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Diagnostic Criteria for Temporomandibular Disorders - INfORM recommendations: Comprehensive and short-form adaptations for children
Malmö University, Faculty of Odontology (OD). Center for Oral Rehabilitation, FTV Östergötland, Norrköping, Sweden.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-0550-8925
Malmö University, Faculty of Odontology (OD).ORCID iD: 0000-0001-5635-1887
School of Orthodontics, Department of Neurosciences, Reproductive Sciences and Oral Sciences, University of Naples Federico II, Naples, Italy.
Dental Department, East Jeddah Hospital, Ministry of Health, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. (Scandinavian Center for Orofacial Neurosciences, Malmö, Sweden)
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2023 (English)In: Journal of Oral Rehabilitation, E-ISSN 1365-2842, Vol. 50, no 2, p. 99-112Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

BACKGROUND: The Diagnostic Criteria for Temporomandibular Disorders (DC/TMD) are used worldwide in adults. Until now, no adaptation for use in children has been proposed.

OBJECTIVE: To present comprehensive and short-form adaptations of Axis I and II of the DC/TMD for adults that are appropriate for use with children in clinical and research settings.

METHODS: Global Delphi studies with experts in TMDs and in pain psychology identified ways of adapting the DC/TMD for children.

RESULTS: The proposed adaptation is suitable for children aged 6-9 years. Proposed changes in Axis I include (i) adapting the language of the Demographics and the Symptom Questionnaires to be developmentally appropriate for children, (ii) adding a general health questionnaire for children and one for their parents, (iii) replacing the TMD Pain Screener with the 3Q/TMD questionnaire, and (iv) modifying the clinical examination protocol. Proposed changes in Axis II include (i) for the Graded Chronic Pain Scale, to be developmentally appropriate for children, and (ii) adding anxiety and depression assessments that have been validated in children, and (iii) adding three constructs (stress, catastrophizing, and sleep disorders) to assess psychosocial functioning in children.

CONCLUSION: The recommended DC/TMD, including Axis I and Axis II, for children aged 6-9 years, is appropriate for use in clinical and research settings. This adapted first version for children includes changes in Axis I and Axis II changes requiring reliability and validity testing in international settings. Official translations to different languages according to INfORM requirements will enable a worldwide dissemination and implementation.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
John Wiley & Sons, 2023. Vol. 50, no 2, p. 99-112
Keywords [en]
children, diagnostic criteria, dysfunction, pain, temporomandibular disorders
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Dentistry
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URN: urn:nbn:se:mau:diva-56161DOI: 10.1111/joor.13390ISI: 000920751500001PubMedID: 36373958Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-85144152911OAI: oai:DiVA.org:mau-56161DiVA, id: diva2:1712680
Available from: 2022-11-22 Created: 2022-11-22 Last updated: 2024-02-05Bibliographically approved

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Nilsson, Ing-MarieEkberg, EwaCarinAlstergren, PerList, ThomasSharma, SoniaSvensson, Peter

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