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  • 1.
    Adewole, Kayode S.
    et al.
    Malmö universitet, Fakulteten för teknik och samhälle (TS), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DVMT). Umeå Univ, Dept Comp Sci, Umeå, Sweden.;Univ Ilorin, Dept Comp Sci, Ilorin, Nigeria..
    Torra, Vicenc
    Umeå Univ, Dept Comp Sci, Umeå, Sweden..
    Privacy Protection of Synthetic Smart Grid Data Simulated via Generative Adversarial Networks2023Ingår i: Proceedings of the 20th international conference on security and cryptography, secrypt 2023 / [ed] DiVimercati, SD; Samarati, P, SciTePress, 2023, s. 279-286Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The development in smart meter technology has made grid operations more efficient based on fine-grained electricity usage data generated at different levels of time granularity. Consequently, machine learning algorithms have benefited from these data to produce useful models for important grid operations. Although machine learning algorithms need historical data to improve predictive performance, these data are not readily available for public utilization due to privacy issues. The existing smart grid data simulation frameworks generate grid data with implicit privacy concerns since the data are simulated from a few real energy consumptions that are publicly available. This paper addresses two issues in smart grid. First, it assesses the level of privacy violation with the individual household appliances based on synthetic household aggregate loads consumption. Second, based on the findings, it proposes two privacy-preserving mechanisms to reduce this risk. Three inference attacks are simulated and the results obtained confirm the efficacy of the proposed privacy-preserving mechanisms.

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  • 2.
    Ahl, Richard
    Malmö universitet, Fakulteten för teknik och samhälle (TS).
    Creating two-dimensional rivers from spline curves2022Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    This study is concerned with digital two-dimensional rivers for games. Specifically the aim is to create a river shape from the basis of a spline curve and make it look like a river with a water flow-rate. This is achieved by developing an artifact capable of river simulations in 2D, with the flow-rate calculated using the necessary hydraulics equations. The scientific process described in Design Science Research Methodology for Information Systems Research is presented and followed. Artifact simulations are demonstrated and evaluated, especially calculations for river mean velocity and discharge are shown to be possible by assuming that the river channel is of trapezoidal shape. Simulations show a type of river not usually seen in games, a river with more accuracy than other game simulations. The artifact river simulations are however limited by a missing smoothness when going between different channel shapes. Also there could be a way of improving the texture used, or possibly use more then one texture in one simulation. The conclusion is that the methods used for river generation by this study could be part of a design tool that targets 2D games.

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  • 3.
    Akin, Erdal
    Malmö universitet, Fakulteten för teknik och samhälle (TS), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DVMT). Malmö universitet, Internet of Things and People (IOTAP). Computer Engineering Department, Bitlis Eren University, Bitlis, Türkiye.
    Deep Reinforcement Learning-Based Multirestricted Dynamic-Request Transportation Framework2023Ingår i: IEEE Transactions on Neural Networks and Learning Systems, ISSN 2162-237X, E-ISSN 2162-2388, s. 1-11Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) are used in many areas where their usage is increasing constantly. Their popularity, therefore, maintains its importance in the technology world. Parallel to the development of technology, human standards, and surroundings should also improve equally. This study is developed based on the possibility of timely delivery of urgent medical requests in emergency situations. Using UAVs for delivering urgent medical requests will be very effective due to their flexible maneuverability and low costs. However, off-the-shelf UAVs suffer from limited payload capacity and battery constraints. In addition, urgent requests may be requested at an uncertain time, and delivering in a short time may be crucial. To address this issue, we proposed a novel framework that considers the limitations of the UAVs and dynamically requested packages. These previously unknown packages have source–destination pairs and delivery time intervals. Furthermore, we utilize deep reinforcement learning (DRL) algorithms, deep Q-network (DQN), proximal policy optimization (PPO), and advantage actor–critic (A2C) to overcome this unknown environment and requests. The comprehensive experimental results demonstrate that the PPO algorithm has a faster and more stable training performance than the other DRL algorithms in two different environmental setups. Also, we implemented an extension version of a Brute-force (BF) algorithm, assuming that all requests and environments are known in advance. The PPO algorithm performs very close to the success rate of the BF algorithm.

  • 4.
    Alassadi, Abdulrahman
    Malmö universitet, Fakulteten för teknik och samhälle (TS), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DVMT).
    An Individual-based Simulation Approach for Generating a Synthetic Stroke Population2021Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (magisterexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    The time to treatment plays a major factor in recovery for stroke patients, and simulation techniques can be valuable tools for testing healthcare policies and improving the situation for stroke patients. However, simulation requires individual-level data about stroke patients which cannot be acquired due to patient’s privacy rules. This thesis presents a hybrid simulation model for generating a synthetic population of stroke patients by combining Agent-based and microsimulation modeling. Subsequently, Agent-based simulation is used to estimate the locations where strokes happen. The simulation model is built by conducting the Design Science research method, where the simulation model is built by following a set of steps including data preparation, conceptual model formulation, implementation, and finally running the simulation model. The generated synthetic population size is based on the number of stroke events in a year from a Poisson Point Process and consists of stroke patients along with essential attributes such as age, stroke status, home location, and current location. The simulation output shows that nearly all patients had their stroke while being home, where the traveling factor is insignificant to the stroke locations based on the travel survey data used in this thesis and the assumption that all patients return home at midnight.

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  • 5. Al-Dhaqm, Arafat
    et al.
    Abd Razak, Shukor
    Dampier, David A.
    Choo, Kim-Kwang Raymond
    Siddique, Kamran
    Ikuesan, Richard Adeyemi
    d.
    Alqarni, Abdulhadi
    Kebande, Victor R.
    Malmö universitet, Fakulteten för teknik och samhälle (TS), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DVMT).
    Categorization and Organization of Database Forensic Investigation Processes2020Ingår i: IEEE Access, E-ISSN 2169-3536, Vol. 8, s. 112846-112858Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Database forensic investigation (DBFI) is an important area of research within digital forensics. It & x2019;s importance is growing as digital data becomes more extensive and commonplace. The challenges associated with DBFI are numerous, and one of the challenges is the lack of a harmonized DBFI process for investigators to follow. In this paper, therefore, we conduct a survey of existing literature with the hope of understanding the body of work already accomplished. Furthermore, we build on the existing literature to present a harmonized DBFI process using design science research methodology. This harmonized DBFI process has been developed based on three key categories (i.e. planning, preparation and pre-response, acquisition and preservation, and analysis and reconstruction). Furthermore, the DBFI has been designed to avoid confusion or ambiguity, as well as providing practitioners with a systematic method of performing DBFI with a higher degree of certainty.

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  • 6. Al-Dhaqm, Arafat
    et al.
    Razak, Shukor Abd
    Ikuesan, Richard Adeyemi
    Kebande, Victor R.
    Malmö universitet, Fakulteten för teknik och samhälle (TS), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DVMT). Malmö universitet, Internet of Things and People (IOTAP).
    Siddique, Kamran
    A Review of Mobile Forensic Investigation Process Models2020Ingår i: IEEE Access, E-ISSN 2169-3536, Vol. 8, s. 173359-173375Artikel, forskningsöversikt (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Mobile Forensics (MF) field uses prescribed scientific approaches with a focus on recovering Potential Digital Evidence (PDE) from mobile devices leveraging forensic techniques. Consequently, increased proliferation, mobile-based services, and the need for new requirements have led to the development of the MF field, which has in the recent past become an area of importance. In this article, the authors take a step to conduct a review on Mobile Forensics Investigation Process Models (MFIPMs) as a step towards uncovering the MF transitions as well as identifying open and future challenges. Based on the study conducted in this article, a review of the literature revealed that there are a few MFIPMs that are designed for solving certain mobile scenarios, with a variety of concepts, investigation processes, activities, and tasks. A total of 100 MFIPMs were reviewed, to present an inclusive and up-to-date background of MFIPMs. Also, this study proposes a Harmonized Mobile Forensic Investigation Process Model (HMFIPM) for the MF field to unify and structure whole redundant investigation processes of the MF field. The paper also goes the extra mile to discuss the state of the art of mobile forensic tools, open and future challenges from a generic standpoint. The results of this study find direct relevance to forensic practitioners and researchers who could leverage the comprehensiveness of the developed processes for investigation.

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  • 7.
    Al-Ghushami, Abdullah
    et al.
    Edith Cowan Univ, Cyber Secur Cooperat Res Ctr, Perth, WA, Australia.
    Karie, Nlckson
    Edith Cowan Univ, Cyber Secur Cooperat Res Ctr, Perth, WA, Australia.
    Kebande, Victor R.
    Malmö universitet, Fakulteten för teknik och samhälle (TS), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DVMT).
    Detecting Centralized Architecture-Based Botnets using Travelling Salesperson Non-Deterministic Polynomial-Hard problem-TSP-NP Technique2019Ingår i: 2019 IEEE CONFERENCE ON APPLICATION, INFORMATION AND NETWORK SECURITY (AINS), IEEE, 2019, s. 77-81Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The threats posed by botnets in the cyber-space continues to grow each day and it has become very hard to detect or infiltrate bots given that the botnet developers each day keep changing the propagation and attack techniques. Currently, most of these attacks have been centered on stealing computing energy, theft of personal information and Distributed Denial of Service (DDoS attacks). In this paper, the authors propose a novel technique that uses the Non-Deterministic Polynomial-Time Hardness (NP-Hard Problem) based on the Traveling Salesperson Person (TSP) that depicts that a given bot, b(j), is able to visit each host on a network environment, NE, and then it returns to the botmaster in form of instruction(command) through optimal minimization of the hosts that are or may be attacked. Given that b(j) represents a piece of malicious code and based on TSP-NP Hard Problem which forms part of combinatorial optimization, the authors present an effective approach for the detection of the botnet. It is worth noting that the concentration of this study is basically on the centralized botnet architecture. This holistic approach shows that botnet detection accuracy can be increased with a degree of certainty and potentially decrease the chances of false positives. Nevertheless, a discussion on the possible applicability and implementation has also been given in this paper.

  • 8.
    Alkayali, Omar
    Malmö universitet, Fakulteten för teknik och samhälle (TS), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DVMT).
    A regression spline based approach to enhance the prediction accuracy of bicycle counter data2022Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (magisterexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Regression analysis has been used in previous research to predict the number of bicycles registered by a bicycle counter. An important step to improve the prediction is to include a long-term trend curve estimate as part of the formulation of the regression target variable. In this way, it is possible to use the deviation from the trend curve estimate instead of the absolute number of bicycles as target variable in the regression problem formulation. This can help capturing the factors that are difficult, or even impossible, to model as input variables in the regression model, for example, larger infrastructural changes. This study aims to evaluate a regression spline-based approach to enhance the prediction accuracy of bicycle counter data. This will be achieved by formulating a regression problem, generating trend curve estimates using regression splines, and evaluating the resulted curves using cross validation on a set of chosen regression algorithms. We illustrate our approach by applying it on a time series recorded by a bicycle counter in Malmö city, Sweden. For the considered data set, our experimental results show that the spline trend curve estimate with knots between 12-19, which has been fitted to the time series, gives the best prediction. It also shows that the use of ensemble methods leads to better prediction, where the G.B. Regressor shows best performance with 19 knots.

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  • 9.
    Alkhabbas, Fahed
    et al.
    Malmö universitet, Fakulteten för teknik och samhälle (TS), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DVMT). Malmö universitet, Internet of Things and People (IOTAP).
    Alsadi, Mohammed
    Department of Computer Science, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, 7491 Trondheim, Norway.
    Alawadi, Sadi
    Department of Information Technology, Uppsala University, 75105 Uppsala, Sweden; Center for Applied Intelligent Systems Research, School of Information Technology, Halmstad University, 30118 Halmstad, Sweden.
    Awaysheh, Feras M
    Institute of Computer Science, Delta Research Centre, University of Tartu, 51009 Tartu, Estonia.
    Kebande, Victor R.
    Department of Computer Science (DBlekinge Institute of Technology, 37179 Karlskrona, Sweden.
    Moghaddam, Mahyar T
    The Maersk Mc-Kinney Moller Institute (MMMI), University of Southern Denmark, 5230 Odense, Denmark.
    ASSERT: A Blockchain-Based Architectural Approach for Engineering Secure Self-Adaptive IoT Systems.2022Ingår i: Sensors, E-ISSN 1424-8220, Vol. 22, nr 18, artikel-id 6842Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Internet of Things (IoT) systems are complex systems that can manage mission-critical, costly operations or the collection, storage, and processing of sensitive data. Therefore, security represents a primary concern that should be considered when engineering IoT systems. Additionally, several challenges need to be addressed, including the following ones. IoT systems' environments are dynamic and uncertain. For instance, IoT devices can be mobile or might run out of batteries, so they can become suddenly unavailable. To cope with such environments, IoT systems can be engineered as goal-driven and self-adaptive systems. A goal-driven IoT system is composed of a dynamic set of IoT devices and services that temporarily connect and cooperate to achieve a specific goal. Several approaches have been proposed to engineer goal-driven and self-adaptive IoT systems. However, none of the existing approaches enable goal-driven IoT systems to automatically detect security threats and autonomously adapt to mitigate them. Toward bridging these gaps, this paper proposes a distributed architectural Approach for engineering goal-driven IoT Systems that can autonomously SElf-adapt to secuRity Threats in their environments (ASSERT). ASSERT exploits techniques and adopts notions, such as agents, federated learning, feedback loops, and blockchain, for maintaining the systems' security and enhancing the trustworthiness of the adaptations they perform. The results of the experiments that we conducted to validate the approach's feasibility show that it performs and scales well when detecting security threats, performing autonomous security adaptations to mitigate the threats and enabling systems' constituents to learn about security threats in their environments collaboratively.

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  • 10.
    Alvarez, Alberto
    Malmö universitet, Fakulteten för teknik och samhälle (TS), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DVMT).
    ChatGPT as a Narrative Structure Interpreter2023Ingår i: Interactive Storytelling: 16th International Conference on Interactive Digital Storytelling, ICIDS 2023, Kobe, Japan, November 11–15, 2023, Proceedings, Part II / [ed] Lissa Holloway-Attaway, John T. Murray, Springer, 2023, s. 113-121Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Narrative structures define the skeleton of narratives and help at identifying common structures in stories, that then can be used to compare structures, define variations, and understand prototypical [structural] components. However, narrative structures are just one piece of the puzzle, their interpretation is what gives room to the stories seen in transmedia storytelling. In principle, a structure can be interpreted and developed with a myriad of stories, but requires some type of corpus to develop it further. Large language models such as ChatGPT could be employed for this task, if we are able to define a good narrative structure and give the tools to the algorithm to develop them further. For this paper, we use a narrative structure system called TropeTwist, which employs interconnected tropes as narrative structures, defining characters, conflicts, and plot devices in a relational graph, which gives raise to a set of trope micro- and meso-patterns. Using ChatGPT and through the web interface, we communicate all the possible elements to be used from TropeTwist and tasked ChatGPT to interpret them and generate stories. We describe our process and methodology to reach these interpretations, and present some of the generated stories based on a constructed narrative structure. Our results show the possibilities and limitations of using these systems and elaborate on future work to combine large language models for other tasks within narrative interpretation and generation.

  • 11.
    Alvarez, Alberto
    Malmö universitet, Fakulteten för teknik och samhälle (TS), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DVMT).
    Exploring Game Design through Human-AI Collaboration2022Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Game design is a hard and multi-faceted task that intertwines different gameplay mechanics, audio, level, graphic, and narrative facets. Games' facets are developed in conjunction with others with a common goal that makes games coherent and interesting. These combinations result in plenty of games in diverse genres, which usually require a collaboration of a diverse group of designers. Collaborators can take different roles and support each other with their strengths resulting in games with unique characteristics. The multi-faceted nature of games and their collaborative properties and requirements make it an exciting task to use Artificial Intelligence (AI). The generation of these facets together requires a holistic approach, which is one of the most challenging tasks within computational creativity. Given the collaborative aspect of games, this thesis approaches their generation through Human-AI collaboration, specifically using a mixed-initiative co-creative (MI-CC) paradigm. This paradigm creates an interactive and collaborative scenario that leverages AI and human strengths with an alternating and proactive initiative to approach a task. However, this paradigm introduces several challenges, such as Human and AI goal alignment or competing properties.

    In this thesis, game design and the generation of game facets by themselves and intertwined are explored through Human-AI collaboration. The AI takes a colleague's role with the designer, arising multiple dynamics, challenges, and opportunities. The main hypothesis is that AI can be incorporated into systems as a collaborator, enhancing design tools, fostering human creativity, and reducing workload. The challenges and opportunities that arise from this are explored, discussed, and approached throughout the thesis. As a result, multiple approaches and methods such as quality-diversity algorithms and designer modeling are proposed to generate game facets in tandem with humans, create a better workflow, enhance the interaction, and establish adaptive experiences.

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  • 12.
    Alvarez, Alberto
    Malmö universitet, Fakulteten för teknik och samhälle (TS), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DVMT).
    Exploring the Dynamic Properties of Interaction in Mixed-Initiative Procedural Content Generation2020Licentiatavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    As AI develops, grows, and expands, the more benefits we can have from it. AI is used in multiple fields to assist humans, such as object recognition, self-driving cars, or design tools. However, AI could be used for more than assisting humans in their tasks. It could be employed to collaborate with humans as colleagues in shared tasks, which is usually described as Mixed-Initiative (MI) paradigm. This paradigm creates an interactive scenario that leverage on AI and human strengths with an alternating and proactive initiative to approach a task. However, this paradigm introduces several challenges. For instance, there must be an understanding between humans and AI, where autonomy and initiative become negotiation tokens. In addition, control and expressiveness need to be taken into account to reach some goals. Moreover, although this paradigm has a broader application, it is especially interesting for creative tasks such as games, which are mainly created in collaboration. Creating games and their content is a hard and complex task, since games are content-intensive, multi-faceted, and interacted by external users. 

    Therefore, this thesis explores MI collaboration between human game designers and AI for the co-creation of games, where the AI's role is that of a colleague with the designer. The main hypothesis is that AI can be incorporated in systems as a collaborator, enhancing design tools, fostering human creativity, reducing their workload, and creating adaptive experiences. Furthermore, This collaboration arises several dynamic properties such as control, expressiveness, and initiative, which are all central to this thesis. Quality-Diversity algorithms combined with control mechanisms and interactions for the designer are proposed to investigate this collaboration and properties. Designer and Player modeling is also explored, and several approaches are proposed to create a better workflow, establish adaptive experiences, and enhance the interaction. Through this, it is demonstrated the potential and benefits of these algorithms and models in the MI paradigm.

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  • 13.
    Alvarez, Alberto
    et al.
    Malmö universitet, Fakulteten för teknik och samhälle (TS), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DVMT).
    Font Fernandez, Jose Maria Maria
    Malmö universitet, Fakulteten för teknik och samhälle (TS), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DVMT).
    Dahlskog, Steve
    Malmö universitet, Fakulteten för teknik och samhälle (TS), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DVMT).
    Togelius, Julian
    Computer Science and Engineering, New York University, New York, New York, United States.
    Interactive Constrained MAP-Elites: Analysis and Evaluation of the Expressiveness of the Feature Dimensions2022Ingår i: IEEE Transactions on Games, ISSN 2475-1502, Vol. 14, nr 2, s. 202-211Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We propose the Interactive Constrained MAP-Elites, a quality-diversity solution for game content generation, implemented as a new feature of the Evolutionary Dungeon Designer (EDD): a mixed-initiative co-creativity tool for designing dungeons. The feature uses the MAP-Elites algorithm, an illumination algorithm that segregates the population among several cells depending on their scores with respect to different behavioral dimensions. Users can flexibly and dynamically alternate between these dimensions anytime, thus guiding the evolutionary process in an intuitive way, and then incorporate suggestions produced by the algorithm in their room designs. At the same time, any modifications performed by the human user will feed back into MAP-Elites, closing a circular workflow of constant mutual inspiration. This paper presents the algorithm followed by an in-depth evaluation of the expressive range of all possible dimension combinations in several scenarios, and discusses their influence in the fitness landscape and in the overall performance of the procedural content generation in EDD.

  • 14.
    Alvarez, Alberto
    et al.
    Malmö universitet, Fakulteten för teknik och samhälle (TS), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DVMT).
    Font, Jose
    Malmö universitet, Fakulteten för teknik och samhälle (TS), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DVMT).
    Learning the Designer’s Preferences to Drive Evolution2020Ingår i: EvoApplications 2020: Applications of Evolutionary Computation, Springer, 2020, s. 431-445Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents the Designer Preference Model, a data-driven solution that pursues to learn from user generated data in a Quality-Diversity Mixed-Initiative Co-Creativity (QD MI-CC) tool, with the aims of modelling the user’s design style to better assess the tool’s procedurally generated content with respect to that user’s preferences. Through this approach, we aim for increasing the user’s agency over the generated content in a way that neither stalls the user-tool reciprocal stimuli loop nor fatigues the user with periodical suggestion handpicking. We describe the details of this novel solution, as well as its implementation in the MI-CC tool the Evolutionary Dungeon Designer. We present and discuss our findings out of the initial tests carried out, spotting the open challenges for this combined line of research that integrates MI-CC with Procedural Content Generation through Machine Learning.

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  • 15.
    Alvarez, Alberto
    et al.
    Malmö universitet, Fakulteten för teknik och samhälle (TS), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DVMT).
    Font, Jose
    Malmö universitet, Fakulteten för teknik och samhälle (TS), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DVMT).
    TropeTwist: Trope-based Narrative Structure Generation2022Ingår i: FDG '22: Proceedings of the 17th International Conference on the Foundations of Digital Games, ACM Digital Library, 2022, artikel-id 69Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Games are complex, multi-faceted systems that share common elements and underlying narratives, such as the conflict between a hero and a big bad enemy or pursuing a goal that requires overcoming challenges. However, identifying and describing these elements together is non-trivial as they might differ in certain properties and how players might encounter the narratives. Likewise, generating narratives also pose difficulties when encoding, interpreting, and evaluating them. To address this, we present TropeTwist, a trope-based system that can describe narrative structures in games in a more abstract and generic level, allowing the definition of games’ narrative structures and their generation using interconnected tropes, called narrative graphs. To demonstrate the system, we represent the narrative structure of three different games. We use MAP-Elites to generate and evaluate novel quality-diverse narrative graphs encoded as graph grammars, using these three hand-made narrative structures as targets. Both hand-made and generated narrative graphs are evaluated based on their coherence and interestingness, which are improved through evolution.  

     

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  • 16.
    Alvarez, Alberto
    et al.
    Malmö universitet, Fakulteten för teknik och samhälle (TS), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DVMT).
    Font, Jose
    Malmö universitet, Fakulteten för teknik och samhälle (TS), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DVMT).
    TropeTwist:Trope-based Narrative Structure Generation2022Ingår i: Proceedings of the 13th Workshop on Procedural Content Generation, FDG, Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), 2022Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Games are complex, multi-faceted systems that share common elements and underlying narratives, such as the conflict between a hero and a big bad enemy or pursuing a goal that requires overcoming challenges. However, identifying and describing these elements together is non-trivial as they might differ in certain properties and how players might encounter the narratives. Likewise, generating narratives also pose difficulties when encoding, interpreting, and evaluating them. To address this, we present TropeTwist, a trope-based system that can describe narrative structures in games in a more abstract and generic level, allowing the definition of games' narrative structures and their generation using interconnected tropes, called narrative graphs. To demonstrate the system, we represent the narrative structure of three different games. We use MAP-Elites to generate and evaluate novel quality-diverse narrative graphs encoded as graph grammars, using these three hand-made narrative structures as targets. Both hand-made and generated narrative graphs are evaluated based on their coherence and interestingness, which are improved through evolution.

  • 17.
    Alvarez, Alberto
    et al.
    Malmö universitet, Fakulteten för teknik och samhälle (TS), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DVMT).
    Font, Jose
    Malmö universitet, Fakulteten för teknik och samhälle (TS), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DVMT).
    Dahlskog, Steve
    Malmö universitet, Fakulteten för teknik och samhälle (TS), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DVMT).
    Togelius, Julian
    New York University.
    Assessing the Effects of Interacting with MAP-Elites2021Ingår i: Proceedings of the seventeenth {AAAI} Conference on Artificial Intelligence and Interactive Digital Entertainment, Association for the Advancement of Artificial Intelligence , 2021, Vol. 17, s. 124-131Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    MAP-Elites has been successfully applied to the generation of game content and robot behaviors. However, its behavior and performance when interacted with in co-creative systems is underexplored. This paper analyzes the implications of synthetic interaction for the stability and adaptability of MAP-Elites in such scenarios. We use pre-recorded human-made level design sessions with the Interactive Constrained MAP-Elites (IC MAP-Elites). To analyze the effect of each edition step in the search space over time using different feature dimensions, we introduce Temporal Expressive Range Analysis (TERA). With TERAs, MAP-Elites is assessed in terms of its adaptability and stability to generate diverse and high-performing individuals. Our results show that interactivity, in the form of design edits and MAP-Elites adapting towards them, directs the search process to previously unexplored areas of the fitness landscape and points towards how this could improve and enrich the co-creative process with quality-diverse individuals.

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  • 18.
    Alvarez, Alberto
    et al.
    Malmö universitet, Fakulteten för teknik och samhälle (TS), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DVMT).
    Font, Jose
    Malmö universitet, Fakulteten för teknik och samhälle (TS), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DVMT).
    Togelius, Julian
    Game Innovation Lab, New York University, United States.
    Story Designer: Towards a Mixed-Initiative Tool to Create Narrative Structures2022Ingår i: FDG '22: Proceedings of the 17th International Conference on the Foundations of Digital Games, ACM Digital Library, 2022, artikel-id 42Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Narratives are a predominant part of games, and their design poses challenges when identifying, encoding, interpreting, evaluating, and generating them. One way to address this would be to approach narrative design in a more abstract layer, such as narrative structures. This paper presents Story Designer, a mixed-initiative co-creative narrative structure tool built on top of the Evolutionary Dungeon Designer (EDD) that uses tropes, narrative conventions found across many media types, to design these structures. Story Designer uses tropes as building blocks for narrative designers to compose complete narrative structures by interconnecting them in graph structures called narrative graphs. Our mixed-initiative approach lets designers manually create their narrative graphs and feeds an underlying evolutionary algorithm with those, creating quality-diverse suggestions using MAP-Elites. Suggestions are visually represented for designers to compare and evaluate and can then be incorporated into the design for further manual editions. At the same time, we use the levels designed within EDD as constraints for the narrative structure, intertwining both level design and narrative. We evaluate the impact of these constraints and the system’s adaptability and expressiveness, resulting in a potential tool to create narrative structures combining level design aspects with narrative.  

     

     

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  • 19.
    Alvarez, Alberto
    et al.
    Malmö universitet, Fakulteten för teknik och samhälle (TS), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DVMT).
    Font, Jose
    Malmö universitet, Fakulteten för teknik och samhälle (TS), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DVMT).
    Togelius, Julian
    Computer Science and Engineering, New York University, New York, New York, United States.
    Toward Designer Modeling Through Design Style Clustering2022Ingår i: IEEE Transactions on Games, ISSN 2475-1502, Vol. 14, nr 4, s. 676-686Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We propose modeling designer style in mixed-initiative game content creation tools as archetypical design traces. These design traces are formulated as transitions between design styles; these design styles are in turn found through clustering all intermediate designs along the way to making a complete design. This method is implemented in the Evolutionary Dungeon Designer, a research platform for mixed-initiative systems to create adventure and dungeon crawler games. We present results both in the form of design styles for rooms, which can be analyzed to better understand the kind of rooms designed by users, and in the form of archetypical sequences between these rooms, i.e., Designer Personas.

  • 20.
    Alvarez, Alberto
    et al.
    Malmö universitet, Fakulteten för teknik och samhälle (TS), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DVMT).
    Grevillius, Eric
    Malmö universitet, Fakulteten för teknik och samhälle (TS), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DVMT).
    Olsson, Elin
    Malmö universitet, Fakulteten för teknik och samhälle (TS), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DVMT).
    Font, Jose
    Malmö universitet, Fakulteten för teknik och samhälle (TS), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DVMT).
    Questgram [Qg]: Toward a Mixed-Initiative Quest Generation Tool2021Ingår i: Proceedings of the 16th International Conference on the Foundations of Digital Games, Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), 2021, s. 1-10, artikel-id 6Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Quests are a core element in many games, especially role-playing and adventure games, where quests drive the gameplay and story, engage the player in the game’s narrative, and in most cases, act as a bridge between different game elements. The automatic generation of quests and objectives is an interesting challenge since this can extend the lifetime of games such as in Skyrim, or can help create unique experiences such as in AI Dungeon. This work presents Questgram [Qg], a mixed-initiative prototype tool for creating quests using grammars combined in a mixed-initiative level design tool. We evaluated our tool quantitatively by assessing the generated quests and qualitatively through a small user study. Human designers evaluated the system by creating quests manually, automatically, and through mixed-initiative. Our results show the Questgram’s potential, which creates diverse, valid, and interesting quests using quest patterns. Likewise, it helps engage designers in the quest design process, fosters their creativity by inspiring them, and enhance the level generation facet of the Evolutionary Dungeon Designer with steps towards intertwining both level and quest design.

  • 21.
    Alvarez, Alberto
    et al.
    Malmö universitet, Fakulteten för teknik och samhälle (TS), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DVMT).
    Vozaru, Miruna
    IT University of Copenhagen.
    Perceived Behaviors of Personality-Driven Agents2019Ingår i: Violence - Perception - Video Games: New Directions in Game Research / [ed] Federico Alvarez Igarzábal, Michael S. Debus, Curtis L. Maughan, Transcript Verlag, 2019, s. 171-184Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    alvVoz2019-personalitydriven
  • 22.
    Amssaya, Haileyesus
    et al.
    Bahir Dar University, Bahir Dar Institute of Technology,Bahir Dar,Ethiopia.
    Mekuria, Fisseha
    Malmö universitet, Fakulteten för teknik och samhälle (TS), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DVMT).
    Modungwa, Dithoto
    CSIR,Defence & Security,Pretoria,South Africa.
    A Monitoring and Rescuing System Using Next Generation Mobile, Internet of Things and Artificial Intelligence for Freshwater Lakes in Africa2023Ingår i: 2023 IEEE AFRICON, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2023Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper an experimental system assisted by emerging digital technologies is developed, for monitoring and controlling invasive water hyacinth weed and rescue operation of freshwater lakes in Africa. The system is designed to integrate fifth generation ultra-reliable low latency communication (5G URLLC), unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV), underwater robots, smart environmental sensing with internet of things (IoT) and machine learning techniques for real time monitoring, managing, controlling and predicting the expansion of invasive water hyacinth weed. The experimental system for sensor data collection implemented on lake Tana in Ethiopia will be expanded to other fresh water lakes of Africa affected by water hyacinth weed. System modeling and data analytics based on sensor data will be performed to generate decision inference for controlling the growth of water hyacinth in the water bodies of the lake. Environmental data collection from other local sources will be integrated with sensor data for further system modeling and critical action analysis and implementation using machine learning algorithms to remove the main causes for the rapid expansion of water hyacinth throughout the lake.

  • 23.
    Andersson, Jim
    et al.
    Malmö universitet, Fakulteten för teknik och samhälle (TS).
    Jeppsson, Fredrik
    Malmö universitet, Fakulteten för teknik och samhälle (TS).
    Fuzzy States: State Discovery with AFL2022Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Fuzzing is a test method used to automatically generate test case inputs and to executea system under test (SUT) with those inputs. The method is traditionally used to discovercrash-inducing bugs in software. Fuzzing can generate thousands of inputs per secondand many implementations use smart techniques to reach deeply into the code. Fewfuzz testing implementations, however, have the ability to explore and retain informationof state in stateful applications.

    We develop an extension of the fuzzer American Fuzzy Lop (AFL), building on the workof the Ijon project, and utilize its fuzzing capabilities to discover states in SUT; inparticular, applications built as finite state machines. The extension successfullyharnesses AFL’s input generation to explore the SUT’s state space.

    We then implement functionality that allows for the SUT to return state information tothe fuzzer, including the state path and path length. Furthermore, functionality is addedthat allows the test operator to specify the expected number of states in the SUT, andGUI extensions that provide real-time information of state discovery during fuzzing.

    The state information retained after a completed fuzzing session is automaticallysummarized in a structured format. We further demonstrate that the summarizedinformation can be used to generate test cases for a test operator to verify the SUT.

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    fulltext
  • 24.
    Andersson, Johan
    et al.
    Malmö universitet, Fakulteten för teknik och samhälle (TS), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DVMT).
    Trojanowski, Mikolaj
    Malmö universitet, Fakulteten för teknik och samhälle (TS), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DVMT).
    Alvarez, Alberto
    Malmö universitet, Fakulteten för teknik och samhälle (TS), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DVMT).
    Are You Lucky or Skilled? An Analysis of Elements of Randomness in Slay the Spire2023Ingår i: 2023 IEEE Conference on Games (CoG), IEEE, 2023Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Elements of randomness are a very common factor in modern digital games, from simple rolls of a die to complex AI systems. These elements have an impact on how the player experiences a game. We believe that exploring the field of luck analysis can benefit designers through a developed understanding of how such elements affect players. In this study, we explore how elements of randomness affect players in the roguelike deckbuilding game, Slay the Spire using data clustering. Three player skill groups were identified with the use of clustering: Winners, Low skill losers and High skill losers. Our results indicate that people who succeeded in beating the game, had an increased amount of randomness in the form of cards by a factor of 1.82. Showing that more skilled players do not shy away from randomness but instead embrace it more than lower skilled players.

  • 25.
    Angel Vazquez, Miguel
    et al.
    Ctr Tecnol Telecomunicac Catalunya, Castelldefels, Spain..
    Paul Pallois, Jean
    Huawei Technol, Paris, France..
    Debbah, Merouane
    Huawei Res Ctr, Paris, France..
    Masouros, Christos
    UCL, London, England..
    Kenyon, Tony
    UCL, London, England..
    Deng, Yansha
    Kings Coll London, London, England..
    Mekuria, Fisseha
    CSIR, Pretoria, South Africa..
    Perez-Neira, Ana
    Ctr Tecnol Telecomunicac Catalunya, Castelldefels, Spain.;Univ Politecn Cataluna, Castelldefels, Spain..
    Erfanian, Javan
    Bell Mobil, Mississauga, ON, Canada..
    Deploying Artificial Intelligence in the Wireless Infrastructure: the Challenges Ahead2019Ingår i: 2019 IEEE 2nd 5G World Forum (5GWF), Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2019, s. 458-459Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The adoption of artificial intelligence (AI) techniques entails a substantial change in the wireless ecosystem where data as well as their owners become crucial. As a result, the roll out of AI techniques in wireless systems raises a plethora of questions. In this context, we describe the challenges observed by the wireless stakeholders when deploying AI. Furthermore, we introduce the recent discussion in field of ethics that appear when managing wireless communications data.

  • 26.
    Angenius, Max
    et al.
    Malmö universitet, Fakulteten för kultur och samhälle (KS), Institutionen för konst, kultur och kommunikation (K3).
    Patrzałek, Roksana
    Malmö universitet, Fakulteten för kultur och samhälle (KS), Institutionen för konst, kultur och kommunikation (K3).
    Brandão, Simone
    Malmö universitet, Fakulteten för kultur och samhälle (KS), Institutionen för konst, kultur och kommunikation (K3).
    Shredit: Breaking a Shredder and Making It into a Phone2023Ingår i: interactions, ISSN 1072-5520, E-ISSN 1558-3449, Vol. 30, nr 4, s. 10-13Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 27.
    Ashvinkumar, Vikrant
    et al.
    Univ Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia..
    Gudmundsson, Joachim
    Univ Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia..
    Levcopoulos, Christos
    Lund Univ, Lund, Sweden..
    Nilsson, Bengt J.
    Malmö universitet, Fakulteten för teknik och samhälle (TS), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DVMT).
    van Renssen, Andre
    Univ Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia..
    Local Routing in Sparse and Lightweight Geometric Graphs2022Ingår i: Algorithmica, ISSN 0178-4617, E-ISSN 1432-0541, Vol. 84, s. 1316-1340Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Online routing in a planar embedded graph is central to a number of fields and has been studied extensively in the literature. For most planar graphs no O (1)-competitive online routing algorithm exists. A notable exception is the Delaunay triangulation for which Bose and Morin (SIAM J Comput 33(4):937-951, 2004) showed that there exists an online routing algorithm that is O(1)-competitive. However, a Delaunay triangulation can have Omega (n) vertex degree and a total weight that is a linear factor greater than the weight of a minimum spanning tree. We show a simple construction, given a set V of n points in the Euclidean plane, of a planar geometric graph on V that has small weight (within a constant factor of the weight of a minimum spanning tree on V), constant degree, and that admits a local routing strategy that is O (1)-competitive. Moreover, the technique used to bound the weight works generally for any planar geometric graph whilst preserving the admission of an O (1)-competitive routing strategy.

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  • 28.
    Askelöf, Roland
    et al.
    Malmö universitet, Fakulteten för teknik och samhälle (TS).
    John, Håkansson
    Malmö universitet, Fakulteten för teknik och samhälle (TS).
    Användaracceptansen av ett självbetjäningssystem inom däckbranchen2021Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Däckbranschens verksamhet är till stor del säsongsberoende och kan vid specifika tidpunkter stå inför utmaningar med att en större mängd kunder vill byta däck samtidigt. Detta innebär i många fall långa köer och i sin tur påfrestningar på verksamheten. I denna rapport har ett självbetjäningssystem i form av en mobil webbapplikation utvecklats med avsikten att undersöka hur denna uppfattas av tänkta slutanvändare. Den utvecklade applikationen ersätter ett vanligt kölappssystem genom att en bilverkstads kunder ska kunna stå i kö med en digital nummerlapp som presenteras i användarens mobil. Detta för att hantera flödet av verkstädernas kunder. I studien har användartester genomförts där nio tänkta slutanvändare har provat applikationen. Dessa har i samband med användartesterna intervjuats med semi-strukturerade intervjuer för att undersöka dess apersoners uppfattning av applikationen. Technology Acceptance Model har använts för att ta fram frågor som fokuserar på hur användaren uppfattar applikationen gällande applikationens nytta och hur lätthanterlig de uppfattar den. Analysen visar att en majoritetuppfattar applikationen som enkel att hantera och gynnsam då ett däckbyte skagenomföras. Anledningar till detta som framkommer av genomförda intervjuer är bland annat avlastning för personalen på bilverkstäder, mindre kundkontakt och bekvämarevistelse för verkstädernas kunder. 

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    fulltext
  • 29.
    August, Persson
    et al.
    Malmö universitet, Fakulteten för teknik och samhälle (TS).
    Aladdin, Othman
    Malmö universitet, Fakulteten för teknik och samhälle (TS).
    Privacy paradoxens tillgivenhet till Facebook Inc & Alphabet Inc2021Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 13 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    I den aktuella avhandlingen kommer Alphabet Inc och Facebook Inc som är två av de fem stora techbolagen som ingår i det digitala ekosystemet att analyseras. Alphabet Inc och Facebook Inc har valts ut på grund av deras affärsmodell bygger på att använda privatdata som handelsvara. Dessa företag kommer att analyseras utifrån den privacy paradox som uppstår när användare har kännedom kring deras privata integritet samtidigt som de godkänner användarvillkoren utan att läsa dessa som motstrider deras integritet. Denna studie har använt en enkätundersökning som underlag för att stödja litteratur och författarnas hypotes för att kunna svara på den givna forskningsfrågan. Resultatet visar att dessa företag använder sig av svårförståeliga, långa och komplicerade användarvillkor vilket resulterar till att användaren inte läser igenom dem. Samtidigt finns det en medvetenhet kring den privata integriteten vilket skapar en paradox då användaren ej läser avtalen. De slutsatser som kommer med arbetet är faktorerna som leder till privacy paradoxen samt dess effekter. Samtidigt som implikationer gällande konsekvenser på samhället. 

    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 30.
    Bagheri, Alireza
    et al.
    Amirkabir University of Technology (Tehran Polytechnic), Tehran, Iran.
    Anna, Brötzner
    Malmö universitet, Fakulteten för teknik och samhälle (TS), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DVMT).
    Farivar, Faezeh
    Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran.
    Ghasemi, Rahmat
    Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran.
    Keshavarz-Kohjerdi, Fatemeh
    Shahed University, Tehran, Iran.
    Krohn, Erik
    University of Wisconsin, Oshkosh, USA.
    Nilsson, Bengt J.
    Malmö universitet, Fakulteten för teknik och samhälle (TS), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DVMT).
    Schmidt, Christiane
    Linköping University, Campus Norrköping, Sweden.
    Minsum m watchmen’s routes in Stiegl polygons2023Ingår i: XX Spanish Meeting on Computational Geometry: Book of Abstracts, 2023, Vol. 20, s. 41-44, artikel-id 21Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We present an O(n2 · min{m, n}) time and O(n · min{m, n}) storage algorithm to compute the minsum set of m watchmen routes given their starting points in a Stiegl polygon ― a staircase polygon where the floor solely consists of one horizontal and one vertical edge ― with n vertices.

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    fulltext
  • 31. Becker, S.
    et al.
    Camara, J.
    Challita, S.
    Fehling, C.
    Jansen, A.
    Kopp, O.
    Koziolek, H.
    Kruchten, P.
    Lewis, G. A.
    Lilienthal, C.
    Spalazzese, Romina
    Malmö universitet, Fakulteten för teknik och samhälle (TS), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DVMT).
    Trubiani, C.
    Message from the SAIP, NEMI, ECRF, Journal First, and Workshops Track Chairs2021Ingår i: Proc. - IEEE Int. Conf. Softw. Archit. Companion, ICSA-C, Vol. 18, s. x-xi, artikel-id 9425850Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The 18th IEEE International Conference on Software Architecture (ICSA 2021) solicited different types of submissions structured into the following tracks: The main Technical Track (included in the ICSA main proceedings), the Software Architecture in Practice (SAIP) track, the New and Emerging Ideas (NEMI) track, the Early Career Researchers Forum (ECRF), the Journal First track, and the Workshop track (included in the companion volume of ICSA 2021 proceedings). Each of these tracks, except for the Technical Track, is presented in the following sections. © 2021 IEEE.

  • 32.
    Bergkvist, Hannes
    et al.
    Malmö universitet, Fakulteten för teknik och samhälle (TS), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DVMT). Sony, R&D Center Europe, Lund, Sweden.
    Davidsson, Paul
    Malmö universitet, Fakulteten för teknik och samhälle (TS), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DVMT).
    Exner, Peter
    Sony, R&D Center Europe, Lund, Sweden.
    Positioning with Map Matching using Deep Neural Networks2020Ingår i: MobiQuitous '20: Proceedings of the 17th EAI International Conference on Mobile and Ubiquitous Systems: Computing, Networking and Services, Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), 2020Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Deep neural networks for positioning can improve accuracy by adapting to inhomogeneous environments. However, they are still susceptible to noisy data, often resulting in invalid positions. A related task, map matching, can be used for reducing geographical invalid positions by aligning observations to a model of the real world. In this paper, we propose an approach for positioning, enhanced with map matching, within a single deep neural network model. We introduce a novel way of reducing the number of invalid position estimates by adding map information to the input of the model and using a map-based loss function. Evaluating on real-world Received Signal Strength Indicator data from an asset tracking application, we show that our approach gives both increased position accuracy and a decrease of one order of magnitude in the number of invalid positions.

    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 33.
    Bergkvist, Hannes
    et al.
    Malmö universitet, Fakulteten för teknik och samhälle (TS), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DVMT). Sony, R&D Center Europe, Lund, Sweden.
    Exner, Peter
    Sony, R&D Center Europe, Lund, Sweden.
    Davidsson, Paul
    Malmö universitet, Fakulteten för teknik och samhälle (TS), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DVMT).
    Constraining neural networks output by an interpolating loss function with region priors2020Ingår i: NeurIPS workshop on Interpretable Inductive Biases and Physically Structured Learning / [ed] Michael Lutter; Alexander Terenin; Shirley Ho; Lei Wang, 2020Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Deep neural networks have the ability to generalize beyond observed training data. However, for some applications they may produce output that apriori is known to be invalid. If prior knowledge of valid output regions is available, one way of imposing constraints on deep neural networks is by introducing these priors in a loss function. In this paper, we introduce a novel way of constraining neural network output by using encoded regions with a loss function based on gradient interpolation. We evaluate our method in a positioning task where a region map is used in order to reduce invalid position estimates. Results show that our approach is effective in decreasing invalid outputs for several geometrically complex environments.

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    fulltext
  • 34. Binder, T
    et al.
    Björgvinsson, E
    Hillgren, Per-Anders
    Configuring Places for Learning: Participatory Development of Learning Practices at Work2006Ingår i: Learning, Working and Living, Mapping the Terrain of Working Life Learning. / [ed] Antonacopoulou et al., Palgrave Macmillan, 2006, s. 139-153Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 35. Björgvinsson, E
    et al.
    Hillgren, Per-Anders
    Indigenous Design: healthcare professionalusing self-produced video in articulating and developing work practices2005Ingår i: Proceedings of IN THE MAKING, Nordic Design Reasearch Conference, Köpenhamn., 2005Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 36.
    Blamey, Ben
    et al.
    Department of Information Technology, Uppsala University, Lägerhyddsvägen 2, 75237 Uppsala, Sweden.
    Toor, Salman
    Department of Information Technology, Uppsala University, Lägerhyddsvägen 2, 75237 Uppsala, Sweden.
    Dahlö, Martin
    Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences, Uppsala University, Husargatan 3, 75237, Uppsala, Sweden;Science for Life Laboratory, Uppsala University, Husargatan 3, 75237 Uppsala, Sweden.
    Wieslander, Håkan
    Department of Information Technology, Uppsala University, Lägerhyddsvägen 2, 75237 Uppsala, Sweden.
    Harrison, Philip J
    Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences, Uppsala University, Husargatan 3, 75237, Uppsala, Sweden;Science for Life Laboratory, Uppsala University, Husargatan 3, 75237 Uppsala, Sweden.
    Sintorn, Ida-Maria
    Department of Information Technology, Uppsala University, Lägerhyddsvägen 2, 75237 Uppsala, Sweden;Science for Life Laboratory, Uppsala University, Husargatan 3, 75237 Uppsala, Sweden;Vironova AB, Gävlegatan 22, 11330 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Sabirsh, Alan
    Advanced Drug Delivery, Pharmaceutical Sciences, R&D, AstraZeneca, Pepparedsleden 1, 43183 Mölndal, Sweden.
    Wählby, Carolina
    Department of Information Technology, Uppsala University, Lägerhyddsvägen 2, 75237 Uppsala, Sweden;Science for Life Laboratory, Uppsala University, Husargatan 3, 75237 Uppsala, Sweden.
    Spjuth, Ola
    Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences, Uppsala University, Husargatan 3, 75237, Uppsala, Sweden;Science for Life Laboratory, Uppsala University, Husargatan 3, 75237 Uppsala, Sweden.
    Hellander, Andreas
    Department of Information Technology, Uppsala University, Lägerhyddsvägen 2, 75237 Uppsala, Sweden.
    Rapid development of cloud-native intelligent data pipelines for scientific data streams using the HASTE Toolkit2021Ingår i: GigaScience, E-ISSN 2047-217X, Vol. 10, nr 3Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 37.
    Bni, Ouail
    et al.
    Malmö universitet, Fakulteten för teknik och samhälle (TS), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DVMT).
    Matusiak, Artur Kamil
    Malmö universitet, Fakulteten för teknik och samhälle (TS), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DVMT).
    TYPED VS UNTYPED PROGRAMMING LANGUAGES2022Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    TypeScript (TS) has been growing in popularity since its release in October 2012. It is beingadopted by many tech companies who specialize in web development. However, migrating old JSprojects to TS can be challenging and time consuming which can prove problematic due to limitedtime at the developers’ disposal.The aim of this study is to find out what the benefits of using TS over JS are, and their relationto Software Sustainability. By developing a migration tool that helps with automating the migrationprocess we investigate if such a tool would bring benefits to Axis Communications AB; especially,their web developers who work with JS and TS.After the development of the artifact, a focus group consisting of six experienced web developersand one tester was invited to a workshop in order to evaluate it. The workshop consisted of threeparts: Five open questions, a demo presentation of the artifact, and an artifact evaluation basedon the system dimensions: goal, environment, structure, activity, and evolution, by using the fivepoints Likert scale.Results from the workshop allowed us to understand better the needs and the challenges faced byAxis developers during software maintenance. Furthermore, the results indicated that the artifactnot only helps with improvements in terms of code maintenance but also indirectly improves codegreenability which in itself lowers CO2 emissions as a result.Migrating JS to TS improves some aspects of code maintenance and maintainability, and ourartifact helps with the automation of that migration process. With JavaScript, companies have tobalance sustainability with greenability. Fortunately, by adding green maintenance practices andusing TypeScript it is easier to keep that stability.

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  • 38.
    Bohlin, Gustaf
    et al.
    Malmö universitet, Fakulteten för teknik och samhälle (TS), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DVMT).
    Linderman, Kristoffer
    Malmö universitet, Fakulteten för teknik och samhälle (TS), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DVMT).
    Alm, Cecilia
    Rochester Institute of Technology, U.S.A..
    Bailey, Reynold
    Rochester Institute of Technology, U.S.A..
    Considerations for Face-based Data Estimates: Affect Reactions to Videos2019Ingår i: Proceedings of the 14th International Joint Conference on Computer Vision, Imaging and Computer Graphics Theory and Applications - Volume 2: VISIGRAPP / [ed] Manuela Chessa; Alexis Paljic; Jose Braz, SciTePress, 2019, s. 188-194Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Video streaming is becoming the new standard for watching videos, providing an opportunity for affective video recommendation that leverages noninvasive sensing data from viewers to suggest content. Face-based data has the distinct advantage that it can be collected noninvasively with minimal equipment such as a simple webcam. Face recordings can be used for estimating individuals’ emotional states based on their facial movements and also for estimating pulse as a signal for emotional reactions. We provide a focused case-based contribution by reporting on methodological challenges experienced in a research study with face-based data estimates which are then used in predicting affective reactions. We build on lessons learned to formulate a set of recommendations that can be useful for continued work towards affective video recommendation.

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  • 39. Brandt, E
    et al.
    Björgvinsson, E
    Hillgren, Per-Anders
    Self-produced video to augment: peer-to-peer learning2004Ingår i: Proc. Mlearn 2003: Learning with mobile device, 2004, s. 27-34Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 40. Brodén, Björn
    et al.
    Hammar, Mikael
    Nilsson, Bengt J
    Malmö högskola, Teknik och samhälle (TS).
    Online and Offline Algorithms for the Time-Dependent TSP with Time Zones2004Ingår i: Algorithmica, ISSN 0178-4617, E-ISSN 1432-0541, Vol. 39, nr 4, s. 299-319Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The time dependent traveling salesman problem is a variant of TSP with time dependent edge costs. We study some restrictions of TDTSP where the number of edge cost changes are limited. We find competitive ratios for online versions of \tdtsp. From these we derive polynomial time approximation algorithms for graphs with edge costs one and two. In addition, we present an approximation algorithm for the orienteering problem with edge costs one and two.

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  • 41.
    Brus, Edvin
    Malmö universitet, Fakulteten för teknik och samhälle (TS), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DVMT).
    Identifying Challenges Affecting Computer Science Students During Remote Education2022Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    As the COVID-19 pandemic began in 2019 many businesses and institutions had to start pivoting to remote work and remote studying. Remote work and studying has the ability to significantly alter the way that people are used to carry out their work or studies and, in many cases, have done exactly that. Although the area of remote work and remote studying have been explored and researched on prior to this, the scale at which these changes have taken place and the number of people that are affected is unprecedented. This study aims to identify and understand the technological challenges that university students within computer science experience after having gone through this change of environment. This study also aims to understand and identify what the consequences of these challenges are and how they could be solved or mitigated. To find out what these challenges and their consequences are, this study uses a series of semi-structured interviews with students. Through this series of interviews this paper identifies a range of different challenges belonging to previously identified areas of technological challenges such as internet connectivity, communication software, VPN software, and hardware limitations. The interviews also brought forward technological challenges outside of these areas and allowed the participants to explain in detail what consequences these challenges have had on their remote education and to offer their personal opinions on how these challenges and consequences can be solved. A questionnaire was also sent out to students at Malmö University in order to gain further information regarding both social and technological challenges. The interviews and questionnaire carried out in this study and their results can serve as a foundation for further research and to be of help for individuals, institutions or businesses who are interested in the topic of remote education concerning computer science. Through the questionnaire and interviews carried out in this study it is clear that the majority of challenges that computer science students face are social in nature, although technological challenges still exist. The results of the questionnaire in particular also led to the troubling finding that a majority of students believe that the quality of their education has worsened as a result of remote education. The study also provides a number of recommendations and possible solutions to these challenges

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  • 42.
    Bugeja, Joseph
    Malmö universitet, Internet of Things and People (IOTAP). Malmö universitet, Fakulteten för teknik och samhälle (TS), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DVMT).
    On Privacy and Security in Smart Connected Homes2021Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The growth and presence of heterogeneous sensor-equipped Internet-connected devices inside the home can increase efficiency and quality of life for the residents. Simultaneously, these devices continuously collect, process, and transmit data about the residents and their daily lifestyle activities to unknown parties outside the home. Such data can be sensitive and personal, leading to increasingly intimate insights into private lives. This data allows for the implementation of services, personalization support, and benefits offered by smart home technologies. Alas, there has been a surge of cyberattacks on connected home devices that essentially compromise privacy and security of the residents.

    Providing privacy and security is a critical issue in smart connected homes. Many residents are concerned about unauthorized access into their homes and about the privacy of their data. However, it is typically challenging to implement privacy and security in a smart connected home because of its heterogeneity of devices, the dynamic nature of the home network, and the fact that it is always connected to the Internet, amongst other things. As the numbers and types of smart home devices are increasing rapidly, so are the risks with these devices. Concurrently, it is also becoming increasingly challenging to gain a deeper understand- ing of the smart home. Such understanding is necessary to build a more privacy-preserving and secure smart connected home. Likewise, it is needed as a precursor to perform a comprehensive privacy and security analysis of the smart home.

    In this dissertation, we render a comprehensive description and account of the smart connected home that can be used for conducting risk analysis. In doing so, we organize the underlying smart home devices ac- cording to their functionality, identify their data-collecting capabilities, and survey the data types being collected by them. Such is done using the technical specification of commercial devices, including their privacy policies. This description is then leveraged for identifying threats and for analyzing risks present in smart connected homes. Such is done by analyzing both scholarly literature and examples from the industry, and leveraging formal modeling. Additionally, we identify malicious threat agents and mitigations that are relevant to smart connected homes. This is performed without limiting the research and results to a particular configuration and type of smart home.

    This research led to three main findings. First, the majority of the surveyed commercial devices are collecting instances of sensitive and personal data but are prone to critical vulnerabilities. Second, there is a shortage of scientific models that capture the complexity and heterogeneity of real-world smart home deployments, especially those intended for privacy risk analysis. Finally, despite the increasing regulations and attention to privacy and security, there is a lack of proactive and integrative approaches intended to safeguard privacy and security of the residents. We contributed to addressing these three findings by developing a framework and models that enable early identification of threats, better planning for risk management scenarios, and mitigation of potential impacts caused by attacks before they reach the homes and compromise the lives of the residents.

    Overall, the scientific contributions presented in this dissertation help deepen the understanding and reasoning about privacy and security concerns affecting smart connected homes, and contributes to advancing the research in the area of risk analysis as applied to such systems.

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  • 43.
    Bugeja, Joseph
    et al.
    Malmö universitet, Internet of Things and People (IOTAP). Malmö universitet, Fakulteten för teknik och samhälle (TS), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DVMT).
    Jacobsson, Andreas
    Malmö universitet, Internet of Things and People (IOTAP). Malmö universitet, Fakulteten för teknik och samhälle (TS), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DVMT).
    On the Design of a Privacy-Centered Data Lifecycle for Smart Living Spaces2020Ingår i: Privacy and Identity Management. Data for Better Living: AI and Privacy: 14th IFIP WG 9.2, 9.6/11.7, 11.6/SIG 9.2.2 International Summer School, Windisch, Switzerland, August 19--23, 2019, Revised Selected Papers / [ed] Michael Friedewald, Melek Önen, Eva Lievens, Stephan Krenn, and Samuel Fricker, Springer, 2020, 576, s. 126-141Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Many living spaces, such as homes, are becoming smarter and connected by using Internet of Things (IoT) technologies. Such systems should ideally be privacy-centered by design given the sensitive and personal data they commonly deal with. Nonetheless, few systematic methodologies exist that deal with privacy threats affecting IoT-based systems. In this paper, we capture the generic function of an IoT system to model privacy so that threats affecting such contexts can be identified and categorized at system design stage. In effect, we integrate an extension to so called Data Flow Diagrams (DFD) in the model, which provides the means to handle the privacy-specific threats in IoT systems. To demonstrate the usefulness of the model, we apply it to the design of a realistic use-case involving Facebook Portal. We use that as a means to elicit the privacy threats and mitigations that can be adopted therein. Overall, we believe that the proposed extension and categorization of privacy threats provide a useful addition to IoT practitioners and researchers in support for the adoption of sound privacy-centered principles in the early stages of the smart living design process.

  • 44.
    Bugeja, Joseph
    et al.
    Malmö universitet, Internet of Things and People (IOTAP). Malmö universitet, Fakulteten för teknik och samhälle (TS), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DVMT).
    Jacobsson, Andreas
    Malmö universitet, Internet of Things and People (IOTAP). Malmö universitet, Fakulteten för teknik och samhälle (TS), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DVMT).
    Davidsson, Paul
    Malmö universitet, Fakulteten för teknik och samhälle (TS), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DVMT). Malmö universitet, Internet of Things and People (IOTAP).
    A Privacy-Centered System Model for Smart Connected Homes2020Ingår i: 2020 IEEE International Conference on Pervasive Computing and Communications Workshops: PerCom Workshops, IEEE, 2020Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Smart connected homes are integrated with heterogeneous Internet-connected devices interacting with the physical environment and human users. While they have become an established research area, there is no common understanding of what composes such a pervasive environment making it challenging to perform a scientific analysis of the domain. This is especially evident when it comes to discourse about privacy threats. Recognizing this, we aim to describe a generic smart connected home, including the data it deals with in a novel privacy-centered system model. Such is done using concepts borrowed from the theory of Contextual Integrity. Furthermore, we represent privacy threats formally using the proposed model. To illustrate the usage of the model, we apply it to the design of an ambient-assisted living use-case and demonstrate how it can be used for identifying and analyzing the privacy threats directed to smart connected homes.

  • 45.
    Bugeja, Joseph
    et al.
    Malmö universitet, Internet of Things and People (IOTAP). Malmö universitet, Fakulteten för teknik och samhälle (TS), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DVMT).
    Jacobsson, Andreas
    Malmö universitet, Internet of Things and People (IOTAP). Malmö universitet, Fakulteten för teknik och samhälle (TS), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DVMT).
    Davidsson, Paul
    Malmö universitet, Fakulteten för teknik och samhälle (TS), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DVMT). Malmö universitet, Internet of Things and People (IOTAP).
    Is Your Home Becoming a Spy?: A Data-Centered Analysis and Classification of Smart Connected Home Systems2020Ingår i: IoT '20: Proceedings of the 10th International Conference on the Internet of Things, New York, United States: ACM Digital Library, 2020, artikel-id 17Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Smart connected home systems bring different privacy challenges to residents. The contribution of this paper is a novel privacy grounded classification of smart connected home systems that is focused on personal data exposure. This classification is built empirically through k-means cluster analysis from the technical specification of 81 commercial Internet of Things (IoT) systems as featured in PrivacyNotIncluded – an online database of consumer IoT systems. The attained classification helps us better understand the privacy implications and what is at stake with different smart connected home systems. Furthermore, we survey the entire spectrum of analyzed systems for their data collection capabilities. Systems were classified into four tiers: app-based accessors, watchers, location harvesters, and listeners, based on the sensing data the systems collect. Our findings indicate that being surveilled inside your home is a realistic threat, particularly, as the majority of the surveyed in-home IoT systems are installed with cameras, microphones, and location trackers. Finally, we identify research directions and suggest some best practices to mitigate the threat of in-house surveillance.

  • 46.
    Bugeja, Joseph
    et al.
    Malmö universitet, Internet of Things and People (IOTAP). Malmö universitet, Fakulteten för teknik och samhälle (TS), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DVMT).
    Jacobsson, Andreas
    Malmö universitet, Internet of Things and People (IOTAP). Malmö universitet, Fakulteten för teknik och samhälle (TS), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DVMT).
    Davidsson, Paul
    Malmö universitet, Fakulteten för teknik och samhälle (TS), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DVMT). Malmö universitet, Internet of Things and People (IOTAP).
    PRASH: A Framework for Privacy Risk Analysis of Smart Homes.2021Ingår i: Sensors, E-ISSN 1424-8220, Vol. 21, nr 19, artikel-id 6399Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Smart homes promise to improve the quality of life of residents. However, they collect vasts amounts of personal and sensitive data, making privacy protection critically important. We propose a framework, called PRASH, for modeling and analyzing the privacy risks of smart homes. It is composed of three modules: a system model, a threat model, and a set of privacy metrics, which together are used for calculating the privacy risk exposure of a smart home system. By representing a smart home through a formal specification, PRASH allows for early identification of threats, better planning for risk management scenarios, and mitigation of potential impacts caused by attacks before they compromise the lives of residents. To demonstrate the capabilities of PRASH, an executable version of the smart home system configuration was generated using the proposed formal specification, which was then analyzed to find potential attack paths while also mitigating the impacts of those attacks. Thereby, we add important contributions to the body of knowledge on the mitigations of threat agents violating the privacy of users in their homes. Overall, the use of PRASH will help residents to preserve their right to privacy in the face of the emerging challenges affecting smart homes.

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  • 47.
    Bugeja, Joseph
    et al.
    Malmö universitet, Internet of Things and People (IOTAP). Malmö universitet, Fakulteten för teknik och samhälle (TS), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DVMT).
    Jacobsson, Andreas
    Malmö universitet, Internet of Things and People (IOTAP). Malmö universitet, Fakulteten för teknik och samhälle (TS), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DVMT).
    Spalazzese, Romina
    Malmö universitet, Fakulteten för teknik och samhälle (TS), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DVMT). Malmö universitet, Internet of Things and People (IOTAP).
    On the Analysis of Semantic Denial-of-Service Attacks Affecting Smart Living Devices2020Ingår i: Intelligent Computing: Proceedings of the 2020 Computing Conference / [ed] Kohei Arai, Supriya Kapoor, Rahul Bhatia, Springer, 2020, Vol. 2Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    With the interconnectedness of heterogeneous IoT devices being deployed in smart living spaces, it is imperative to assure that connected devices are resilient against Denial-of-Service (DoS) attacks. DoS attacks may cause economic damage but may also jeopardize the life of individuals, e.g., in a smart home healthcare environment since there might be situations (e.g., heart attacks), when urgent and timely actions are crucial. To achieve a better understanding of the DoS attack scenario in the ever so private home environment, we conduct a vulnerability assessment of five commercial-off-the-shelf IoT devices: a gaming console, media player, lighting system, connected TV, and IP camera, that are typically found in a smart living space. This study was conducted using an automated vulnerability scanner – Open Vulnerability Assessment System (OpenVAS) – and focuses on semantic DoS attacks. The results of the conducted experiment indicate that the majority of the tested devices are prone to DoS attacks, in particular those caused by a failure to manage exceptional conditions, leading to a total compromise of their availability. To understand the root causes for successful attacks, we analyze the payload code, identify the weaknesses exploited, and propose some mitigations that can be adopted by smart living developers and consumers.

  • 48. Cherif, Redha
    et al.
    Davidsson, Paul
    Malmö högskola, Teknik och samhälle (TS).
    Software Development Process Simulation: Multi Agent-Based Simulation versus System Dynamics2010Ingår i: Multi-Agent-Based Simulation X, Springer, 2010, s. 73-85Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We present one of the first actual applications of Multi Agent-Based Simulation (MABS) to the field of software process simulation modelling (SPSM). Although there are some recent attempts to do this, we argue that these fail to take full advantage of the agency paradigm. Our model of the software development process integrates individual-level performance, cognition and artefact quality models in a common simulation framework. In addition, this framework allows the implementation of both MABS and System Dynamics (SD) simulators using the same basic models. As SD is the dominating approach within SPSM, we are able to make relevant and unique comparisons between it and MABS. This enabled us to uncover quite interesting properties of these approaches, e.g., that MABS reflects the problem domain more realistically than SD.

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  • 49.
    Chrobak, Marek
    et al.
    Department of Computer Science and Engineering, University of California at Riverside, Riverside, USA.
    Dürr, Christoph
    Laboratoire d’informatique de Paris 6, LIP6, CNRS, Sorbonne Université, 75252, Paris, France.
    Fabijan, Aleksander
    Malmö universitet, Fakulteten för teknik och samhälle (TS), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DVMT).
    Nilsson, Bengt J.
    Malmö universitet, Fakulteten för teknik och samhälle (TS), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DVMT).
    Online Clique Clustering2019Ingår i: Algorithmica, ISSN 0178-4617, E-ISSN 1432-0541, Vol. 82, nr 4, s. 938-965Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Clique clustering is the problem of partitioning the vertices of a graph into disjoint clusters, where each cluster forms a clique in the graph, while optimizing some objective function. In online clustering, the input graph is given one vertex at a time, and any vertices that have previously been clustered together are not allowed to be separated. The goal is to maintain a clustering with an objective value close to the optimal solution. For the variant where we want to maximize the number of edges in the clusters, we propose an online algorithm based on the doubling technique. It has an asymptotic competitive ratio at most 15.646 and a strict competitive ratio at most 22.641. We also show that no deterministic algorithm can have an asymptotic competitive ratio better than 6. For the variant where we want to minimize the number of edges between clusters, we show that the deterministic competitive ratio of the problem is n−ω(1), where n is the number of vertices in the graph.

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  • 50.
    Cukurova, Mutlu
    et al.
    University College London, UK.
    Zhou, Qi
    University College London, UK.
    Spikol, Daniel
    Malmö universitet, Internet of Things and People (IOTAP). Malmö universitet, Fakulteten för teknik och samhälle (TS), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DVMT).
    Landolfi, Lorenzo
    Scuola Superiore Sant'Anna, Italy.
    Modelling Collaborative Problem-solving Competence with Transparent Learning Analytics: Is Video Data Enough?2020Ingår i: LAK20: THE TENTH INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON LEARNING ANALYTICS & KNOWLEDGE, Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), 2020, s. 270-275Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, we describe the results of our research to model collaborative problem-solving (CPS) competence based on analytics generated from video data. We have collected similar to 500 mins video data from 15 groups of 3 students working to solve design problems collaboratively. Initially, with the help of OpenPose, we automatically generated frequency metrics such as the number of the face-in-the-screen; and distance metrics such as the distance between bodies. Based on these metrics, we built decision trees to predict students' listening, watching, making, and speaking behaviours as well as predicting the students' CPS competence. Our results provide useful decision rules mined from analytics of video data which can be used to inform teacher dashboards. Although, the accuracy and recall values of the models built are inferior to previous machine learning work that utilizes multimodal data, the transparent nature of the decision trees provides opportunities for explainable analytics for teachers and learners. This can lead to more agency of teachers and learners, therefore can lead to easier adoption. We conclude the paper with a discussion on the value and limitations of our approach.

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