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  • 1.
    Ahlqvist, Carl Oskar
    et al.
    Malmö University, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS).
    Ahlgren, Måns
    Malmö University, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS).
    Analog Computer Prototyping for the Future2022Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This research paper focuses on analog computers and creating a modular low-cost analog computer system in a single board computer form factor. The single-board analog computer will have the capacity to solve second-order differential equations. The capabilities and possibilities of the single board Analog computer will be explored as well as analog computing in general. The paper follows design science research methodology (DSRM) with the goal of creating and evaluating a working artifact. The artifacts' functionality is evaluated based on a demonstration of its ability to solve Mathieu’s differential equation as well as simulate a spring-mass dampening system. This paper proves that it is possible to create a low-cost analog computer in a modern form factor. The artifact is also placed in a larger contextual setting based on the empirical material provided where its value of it in a digital society is presented. For the world to continue its progression in computational power, but still, limit the already high energy usage, a drastic change is needed. This paper suggests adapting to analog/hybrid technology. To further the progression of analog/hybrid technology it must be made accessible to a wider group of people compared to today. The artifact in this paper offers a solution to this. 

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  • 2.
    Aladwan, Mohammad N.
    et al.
    Univ Santiago de Compostela, Ctr Singular Invest Tecnoloxias Intelixentes, Santiago De Compostela 15782, Spain..
    Awaysheh, Feras M.
    Univ Santiago de Compostela, Ctr Singular Invest Tecnoloxias Intelixentes, Santiago De Compostela 15782, Spain..
    Alawadi, Sadi
    Malmö University, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS), Department of Computer Science and Media Technology (DVMT). Malmö University, Internet of Things and People (IOTAP).
    Alazab, Mamoun
    Charles Darwin Univ, Coll Engn IT & Environm, Casuarina, NT 0810, Australia..
    Pena, Tomas F.
    Univ Santiago de Compostela, Ctr Singular Invest Tecnoloxias Intelixentes, Santiago De Compostela 15782, Spain..
    Cabaleiro, Jose C.
    Univ Santiago de Compostela, Ctr Singular Invest Tecnoloxias Intelixentes, Santiago De Compostela 15782, Spain..
    TrustE-VC: Trustworthy Evaluation Framework for Industrial Connected Vehicles in the Cloud2020In: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Informatics, ISSN 1551-3203, E-ISSN 1941-0050, Vol. 16, no 9, p. 6203-6213Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The integration between cloud computing and vehicular ad hoc networks, namely, vehicular clouds (VCs), has become a significant research area. This integration was proposed to accelerate the adoption of intelligent transportation systems. The trustworthiness in VCs is expected to carry more computing capabilities that manage large-scale collected data. This trend requires a security evaluation framework that ensures data privacy protection, integrity of information, and availability of resources. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study that proposes a robust trustworthiness evaluation of vehicular cloud for security criteria evaluation and selection. This article proposes three-level security features in order to develop effectiveness and trustworthiness in VCs. To assess and evaluate these security features, our evaluation framework consists of three main interconnected components: 1) an aggregation of the security evaluation values of the security criteria for each level; 2) a fuzzy multicriteria decision-making algorithm; and 3) a simple additive weight associated with the importance-performance analysis and performance rate to visualize the framework findings. The evaluation results of the security criteria based on the average performance rate and global weight suggest that data residency, data privacy, and data ownership are the most pressing challenges in assessing data protection in a VC environment. Overall, this article paves the way for a secure VC using an evaluation of effective security features and underscores directions and challenges facing the VC community. This article sheds light on the importance of security by design, emphasizing multiple layers of security when implementing industrial VCs.

  • 3.
    Alkhabbas, Fahed
    et al.
    Malmö University, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS), Department of Computer Science and Media Technology (DVMT). Malmö University, Internet of Things and People (IOTAP).
    Alawadi, Sadi
    School of Information Technology, Halmstad University,Halmstad,Sweden.
    Ayyad, Majed
    Birzeit University,Department of Computer Science,Palestine.
    Spalazzese, Romina
    Malmö University, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS), Department of Computer Science and Media Technology (DVMT). Malmö University, Internet of Things and People (IOTAP).
    Davidsson, Paul
    Malmö University, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS), Department of Computer Science and Media Technology (DVMT). Malmö University, Internet of Things and People (IOTAP).
    ART4FL: An Agent-Based Architectural Approach for Trustworthy Federated Learning in the IoT2023In: 2023 Eighth International Conference on Fog and Mobile Edge Computing (FMEC), Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2023Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The integration of the Internet of Things (IoT) and Machine Learning (ML) technologies has opened up for the development of novel types of systems and services. Federated Learning (FL) has enabled the systems to collaboratively train their ML models while preserving the privacy of the data collected by their IoT devices and objects. Several FL frameworks have been developed, however, they do not enable FL in open, distributed, and heterogeneous IoT environments. Specifically, they do not support systems that collect similar data to dynamically discover each other, communicate, and negotiate about the training terms (e.g., accuracy, communication latency, and cost). Towards bridging this gap, we propose ART4FL, an end-to-end framework that enables FL in open IoT settings. The framework enables systems' users to configure agents that participate in FL on their behalf. Those agents negotiate and make commitments (i.e., contractual agreements) to dynamically form federations. To perform FL, the framework deploys the needed services dynamically, monitors the training rounds, and calculates agents' trust scores based on the established commitments. ART4FL exploits a blockchain network to maintain the trust scores, and it provides those scores to negotiating agents' during the federations' formation phase.

  • 4.
    Andersson, Robin
    Malmö University, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS).
    Combining Anomaly- and Signaturebased Algorithms for IntrusionDetection in CAN-bus: A suggested approach for building precise and adaptiveintrusion detection systems to controller area networks2021Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    With the digitalization and the ever more computerization of personal vehicles, new attack surfaces are introduced, challenging the security of the in-vehicle network. There is never such a thing as fully securing any computer system, nor learning all the methods of attack in order to prevent a break-in into a system. Instead, with sophisticated methods, we can focus on detecting and preventing attacks from being performed inside a system. The current state of the art of such methods, named intrusion detection systems (IDS), is divided into two main approaches. One approach makes its models very confident of detecting malicious activity, however only on activities that has been previously learned by this model. The second approach is very good at constructing models for detecting any type of malicious activity, even if never studied by the model before, but with less confidence. In this thesis, a new approach is suggested with a redesigned architecture for an intrusion detection system called Multi-mixed IDS. Where we take a middle ground between the two standardized approaches, trying to find a combination of both sides strengths and eliminating its weaknesses. This thesis aims to deliver a proof of concept for a new approach in the current state of the art in the CAN-bus security research field. This thesis also brings up some background knowledge about CAN and intrusion detection systems, discussing their strengths and weaknesses in further detail. Additionally, a brief overview from a handpick of research contributions from the field are discussed. Further, a simple architecture is suggested, three individual detection models are trained and combined to be tested against a CAN-bus dataset. Finally, the results are examined and evaluated. The results from the suggested approach shows somewhat poor results compared to other suggested algorithms within the field. However, it also shows some good potential, if better decision methods between the individual algorithms that constructs the model can be found. 

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  • 5.
    Appelgren, Rasmus
    et al.
    Malmö University, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS).
    Ingvarsson, Linus
    Malmö University, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS).
    Användarens upplevelse av dark patterns på video-shorts2023Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Termen Dark Patterns började användas år 2012 och har sedan dess blivit ett omdebatterat ämne. Termen kan översättas till manipulerande designval som medvetet utformas för att påverka och styra användarna av applikationer, hemsidor och sociala medier. Forskare menar på att det kan användas för att påverka människor till att ta val de annars aldrig gjort och flertalet granskningar av befintliga media visar på att deras närvaro är hög. Dark patterns fungerar som ett paraplybegrepp över dessa designmönster och har bryts ned av flera forskare för att kunna förklara varje enskilt identifierat mönster och dess påverkan. Tidigare forskning har dock inte fokuserat på Dark Patterns i samband med sociala medier med inriktning korta videoklipp, så kallade video shorts. Den här uppsatsen ämnar att ta reda på hur användarens upplevelse av Dark Patterns närvaro i denna kontext påverkar användaren. För att ta reda på detta används en designbaserad forskningsmetod. Genom intervjuer samlas kvalitativ data in från tio deltagare som delats upp i två grupper. En grupp har fått använda en prototyp med Dark Patterns som författarna till uppsatsen identifierat vid en analys av de sociala medierna TikTok och Youtube Shorts. Den andra prototypen innehåller designval som agerar motsats till dessa Dark Pattern. Uppsatsen använder sedan en tematisk analys för att kunna se likheter samt olikheter i deltagarnas svar.  I resultatet presenteras sedan vilka mönster analysen givit, exempelvis föredrar flertalet deltagare designen som innehåller Dark Patterns till den grad att de inte känner sig uppenbart lurade. Subtila Dark Patterns visar sig påverka användarens upplevelse positivt, vilket får dem att vilja använda tjänsten mer, vilket också ligger i tjänstens intresse. Det mer aggressiva och uppenbara Dark Pattern upprörde dock deltagarna i större utsträckning och kan bidra till att användaren känner sig lurad och känner sig istället frustrerad och irriterad. 

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  • 6.
    Ashouri, Majid
    Malmö University, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS), Department of Computer Science and Media Technology (DVMT). Malmö University, Internet of Things and People (IOTAP).
    Towards Supporting IoT System Designers in Edge Computing Deployment Decisions2021Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The rapidly evolving Internet of Things (IoT) systems demands addressing new requirements. This particularly needs efficient deployment of IoT systems to meet the quality requirements such as latency, energy consumption, privacy, and bandwidth utilization. The increasing availability of computational resources close to the edge has prompted the idea of using these for distributed computing and storage, known as edge computing. Edge computing may help and complement cloud computing to facilitate deployment of IoT systems and improve their quality. However, deciding where to deploy the various application components is not a straightforward task, and IoT system designer should be supported for the decision.

    To support the designers, in this thesis we focused on the system qualities, and aimed for three main contributions. First, by reviewing the literature, we identified the relevant and most used qualities and metrics. Moreover, to analyse how computer simulation can be used as a supporting tool, we investigated the edge computing simulators, and in particular the metrics they provide for modeling and analyzing IoT systems in edge computing. Finally, we introduced a method to represent how multiple qualities can be considered in the decision. In particular, we considered distributing Deep Neural Network layers as a use case and raked the deployment options by measuring the relevant metrics via simulation.

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  • 7.
    Ashouri, Majid
    et al.
    Malmö University, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS), Department of Computer Science and Media Technology (DVMT). Malmö University, Internet of Things and People (IOTAP).
    Davidsson, Paul
    Malmö University, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS), Department of Computer Science and Media Technology (DVMT). Malmö University, Internet of Things and People (IOTAP).
    Spalazzese, Romina
    Malmö University, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS), Department of Computer Science and Media Technology (DVMT). Malmö University, Internet of Things and People (IOTAP).
    Quality attributes in edge computing for the Internet of Things: A systematic mapping study2021In: Internet of Things: Engineering Cyber Physical Human Systems, E-ISSN 2542-6605, Vol. 13, article id 100346Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many Internet of Things (IoT) systems generate a massive amount of data needing to be processed and stored efficiently. Cloud computing solutions are often used to handle these tasks. However, the increasing availability of computational resources close to the edge has prompted the idea of using these for distributed computing and storage. Edge computing may help to improve IoT systems regarding important quality attributes like latency, energy consumption, privacy, and bandwidth utilization. However, deciding where to deploy the various application components is not a straightforward task. This is largely due to the trade-offs between the quality attributes relevant for the application. We have performed a systematic mapping study of 98 articles to investigate which quality attributes have been used in the literature for assessing IoT systems using edge computing. The analysis shows that time behavior and resource utilization are the most frequently used quality attributes; further, response time, turnaround time, and energy consumption are the most used metrics for quantifying these quality attributes. Moreover, simulation is the main tool used for the assessments, and the studied trade-offs are mainly between only two qualities. Finally, we identified a number of research gaps that need further study.

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  • 8.
    Ashouri, Majid
    et al.
    Malmö University, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS), Department of Computer Science and Media Technology (DVMT).
    Lorig, Fabian
    Malmö University, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS), Department of Computer Science and Media Technology (DVMT).
    Davidsson, Paul
    Malmö University, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS), Department of Computer Science and Media Technology (DVMT).
    Spalazzese, Romina
    Malmö University, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS), Department of Computer Science and Media Technology (DVMT).
    Edge Computing Simulators for IoT System Design: An Analysis of Qualities and Metrics2019In: Future Internet, E-ISSN 1999-5903, Vol. 11, no 11, p. 235-246Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The deployment of Internet of Things (IoT) applications is complex since many quality characteristics should be taken into account, for example, performance, reliability, and security. In this study, we investigate to what extent the current edge computing simulators support the analysis of qualities that are relevant to IoT architects who are designing an IoT system. We first identify the quality characteristics and metrics that can be evaluated through simulation. Then, we study the available simulators in order to assess which of the identified qualities they support. The results show that while several simulation tools for edge computing have been proposed, they focus on a few qualities, such as time behavior and resource utilization. Most of the identified qualities are not considered and we suggest future directions for further investigation to provide appropriate support for IoT architects.

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  • 9.
    Ashouri, Majid
    et al.
    Malmö University, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS), Department of Computer Science and Media Technology (DVMT). Malmö University, Internet of Things and People (IOTAP).
    Lorig, Fabian
    Malmö University, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS), Department of Computer Science and Media Technology (DVMT). Malmö University, Internet of Things and People (IOTAP).
    Davidsson, Paul
    Malmö University, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS), Department of Computer Science and Media Technology (DVMT). Malmö University, Internet of Things and People (IOTAP).
    Spalazzese, Romina
    Malmö University, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS), Department of Computer Science and Media Technology (DVMT). Malmö University, Internet of Things and People (IOTAP).
    Svorobej, Sergej
    Analyzing Distributed Deep Neural Network Deployment on Edge and Cloud Nodes in IoT Systems2020In: IEEE International Conference on Edge Computing (EDGE), Virtual conference, October 18–24, 2020., 2020, p. 59-66Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    For the efficient execution of Deep Neural Networks (DNN) in the Internet of Things, computation tasks can be distributed and deployed on edge nodes. In contrast to deploying all computation to the cloud, the use of Distributed DNN (DDNN) often results in a reduced amount of data that is sent through the network and thus might increase the overall performance of the system. However, finding an appropriate deployment scenario is often a complex task and requires considering several criteria. In this paper, we introduce a multi-criteria decision-making method based on the Analytical Hierarchy Process for the comparison and selection of deployment alternatives. We use the RECAP simulation framework to model and simulate DDNN deployments on different scales to provide a comprehensive assessment of deployments to system designers. In a case study, we apply the method to a smart city scenario where different distributions and deployments of a DNN are analyzed and compared.

  • 10.
    Bengtsson, Mattias
    et al.
    Malmö University, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS), Department of Computer Science and Media Technology (DVMT).
    Sandgren, Daniel
    Malmö University, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS), Department of Computer Science and Media Technology (DVMT).
    Tillgängliga AI-verktyg och -tekniker för att automatisera uppgifter som hindrar lärare inom högre utbildning från att undervisa: En strukturerad litteraturstudie2023Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This structured literature study examines which tools and technologies related to artificialintelligence (AI) that can support teachers by replacing repetitive and time-consumingadministrative tasks that are outside of the direct interaction between teacher and student.

    By reviewing available research in this field, we map these findings. This is then followedby a discussion of the results and potential of the latest technology, as well as an indicationof where further research can take place.To map existing research on the subject, this literature study has been conducted basedon a general course divided into three phases: before, during, and after. Due to the po-tential size of this area, we investigated only one case per each phase, respektively coursedesign, grading and course evaluation. The literature study is limited to higher educationinstitutions such as universities and colleges.

    Our results shows that the majority of AI techniques and tools used in these three areasare based on natural language processing (NLP) and neural networks. We found that thereis a greater amount of research focused on grading compared to course design and courseevaluation, and that research in all these areas is increasing over time. However, we note alack of research investigating the practical usage of these tools and techniques by teachers.

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  • 11.
    Bezerra, Thomas
    et al.
    Malmö University, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS).
    Rockström, Truls
    Malmö University, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS).
    Visually Difficult: The Effect of Graphics on Performative Difficulty in Games2023Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 180 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Designing entertaining games requires control over the difficulty experienced by players. Gameplay has a clear impact on the difficulty and as such is easy to handle but other factors such as graphics do not share this clear cut impact. Therefore a game was made with adjustable graphical settings without changing any game elements in order to evaluate the effect on 18 participants. No effect was found for the measured performance but a weak correlation is possible for perceived difficulty.

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  • 12.
    Bugeja, Joseph
    et al.
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS).
    Jacobsson, Andreas
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS).
    Davidsson, Paul
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS).
    On Privacy and Security Challenges in Smart Connected Homes2016In: Proceedings: 2016 European Intelligence and Security Informatics Conference, IEEE, 2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Smart homes have become increasingly popular for IoT products and services with a lot of promises for improving the quality of life of individuals. Nevertheless, the heterogeneous, dynamic, and Internet-connected nature of this environment adds new concerns as private data becomes accessible, often without the householders’ awareness. This accessibility alongside with the rising risks of data security and privacy breaches, makes smart home security a critical topic that deserves scrutiny. In this paper, we present an overview of the privacy and security challenges directed towards the smart home domain. We also identify constraints, evaluate solutions, and discuss a number of challenges and research issues where further investigation is required.

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  • 13. Ciccozzi, Federico
    et al.
    Spalazzese, Romina
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS), Department of Computer Science and Media Technology (DVMT). Malmö högskola, Internet of Things and People (IOTAP).
    MDE4IoT: Supporting the Internet of Things with Model-Driven Engineering2017In: Intelligent Distributed Computing X / [ed] Badica, C Seghrouchni, AE Beynier, A Camacho, D Herpson, C Hindriks, K Novais, P, Springer, 2017, p. 67-76Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Internet of Things (IoT) unleashes great opportunities to improve our way of living and working through a seamless and highly dynamic cooperation among heterogeneous things including both computer-based systems and physical objects. However, properly dealing with the design, development, deployment and runtime management of IoT applications means to provide solutions for a multitude of challenges related to intelligent distributed systems within the IoT. In this paper we propose Model-Driven Engineering (MDE) as a key enabler for applications running on intelligent distributed loT systems. MDE helps in tackling challenges and supporting the lifecycle of such systems. Specifically, we introduce MDE4IoT, an MDE approach enabling the modelling of things and supporting intelligence as self-adaptation of Emergent Configurations in the IoT. Moreover, we show how MDE, and in particular MDE4IoT, can help in tackling several challenges by providing the Smart Street Lights concrete case.

  • 14.
    Demirovic, Amar
    Malmö University, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS), Department of Computer Science and Media Technology (DVMT).
    Region Skånes kompetensförsörjning i arbetet med digitalisering: En kvalitativ studie över regionens arbete med kompetensförsörjning i digitaliseringsarbetet2022Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Digitalization is a term that is frequently mentioned in discussions about efficiency improvement opportunities. In order to digitalize, competence is required, which leads to a greater need for competence and thus a stronger focus on competence supply. Digitalization is central when technology is used to improve and improve the efficiency of operations. In order to develop and implement digital solutions, it is crucial to have sufficient skills and knowledge within the organization. The research problem is of great importance because it addresses the challenges that public organizations face in terms of competence supply in combination with digitalization. The success of digitalization requires that organizations have sufficient competence in digital tools and technologies. The challenges posed by competence supply can be crucial to the success of digitalization projects and initiatives. Using a qualitative research strategy and semi-structured interviews, the challenges faced by the region in the digitalization work have been studied, mainly in relation to competence supply. In the collected data material, it was possible to note three major challenges experienced by the region: lack of expertise, attitudes towards changes within the organization and challenges in the implementation of projects. The study also shows that the willingness to digitalize is high but that they have not yet managed to maximize the value of digitalizing analogue processes - thus there is room for improvement in the region in terms of maximizing the potential of digitalization.

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  • 15.
    Ekedahl, Ulrik
    et al.
    Malmö University, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS), Department of Computer Science and Media Technology (DVMT). Malmö University, Internet of Things and People (IOTAP).
    Mihailescu, Radu-Casian
    Malmö University, Internet of Things and People (IOTAP). Malmö University, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS), Department of Computer Science and Media Technology (DVMT).
    Ma, Zhizhong
    Malmö University, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS), Department of Computer Science and Media Technology (DVMT). Malmö University, Internet of Things and People (IOTAP).
    Lessons Learned from Adapting "Things" to IoT Platforms in Research and Teaching2018In: SAC '18: Proceedings of the 33rd Annual ACM Symposium on Applied Computing, ACM Digital Library, 2018, p. 1457-1460Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study presents lessons learned based on practical experiences of connecting devices to internet-of-things platforms in the context of research and academic coursework. The experiences are gathered from six research projects, one undergraduate course, and a few undergraduate theses over a three-year period. The lessons learned include: the trade-off of rapid prototyping over security is very common, example source code is not up to production standards, adherence to standards speeds development, debugging support for IoT systems is lacking, open source licenses varies, poor platform interoperability, and the array of service fees among platform providers obstruct cost comparisons.

  • 16.
    Eklund, André
    et al.
    Malmö University, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS).
    Helin, Sebastian
    Malmö University, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS).
    Evaluating the use of Brush and Tooltip for Time Series visualizations: A comparative study2023Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study uses a combination of user testing and analysis to evaluate the impact of brush and tooltip on the comprehension of time series visualizations. Employing a sequential mixed-methods approach, with qualitative data from semi-structured interviews used to inform the design of a visualization tool, followed by a quantitative user study to validate it. Sixteen (16) participants from various fields of study, predominantly computer science, participated in the study. A MANOVA test was conducted with results indicating a significant statistical difference between the groups. Results deriving from the study show that the use of brush and tooltip increases user accuracy on detecting outliers, as for perception of trends and patterns. The study’s context was limited to desktop usage, and all participants were treated as a homogenous group, presenting potential limitations in applying these findings to other devices or more diverse user groups. The results provide information about improving time series data visualizations for facilitating more efficient and effective understanding, which can be relevant specifically to data analysts and academic researchers.

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  • 17.
    Erceg, Mirjana
    et al.
    Aalborg Univ, Copenhagen, Denmark..
    Palamas, Georgios
    Malmö University, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS), Department of Computer Science and Media Technology (DVMT).
    Towards Harmonious Coexistence: A Bioacoustic-Driven Animal-Computer Interaction System for Preventing Ship Collisions with North Atlantic Right Whales2023In: TENTH INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON ANIMAL-COMPUTER INTERACTION, ACI 2023, ASSOC COMPUTING MACHINERY , 2023, p. 1-10Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The North Atlantic Right Whale (NARW) population is currently teetering on the brink of extinction, with a mere approximate count of 350 individuals remaining. These animals have been protected under the Endangered Species Act since 1970. Today, the survival of right whales is imperiled primarily due to vessel collisions, net entanglements, and habitat degradation. This paper presents a novel system of animal-computer interaction founded on the identification of bioacoustic signatures. Initially, NARWs' vocalizations were transformed into spectrograms, which were subsequently inputted into a Convolutional Neural Network (CNN). To enhance robustness against environmental noise, techniques such as time warping, frequency masking, and time masking were employed. The outcomes of our study indicate that the proposed system holds potential for establishing a closed-loop interaction framework between vessels and NARWs. This framework could enable vessels to adapt their speed or avoid routes frequented by NARWs. Furthermore, this article discusses the potential benefits of employing networked sensors, such as Internet of Things (IoT) devices, to augment NARW monitoring and data collection efforts.

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  • 18.
    Gerdtsson, Markus
    et al.
    Malmö University, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS).
    Nielsen, Erik
    Malmö University, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS).
    Qualitative analysis about the experience of VPN from people with software expertise in Sweden2022Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    VPN is primarily used to encrypt your network traffic and identity online securely from a private location. This can be used as a safety measure to prevent theft of personal data. It also allows its user to change the geolocation to wherever they want which unlocks the possibility to use another country's services. Related work has shown that there are also downsides to using VPN services. Some VPN solutions do have security problems that its user could be unaware of. This study explored the experience and beliefs surrounding the usage of VPN while browsing the internet from people with software expertise. Interviews were conducted with people in different areas surrounding usage of VPN services to get a deeper understanding of why VPN is used and to what extent they believe VPN is providing anonymity and security of their data. The findings from this study is that the main reason to use a VPN is to access unavailable services. These services can vary from content online that is not available in the region from where you access the internet to services that are work related and locked to specific networks. Another finding was also that among these people the belief that the use of a VPN was enough to make a user anonymous by itself is controversial.

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  • 19.
    Ghajargar, Maliheh
    et al.
    Malmö University, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), School of Arts and Communication (K3). Malmö University, Internet of Things and People (IOTAP).
    Bardzell, Jeffrey
    Pennsylvania State University.
    Smith Renner, Alison
    Machine Learning Visualization Lab Decisive Analytics Corporation, United States.
    Gall Krogh, Peter
    Aarhus University, Denmark.
    Höök, Kristina
    KTH, Sweden.
    Cuartielles, David
    Malmö University, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), School of Arts and Communication (K3).
    Boer, Laurens
    ITU, Denmark.
    Mikael, Wiberg
    Umeå University, Sweden.
    From "Explainable AI" to "Graspable AI"2021In: Fifteenth International Conference on Tangible, Embedded, and Embodied Interaction (TEI ’21), New York: Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), 2021, article id 69Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Since the advent of Artificial Intelligence (AI) and Machine Learning (ML), researchers have asked how intelligent computing systems could interact with and relate to their users and their surroundings, leading to debates around issues of biased AI systems, ML black-box, user trust, user’s perception of control over the system, and sys- tem’s transparency, to name a few. All of these issues are related to how humans interact with AI or ML systems, through an interface which uses different interaction modalities. Prior studies address these issues from a variety of perspectives, spanning from under- standing and framing the problems through ethics and Science and Technology Studies (STS) perspectives to finding effective technical solutions to the problems. But what is shared among almost all those efforts is an assumption that if systems can explain the how and why of their predictions, people will have a better perception of control and therefore will trust such systems more, and even can correct their shortcomings. This research field has been called Explainable AI (XAI). In this studio, we take stock on prior efforts in this area; however, we focus on using Tangible and Embodied Interaction (TEI) as an interaction modality for understanding ML. We note that the affordances of physical forms and their behaviors potentially can not only contribute to the explainability of ML sys- tems, but also can contribute to an open environment for criticism. This studio seeks to both critique explainable ML terminology and to map the opportunities that TEI can offer to the HCI for designing more sustainable, graspable and just intelligent systems.

  • 20.
    Ghajargar, Maliheh
    et al.
    Malmö University, Internet of Things and People (IOTAP). Malmö University, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), School of Arts and Communication (K3).
    Persson, Jan A.
    Malmö University, Internet of Things and People (IOTAP). Malmö University, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS), Department of Computer Science and Media Technology (DVMT).
    Bardzell, Jeffrey
    Pennsylvania State University.
    Holmberg, Lars
    Malmö University, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS), Department of Computer Science and Media Technology (DVMT). Malmö University, Internet of Things and People (IOTAP).
    Tegen, Agnes
    Malmö University, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS), Department of Computer Science and Media Technology (DVMT). Malmö University, Internet of Things and People (IOTAP).
    The UX of Interactive Machine Learning2020In: NordiCHI 2020, 11th Nordic Conference on Human-Computer Interaction: Shaping Experiences, Shaping Society, New York, USA: Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), 2020, article id Article No.: 138Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Machine Learning (ML) has been a prominent area of research within Artificial Intelligence (AI). ML uses mathematical models to recognize patterns in large and complex data sets to aid decision making in different application areas, such as image and speech recognition, consumer recommendations, fraud detection and more. ML systems typically go through a training period in which the system encounters and learns about the data; further, this training often requires some degree of human intervention. Interactive machine learning (IML) refers to ML applications that depend on continuous user interaction. From an HCI perspective, how humans interact with and experience ML models in training is the main focus of this workshop proposal. In this workshop we focus on the user experience (UX) of Interactive Machine Learning, a topic with implications not only for usability but also for the long-term success of the IML systems themselves.

  • 21.
    Grankvist, Georg
    et al.
    Malmö University, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS).
    Moustakas, Paul
    Malmö University, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS).
    Towards Engineering Trustworthy Distributed Reputation Systems Over The Blockchain2022Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Peer-to-peer (P2P) reputation systems, such as those used by eBay and Amazon, servean important role on the web, especially in E-commerce, as online reputation serves asa primary guiding factor for consumers in making informed decisions. The importanceof these systems, and also the increasing popularity of P2P and distributed systems, theissue of how to prevent and resist sybil and re-entry attacks becomes an important area ofresearch as they can impinge the integrity of those systems. To address this issue, in thisthesis, we propose an approach that encompasses a software architecture and processeswhich serves as a proof-of-concept of how to mitigate sybil and re-entry attacks on review based P2P distributed reputation systems. The architecture uses novel technologiessuch as blockchain, smart contracts, and non-fungible tokens (NFT) in conjunction withSwedish E-id provider BankID to build a sybil and re-entry attack resistant reputationsystem. To validate the feasibility of our approach, we developed a prototype and used itto run experiments to evaluate the functional correctness of the architecture as a mitigation solution

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  • 22.
    Hedlund, Ted
    et al.
    Malmö University, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS).
    Norrlind, Olof
    Malmö University, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS).
    Using a bio-metric feedback device to enhance player experience in horror games2023Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This paper is aimed at investigating whether a biofeedback device can positively increase a player's experience of thrill and suspension in a horror game. To facilitate this, two versions of the same horror game were created with a connection to a heart rate monitor. The difference between the two versions of the game was that the core elements were controlled by the heart rate which attempted to keep the player in a constant suspense state based on their heart rate. This was done to enhance the player's experience and thrill. These two versions of the game were then play-tested by users. Users had no insight into which version they were testing and afterward, a questionnaire was administered to ascertain the tester's emotional responses.The collected data was then analyzed and a pattern could be observed where testers preferred the version of the game that was controlled by the heart rate. This, backed by previous studies showed that using a biofeedback device to implement only the heart rate into a game had a marked positive effect on player experience. Still, additional research is needed with a larger control group to get more accurate results.

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  • 23.
    Holmberg, Lars
    Malmö University, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS), Department of Computer Science and Media Technology (DVMT).
    Human in Command Machine Learning – Poster version2020Conference paper (Refereed)
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  • 24.
    Holmberg, Lars
    Malmö University, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS), Department of Computer Science and Media Technology (DVMT). Malmö University, Internet of Things and People (IOTAP).
    Human-Technology relations in a machinelearning based commuter app2018In: Workshop on Interactive Adaptive Learning (IAL@ECML PKDD), 2018, p. 73-76Conference paper (Refereed)
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  • 25.
    Holmberg, Lars
    Malmö University, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS), Department of Computer Science and Media Technology (DVMT). Malmö University, Internet of Things and People (IOTAP).
    Interactive Machine Learning for Commuters: Achieving Personalised Travel Planners through Machine Teaching2019Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    Mobile apps are an increasingly important part of public transport, and can be seen as part of the journey experience. Personalisation of the app is then one aspect of the experience that, for example, can give travellers a possibility to save favourite journeys for easy access. Such a list of journeys can be extensive and inaccurate if it doesn’t consider the traveller’s context. Making an app context aware and present upcoming journeys transforms the app experience in a personal direction, especially for commuters. By using historical personal contextual data, a travel app can present probable journeys or accurately predict and present an upcoming journey with departure times. The predictions can take place when the app is started or be used to remind a commuter when it is time to leave in order to catch a regularly travelled bus or train.

    To address this research opportunity we have created an individually trained Machine Learning (ML) agent that we added to a publicly available commuter app. The added part of the app uses weekday, time, user activity and location to predict a user’s upcoming journey. Predictions are made when the app starts and departure times for the most probable transport are presented to the traveller. In our case a commuter only makes a few journey searches in the app every day which implies that, based on our contextual parameters, it will take at least some weeks to create journey patterns that can give acceptable accuracy for the predictions. In the work we present here, we focus on how to handle this cold start problem e.g. the situation when no or inaccurate historical data is available for the Machine Learning agent to train from. These situations will occur both initially when no data exists and due to concept drift originating from changes in travel patterns. In these situations, no predictions or only inaccurate predictions of upcoming journeys can be made.    

    We present experiences and evaluate results gathered when designing the interactions needed for the MT session as well as design decisions for the ML pipeline and the ML agent. The user’s interaction with the ML agent during the teaching session is a crucial factor for the success. During the teaching session, information on what the agent already has learnt has to be presented to the user as well as possibilities to unlearn obsolete commute patterns and to teach new. We present a baseline that shows an idealised situation and the amount of training data that the user needs to add in a MT session to reach acceptable accuracy in predictions. Our main contribution is user evaluated design proposals for the MT session.

    Using individually trained ML agents opens up opportunities to protect personal data and this approach can be used to create mobile applications that is independent of local transport providers and thus act on open data on a global scale.

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  • 26.
    Holmberg, Lars
    et al.
    Malmö University, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS), Department of Computer Science and Media Technology (DVMT). Malmö University, Internet of Things and People (IOTAP).
    Davidsson, Paul
    Malmö University, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS), Department of Computer Science and Media Technology (DVMT). Malmö University, Internet of Things and People (IOTAP).
    Linde, Per
    Malmö University, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), School of Arts and Communication (K3). Malmö University, Internet of Things and People (IOTAP).
    A Feature Space Focus in Machine Teaching2020In: 2020 IEEE International Conference on Pervasive Computing and Communications Workshops (PerCom Workshops), 2020Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Contemporary Machine Learning (ML) often focuseson large existing and labeled datasets and metrics aroundaccuracy and performance. In pervasive online systems, conditionschange constantly and there is a need for systems thatcan adapt. In Machine Teaching (MT) a human domain expertis responsible for the knowledge transfer and can thus addressthis. In my work, I focus on domain experts and the importanceof, for the ML system, available features and the space they span.This space confines the, to the ML systems, observable fragmentof the physical world. My investigation of the feature space isgrounded in a conducted study and related theories. The resultof this work is applicable when designing systems where domainexperts have a key role as teachers.

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  • 27.
    Holmberg, Lars
    et al.
    Malmö University, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS), Department of Computer Science and Media Technology (DVMT). Malmö University, Internet of Things and People (IOTAP).
    Davidsson, Paul
    Malmö University, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS), Department of Computer Science and Media Technology (DVMT). Malmö University, Internet of Things and People (IOTAP).
    Olsson, Carl Magnus
    Malmö University, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS), Department of Computer Science and Media Technology (DVMT). Malmö University, Internet of Things and People (IOTAP).
    Linde, Per
    Malmö University, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), School of Arts and Communication (K3). Malmö University, Internet of Things and People (IOTAP).
    Contextual machine teaching2020In: 2020 IEEE International Conference on Pervasive Computing and Communications Workshops (PerCom Workshops), IEEE, 2020Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Machine learning research today is dominated by atechnocentric perspective and in many cases disconnected fromthe users of the technology. The machine teaching paradigm insteadshifts the focus from machine learning experts towards thedomain experts and users of machine learning technology. Thisshift opens up for new perspectives on the current use of machinelearning as well as new usage areas to explore. In this study,we apply and map existing machine teaching principles ontoa contextual machine teaching implementation in a commutingsetting. The aim is to highlight areas in machine teaching theorythat requires more attention. The main contribution of this workis an increased focus on available features, the features space andthe potential to transfer some of the domain expert’s explanatorypowers to the machine learning system.

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  • 28.
    Hägele, Georg
    et al.
    Semcon Sweden AB, Engn & Digital Serv, Linkoping, Sweden..
    Sarkheyli-Hägele, Arezoo
    Malmö University, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS), Department of Computer Science and Media Technology (DVMT).
    Situational Hazard Recognition and Risk Assessment Within Safety-Driven Behavior Management in the Context of Automated Driving2020In: Proceedings 2020 IEEE International Conference on Cognitive andComputational Aspects of Situation Management (CogSIMA), Virtual Conference24-28 August 2020 / [ed] Rogova, G McGeorge, N Ruvinsky, A Fouse, S Freiman, M, IEEE , 2020, p. 188-194Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper addresses the problem of hazard recognition and risk assessment in open and non-predictive environments to support decision making and action selection. Decision making and action selection incorporate decreasing situational risks and maintain safety as operational constraints. Commonly, neither existing application-related safety standards nor the situation modeling or knowledge representation is considered in that context. This contribution introduces a novel approach denoted as a Safety-Driven Behavior Management focusing on situation modeling and the problem of knowledge representation in its sub-functions in the context of situational risks. It combines the safety standards-oriented hazard analysis and the risk assessment approach with the machine learning-based situation recognition. An example illustrating the approach is presented in this paper.

  • 29.
    Jaber, Hussein
    Malmö University, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS).
    Effects of skin color on the Accuracy of heart ratedetection of commercial wearable devices2023Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The ownership and demand for fitness trackers, smartwatches, and wrist-worn deviceshave been increasing globally. These devices offer various features such as measuringphysical activity, sleep monitoring, and health-related measurements like heart rate andheart rate variability using PhotoPlethysmoGraphy (PPG). However, research indicatesthat PPG measurements are less accurate on darker skin compared to lighter skin due to thehigher presence of melanin, a light-absorbing substance in dark skin. This thesis addresses the impact of melanin on the accuracy of heart rate measurements on different skin colors using four commercial smartwatches. The study involves analyzing the accuracy of these smartwatches on individuals with varying skin colors while controlling for external factors. The collected data from the smartwatches are compared to a reference sensor that uses electrocardiography (ECG) measurements with electrodes placed around the chest. Three different tests are conducted wearing the devices, with no movement, while walking, and with circular hand motions.The tests were conducted on twelve participants representing the 6 different skin types categorized using the Fitzpatrick scale. With the presented results in this thesis, it was concluded that the 4 smartwatches' measurement accuracy does not seem to be dependent on specific skin types. 

  • 30.
    Jessen, Jakob
    et al.
    Malmö University, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS).
    Hyldgaard, Albin
    PWA vs Native: Analysering av användarupplevelsen2022Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna studies syfte är att ställa Progressive web apps mot native applikationer för att jämföra upplevd user experience.

    Progressive Web App är en teknik som börjar bli allt mer vanlig för företag att implementera. Författarna utforskar ämnet mer riktat åt användarens upplevelse för att se vilka faktorer som kan spela in i valet mellan Progressive web app och native.

    Författarna har använt sig flertalet olika metoder för att studera om det finns någon skillnad i användarupplevelsen mellan en Progressive web app och en native applikation. Dessa metoder innefattar exempelvis think aloud protocol, system usability scale och Nielsens heuristics. Sett till teorin bakom en Progressive web app så säger den att det ska vara möjligt att kunna replikera en native applikation i form av funktionalitet men vi har i vår studie valt att titta utanför funktionalitet och lagt mer fokus på användarupplevelsen.

    Studien påvisar att de finns skillnader i upplevd användbarhet mellan PWA och native i vissa avseenden. Men de går inte att helt fastställa om dessa beror på utomstående faktorer.

    Trots att studien inte påvisade ett klart svar så ger de en grund till vidare forskning för hur man kan välja mellan de olika teknikerna framåt.

  • 31.
    Jevinger, Åse
    et al.
    Malmö University, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS), Department of Computer Science and Media Technology (DVMT). Malmö University, Internet of Things and People (IOTAP).
    Olsson, Carl Magnus
    Malmö University, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS), Department of Computer Science and Media Technology (DVMT). Malmö University, Internet of Things and People (IOTAP).
    Introducing an Intelligent Goods Service Framework2021In: Logistics, ISSN 2305-6290, Vol. 5, no 3, article id 54Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    With the increasing diffusion of Internet of Things (IoT) technologies, the transportation of goods sector is in a position to adopt novel intelligent services that cut across the otherwise highly fragmented and heterogeneous market, which today consists of a myriad of actors. Legacy systems that rely upon direct integration between all actors involved in the transportation ecosystem face considerable challenges for information sharing. Meanwhile, IoT based services, which are designed as devices that follow goods and communicate directly to cloud-based backend systems, may provide services that previously were not available. For the purposes of this paper, we present a theoretical framework for classification of such intelligent goods systems based on a literature study. The framework, labelled as the Intelligent Goods Service (IGS) framework, aims at increasing the understanding of the actors, agents, and services involved in an intelligent goods system, and to facilitate system comparisons and the development of new innovative solutions. As an illustration of how the IGS framework can be used and contribute to research in this area, we provide an example from a direct industry-academia collaboration.

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  • 32.
    John, Meenu Mary
    Malmö University, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS), Department of Computer Science and Media Technology (DVMT).
    Design Methods and Processes for ML/DL models2021Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Context: With the advent of Machine Learning (ML) and especially Deep Learning (DL) technology, companies are increasingly using Artificial Intelligence (AI) in systems, along with electronics and software. Nevertheless, the end-to-end process of developing, deploying and evolving ML and DL models in companies brings some challenges related to the design and scaling of these models. For example, access to and availability of data is often challenging, and activities such as collecting, cleaning, preprocessing, and storing data, as well as training, deploying and monitoring the model(s) are complex. Regardless of the level of expertise and/or access to data scientists, companies in all embedded systems domain struggle to build high-performing models due to a lack of established and systematic design methods and processes.

    Objective: The overall objective is to establish systematic and structured design methods and processes for the end-to-end process of developing, deploying and successfully evolving ML/DL models.

    Method: To achieve the objective, we conducted our research in close collaboration with companies in the embedded systems domain using different empirical research methods such as case study, action research and literature review.

    Results and Conclusions: This research provides six main results: First, it identifies the activities that companies undertake in parallel to develop, deploy and evolve ML/DL models, and the challenges associated with them. Second, it presents a conceptual framework for the continuous delivery of ML/DL models to accelerate AI-driven business in companies. Third, it presents a framework based on current literature to accelerate the end-to-end deployment process and advance knowledge on how to integrate, deploy and operationalize ML/DL models. Fourth, it develops a generic framework with five architectural alternatives for deploying ML/DL models at the edge. These architectural alternatives range from a centralized architecture that prioritizes (re)training in the cloud to a decentralized architecture that prioritizes (re)training at the edge. Fifth, it identifies key factors to help companies decide which architecture to choose for deploying ML/DL models. Finally, it explores how MLOps, as a practice that brings together data scientist teams and operations, ensures the continuous delivery and evolution of models. 

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  • 33.
    John, Meenu Mary
    et al.
    Malmö University, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS), Department of Computer Science and Media Technology (DVMT).
    Olsson, Helena Holmström
    Malmö University, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS), Department of Computer Science and Media Technology (DVMT).
    Bosch, Jan
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Architecting AI Deployment: A Systematic Review of State-of-the-art and State-of-practice Literature2020In: Software Business: 11th International Conference, ICSOB 2020, Karlskrona, Sweden, November 16–18, 2020, Proceedings / [ed] Eriks Klotins; Krzysztof Wnuk, Springer, 2020, p. 14-29Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Companies across domains are rapidly engaged in shifting computational power and intelligence from centralized cloud to fully decentralized edges to maximize value delivery, strengthen security and reduce latency. However, most companies have only recently started pursuing this opportunity and are therefore at the early stage of the cloud-to-edge transition. To provide an overview of AI deployment in the context of edge/cloud/hybrid architectures, we conduct a systematic literature review and a grey literature review. To advance understanding of how to integrate, deploy, operationalize and evolve AI models, we derive a framework from existing literature to accelerate the end-to-end deployment process. The framework is organized into five phases: Design, Integration, Deployment, Operation and Evolution. We make an attempt to analyze the extracted results by comparing and contrasting them to derive insights. The contribution of the paper is threefold. First, we conduct a systematic literature review in which we review the contemporary scientific literature and provide a detailed overview of the state-of-the-art of AI deployment. Second, we review the grey literature and present the state-of-practice and experience of practitioners while deploying AI models. Third, we present a framework derived from existing literature for the end-to-end deployment process and attempt to compare and contrast SLR and GLR results.

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  • 34.
    Khoshkangini, Reza
    et al.
    Malmö University, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS), Department of Computer Science and Media Technology (DVMT). Malmö University, Internet of Things and People (IOTAP). Halmstad Univ, Ctr Appl Intelligent Syst Res CAISR, Halmstad, Sweden..
    Tajgardan, Mohsen
    Qom Univ Technol, Fac Elect & Comp Engn, Qom, Iran..
    Mashhadi, Peyman
    Halmstad Univ, Ctr Appl Intelligent Syst Res CAISR, Halmstad, Sweden..
    Rognvaldsson, Thorsteinn
    Halmstad Univ, Ctr Appl Intelligent Syst Res CAISR, Halmstad, Sweden..
    Tegnered, Daniel
    Volvo Grp Connected Solut, Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Optimal Task Grouping Approach in Multitask Learning2024In: Neural Information Processing: 30th International Conference, ICONIP 2023, Changsha, China, November 20–23, 2023, Proceedings, Part VI / [ed] Luo, B Wu, ZG Cheng, C Li, H Li, C, Springer, 2024, Vol. 14452, p. 206-225Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Multi-task learning has become a powerful solution in which multiple tasks are trained together to leverage the knowledge learned from one task to improve the performance of the other tasks. However, the tasks are not always constructive on each other in the multi-task formulation and might play negatively during the training process leading to poor results. Thus, this study focuses on finding the optimal group of tasks that should be trained together for multi-task learning in an automotive context. We proposed a multi-task learning approach to model multiple vehicle long-term behaviors using low-resolution data and utilized gradient descent to efficiently discover the optimal group of tasks/vehicle behaviors that can increase the performance of the predictive models in a single training process. In this study, we also quantified the contribution of individual tasks in their groups and to the other groups' performance. The experimental evaluation of the data collected from thousands of heavy-duty trucks shows that the proposed approach is promising.

  • 35.
    Lagerkvist, Love
    et al.
    Malmö University, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), School of Arts and Communication (K3).
    Ghajargar, Maliheh
    Malmö University, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), School of Arts and Communication (K3). Malmö University, Internet of Things and People (IOTAP).
    Multiverse: Exploring Human Machine Learning Interaction Through Cybertextual Generative Literature2020In: 10th International Conference on the Internet of Things / [ed] Paul Davidsson, Marc Langheinrich, Per Linde, Simon Mayer, Diego Casado-Mansilla, Daniel Spikol, Frank Alexander Kraemer, Nancy Russo, Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), 2020, p. 1-6, article id 1Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present a prototype of a system for machine learning (ML) powered interactive generative literature called Multiverse. The system employs a set of neural networks models to dynamically generate a literary space from an initial writing prompt provided by its user-reader. The user-reader is able to choose the model used to generate the text as a kind of interactive machine learning (IML). The research explores how interaction design and HCI researchers can engage directly with ML by leveraging the powerful, yet accessible, models afforded by new developments in the field. User-readers testing the prototype found the imperfect aesthetics of the ML-generated texts to be entertaining and engaging but struggled to conceptualize the generated work as a navigable interactive literary space.

  • 36.
    Larsson, N. Jesper
    Malmö University, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS), Department of Computer Science and Media Technology (DVMT).
    Run-Length Encoding in a Finite Universe2019In: String Processing and Information Retrieval: 26th International Symposium, SPIRE 2019, Segovia, Spain, October 7–9, 2019, Proceedings, Springer, 2019, p. 355-371Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Text compression schemes and succinct data structures usually combine sophisticated probability modes with basic coding methods whose average codeword length closely match the entropy of known distributions. In the frequent case where basic coding represents run-lengths of outcomes with probability p, i.e. geometric distribution Pr(i)=pⁱ(1-p), a Golomb code is an optimal instantaneous code, which has the additional advantage that codewords can be computed using only an integer parameter calculated from p, without need for a large or sophisticated data structure. Golomb coding does not, however, gracefully handle the case where run-lengths are bounded by a known integer n, where codewords allocated for the case i>n are wasted. While negligible for large n, this makes Golomb coding unattractive in situations where n is recurrently small, e.g., when representing many short lists, or when the range of n is narrowed down by a recursive algorithm.

  • 37.
    Lehrer, Matthew
    Malmö University, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS), Department of Computer Science and Media Technology (DVMT).
    A Method for Optimizing for Charging Cost in Electric Vehicle Routing2023Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Adoption of electric vehicles has been restrained by the availability of charging stations and consumer fear of being stranded with a depleted battery, far from the nearest charger. In many areas of the world, charging stations are now widely available and the transition from vehicles with internal combustion engines is accelerating, though still in a fairly early stage. For electric vehicle drivers in those areas, anxiety that they will not be able to find a charger (“range anxiety”) is subsiding. However, differences in charging speed and pricing between stations and different outlets at the same station can be large. Total trip duration can vary significantly based on the charging outlet selected. Prior research has developed methods for helping all drivers find the fastest route and for electric vehicle drivers to ensure that they are able to complete their trip. Additional research has explored other complexities of route selection for electric vehicles such as how to select optimal stations for charging based on the total trip duration, including driving and charging time. Pricing for recharging electric vehicles at public chargers is more complex and diverse than for gas filling stations due to the differences in charging rates and the relatively low competition. This research investigates those differences. Using design science research methodology, a method is presented for determining which charging stops result in the lowest possible charging cost for a given route. The method is demonstrated through experiment with random routes within Sweden. The experimental results show that the average cost savings as compared to the duration-optimal route is 15% and 139 SEK per additional hour of trip time. One possible direction for future work is to improve the performance of the algorithm for use in real-time consumer route planning applications.

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  • 38. Lewis, Grace
    et al.
    Spalazzese, Romina
    Malmö University, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS), Department of Computer Science and Media Technology (DVMT).
    ICSA 2018 Early Career Researchers Forum: Message from the Chairs2018In: 2018 IEEE 15th International Conference on Software Architecture Companion (ICSA-C 2018), IEEE, 2018, p. 39-39Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 39. Li, Jie
    et al.
    Wu, Jinsong
    Hu, Bin
    Wang, Chonggang
    Daneshmand, Mahmoud
    Malekian, Reza
    Malmö University, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS), Department of Computer Science and Media Technology (DVMT).
    Introduction to the Special Section on Big Data and Artificial Intelligence for Network Technologies2020In: IEEE Transactions on Network Science and Engineering, E-ISSN 2327-4697, Vol. 7, no 1, p. 1-2Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The papers in this special section examines the deployment of Big Data and artificial intelligence for network technologies. The eneration of huge amounts of data, called big data, is creating the need for efficient tools to manage those data. Artificial intelligence (AI) has become the powerful tool in dealing with big data with recent breakthroughs at multiple fronts in machine learning, including deep learning. Meanwhile, information networks are becoming larger and more complicated, generating a huge amount of runtime statistics data such as traffic load, resource usages. The emerging big data and AI technologies may include a bunch of new requirements, applications and scenarios such as e-health, Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS), Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT), and smart cities in the term of computing networks. The big data and AI driven network technologies also provide an unprecedented patient to discover new features, to characterize user demands and system capabilities in network resource assignment, security and privacy, system architecture, modeling and applications, which needs more explorations. The focus of this special section is to address the big data and artificial intelligence for network technologies. We appreciate contributions to this special section and the valuable and extensive efforts of the reviewers. The topics of this special section range from big data and AI algorithms, models, architecture for networks and systems to network architecture.

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  • 40.
    Maslo, Lanna
    Malmö University, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS).
    Beslutsfattande Artificiell Intelligens: Partiskhet och rättvisa i rättsväsendets tillämpning av riskbedömningsinstrument2022Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Risk assessment instruments used in criminal justice have been shown to produce unfair and biased results for minorities. This semi-systematic literature review aims to uncover why these machine learned instruments become biased and how these biases can be mitigated in order to achieve fairness. Data was collected from peer-reviewed publications on the subject. The results show that bias can be injected into the instrument during any step in its life cycle: through data, data generation, the model, or evaluation. To mitigate the biases and inject fairness into the instrument instead of bias one can either regulate the input data, regulate the algorithmic model, or refrain from implementing the risk assessment instrument altogether. The present study discusses, analyses, and compares the three strategies to one another in order to establish how effective they would be in creating fair outcomes. It concludes that dismissing the use of risk assessment instruments will not decrease the risk of bias, but possibly increase it, because of the biases present in subjective risk assessments. Furthermore, the results of this study illustrate that risk assessment instruments cannot produce outcomes that are completely fair, unless the instrument makes predictions with 100% accuracy or if the groups have the same base rate of arrests. However, risk assessment instruments can be regulated in order to produce fairer outcomes, which should be done with respect to normative principles that justify the chosen method of regulation.

  • 41.
    Mohammed Abdu, Mohammed
    et al.
    Malmö University, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS), Department of Computer Science and Media Technology (DVMT).
    Alsaif, Anas
    Malmö University, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS), Department of Computer Science and Media Technology (DVMT).
    Hur åtgärdar offentliga aktörer deras cybersäkerhet efter att ha blivit utsatta för cyberattacker?2023Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 13 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Digitization has been a growing phenomenon in today's society where organizations, individuals and society at large are affected by it. In pace with the emerging use of digitization,a realization of the relevance of cyber security in the public sector has increased, but not to a sufficient extent. Cyber security is about processes used to protect personal information and important data in organizations. Cyber security also includes knowledge of cyberattacks, where actors attack an organization's data most often for financial reasons. Cyber attacks have affected the public sector in several countries. The study focuses on known cyber attacks around the world that are related to public actors in healthcare, transport and electricity supply,among others. The study's analysis compares implemented measures after the incidents based on a cyber risk assessment framework. The survey shows that increased investments, new and clear work routines, training for employees and continuous testing of computer systems are important measures for the prevention of cyber attacks. The mentioned main actions that are common between the studied actors are supported by the theoretical frame of reference. This is because frameworks linked to cyber attacks also point out that investments, clear work routines and monitoring of systems contribute to protection against cyber attacks.

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  • 42.
    Nielsen, Erik
    et al.
    Malmö University, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS).
    Gerdtsson, Markus
    Qualitative analysis about the experience of VPN from people with software expertise in Sweden2022Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    VPN is primarily used to encrypt your network traffic and identity online securely from a private location. This can be used as a safety measure to prevent theft of personal data. It also allows its user to change the geolocation to wherever they want which unlocks the possibility to use another country's services. Related work has shown that there are also downsides to using VPN services. Some VPN solutions do have security problems that its user could be unaware of. This study explored the experience and beliefs surrounding the usage of VPN while browsing the internet from people with software expertise. Interviews were conducted with people in different areas surrounding usage of VPN services to get a deeper understanding of why VPN is used and to what extent they believe VPN is providing anonymity and security of their data. The findings from this study is that the main reason to use a VPN is to access unavailable services. These services can vary from content online that is not available in the region from where you access the internet to services that are work related and locked to specific networks. Another finding was also that among these people the belief that the use of a VPN was enough to make a user anonymous by itself is controversial.

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  • 43.
    Nylander, Karl
    et al.
    Malmö University, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS), Department of Computer Science and Media Technology (DVMT).
    Trulsson Wallin, Erik
    Malmö University, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS), Department of Computer Science and Media Technology (DVMT).
    Skiftet Mot PWA Inom Applikationsutveckling: En analys av PWA vs. native applikation2021Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    With mobile usage on the rise developers are more than ever faced with the issue of developing for multiple platforms. With Google's introduction of Progressive Web Applications (PWA) it is possible to build app-like web applications that can run on any platform. This study aims to investigate if PWA is mature enough to replace an already developed native iOS application. Specifically it aims to investigate if a PWA can achieve the same functionality and security as a native application, as well as what technologies are needed to do so. 

    To verify this question an iOS application called iHug developed by a software company called Cloud Enablers was used as a reference point. With this reference a Minimum Viable Product (MVP) copy was developed as a PWA to verify that the functionality could be achieved. This PWA was not intended to replace the existing native application, but instead coexist with it. That means that the PWA must be able to communicate with the original application. In addition an investigation was done to see what measures needed to be taken to achieve security. The results showed that the same functionality was achievable, as was the security.

    Even though the results are promising, due to the native application not being developed with a PWA in mind there was a lot of extra work that had to be done to replicate certain functionalities and SDK choices. On this basis, while it is certainly possible to achieve the same functionality it is much harder to do so when the counterpart was not developed to be able to communicate with a PWA.

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  • 44.
    Olsson, Alexander
    et al.
    Malmö University, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS), Department of Computer Science and Media Technology (DVMT).
    Sara, Karic
    Malmö University, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS), Department of Computer Science and Media Technology (DVMT).
    Utforskning av etiska dilemman vid data mining i e-handeln ur ett konsekvensetiskt perspektiv2023Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
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  • 45.
    Ouhaichi, Hamza
    Malmö University, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS), Department of Computer Science and Media Technology (DVMT). Malmö University, Internet of Things and People (IOTAP).
    Towards designing a flexible multimodal learning analytics system2022Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
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  • 46.
    Ouhaichi, Hamza
    et al.
    Malmö University, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS), Department of Computer Science and Media Technology (DVMT).
    Olsson, Helena Holmström
    Malmö University, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS), Department of Computer Science and Media Technology (DVMT).
    Bosch, Jan
    Chalmers University of TechnologyGothenburgSweden.
    Dynamic Data Management for Machine Learning in Embedded Systems: A Case Study2019In: Software Business: 10th International Conference, ICSOB 2019, Jyväskylä, Finland, November 18–20, 2019, Proceedings / [ed] Sami Hyrynsalmi; Mari Suoranta; Anh Nguyen-Duc; Pasi Tyrväinen; Pekka Abrahamsson, Springer, 2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Dynamic data and continuously evolving sets of records are essential for a wide variety of today’s data management applications. Such applications range from large, social, content-driven Internet applications, to highly focused data processing verticals like data intensive science, telecommunications and intelligence applications. However, the dynamic and multimodal nature of data makes it challenging to transform it into machine-readable and machine-interpretable forms. In this paper, we report on an action research study that we conducted in collaboration with a multinational company in the embedded systems domain. In our study, and in the context of a real-world industrial application of dynamic data management, we provide insights to data science community and research to guide discussions and future research into dynamic data management in embedded systems. Our study identifies the key challenges in the phases of data collection, data storage and data cleaning that can significantly impact the overall performance of the system.

  • 47.
    Ovesdotter Alm, Cecilia
    et al.
    Rochester Institute of Technology, United States.
    Alvarez, Alberto
    Malmö University, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS), Department of Computer Science and Media Technology (DVMT).
    Font, José
    Malmö University, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS), Department of Computer Science and Media Technology (DVMT).
    Liapis, Antonios
    Institute of Digital Games University of Malta, Malta.
    Pederson, Thomas
    Malmö University, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS), Department of Computer Science and Media Technology (DVMT).
    Salo, Johan
    Malmö University, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS), Department of Computer Science and Media Technology (DVMT).
    Workshop on Invisible AI-driven HCI Systems: When, Why and How2020In: NordiCHI '20: Proceedings of the 11th Nordic Conference on Human-Computer Interaction, Extended Abstract: Shaping Experiences, Shaping Society / [ed] Ilja Šmorgun, Gerd Berget, ACM Digital Library, 2020Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The InvisibleAI (InvAI’20) workshop aims to systematically discuss a growing class of interactive systems that invisibly remove some decision-making tasks away from humans to machines, based on recent advances in artificial intelligence (AI), data science, and sensor or actuation technology. While the interest in the affordances as well as the risks of hidden pervasive AI are high on the agenda in public debate, discussion on the topic is needed within the human-computer interaction (HCI) community. In particular, we want to gather insights, ideas, and models for approaching the use of barely noticeable AI decision-making in systems design from a human-centered perspective, so as to make the most out of the automated systems and algorithms that support human activity both as designers and users. Concurrently, these systems should safeguard that humans remain in charge when it counts (high stakes decisions, privacy, monitoring lack of explainability and fairness, etc.). What to automate and what not to automate is often a system designer’s choice [8]. By taking the established concept of explicit interaction between a system and its user as a point of departure, and inviting authors to provide examples from their own research, we aim to stimulate dynamic discussion while keeping the workshop concrete and system design-focused. The workshop especially directs itself to participants from the interaction design, AI, and HCI communities. The targeted scientific outcome of the workshop is an up-to-date ontology of invisible AI-HCI systems and hybrid human-AI collaboration mechanisms, and approaches. Additionally, we expect that the workgroups and the roundtables will provide starting points shaping continued discussions, new collaborations, and innovative scientific contributions that springboard from the workgroups’ findings. The focus of the proposed workshop involves the bridging of two spaces of computational research that impact user experiences and societal domains (HCI and AI). Thus, the proposed workshop topic aligns well with the theme of this year’s NordiCHI conference which is Shaping Experiences, Shaping Society.

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  • 48.
    Packmohr, Sven
    et al.
    Malmö University, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS), Department of Computer Science and Media Technology (DVMT). Malmö University, Data Society.
    Mosconi, Elaine
    Université de Sherbrooke.
    Felden, Carsten
    Technical University Bergakademie Freiberg.
    Introduction to the Minitrack on Making Digital Transformation Real2021In: Proceedings of the 54th Annual Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences / [ed] Bui T.X., Honolulu HI: University of Hawai'i at Manoa , 2021, , p. 3p. 4587-4589Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    For the third time in a row, HICSS is hosting the minitrack Making Digital Transformation Real. We received six submissions from 16 authors. Mainly, authors are affiliated with European research institutions. Also, we received submissions from authors affiliated with South African and Canadian research institutions. This year, with the COVID-19 pandemic, we received fewer submissions than expected. Topic- wise, the focus is clearly on the development of frameworks and the setting-up of propositions. We use a framework by Vial to classify the three selected submissions. Through the lens of the framework, there is an orientation towards research on structure and value creation. For the future, there is the need to develop more specific hypotheses for testing. Research on other areas of Vial’s framework, such as strategy and impact, is needed.

  • 49.
    Persson, Jan A.
    Malmö University, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS), Department of Computer Science and Media Technology (DVMT). Malmö University, Internet of Things and People (IOTAP).
    Digitala lösningar för minskad trängsel2021In: Omstart för kollektivtrafiken: idéer för en hållbar framtid / [ed] Hanna Holm; Andrea Kollman, Lund: K2 , 2021, p. 107-115Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Pandemin har inneburit att det har uppstått nya behov av information kopplat till reducering av potentiell smittspridning i kol-lektivtrafiken. Det mest uppenbara behovet är att resenärer vill ha information om trängsel för att undvika smittorisk. Ett annat behov är information till resenärer som varit utsatta för smit­torisk. Det senare har i större utsträckning varit aktuellt i andra län-der än Sverige, bland annat i form av smittspårningsappar.I svensk kollektivtrafik har fokus legat på trängselproblematiken, bland annat genom uppmärksammade situationer med delvis reducerad trafik och i vissa fall en upplevelse av ohållbar trängsel i förhållande till smittorisken. Samtidigt har olika informationstjäns-ter för resenärer snabbt rullats ut, som till exempel visning i realtid av beläggningsgrad i kollektivtrafikens fordon. Vidare har det i viss utsträckning, åtminstone i närområdet på sträckan Kastrup-Köpen-hamn, införts bokningskrav för att begränsa antalet resenärer. Att införa system för att estimera antalet resenärer ombord ett kollektivtrafikfordon (buss eller tåg) hade inledningsvis helt andra motiv. Pandemin har dock visat att genom att starta (eller (109) förbereda för) att samla in information kan nya tjänster snabbt utvecklas och tas i bruk när det uppstår ett behov. Det gäller även informationstjänster som svårligen kan förutses och värderas idag.

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  • 50.
    Pettersson, Isac
    et al.
    Malmö University, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS).
    Skäremo, Johan
    Malmö University, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS).
    Quality Control: Detect Visual Defects on Products Using Image Processing and Deep Learning2023Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 180 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Computer vision, a prominent subfield of artificial intelligence, has gained widespread util-ization in diverse domains such as surveillance, security, and robotics. This research en-deavors to develop an semi-automated defect detection system serving as a quality controlassurance mechanism for Nolato MediTor, a manufacturing company within the medicaldevice industries engaged in the production of anesthesia breathing bags. The primary fo-cus of this study revolves around the detection of a specific defect, namely, holes. Withinthe context of Nolato MediTor, prioritizing recall (sensitivity) assumes utmost signific-ance as it entails favoring the rejection of functional breathing bags over the inadvertentacceptance of defective ones. The proposed system encompasses a robust metallic standfacilitating precise positioning for three distinct camera angles, accompanied by a XiaomiRedmi Note 11 Pro phone and a software component, designed to process incoming imagefolders representing a complete view of a breathing bag from multiple angles. Subsequently,these images undergo analysis using the learned weights derived from the implementedMask R-CNN model, enabling a cohesive assessment of the breathing bag. The system’sperformance was rigorously evaluated, and the best-performing weights demonstrated aremarkable recall rate of 0.995 for the first test set, exceeding the desired recall thresholdof 95%. Similarly, for the second test set, the recall rate achieved an impressive value of0.949, narrowly missing the 95% threshold by a marginal 0.001. Furthermore, the com-putational efficiency, quantified as the processing time per breathing bag, on average, thelongest duration recorded amounted to approximately 10.151 seconds, with the poten-tial for further enhancement by employing a higher standard GPU. This study serves as aproof of concept, demonstrating the feasibility of achieving semi-automated quality controlutilizing CNN. The implemented system represents a promising prototype with potentialscalability for improved operational conditions and expanded defect coverage, thus pavingthe way towards a fully automated quality control within large-scale industries.

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