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Non-invasive biomedical analysis: recent advances, challenges, and future perspectives
Malmö University, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Biomedical Science (BMV). Malmö University, Biofilms Research Center for Biointerfaces.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-8133-3573
2024 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Non-invasive healthcare technologies are increasingly pivotal in research anddevelopment due to their affordability and the convenience they offer to bothhealthcare recipients and providers. Alongside traditional non-invasive methodssuch as ultrasound imaging, a variety of innovative non-invasive devices havebeen developed. These include cardiovascular diagnostic systems, bioimpedancebasedscales, and various types of analyzers. These analyzers, which can be fluidlessor fluid-based, are capable of measuring not just physical parameters of thebody but also key biomarkers like glucose and lactate. This comprehensive andtransdisciplinary thesis encompasses three distinct yet interconnected segments:1) Advanced ultrasound imaging (Papers I and II): The first explored vortexformation time in female athletes and the second detailed investigations of thesuperficial venous systems of apparently healthy volunteers.2) Validation and application of commercially available fluid-less bloodanalyzers (Papers IV-VI). These papers focus on non-invasive blood glucosemonitoring (Paper IV) and the general use of non-invasive healthcaretechnologies among female participants from socioeconomicallydisadvantaged areas (Papers V and VI).3) Design and testing of novel, fluid-based sensors, and biosensors (Papers II andIII): Paper II delves into biosensing of viruses, and paper III deals withcontinuous ex vivo glucose sensing in human blood using an enzymatic sensorin a vein replica.Each of these segments contribute to the broader understanding and advancementof non-invasive healthcare technologies, highlighting the significant role suchtechnologies play in modern healthcare research. The thesis's transdisciplinaryapproach, spanning from advanced imaging techniques to the development ofnovel biosensors, exemplifies the dynamic and evolving nature of medicaltechnology research.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Malmö: Malmö University Press, 2024. , p. 64
Series
Malmö University Health and Society Dissertations, ISSN 1653-5383
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Research subject
Health and society
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:mau:diva-66097DOI: 10.24834/isbn.9789178774562ISBN: 978-91-7877-455-5 (print)ISBN: 978-91-7877-456-2 (electronic)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:mau-66097DiVA, id: diva2:1840612
Public defence
2024-03-01, Aula, Health, and Society, Jan Waldenströms gata 25, 205 06, Malmö, 13:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note

Paper IV in dissertation as manuscript

Available from: 2024-02-27 Created: 2024-02-26 Last updated: 2024-03-18Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Vortex formation time in female athletes
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2024 (English)In: The International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging, ISSN 1569-5794, E-ISSN 1875-8312, Vol. 40, no 2, p. 373-384Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Regular, vigorous physical activity can have a significant impact on cardiac function, leading to cardiac morphological alterations that may be challenging to distinguish from pathological changes. Therefore, new screening methods are needed to accurately differentiate between adaptive changes and pathological alterations in athletes. Vortex formation time (VFT) is an emerging method that shows potential in this regard, as it involves the formation of a rotating vortex ring in the left ventricle during the early filling phase of diastole. In this study, we investigated the difference in VFT between two groups of women: professional handball players and healthy middle-aged female athletes, along with their corresponding control groups. By using echocardiography-Doppler analysis of the heart, VFT was calculated based on the left ventricular ejection fraction, the ratio between the end-diastolic volume and the diameter of the mitral annulus, and the ratio of the atrial contraction volume to the total inflow via the mitral valve. The study reveals a significant increase in VFT in both professional handball players and middle-aged female athletes compared to their respective control groups. Moreover, statistically significant differences between handball players and middle-aged female athletes were observed, indicating that the level of physical activity may affect the VFT. These results suggest that VFT could be a promising screening tool for identifying cardiac adaptations due to long-term vigorous training, potentially enabling more accurate diagnoses of cardiac morphological alterations in athletes. Representation of the graphical abstract of the conducted research.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer Nature, 2024
Keywords
Doppler analysis, Female participants, New screening methods, Vortex formation time
National Category
Cardiac and Cardiovascular Systems Sport and Fitness Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mau:diva-64115 (URN)10.1007/s10554-023-02995-8 (DOI)001118537100001 ()38008878 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85178284310 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2023-12-07 Created: 2023-12-07 Last updated: 2024-04-19Bibliographically approved
2. Continuous ex vivo glucose sensing in human physiological fluids using an enzymatic sensor in a vein replica
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Continuous ex vivo glucose sensing in human physiological fluids using an enzymatic sensor in a vein replica
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2023 (English)In: Bioelectrochemistry, ISSN 1567-5394, E-ISSN 1878-562X, Vol. 152, article id 108441Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Managing blood glucose can affect important clinical outcomes during the intraoperative phase of surgery. However, currently available instruments for glucose monitoring during surgery are few and not optimized for the specific application. Here we report an attempt to exploit an enzymatic sensor in a vein replica that could continuously monitor glucose level in an authentic human bloodstream. First, detailed investigations of the superficial venous systems of volunteers were carried out using ocular and palpating examinations, as well as advanced ultrasound measurements. Second, a tubular glucose-sensitive biosensor mimicking a venous system was designed and tested. Almost ideal linear dependence of current output on glucose concentration in phosphate buffer saline was obtained in the range 2.2-22.0 mM, whereas the dependence in human plasma was less linear. Finally, the developed biosensor was investigated in whole blood under homeostatic conditions. A specific correlation was found between the current output and glucose concentration at the initial stage of the biodevice operation. However, with time, blood coagulation during measurements negatively affected the performance of the biodevice. When the experimental results were remodeled to predict the response without the influence of blood coagulation, the sensor output closely followed the blood glucose level.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2023
Keywords
Continuous glucose sensing, Enzymatic sensor, Vein replica, Human physiological fluids, Surgery
National Category
Endocrinology and Diabetes
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mau:diva-61052 (URN)10.1016/j.bioelechem.2023.108441 (DOI)000984583000001 ()37087795 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85153044643 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2023-06-20 Created: 2023-06-20 Last updated: 2024-04-19Bibliographically approved
3. Electronic Tongue for Direct Assessment of SARS-CoV-2-Free and Infected Human Saliva-A Feasibility Study
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Electronic Tongue for Direct Assessment of SARS-CoV-2-Free and Infected Human Saliva-A Feasibility Study
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2023 (English)In: Biosensors, ISSN 2079-6374, Vol. 13, no 7, article id 717Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

An electronic tongue is a powerful analytical instrument based on an array of non-selective chemical sensors with a partial specificity for data gathering and advanced pattern recognition methods for data analysis. Connecting electronic tongues with electrochemical techniques for data collection has led to various applications, mostly within sensing for food quality and environmental monitoring, but also in biomedical research for the analyses of different bioanalytes in human physiological fluids. In this paper, an electronic tongue consisting of six electrodes (viz., gold, platinum, palladium, titanium, iridium, and glassy carbon) was designed and tested in authentic (undiluted, unpretreated) human saliva samples from eight volunteers, collected before and during the COVID-19 pandemic. Investigations of 11 samples using differential pulse voltammetry and a principal component analysis allowed us to distinguish between SARS-CoV-2-free and infected authentic human saliva. This work, as a proof-of-principle demonstration, provides a new perspective for the use of electronic tongues in the field of enzyme-free electrochemical biosensing, highlighting their potential for future applications in non-invasive biomedical analyses.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
MDPI, 2023
Keywords
electronic tongue, differential pulse voltammetry, principial component analysis, authentic human saliva, SARS-CoV-2
National Category
Analytical Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mau:diva-61908 (URN)10.3390/bios13070717 (DOI)001038044400001 ()37504115 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85165896609 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2023-08-16 Created: 2023-08-16 Last updated: 2024-02-26Bibliographically approved
4. Fluid-less blood glucose monitoring: recent advances, challenges, and future perspectives
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(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
National Category
Medical Biotechnology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mau:diva-66131 (URN)
Available from: 2024-02-27 Created: 2024-02-27 Last updated: 2024-02-28Bibliographically approved
5. Developing and evaluating non-invasive healthcare technologies for a group of female participants from a socioeconomically disadvantaged area
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Developing and evaluating non-invasive healthcare technologies for a group of female participants from a socioeconomically disadvantaged area
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2021 (English)In: Scientific Reports, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 11, no 1, article id 23896Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

When compared to the general population, socioeconomically disadvantaged communitiesfrequently experience compromised health. Monitoring the divide is challenging since standardizedbiomedical tests are linguistically and culturally inappropriate. The aim of this study was to developand test a unique mobile biomedical testbed based on non-invasive analysis, as well as to explorethe relationships between the objective health measures and subjective health outcomes, asevaluated with the World Health Organization Quality of Life survey. The testbed was evaluated in asocioeconomically disadvantaged neighborhood in Malmö, which has been listed as one of the twelvemost vulnerable districts in Sweden. The study revealed that compared to conventional protocolsthe less intrusive biomedical approach was highly appreciated by the participants. Surprisingly, thecollected biomedical data illustrated that the apparent health of the participants from the ethnicallydiverse low-income neighborhood was comparable to the general Swedish population. Statisticallysignificant correlations between perceived health and biomedical data were disclosed, even thoughthe dependences found were complex, and recognition of the manifest complexity needs to beincluded in further research. Our results validate the potential of non-invasive technologies incombination with advanced statistical analysis, especially when combined with linguistically andculturally appropriate healthcare methodologies, allowing participants to appreciate the significanceof the different parameters to evaluate and monitor aspects of health.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Nature Publishing Group, 2021
National Category
Health Care Service and Management, Health Policy and Services and Health Economy
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mau:diva-48214 (URN)10.1038/s41598-021-03262-3 (DOI)000729935300085 ()34903797 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85121044920 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Malmö University, FO 4.3-218/408Malmö University, FO 2020/299Malmö University, FO 2020/299Vinnova, 2017–01272Vinnova, 2016–00421
Available from: 2021-12-16 Created: 2021-12-16 Last updated: 2024-02-26Bibliographically approved
6. Health and quality of life among women after participation in a CBPR-informed physical activity intervention: with a pandemic perspective.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Health and quality of life among women after participation in a CBPR-informed physical activity intervention: with a pandemic perspective.
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2023 (English)In: Scientific Reports, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 13, no 1, article id 17972Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The lack of culturally and contextually oriented interventions promoting physical activity (PA) has led to increased physical inactivity among women living in disadvantaged neighbourhoods in Sweden. In this study one such intervention informed by community-based participatory research (CBPR) has been evaluated among 34 women from a disadvantaged neighbourhood before and during COVID-19. Health-related quality of life (HRQOL), behavioural and biomedical outcomes were assessed directly prior and post-intervention, followed by evaluations at 6-months and 18-months follow-up during COVID-19. The results revealed that HRQOL, particularly psychological, social, and environmental health significantly increased post-intervention compared to prior to intervention but reversed back at 6-months follow-up. Perceived health satisfaction and environmental health increased at 18-months follow-up during COVID-19. Participation in PA improved post-intervention and at 6-months follow-up. Everyday activities and fruit and vegetable intake continued to increase through all timepoints. Systolic blood pressure significantly decreased post-intervention and 6-months follow-up; blood flow rate increased significantly at all timepoints. Overall, the findings underscores the potential effectiveness of CBPR approaches in promoting and sustaining healthy lifestyles, even during acute situations such as the COVID-19. It may even serve as a future model for promoting health and addressing health disparities in similar groups.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer Nature, 2023
National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mau:diva-63606 (URN)10.1038/s41598-023-45239-4 (DOI)001087596300084 ()37863947 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85174618667 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2023-11-10 Created: 2023-11-10 Last updated: 2024-04-19Bibliographically approved

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