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När barn blir till problem och belastning i svensk förskola: Om behov av särskilt stöd och resurser i ett pressat läge
Malmö University, Faculty of Education and Society (LS), Department of Childhood, Education and Society (BUS).ORCID iD: 0000-0003-1549-9900
2021 (Swedish)In: Pedagogisk forskning i Sverige, ISSN 1401-6788, E-ISSN 2001-3345, Vol. 26, no 4, p. 7-29Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [sv]

Studien tar utgångspunkt i 1600 berättelser som finns publicerade på förskole-upprorets hemsida www.forskoleeupproret.weebly.com under #pressat läge.Studiens syfte avgränsas till att identifiera och analysera förskolepersonals utsagor med fokus på de delar som rör barn som på olika vis konstrueras och kategoriseras som i behov av särskilt stöd inom diskursen om det pressade läget. Tre huvudfrågor ligger till grund för analysen: Vilka uttryck om barn som konstrueras som i behov av särskilt stöd blir framträdande inom diskursen om det pressade läget? Hur framställs och positioneras barn som subjekt i kategorin behov av särskilt stöd inom diskursen om det pressade läget? Hur framställs och positioneras förskolepersonal som subjekt i relation till de konstruktioner av barn i behov av särskilt stöd som blir framträdande inom diskursen om det pressade läget? Kvalitativ tematisk innehållsanalys med teoretiskt stöd av Butler och Foucault användes. Granskningen visar att uttryck relaterade till barn i behov av särskilt stöd som diskursiv kategori är återkommande. Bilden av framförallt två kategorier av barn i behov av särskilt stöd blir framträdande på ett mer frekvent vis, eller med Butlers (1993/2014, 2005) uttryck om upprepade talhandlingar som skapar en sorts sanningsanspråk (jfr Foucault, 1971/1993, 1980): barn som kräver (mer) resurser och barn som behöver punktmarkeras. Positioneringar av barnen görs, med effekter att barnen blir till resurs- och tidstjuvar, riskskapare, energi-släckare, glädjedödare och förskolepersonalen i sin tur de empatiska, otillräckliga, stressade, slutkörda, ledsna och sjuka subjekten. 

Abstract [en]

When children become a burden and a problem in preschool: Concerning the needs for special support and resources in a critical situation 

This study is based on 1600 stories published on the website www.forskoleeupproret.weebly.com. Research results, status reports, and quality evaluations have contributed to the image of Swedish preschool being faced with difficult challenges, even though in some respects it is highly ranked in international measurements (OECD, 2017). There is a shortage of preschool teachers. One of the development areas that the National Agency for Education (2017) has identified relates to creating a preschool that meets all children and upholds their right to support and challenges. Preschool personnel have contributed to the image of the current critical situation. During 2018 and 2019, several demonstrations were held in different parts of the country agitating for a better working environment for preschool employees. These demonstrations were part of the so-called Preschool Uprising (Förskoleupproret), and stories of situations and experiences of everyday life in preschool were brought together and published under the hashtag #pressed_mode (Swedish, #pressat_läge). The Preschool Uprising is a non-profit organization that was founded in 2013 in connection with a continuing education initiative. According to its own information, the group consists of preschool educators “who are fighting for better conditions in preschool” (www.forskoleeupproret.weebly.com). In the stories submitted to the Preschool Uprising website, two aspects are of interest: the issue of resources and the constructions of children in need of special support. The aim of this study is limited to identifying and analysing the written statements of preschool personnel published at www.forskoleeupproret.weebly.com under #pressat_läge, with a focus on the multiple constructions and categorizations of children in need of special support within the discourse on the critical situation. Three main questions form the basis of the analysis:

- What expressions about children constructed as in need of special support have become prominent in the discourse on the critical situation?

- How are children portrayed and positioned as subjects in the category “need special support” within the discourse on the critical situation?

- How are preschool staff portrayed and positioned as subjects in relation to the constructions of children in need of special support that have become prominent in the discourse on the critical situation?

A qualitative thematic content analysis was conducted with the theoretical support of Judith Butler’s and Michel Foucault’s work. Overall, the analysis shows that the construction of children in need of special support is consolidated as a recurring category in stories in which various expressions for and about children are emphasized. The results indicate that, in the category of children in need of special support, children who are subjectified as “more resource demanding”, who “act out”, and who need to be “chaperoned” stand out as the main categories in the discourse on the critical situation. Various subject positionings are created, where the effects of discursive power cause some children to become resource and time thieves, risk creators, energy extinguishers, or killjoys, and the preschool personnel in turn become empathetic, inadequate, stressed, exhausted, and sad subjects. Some children are singled out, and in the long run are also made part of a situation involving a lack of well-being, care, security, development, and learning in the discourse on the critical situation in Swedish preschool. The published stories, open for anyone to read, create a kind of truth (Foucault, 1971/1993, 1980) about “certain” children in Swedish preschool. These children are, by extension and in relation to the perceived lack of resources, made into a burden and a problem in the critical situation.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linnaeus University Press, 2021. Vol. 26, no 4, p. 7-29
Keywords [en]
Categorizations of children in need of special support in preschool, discursive subject positionings, iterative performative speech acts, subjectivating/subjectifying truth claims, resources
Keywords [sv]
Kategoriseringar av barn i behov av särskilt stöd, diskursiva subjektspositioner, iterativa performativa talakter, subjektiverande/subjektifierande sanningsanspråk, resurser
National Category
Pedagogy
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:mau:diva-46932DOI: 10.15626/pfs26.04.01OAI: oai:DiVA.org:mau-46932DiVA, id: diva2:1614014
Available from: 2021-11-24 Created: 2021-11-24 Last updated: 2021-12-27Bibliographically approved

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