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Investigation of tryptophan to kynurenine degradation in response to interferon-γ in melanoma cell lines
Department of Natural Science, Kristianstad University, Kristianstad, Sweden.
Malmö University, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Biomedical Science (BMV). Malmö University, Biofilms Research Center for Biointerfaces.
Malmö University, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Biomedical Science (BMV). Malmö University, Biofilms Research Center for Biointerfaces.
Malmö University, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Biomedical Science (BMV). Malmö University, Biofilms Research Center for Biointerfaces.
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2024 (English)In: Biochemistry and Biophysics Reports, ISSN 2405-5808, Vol. 37, article id 101612Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background and aim: Melanoma is a fatal form of skin cancer that carries a grave prognosis if the cancer cells spread and form metastases. The Kynurenine (Kyn) pathway is activated by the enzyme indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase 1 (IDO-1) and has been shown to have a role in tumour progression. We have previously shown that interferon-γ (IFN-γ) acts as an inducer of tryptophan (Trp) degradation to Kyn in keratinocytes of the basal layer in a 3D epidermis model. Before extending our reconstructed human epidermis model to not only contain keratinocytes but also fibroblasts and melanocytes/melanoma cells, we have in this study set out to investigate possible differences between primary adult melanocytes and six melanoma cell lines regarding the expression of the immune checkpoint inhibitors IDO-1 and programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1) together with Kyn production.

Methods: The melanocytes and melanoma cells were stimulated with 1–20 ng/ml of IFN-γ and the levels of Trp to Kyn degradation were monitored with high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). To analyze the viability of the cell types after IFN-γ treatment, an MTT assay was performed. mRNA quantity of IDO-1, PD-L1 and IFN-γ receptor (IFN-GR1) was analyzed with qPCR.

Results: After 24 h, only the metastatic cell line WM-266-4 was affected by all concentrations of IFN-γ, whereas at 48 h, the higher IFN-γ concentrations gave a more pronounced effect on the viability in all cell types. Trp was detected at various levels in the culture medium from all cell types before and after IFN-γ treatment. The degradation to Kyn was detected in primary melanocytes, Mel Juso, and Mel Ho cell lines after 24 h of treatment and low levels of IFN-γ. However, the higher concentration of IFN-γ, 20 ng/ml, induced Kyn to various degrees in all cell types after 24 h. The change in mRNA quantity of IDO-1 and PD-L1 was similar in all cell types.

Conclusion: To conclude, no significant difference in upregulation of the immune checkpoint inhibitors PD-L1 and IDO-1 was seen between primary tumour and metastatic melanoma. IFN-γ stimulation of melanocytes and different stages of melanoma cell lines resulted in an increased Kyn/Trp ratio in the more aggressive melanoma cells when a high concentration was used (20 ng/ml) but when a lower concentration of IFN-γ (5 ng/ml) was used an increased Kyn/Trp ratio were detected in media from primary melanocytes and early-stage melanoma.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2024. Vol. 37, article id 101612
Keywords [en]
IDO-1, Interferon-γ, Kynurenine, Melanocytes, melanoma, Programmed death ligand 1, Tryptophan
National Category
Cancer and Oncology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:mau:diva-64868DOI: 10.1016/j.bbrep.2023.101612ISI: 001146252700001PubMedID: 38188364Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-85180557691OAI: oai:DiVA.org:mau-64868DiVA, id: diva2:1824887
Available from: 2024-01-08 Created: 2024-01-08 Last updated: 2024-02-27Bibliographically approved

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Jankovskaja, SkaidreAwad, KassemOhlsson, LarsGjörloff Wingren, AnetteGustafsson, Anna

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