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  • 1.
    Abou Khalil, Basel
    et al.
    Malmö University, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS), Department of Materials Science and Applied Mathematics (MTM).
    Tokovic, Samir
    Malmö University, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS), Department of Materials Science and Applied Mathematics (MTM).
    Jämförelse mellan betong och klimatförbättrad betong: Livscykelanalys inkluderande byggskede A1-5 och driftsenergi B6 i flerbostadshus2022Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Concrete is a leading building material due to its durability, strength and carrying capacity etcetera. A weakness of concrete is it´s relatively large carbon dioxide emissions that are released during the production process. At this current time cement production accounts to 5% of the world's GHG emissions. Boverket has set a specific requirement that new buildings must be climate declared as a guide to more sustainable construction.

    This  study  aims  to  investigate  and  use  a  model-based  LCA-assessments  where climate- improved concrete is compared to a traditional concrete. This was done by examining a BIM- model.

    The  possibility  of  improving  the  environmental  impact  is  answered  by  producing carbon dioxide emissions equivalent for concrete in this property and comparing it with carbon dioxide emissions  equivalent  for  a  climate-improved  concrete  to  show  a potential  carbon  dioxide saving.

    A quantitative method is selected for this study using LCA. LCA-assessment is performed using several computer-based BIM programs to be able to produce simulations and calculations. A reference building that represents an ordinary apartment building in Sweden forms the basis of the assessment.

    LCA is based on only one environmental indicator which is carbon dioxide emissions. LCA assessment for the two types of concrete include the construction phase A1-A5 as well as the phase B6 operating energy according to Swedish standard SS-EN 15978: 2011. No account is taken of any differences in strength, fire class and sound class when exchanging materials. LCC limits to utility calculation.

    Results shows the total price increases by approximately SEK 49,000 if the ordinary concrete is replaced with a climate-improved concrete, and the carbon dioxide emissions is reduced by approximately 57,000 kgCO2e.

    Reduction in the climate-impact of concrete partly helps in the climate policy framework 2045 for a climate-neutral Sweden. Climate-improved  concrete  has  limits  within exposure  and  strength  classes.  Surroundingenvironment must therefore be considered.

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  • 2.
    Ala-Eddin, Israa
    et al.
    Malmö University, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS).
    Shikha, Rima
    Malmö University, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS).
    Jämförelse mellan hybridelement och halvsandwichelement2023Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    To consider the climate and strive to reduce greenhouse gas emissions is a current issue in today's society. The outer wall hybrid sandwich wall is a new, more environmentally friendly wall type that is being researched for use in the market. The purpose of this study is to analyze whether the hybrid sandwich wall is a better choice for future construction projects and to compare it to the semi-sandwich wall. The study is limited to examining LCA module A (A1-A5) and module C (C1-C4), as well as how the pile foundation is affected by the use of the hybrid sandwich wall.

    To conduct this investigation, literature studies, quantitative, and qualitative methods were used. The quantitative method involved climate calculations performed both manually and using the Bidcon and BM Tools software. With the assistance of the company Sigma Civil, a reference project was provided where the hybrid element could be tested. The qualitative method consisted of an interview study with Håkan Arnebrant, Sales Development Manager at Metsä Wood, who works with Kerto LVL and has background information on the hybrid sandwich wall. The software used to conduct the study was FEM-Design for load calculations, BM and Bidcon for LCA analysis.

    The results of the study showed that the LCA analysis of module A indicated a reduction in carbon dioxide emissions by 28 000 kg Co2e when using the hybrid sandwich wall. For module C, emissions decreased by 1 000 kg Co2e. Additionally, during the element exchange, the self-weight of the outer wall decreased by 1,8 MN, which corresponded to the replacement of only six out of the total 27 piles along the facade with RD140. This resulted in a reduction of carbon dioxide emissions by only 1 600 kg Co2e for module A and 20 kg Co2e for module C. The cost savings for piles after the element exchange amounted to 15 600 SEK, and the total cost savings for the entire building during the element exchange were 235 000 SEK. Despite this, the hybrid sandwich wall also contributed to a 9% lower energy consumption. However, in conclusion, the hybrid element is considered a better, more environmentally friendly alternative for future construction projects.

     

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  • 3.
    Alwal, Mohammed
    et al.
    Malmö University, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS).
    Ludvigsson, Sten
    Malmö University, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS).
    Mer biogas för en miljövänligarebyggindustri: Analys av biogas som alternativ bränsle vid tegeltillverkning2022Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In Sweden today, the construction- and building industry sector stands for 20% of the total national carbon dioxide emissions. Therefore, the need for new innovations and methods for lowering CO2-emissions for the industry overall are highly sought after. Since the 1930s, the use of bricks for the facade of buildings have increased in Sweden. Traditionally masonry have a long durability and require less upkeep during its lifecycle. However, the process of making bricks consumes very high energy levels since the bricks need to be burnt at high temperature. Historically the fuels for the ovens have consisted of fossil fuels, more specifically natural gas and petrol. This study aims to analyze the possibility, the benefits and the challenges that exist when swapping the fuel from fossil to biogas. The methods that have been selected to help guide the study to its results are both qualitative and quantitative. The qualitative part is performed with literature study and interview with experts in the sector of brick. The quantitative part is made using a method called LCCO2 for evaluating emissions and LCEA for energy demand. The study finds that using biogas could reduce the CO2-emissions with up to 80%. With the help of interviews, it also concludes that the most significant factors hindering the use of biogas is the price increase that comes with biogas and hence the costumer not wanting to pay more for it. Even though the benefit for the environment is evident, there is a lack of knowledge from the costumer about these benefits. To help the readjustment from fossil fuels, the study recommends management accounting to decrease the price of biogas and encourage competition.

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  • 4.
    Hägg, Maja
    Malmö University, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), Department of Urban Studies (US).
    Social hållbarhet förutsätter human arkitektur: Om att gestalta för social hållbarhet i städer2022Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    ”Never be able to see each other, that’s what’s the most dangerous to a society” 

    (Per Svensson, 2006)2

    The city is most often perceived as dense settlements with structures and forms that shapes the environment in which many of us live today. The reason for why the city is so popular and densely populated is our will to be present where things happen. It is the human life that attracts, this continuous exchange between life and living that takes place in the city’s central crowds. Still, it seems to be a continuing challenge in how to achieve the dreamt image that we have of the city as a social phenomenon.

    According to several architectural and social theories, architecture plays a significant role both aesthetically and in terms of physical planning to offer the liveliness and mutual respect that makes the city into sustainable society. On the other hand, it is not the architects alone who bear the responsibility for the city’s shape. It requires good cooperation and communication between several different professions that are involved in urban planning. In a similar manner, the citizens must be included in the process and promised an active participation in designing their living environment. 

    The purpose of this research is to explore the meaning of the concept social sustainability in relation to architecture and urban planning. In all development processes of cities there must be a equal valuation of the tree dimensions of social, economic and ecological sustainability. There is an uncertainty about the implication of the social dimension in sustainable planning processes in Sweden. One reason is that it is an overlapping concept that extends over several topics and affects many competencies that need to communicate and collaborate effectively. 

    This research study focused on three ongoing urban development projects in Skåne in southern Sweden. By reading the municipalities’ governing documents together with database searches and literature, a theoretical framework was created. This resulted in an explanation of social sustainability, created by aspects with were used analytical throughout the work. Site visits were made and project managers and a cultural strategist were interviewed. Finally, a survey was compiled for architecture and urban planning students at Malmö University to gain their explanation of the concept social sustainability.

    The study shows that the explanation of the concept of social sustainability can be provided by the keywords from the analytical tool. On the other hand, there is no explicit and unambiguous definition used in urban planning regarding the role architecture plays for designing better living environments. The answer probably lies in the fact that it is difficult to measure social values. It creates a dilemma in adding appropriate skills with a nuanced perspective on human life and the city.

    The city need architecture that is present and relationship-creating, which means spaces designed on a human scale that people perceive as common. A socially sustainable architecture is all about impressions, feelings, personal experiences and realities that cannot be assessed in numbers in the same way as economics and ecology. This presupposes that we develop new methods for respectfully understanding and evaluating human perceptions. The work of shaping socially sustainable cities is not an easy task that comes with ready-made solutions. It implies to give up the square thinking in order to curiously discover new ideas through various collaborations.

    Keywords: Social sustainability, architecture, urban planning, consultation, politics.

    2 Per Svensson was an inspirer in the planning work for Vision Norra Sorgenfri and was quoted in a report about the vision work (Malmö Stad, 2006). Original quote translated from Swedish by the author: ”Att inte se varandra någonsin, det är det som är det farliga för ett samhälle”

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  • 5.
    Jensén, Nils
    et al.
    Malmö University, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), Department of Urban Studies (US).
    Ander, Elias
    Malmö University, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), Department of Urban Studies (US).
    Trivsel och databaserad design: samspel eller konkurrens?2021Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis explores a new field of design called computational design and the tools covered therein. Specifically, it focusses on quantitative values, and whether this method can be developed to center on well-being in relation to qualitative values in the built environment ‒ specifically daylight. The paper explores what computation design is, how it is implemented in Sweden today, and whether it can help us achieve what we perceive as comfortable daylight. This thesis aimed to investigate whether an alternative design method could be construed for this purpose: a method that is easy to incorporate, while ensuring high quality before quantity, using modern computational power.

    The subject of well-being has been thoroughly researched, while a majority of the research within computational design is conducted ‘in-house’ ‒ as part of R&D departments of large actors in the field. As of today, virtually all decision-making concerning daylight in Swedish architecture relies upon the Swedish building regulations, BBR. With time, these recommendations ‒ defined as the lowest accepted level for that which is built ‒ have become established guidelines for industry actors. Every actor has a responsibility to, while ensuring the recommendations are fulfilled, to also create good architecture. Working with computational design offers some benefits over traditional design methods, but it also carries with it some pitfalls. The technology is immensely powerful, with seemingly endless possibilities, but there is an integral risk in trusting digits without really knowing what their implications are: this leads to misguidance.

    The project was conducted in a series of phases. First of all, information and general knowledge about computational design and daylighting was gathered through reviewing literature and previous research. Then, key Swedish professionals in the fields of architecture and computational design were identified and contacted to get some insight and background on the topic. The interviews with these influential actors in architecture and urban design confirmed the need for a methodical development within the subject of well-being and daylighting. In particular, a need was identified for reassessing methods used for calculating the amount – and quality – of daylight, based on modern conditions.

    After mapping and analysing the empirical findings of the study, the conclusions were implemented in a practical design task. This culminated in a design proposal for adaptable modules that modify daylight using computational design. The modules were parametrically designed based on the assembled data ‒ the direction; the location and the specific needs depending on the type of function or environment ‒ be it a residence, an office, a library, a public pavilion or something else.

    By quantifying qualitative parameters, it’s possible to incorporate softer qualities in computational design ‒ keeping in mind that relying on these data won’t guarantee good architecture. The biggest challenge with the task at hand is to quantify values generally considered to be subjective. The methods in question are best applied when thought of as complements to traditional design methods ‒ pen and paper, physical models and other components in the architect's toolbox. Computational design is today rarely used throughout the whole design process, and this leaves potential for future development.

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  • 6.
    Johansson, Sofia
    et al.
    Malmö University, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS).
    Holst, Tilda
    Malmö University, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS).
    Klimatpåverkansanalys i byggskedet: Tre olika ytterväggskonstruktioner i tre olika städer2021Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Construction in Sweden is at a high level that has not been relevant since the Million Homes Programme in the 70s. Combining a high construction rate with Sweden's climate goal, which includes net zero greenhouse emissions by 2045, is a challenge which creates higher demands on sustainable solutions. One way to evaluate the climate impact of a building or building component is through a life cycle assessment.

    Therefore, the aim of this study is to, by using climate calculations in the construction phase, investigate which exterior wall construction should theoretically be used regarding climate impact and geography. The walls studied are curtain wall, and constructions including IsoTimber and hempcrete which are placed in Luleå, Stockholm and Malmö.

    The results show that the net emissions for the curtain wall are close to zero in all cities and varies between 4,9 and 15,7 CO2e per m2. For IsoTimber, the corresponding figures vary from -310,8 to -160,9 kg CO2e per m2, which shows an effect that could be considered positive. Climate-positive results were also shown for the construction with hempcrete: -96,1 to -58,2 kg CO2e per m2. For the curtain wall, the carbon dioxide emissions vary from 40,3 to 45,1 CO2e per m2. The construction with IsoTimber generates emissions that varies from 44,5 to 63,7 kg CO2e per m2. With hempcrete, emissions reached figures from 49,0 to 109,5 kg CO2e per m2. In summary, it was found that carbon dioxide emissions increase in all cities, between 10– 143%.

    The curtain wall has the lowest impact on the climate in all studied cities. However, if carbon storage is being accounted for, the construction with IsoTimber has the best figures. A conclusion that transports are important for the climate footprint can be drawn. However, it is above all the product phase that generates the highest carbon dioxide emissions.

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  • 7.
    Kowalczyk, Jakub
    et al.
    Malmö University, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), Department of Urban Studies (US). Malmö University.
    Muhamedagic, Ismar
    Malmö University, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), Department of Urban Studies (US).
    Social hållbarhet med planerarens ögon: En fallstudie på planerarperspektiv i Trelleborg2022Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna uppsats har som avsikt att undersöka och analysera vad social hållbarhet är och hur den uppfattasutifrån planerarperspektivet. Den studerar fallet av två stora utvecklingsprojekt, Sjöstaden och VästraSjöstaden i Trelleborg och dess förutsättningar samt problematik kring tillämpningen av social hållbarhetutifrån planerarnas perspektiv i Trelleborg. Uppsatsen problematiserar begreppet social hållbarhet genomatt använda sig av fenomenet fysiska barriärer som används för att undersöka hur dessa två förhåller sigtill varandra. Teorin går in djupare på svårigheter med definitionen av social hållbarhet genom att utforskaflera perspektiv och tillämpningsmetoder av termen samt koppling till fysisk planering och planerarensroll. Studien visar på att planerare i Trelleborg ser på social hållbarhet som ett komplext begrepp och attden består av flera byggstenar. Det kopplar de även till fysiska barriärer som utgörs av hamntrafiken somtränger sig in i staden genom en trafikled. Planerare hävdar bland annat att staden behöver fler kopplingarför att fysiskt integrera ihop den befintliga staden med de nya stadsdelarna för att minska de fysiska,sociala och psykologiska barriäreffekter som E6:an och Strandgatan (väg 9) orsakar. Detta övergår tillfrågan om ringvägen och därmed flytten av E6:an, hamninfarten och hela hamntrafiken som kommermöjliggöra omgestaltningen av befintliga gatan till en stadsgata och därmed skapa bättre kopplingarmellan stadsdelar. En av slutsatserna som presenteras i uppsatsen är att planerarperspektivet i Trelleborgtydliggör vikten av den sociala dimensionen samtidigt som att de utgår från givna förutsättningar ochmöjligheter för att implementera åtgärder som kan eliminera fysiska barriärer och koppla ihop staden påett bättre sätt.

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  • 8.
    Larsson, Alva
    Malmö University, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), Department of Urban Studies (US).
    Hur byggbranschen är i gasen: Om medvetenheten och byggsektorns utsläpp av växthusgaser2022Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This work is the research result of the study conducted to try to find the common denominators between the construction industry and the climate crisis. During the education that the author has received, large parts of the teaching have been linked to the industry's climate impact and the non-existent climate awareness that the industry seems to have. As society's climate measures are perhaps the most important issue today, the author is interested in seeing how the theoretical claims about construction and the environment actually correspond to the practical reality. Reading about construction and architecture is one thing, but what happens physically in the industry is at least as crucial. Therefore, it is important that architecture students also study the practical reality, which is the reason why this report has been published. The research aims to show the simplicity required to solve and unite several complex systems based on understanding what the construction industry's greenhouse gas emissions depend on and how this can be reduced in the long term. This includes how the construction industry's active craftsmen and actors who may already be trying to influence the industry's transition to climate neutrality think and do, as well as how the higher efforts work in the issue. The research has been conducted through two cases, a Swedish Large City and a Swedish Small City, where comparisons in the planning work and sustainability work around the construction industry have been investigated. In this way, this research is triangulating. A database search is also done to support the case study and the interviews with theoretical knowledge. Several key people from the entire industry's value chain have been interviewed to gain an understanding of how the work is done at all levels and to see the attitude and how the knowledge levels are. Research shows that the climate crisis does not belong in our lives if we want to save future generations. The climate crisis unites world societies and business, and forces us to find new solutions for a common tomorrow. And the construction industry has a responsibility in that work just like everyone else. Just as suspected, there is in the world, the EU and Sweden a well-established work to counteract the climate crisis and achieve climate neutrality by the year 2045, but that this work is not followed up and worked on in a clear way by the private builders. The reasons for this are many. Among other things, poorly specified laws and regulations but also a large gap in the general level of knowledge among authorities and the industry's craftsmen or performers.

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  • 9.
    Nik, Vahid
    et al.
    Lunds universitet, Avdelningen för Byggnadsfysik, LTH.
    Johansson, Dennis
    Lunds universitet, Avdelningen för Byggnadsfysik, LTH.
    Fransson, Victor
    Lunds universitet, Avdelningen för Byggnadsfysik, LTH.
    Javanroodi, Kavan
    Lunds universitet, Avdelningen för Byggnadsfysik, LTH.
    Wallentén, Petter
    Lunds universitet, Avdelningen för Byggnadsfysik, LTH.
    Persson, Mats
    Malmö University, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS), Department of Materials Science and Applied Mathematics (MTM).
    Klimatdata och klimatfiler för övertemperatursimuleringar i byggnader: en kunskapssammanställning2022Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna kunskapssammanställning om klimatdata och klimatfiler kan ge en bred och korrekt förståelse om var det finns kunskap och vilka utvecklingsbehov som behöverstödjas, vilka som agerar inom området och vilka regler och standarder som tillämpas.

    För att klara klimatförändringar har det stora fokuset inom byggsektorn (och många andra sektorer) hittills varit att ”lindra effekterna av klimatförändringen”. Detta samtidigt som det är nödvändigt med förberedelser för klimatförändringar, eftersom de sker och påverkar alla människor. Därför behövs större uppmärksamhet på ”klimatförändringsanpassning” genom att öka kunskapen inom byggsektorn, utveckla och testa metoder och syntetisera lättanvända uppsättningar av klimatdata för användarna.

    I många länder måste användarna köpa väderdata, medan det i andra länder finns uppsättningar av väderdata som är offentliga. Det finnas flera tillvägagångssätt för att ta fram indata (klimatfiler för framtiden) till den stora användningen som kan förutses. Allt kräver investeringar i att skapa kunskap och underlag/data som kan delas med användarna. Felaktig användning av klimatfiler för framtiden kan leda till mycket dyra ekonomiska konsekvenser. Analysers rumsliga och tidsmässiga upplösningar spelar en viktig roll för kraven på kvalitet på klimatfiler för framtidens väder.

    Mikroklimat påverkar energi- och fuktprestandan hos byggnader (och energisystem) men försummas av de flesta tillgängliga tillvägagångssätten. Detta samtidigt som effekter av extrema klimathändelser kan förändras avsevärt i urban/mikroskala. Att ta hänsyn till mikroklimat kommer att öka kostnaden för analyser avsevärt och det är inte möjligt i alla lägen. Därför behöver prioriteringar göras av kvalificerade beslutsfattare.

    Osäkerhet finns i alla indata som används i olika analyser av energianvändning och inomhusklimat. När beräkningar och simuleringar görs, kan säkerhetsmarginaler anpassas på olika sätt. Klimatfiler för framtiden kan ha säkerhetsmarginal, men frågan ärom det ska vara för en kort, lång eller mycket lång period.

    I dagens bostadsprojekt är det mycket ovanligt med komfortkyla. Kommer det att vara annorlunda om 10–15 år? Behöver nya byggnader förberedas för komplettering med komfortkyla? Möjliga konsekvenser och hur osäkerhet ska hanteras samtsäkerhetsmarginaler användas behöver utredas vidare.

    Det finns tre stora luckor i nuläget för byggbranschen (och anläggningsarbeten)

    1. Brist på korrekta väderdata/klimatfiler för framtiden, som lätt kan användas av alla intressenter.
    2. Brist på nya/uppdaterade/verifierade tillvägagångssätt som korrekt tar hänsyn till extrema väderhändelser och osäkerheter om klimatet.
    3. Bristande kunskap hos ingenjörer, intressenter, ansvariga offentliga sektorer och även forskare om konsekvensanalys av klimatförändringar.

    Med tanke på de senaste framstegen inom området för modellering av klimatförändringar och det framgångsrika forskningsarbetet med att koppla klimatmodeller till tekniska modeller, borde det finnas stora möjligheter att ta itu med frågeställningarna. Det krävs att tydliga mål sätts upp och att åtgärder vidtas.

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  • 10.
    Salim, Alanod
    et al.
    Malmö University, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS), Department of Materials Science and Applied Mathematics (MTM).
    Muzaffar, Maha
    Malmö University, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS), Department of Materials Science and Applied Mathematics (MTM).
    Skillnaden mellan utförandet av klimatdeklarationer med och utan modellbaserade verktyg2023Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The climate change that is affecting our planet has been an ongoing topic during a long period of time. During this time many goals has been set in order to decrease the greenhouse effect. On January 1, 2022, the government introduced a requirement that all new buildings shall be climate declared. Calculation of a building´s environmental impact can be carried out using lifecycle analysis (LCA), for environmental impact in the construction phase only modules A1-5 are considered.

    The purpose of this thesis is to perform and examine the process of climate declarations, both with and without a model-based tool. Furthermore, the study aims to investigate obstacles, difficulties and improvements that arise when performing climate calculations with modelbased tools.

    The following method choices for this study are a case study and interviews. The case study is based on producing climate declarations with and without model-based tools. The interviews were held with four respondents with knowledge and experience regarding climate calculations and model-based tools. Two climate declarations have been produced, where one was carried out manually and the other with the help of the BIM tools.

    The result of the climate declaration is presented below:

    - Without model-based tools: 41 188,67 kg CO₂e per m² Atemp

    - With model-based tools: 40 020,53 kg CO₂e per m² Atemp

    The difference between the climate impact is approximately 2,8 percent, which is insignificant.

    The interview study showed that model-based tools contribute to improvements, such as early indications, automatic information flow and visualization. Challenges that may occur include a lack of communication, knowledge, and a limited budget.

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  • 11.
    Solberger, Lars
    et al.
    Malmö University, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS), Department of Materials Science and Applied Mathematics (MTM).
    Ridderman, Gustav
    Malmö University, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS), Department of Materials Science and Applied Mathematics (MTM).
    Granskning av metoder vid framtagning av förslag till energieffektivisering i energideklarationer2022Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Since the EU-directive about energy performance of buildings in 2002, the Swedish government passed a law about energy declaration of buildings that came into effect in 2009. From that point forwards buildings have been required to have an energy declaration stating the buildings energy performance and also including suggestions of energy efficiency improvements that can be made for the building. Responsible for producing energy declarations are energy experts whom have been evaluated by certificate authority to be fit for doing energy declarations. The purpose of this study has been to find out which methods the energy experts use when developing proposals for energy efficiency improvments and to see if the choice of method has any impact on the quality of proposed improvements. Questions that have been addressed are:

    What methods are used when making proposals for energy efficiency improvements?

    How do the methods affect the quality of proposed energy efficiency improvements?

    What are the energy experts' view on their work of producing proposals for energy efficiency?

    The study was carried out by doing a survey and several interviews with energy experts. The results show that the energy experts' work to propose energy efficiency improvements is largely based on the inspection of the building together with the building data that the energy expert gets access to. Comparison of the energy experts' methods showed that the quality of proposed energy efficiency improvements is not determined by the calculation method used but rather by the energy expert's experience and ability to identify cost-effective energy efficiency improvements. The energy experts' views on the work of developing proposed energy efficiency improvements are mixed.

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  • 12.
    Yazbek, Hossein
    et al.
    Malmö University, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS).
    Zverotic, Elvin
    Användningen av LCA-verktyget One Click LCA med hjälp av BIM för effektivare klimat- och livscykelanalyser2021Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The construction and real estate sector contributed with about 18 tons of carbon dioxideequivalents which corresponds to almost 21 percent of Sweden’s total greenhouse gasemissions. Fact is that the construction and real estate sector contribute a significant part inthe climate impact.An approach to examine a building’s environmental impact is to implement Life CycleAssessment (LCA). By doing that a full picture of the climate impact during the building’slifetime can be seen. The results can be used to find out in what stage of the building processimprovements can be done to reduce the climate impact.The purpose of this study is to examine and understand how to execute Climate CycleAssessments and Life Cycle Assessments and how they can support the decisions forbuilding constructions with less climate impact. The aim is to examine digital conditions thatare required to be able to integrate the BIM-software Revit with One Click LCA. The study islimited to analyzing the frame and the foundation of a building. Only LCA-modules A1-3will be calculated because these modules are included in the mandatory climate declarationfrom year 2022. A1-3 includes raw material extraction, transport and manufacturing.The study is based on a qualitative method, where information is obtained from literaturestudies and semi-structured interviews to answer the questions of this study. The literaturestudy is done by using scientific articles, reports, and literature. Semi-structured interviewsare accomplished with relevant respondents. The software that is used to execute the analysisis One Click LCA, which is integrable with Revit due to an add-in in the program.The integration between BIM and LCA was tested by using One Click LCA:s add-in tool inRevit, a result was then available but a completion had to be done in One Click LCA:s webapplication to get a result that includes the carbon dioxide equivalents from the modulesA1-3. An update of One Click LCA:s add-in program should be developed to avoid extrawork and save more time. It is worth mentioning that the current add-in tool already haspossibilities to save money and time, it also increases the possibilities to reduce the climateimpact in an early stage.Keywords: Life cycle assessment, climate impact, BIM, Revit, One Click LCA

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