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Diagnostic Criteria for Temporomandibular Disorders - INfORM recommendations: Comprehensive and short-form adaptations for adolescents.
Malmö University, Faculty of Odontology (OD).ORCID iD: 0000-0001-5635-1887
Malmö University, Faculty of Odontology (OD). Center for Oral Rehabilitation, FTV Östergötland, Norrköping, Sweden.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-0550-8925
chool of Orthodontics, Department of Neurosciences, Reproductive Sciences and Oral Sciences, University of Naples Federico II, Naples, Italy.
Dental Department, East Jeddah Hospital, Ministry of Health, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia; Scandinavian Center for Orofacial Neurosciences, Malmö, Sweden.
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2023 (English)In: Journal of Oral Rehabilitation, E-ISSN 1365-2842, Vol. 50, no 11, p. 1167-1180Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

BACKGROUND: The Diagnostic Criteria for Temporomandibular Disorders (DC/TMD) for use in adults is in use worldwide. Until now, no version of this instrument for use in adolescents has been proposed.

OBJECTIVE: To present comprehensive and short-form adaptations of the adult version of DC/TMD that are appropriate for use with adolescents in clinical and research settings.

METHODS: International experts in TMDs and experts in pain psychology participated in a Delphi process to identify ways of adapting the DC/TMD protocol for physical and psychosocial assessment of adolescents.

RESULTS: The proposed adaptation defines adolescence as ages 10-19 years. Changes in the physical diagnosis (Axis I) include (i) adapting the language of the Demographics and the Symptom Questionnaires to be developmentally appropriate for adolescents, (ii) adding two general health questionnaires, one for the adolescent patient and one for their caregivers, and (iii) replacing the TMD Pain Screener with the 3Q/TMD questionnaire. Changes in the psychosocial assessment (Axis II) include (i) adapting the language of the Graded Chronic Pain Scale to be developmentally appropriate for adolescents, (ii) adding anxiety and depression assessment that have been validated for adolescents, and (iii) adding three constructs (stress, catastrophizing and sleep disorders) to assess psychosocial functioning in adolescents.

CONCLUSION: The recommended DC/TMD, including Axis I and Axis II for adolescents, is appropriate to use in clinical and research settings. This adapted first version for adolescents includes changes in Axis I and Axis II requiring reliability and validity testing in international settings. Official translations of the comprehensive and short-form to different languages according to INfORM requirements will enable a worldwide dissemination and implementation.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
John Wiley & Sons, 2023. Vol. 50, no 11, p. 1167-1180
Keywords [en]
adolescents, diagnostic criteria, dysfunction, pain, temporomandibular disorders
National Category
Dentistry
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URN: urn:nbn:se:mau:diva-59538DOI: 10.1111/joor.13488ISI: 001015329500001PubMedID: 37144484Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-85173807140OAI: oai:DiVA.org:mau-59538DiVA, id: diva2:1757640
Available from: 2023-05-17 Created: 2023-05-17 Last updated: 2024-06-04Bibliographically approved

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Ekberg, EwaCarinNilsson, Ing-MarieAlstergren, PerList, ThomasSharma, SoniaSvensson, Peter

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