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Psychometric evaluation of the electronic faces thermometer scale for pain assessment in children 8–17 years old: A study protocol
Department of Health Sciences, Faculty of Medicine Lund University Lund Sweden.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-9188-2461
The CHILD Research Group, Department of Nursing, School of Health and Welfare Jönköping University Jönköping Sweden.ORCID iD: 0000-0001-6419-2417
Nell Hodgson Woodruff School of Nursing Emory University Atlanta Georgia USA.ORCID iD: 0000-0001-6726-5714
Malmö University, Faculty of Odontology (OD).ORCID iD: 0000-0003-3362-3362
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2023 (English)In: Paediatric and Neonatal Pain, ISSN 2637-3807, Vol. 5, no 4, p. 99-109Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

It is often a challenge for a child to communicate their pain, and their possibilities todo so should be strengthened in healthcare settings. Digital self-assessment providesa potential solution for person-centered care in pain management and promotes childparticipation when a child is ill. A child's perception of pain assessment differs when itis assessed using digital or analog formats. As we move into the digital era, there is anurgent need to validate digital pain assessment tools, including the newly developedelectronic Faces Thermometer Scale (eFTS). This study protocol describes three studies with the overall aim to evaluate psychometric properties of the eFTS for assessingpain in children 8–17 years of age. A multi-site project design combining quantitativeand qualitative methods will be used for three observational studies. Study 1: 100Swedish-speaking children will report the level of anticipated pain from vignettes describing painful situations in four levels of pain and a think-aloud method will be usedfor data collection. Data will be analyzed with phenomenography as well as descriptive and comparative statistics. Study 2: 600 children aged 8–17 years at pediatric anddental settings in Sweden, Denmark, Iceland, and USA will be included. Children willassess their pain intensity due to medical or dental procedures, surgery, or acute painusing three different pain Scales for each time point; the eFTS, the Faces Pain ScaleRevised, and the Coloured Analogue Scale. Descriptive and comparative statistics willbe used, with subanalysis taking cultural context into consideration. Study 3: A subgroup of 20 children out of these 600 children will be purposely included in an interview to describe experiences of grading their own pain using the eFTS. Qualitativedata will be analyzed with content analysis. Our pilot studies showed high level ofadherence to the study procedure and rendered only a small revision of backgroundquestionnaires. Preliminary analysis indicated that the instruments are adequate to beused by children and that the analysis plan is feasible. A digital pain assessment toolcontributes to an increase in pain assessment in pediatric care. The Medical ResearchCouncil framework for complex interventions in healthcare supports a thorough development of a new scale. By evaluating psychometric properties in several settingsby both qualitative and quantitative methods, the eFTS will become a well-validatedtool to strengthen the child's voice within healthcare.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
John Wiley & Sons, 2023. Vol. 5, no 4, p. 99-109
Keywords [en]
digital tool, eFTS, pain assessment, pediatric pain, psychometric evaluation, validation
National Category
Nursing
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:mau:diva-67371DOI: 10.1002/pne2.12102OAI: oai:DiVA.org:mau-67371DiVA, id: diva2:1859846
Funder
Swedish Childhood Cancer FoundationFredrik och Ingrid Thurings StiftelseAvailable from: 2024-05-22 Created: 2024-05-22 Last updated: 2024-05-28Bibliographically approved

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Berlin, Henrik

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