica particles as emerging platform to deliver biologic molecules to the lungs2023In: Journal of Aerosol Medicine, ISSN 1941-2711, E-ISSN 1941-2703, Vol. 36, no 6, article id A32Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 33.
    Huynh, Xandra
    Malmö University, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Biomedical Science (BMV).
    EFFECT OF NIACINAMIDE AND DEXPANTHENOL ON CELL VIABILITY AND GENE EXPRESSION IN KERATINOCYTES2023Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Vitamin B3 (niacinamide) and Vitamin B5 (dexpanthenol) are commonly used in skincare to enhance skin barrier formation, but there are currently not many studies about their effect on gene expression. This study investigated the viability of keratinocytes at different cell concentration limits (i.e., cell death). Based on the results, the cells were treated with the vitamins with the selected concentrations 1 mM and 10 mM. After the cells were treated with vitamins for 6 h, and 24 h, qPCR was employed to investigate the effects of these substances on the expression of differentiation markers, which are related to the formation of protein and lipid components required during skin barrier formation. The selected genes are related to the synthesis of filaggrin, NIPAL-4, ELOVL-4, STS, and ALOXE-3. The results showed an increase in viability at lower concentrations in cells treated with vitamins. A downregulation of filaggrin and NIPAL4 after treatment with niacinamide for 6 h and an increase of ELOVL-4 at 24h can be observed. After 6 h of incubation with dexpanthenol added, there was also a slight increase of ALOXE-3, which was more prominent upregulated at 24h. In conclusion, the vitamins seemed to increase cell viability in association with increased proliferation. This study also presented what genes were up and downregulated after treating cells with vitamins and attempted to explain how it could be interpreted.   

  • 34. Idris, Amani
    JÄMFÖRELSE AV TVÅ METODER FÖR ATT MÄTA LUNGORNAS VITALKAPACITET2022Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
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  • 35.
    Incel, Anil
    Malmö University, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Biomedical Science (BMV).
    Amino acid sequence and side chain specific synthetic receptors targeting protein phosphorylation2021Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Antibodies have become a critical component of many diagnostic assays and are used for therapeutic purposes. Nevertheless they often fail to meet the strict performance demands raised in industry and in the clinic (e.g. stability, reproducibility, selectivity, affinity). These issues are especially notable for assays targeting post translational modifications (PTM) of proteins (phosphorylation, glycosylation, sulfation etc.). Antibody-based technologies suffer from problems of a more general nature associated with the analytical use of biological receptors i.e.: i) limited stability requiring cold chain logistics, ii) high production costs, iii) batch to batch variability. The above emphasizes the need for alternative robust, reproducible and low cost “binders” and assays. The aim in this thesis is to design, develop and test molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) which were synthesized epitope and stoichiometric imprinting approaches targeting phosphorylation as a PTM. Protein phosphorylationis one of the most common PTM, which is based on covalent attachment of phosphate group to particular amino acids. Misregulation of phosphorylation process is found related with diseases such as cancer, diabetes, and neurodegeneration. MIPs are synthesized through copolymerization of functional monomers and crosslinkers in the presence of N- and C- terminal protected templates. The key recognition element employed in developed synthetic receptors was 1,3-diaryl urea functionalmonomer 1. This monomer is a potent hydrogen bond donor forming strong cyclichydrogen bonds with oxyanions. Amino acid sequence specific and side chain imprinted binders were prepared targeting phosphorylation on tyrosine (pTyr) and on histidine (pHis). pHis MIP-based approach is proposed as a solution to enrich pHis peptides in the presence of other phosphoesters such as phosphoserine (pSer) in complex mixture without pre-treatment like β-elimination. In pTyr, ZAP-70 (zeta associated 70 kDa protein), which is prognosticator for chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), and pTyr-sequence specific motif Src-SH2 domain were chosen as targets to evaluate regio- or stoichiometric selectivity performance of imprinted polymers. The synthesized polymers are used as effective enrichment tools for target phosphorylated peptides from complex mixture prior to mass spectrometry. Overall, the results demonstrate unique proteomics enrichment tools that link with personalized medicine relying on diagnostic coupled cancer treatment strategies based on kinase inhibitors.

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  • 36.
    Incel, Anil
    Malmö University, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Biomedical Science (BMV).
    Imprinted Src-SH2 domain mimicking: Targeting pYEEI sequence2021Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 37.
    Jahangiri, Ali Reza
    et al.
    Malmö University, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS), Department of Materials Science and Applied Mathematics (MTM). NanoLund, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Ziarati, Niloofar
    Department of Embryology, Reproductive Biomedicine Research Center, Royan Institute for Reproductive Biomedicine, ACECR, Tehran, Iran.
    Dadkhah, Ehsan
    Department of Embryology, Reproductive Biomedicine Research Center, Royan Institute for Reproductive Biomedicine, ACECR, Tehran, Iran; Department of Mechanical Engineering, Sharif University of Technology, Tehran, Iran.
    Bucak, Mustafa Numan
    Department of Reproduction and Artificial Insemination, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Selcuk University, Konya, Turkey.
    Rahimizadeh, Pegah
    Division of Experimental Surgery, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada; Cancer Research Program, The Research Institute of the McGill University Health Centre, Montreal, Quebec, Canada.
    Shahverdi, Abdolhossein
    Department of Embryology, Reproductive Biomedicine Research Center, Royan Institute for Reproductive Biomedicine, ACECR, Tehran, Iran.
    Sadighi Gilani, Mohammad Ali
    Department of Andrology, Reproductive Biomedicine Research Center, Royan Institute for Reproductive Biomedicine, ACECR, Tehran, Iran.
    Topraggaleh, Tohid Rezaei
    Reproductive Health Research Center, Clinical Research Institute, Urmia University of Medical Sciences, Urmia, Iran; Department of Anatomical Sciences, School of Medicine, Urmia University of Medical Sciences, Urmia, Iran.
    Microfluidics: The future of sperm selection in assisted reproduction2023In: Andrology, ISSN 2047-2919, E-ISSN 2047-2927Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Obtaining functional sperm cells is the first step to treat infertility. With the ever-increasing trend in male infertility, clinicians require access to effective solutions that are able to single out the most viable spermatozoa, which would max out the chance for a successful pregnancy. The new generation techniques for sperm selection involve microfluidics, which offers laminar flow and low Reynolds number within the platforms can provide unprecedented opportunities for sperm selection. Previous studies showed that microfluidic platforms can provide a novel approach to this challenge and since then researchers across the globe have attacked this problem from multiple angles.

    OBJECTIVE: In this review, we seek to provide a much-needed bridge between the technical and medical aspects of microfluidic sperm selection. Here, we provide an up-to-date list on microfluidic sperm selection procedures and its application in assisted reproductive technology laboratories.

    SEARCH METHOD: A literature search was performed in Web of Science, PubMed, and Scopus to select papers reporting microfluidic sperm selection using the keywords: microfluidic sperm selection, self-motility, non-motile sperm selection, boundary following, rheotaxis, chemotaxis, and thermotaxis. Papers published before March 31, 2023 were selected.

    OUTCOMES: Our results show that most studies have used motility-based properties for sperm selection. However, microfluidic platforms are ripe for making use of other properties such as chemotaxis and especially rheotaxis. We have identified that low throughput is one of the major hurdles to current microfluidic sperm selection chips, which can be solved via parallelization.

    CONCLUSION: Future work needs to be performed on numerical simulation of the microfluidics chip prior to fabrication as well as relevant clinical assessment after the selection procedure. This would require a close collaboration and understanding among engineers, biologists, and medical professionals. It is interesting that in spite of two decades of microfluidics sperm selection, numerical simulation and clinical studies are lagging behind. It is expected that microfluidic sperm selection platforms will play a major role in the development of fully integrated start-to-finish assisted reproductive technology systems.

  • 38.
    Jakubauskas, Dainius
    et al.
    Malmö University, Biofilms Research Center for Biointerfaces. Malmö University, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Biomedical Science (BMV).
    Jensen, Martin
    Institute of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine, Medical Centre, University of Freiburg, Freiburg im Breisgau, Germany.
    Lyngsø, Jeppe
    Department of Chemistry and Interdisciplinary Nanoscience Center (iNANO), Aarhus University, Aarhus, Denmark.
    Cheng, Yuanji
    Malmö University, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS), Department of Materials Science and Applied Mathematics (MTM).
    Skov Pedersen, Jan
    Department of Chemistry and Interdisciplinary Nanoscience Center (iNANO), Aarhus University, Aarhus, Denmark.
    Cárdenas, Marité
    Malmö University, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Biomedical Science (BMV). Malmö University, Biofilms Research Center for Biointerfaces.
    Toward reliable low-density lipoprotein ultrastructure prediction in clinical conditions: A small-angle X-ray scattering study on individuals with normal and high triglyceride serum levels2021In: Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology and Medicine, ISSN 1549-9634, E-ISSN 1549-9642, Vol. 31, p. 1-13, article id 102318Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Atherosclerosis is the main killer in the west and therefore a major health challenge today. Total serum cholesterol and lipoprotein concentrations, used as clinical markers, fail to predict the majority of cases, especially between the risk scale extremes, due to the high complexity in lipoprotein structure and composition. In particular, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) plays a key role in atherosclerosis development, with LDL size being a parameter considered for determining the risk for cardiovascular diseases. Determining LDL size and structural parameters is challenging to address experimentally under physiological-like conditions. This article describes the biochemistry and ultrastructure of normolipidemic and hypertriglyceridemic LDL fractions and subfractions using small-angle X-ray scattering. Our results conclude that LDL particles of hypertriglyceridemic compared to healthy individuals 1) have lower LDL core melting temperature, 2) have lower cholesteryl ester ordering in their core, 3) are smaller, rounder and more spherical below melting temperature, and 4) their protein-containing shell is thinner above melting temperature.

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  • 39. Joiner, Andrew
    et al.
    Muller, D
    Elofsson, U.M.
    Arnebrant, Thomas
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Health and Society (HS).
    Ellipsometry analysis of the in vitro adsorption of tea polyphenols onto salivary pellicles2004In: European Journal of Oral Sciences, ISSN 0909-8836, E-ISSN 1600-0722, Vol. 112, no 6, p. 510-515Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 40. Jönsson, Malin
    et al.
    Skepö, Marie
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Health and Society (HS).
    Linse, Per
    Monte Carlo Simulations of the Hydrophobic Effect in Electrolyte Solutions2006In: Journal of Physical Chemistry B, Vol. 110, no 17, p. 8782-8788Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The hydrophobic interaction between two methane molecules in salt-free and high salt-containing solutions and the structure in such solutions have been investigated using an atomistic model solved by Monte Carlo simulations. Monovalent salt representing NaCl and divalent salt with the same nonelectrostatic properties as the monovalent salt have been used to examine the influence of the valence of the salt species. In salt-free solution the effective interaction between the two methane molecules displayed a global minimum at close contact of the two methane molecules and a solvent-separated secondary minimum. In 3 and 5 M monovalent salt solution, the potential of mean force became slightly more attractive and in a 3 M divalent salt solution the attraction became considerably stronger. The structure of the aqueous solutions was determined by radial distribution functions and angular probability functions. The distortion of the native water structure was increased with ion valence. The increase of the hydrophobic attraction was associated with (i) a breakdown of the tetrahedral structure formed by neighboring water molecules and of the hydrogen bonds between them and (i) the concomitant increase of the solution density.

  • 41.
    Kiuru, Anna
    Malmö University, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Biomedical Science (BMV).
    CANCER CELL MIGRATION ON POLYCAPROLACTONE FIBRE IN ANIMAL PRODUCT-FREE MEDIUM2021Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Cancer is one of the most common causes of death in the world today and one of the reasons for this is the ability of cancer cells to metastasize and form new tumors in various places in the body. It is therefore important to understand the mechanisms behind cancer cell migration, i.e., how they move. Cancer cells mainly migrate in two different ways, collectively or individually. This study examines how cells from two different types of human cancer cell lines, JIMT-1 breast cancer and MiaPaca-2 pancreatic cancer cells migrate. The cancer cells are allowed to form spheroids (mini tumors) either alone as mono-spheroids or as co-spheroids with fibroblasts. The spheroids are seeded on a filter with parallel polycaprolactone fibers and then they are incubated in a CO2 incubator at 37 °C to allow the cells to migrate out of the spheroid. After various anal days, the spheroids are fixed. Images are taken with phase contrast microscopy and with immunofluorescence microscopy after staining to study the migration. Some spheroids were observed in a phase contrast microscope where images were taken at regular intervals for several day to create movies. Digital holographic microscopy was also used. The experiments show that the cells mainly move through collective migration, but individual migration also occurs. The study was conducted without the use of animal products. The medium used for the cell culturing is completely defined and all proteins in the medium are human.

  • 42.
    Klarberg, Martin
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Health and Society (HS).
    Glykolers påverkan på grampositiv sepsis2023Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Vid infektion och inflammation frigör kroppen cytokiner, som är proinflammatoriska ochorsakar feber, vilket kan vara nyttigt i kroppens kamp mot infektion. Vid sepsis orsakad avgrampositiva bakterier frigörs molekyler såsom lipoteikonsyra (LTA) samt peptidoglykaner(PGN) vilka stimulerar frisättning av proinflammatoriska cytokiner. Det finns idag inget brasätt att neutralisera cytokinernas effekt vid grampositiv sepsis. Det har tidigare visats attLTAs cytokinfrisättande effekt hämmas i närvaro av polypropylenglykol 1200 (PPG-1200).PPG-1200 används för att motverka skumbildning vid cellodling. Syftet med denna studie varatt undersöka om aminopropylenglykol (A-PPG) har en hämmande effekt på LTAscytokinfrisättande effekt i blod. Detta testades även med polyetylenglykol (PEG) utöver detidigare nämnda PPG-1200 och A-PPG, genom att mäta frisättning av interleukin-1β (IL-1β)och tumörnekros-faktor-α (TNF-α). Mätningarna visade en sänkning av IL-1β i blod spätt 1:5i RPMI-1640 medium, som inkuberades 20 timmar i 37 °C, 5 % CO2 i inkubator tillsammans med 0,8 mg A-PPG/ml jämfört med prover utan glykoler. I alla mätningar gjorda med A-PPG, som immobiliserats på gel, ökade emellertid frisättningen av såväl TNF-α som IL-1β, antingen beroende på kontamination av gelen eller ett utsöndrat stimulerande ämne från den.Den inhiberande effekten, som erhölls av PPG-1200 och A-PPG i det högrekoncentrationsintervallet tyder på en inhiberande effekt hos dessa glykoler. På grund avvariationer i cytokinfrisättning, så användes också höga koncentrationer av LTA, vilketavspeglas i icke helt tillförlitliga resultat gällande viabilitetsmätningar och inhiberingar. Denönskade inhiberingen med immobiliserat A-PPG uppnåddes ej. Vid jämförelse av gelens ochLTAs effekt i kombination med A-PPG så kunde en inhiberande effekt ses.

  • 43.
    Kocherbitov, V
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Health and Society (HS).
    A new formula for accurate calculation of water activity in sorption calorimetric experiments2004In: Thermochimica Acta, ISSN 0040-6031, E-ISSN 1872-762X, Vol. 414, no 1, p. 43-45Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 44.
    Kocherbitov, V
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Health and Society (HS).
    Driving forces of phase transitions in surfactant and lipid systems2005In: Journal of Physical Chemistry B, ISSN 1520-6106, E-ISSN 1520-5207, Vol. 109, no 13, p. 6430-6435Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 45.
    Kocherbitov, V
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Health and Society (HS).
    Salt-saturated salt solution as a standard system for sorption calorimetry2004In: Thermochimica Acta, ISSN 0040-6031, E-ISSN 1872-762X, Vol. 421, no 1-2, p. 105-110Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 46.
    Kocherbitov, V
    et al.
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Health and Society (HS).
    Arnebrant, Thomas
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Health and Society (HS).
    Söderman, Olle
    Lysozyme-Water Interactions Studied by Sorption Calorimetry2004In: Journal of Physical Chemistry B, ISSN 1520-6106, E-ISSN 1520-5207, Vol. 108, no 49, p. 19036-19042Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 47.
    Kocherbitov, V
    et al.
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Health and Society (HS).
    Söderman, Olle
    Glassy Crystalline State and Water Sorption of Alkyl Maltosides2004In: Langmuir, ISSN 0743-7463, E-ISSN 1520-5827, Vol. 20, no 8, p. 3056-3061Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 48.
    Kocherbitov, V
    et al.
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Health and Society (HS).
    Söderman, Olle
    Hydration of liquid crystalline phases in the system DDAO-water studied by sorption calorimetry2005Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 49.
    Kocherbitov, V
    et al.
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Health and Society (HS).
    Wadsö, L
    A desorption calorimetric method for use at high water activities2004In: Thermochimica Acta, ISSN 0040-6031, E-ISSN 1872-762X, Vol. 411, no 1, 19 February 2004, p. 31-36Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 50.
    Kocherbitov, Vitaly
    et al.
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Health and Society (HS).
    Söderman, Olle
    Hydration of Dimethyldodecylamine-N-Oxide: Enthalpy and Entropy Driven Processes2006In: J.Phys.Chem.B., Vol. 110, p. 13649-13655Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Dimethyldodecylamine-N-oxide (DDAO) has only one polar atom that is able to interact with water. Still, this surfactant shows very hydrophilic properties: in mixtures with water, it forms normal liquid crystalline phases and micelles. Moreover, there is data in the literature indicating that the hydration of this surfactant is driven by enthalpy while other studies show that hydration of surfactants and lipids typically is driven by entropy. Sorption calorimetry allows resolving enthalpic and entropic contributions to the free energy of hydration at constant temperature and thus directly determines the driving forces of hydration. The results of the present sorption calorimetric study show that the hydration of liquid crystalline phases of DDAO is driven by entropy, except for the hydration of the liquid crystalline lamellar phase which is co-driven by enthalpy. The exothermic heat effect of the hydration of the lamellar phase arises from formation of strong hydrogen bonds between DDAO and water. Another issue is the driving forces of the phase transitions caused by the hydration. The sorption calorimetric results show that the transitions from the lamellar to cubic and from the cubic to the hexagonal phase are driven by enthalpy. Transitions from solid phases to the liquid crystalline lamellar phase are entropically driven, while the formation of the monohydrate from the dry surfactant is driven by enthalpy. The driving forces of the transition from the hexagonal phase to the isotropic solution are close to zero. These sorption calorimetric results are in good agreement with the analysis of the binary phase diagram based on the van der Waals differential equation. The phase diagram of the DDAO-water system determined using DSC and sorption calorimetry is presented.

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