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For Whom Does Hate Crime Hurt More? A Comparison of Consequences of Victimization Across Motives and Crime Types
Malmö University, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Criminology (KR).ORCID iD: 0000-0001-5375-0065
Malmö University, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Criminology (KR).ORCID iD: 0000-0003-3124-8204
Malmö University, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Criminology (KR).ORCID iD: 0000-0001-7749-9549
2021 (English)In: Journal of Interpersonal Violence, ISSN 0886-2605, E-ISSN 1552-6518, Vol. 36, no 3-4, p. NP1512-1536NPArticle in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Hate crimes have been found to have more severe consequences than other parallel crimes that were not motivated by the offenders’ hostility toward someone because of their real or perceived difference. Many countries today have hate crime laws that make it possible to increase the penalties for such crimes. The main critique against hate crime laws is that they punish thoughts. Instead, proponents of hate crime laws argue that sentence enhancement is justified because hate crimes cause greater harm. This study compares consequences of victimization across groups of victims to test for whom hate crimes hurt more. We analyzed data that were collected through questionnaires distributed to almost 3,000 students at Malmö University, Sweden, during 2013. The survey focused on students’ exposure to, and experiences of, hate crime. A series of separate logistic regression analyses were performed, which analyzed the likelihood for reporting consequences following a crime depending on crime type, perceived motive, repeat victimization, gender, and age. Analyzed as one victim group, victims of hate crime more often reported any of the consequences following a crime compared with victims of parallel non–hate-motivated crimes. And, overall victims of threat more often reported consequences compared with victims of sexual harassment and minor assault. However, all hate crime victim groups did not report more consequences than the non–hate crime victim group. The results provide grounds for questioning that hate crimes hurt the individual victim more. It seems that hate crimes do not hurt all more but hate crimes hurt some victims of some crimes more in some ways.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Sage Publications, 2021. Vol. 36, no 3-4, p. NP1512-1536NP
Keywords [en]
hate crime, victimization, Sweden, consequences
National Category
Law and Society
Research subject
Criminology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:mau:diva-15034DOI: 10.1177/0886260517746131ISI: 000620257300041PubMedID: 29295032Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-85042603226Local ID: 24168OAI: oai:DiVA.org:mau-15034DiVA, id: diva2:1418555
Available from: 2020-03-30 Created: 2020-03-30 Last updated: 2024-04-04Bibliographically approved

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Mellgren, CarolineAndersson, MikaIvert, Anna-Karin

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