Publikationer från Malmö universitet
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Patterns and procedural content generation in digital games: automatic level generation for digital games using game design patterns
Malmö högskola, Fakulteten för teknik och samhälle (TS).ORCID-id: 0000-0002-2644-2785
2016 (Engelska)Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
Abstract [en]

The development of content in digital games, such as game worlds, quests, levels, 3D-models, and textures, is costly and time consuming. To address this, different approaches to automate the process of creating game content, often referred to as procedural content generation (PCG), has been suggested. However, PCG is a complex task and include challenges such as creating content with variation, coherent style, speed, and correctness. The research in the thesis is concerned with generating game content with the aid of game design patterns, both by establishing models and exploring different methods to generate actual game content for different games. The methods include implementations of evolutionary computation, i.e. a set of search-based approaches that searches for instances of game design patterns on different abstraction levels that make up Super Mario Bros. (SMB) levels and a learning algorithm implementation based on a model (n-grams) of patterns from the original SMB-game. The different generators were evaluated with metrics concerned with the expressive range of the generators and with user tests.

Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
Malmö university, Faculty of Technology and Society , 2016. , s. 269
Serie
Studies in Computer Science ; 2
Nyckelord [en]
Procedural Content Generation, Search-based, Genetic Algorithms, Digital Games, Design Patterns
Nationell ämneskategori
Teknik och teknologier
Identifikatorer
URN: urn:nbn:se:mau:diva-7775Lokalt ID: 20371ISBN: 978-91-7104-684-0 (tryckt)ISBN: 978-91-7104-685-7 (tryckt)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:mau-7775DiVA, id: diva2:1404716
Disputation
2016-06-10, Niagara, NI:B0E15, Malmö, 13:00 (Engelska)
Opponent
Tillgänglig från: 2020-02-28 Skapad: 2020-02-28 Senast uppdaterad: 2022-06-27Bibliografiskt granskad
Delarbeten
1. Patterns and procedural content generation: revisiting Mario in world 1 level 1
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Patterns and procedural content generation: revisiting Mario in world 1 level 1
2012 (Engelska)Ingår i: Proceedings of the First Workshop on Design Patterns in Games, ACM Digital Library, 2012Konferensbidrag, Publicerat paper (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
Abstract [en]

Procedural content generation and design patterns could potentially be combined in several di erent ways in game design. This paper discusses how to combine the two, using automatic platform game level design as an example. The paper also present work towards a pattern-based level generator for Super Mario Bros, namely an analysis of the levels of the original Super Mario Bros game into 23 di erent patterns.

Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
ACM Digital Library, 2012
Nyckelord
procedural content generation, patterns, design, platform games, Super Mario Bros.
Nationell ämneskategori
Teknik och teknologier
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:mau:diva-16843 (URN)10.1145/2427116.2427117 (DOI)2-s2.0-84873398573 (Scopus ID)13931 (Lokalt ID)13931 (Arkivnummer)13931 (OAI)
Konferens
Design Patterns in Games (DPG), North Carolina, USA (2012)
Tillgänglig från: 2020-03-30 Skapad: 2020-03-30 Senast uppdaterad: 2024-02-05Bibliografiskt granskad
2. Patterns as Objectives for Level Generation
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Patterns as Objectives for Level Generation
2013 (Engelska)Ingår i: Proceedings of the Second Workshop on Design Patterns in Games, ACM Digital Library, 2013Konferensbidrag, Publicerat paper (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
Abstract [en]

This paper discusses how to use design patterns in procedural level generation, with particular reference to the classic console game Super Mario Bros. In a previous paper, we analyzed the levels in this game to nd a set of recurring level design patterns, and discussed an implementation where levels were produced from concatenation of these patterns. In this paper, we instead propose using patterns as design objectives. An implementation of this based on evolutionary computation is presented. In this implementation, levels are represented as a set of vertical slices from the original game, and the tness function count the number of patterns found. Qualitative analysis of generated levels is performed in order to identify strengths and challenges of this method.

Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
ACM Digital Library, 2013
Nyckelord
Game Design Patterns, Procedural Content Generation, Super Mario Bros., Genetic Algorithms
Nationell ämneskategori
Teknik och teknologier
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:mau:diva-16753 (URN)15713 (Lokalt ID)15713 (Arkivnummer)15713 (OAI)
Konferens
Design Patterns in Games (DPG), Chania, Crete, Greece (2013)
Tillgänglig från: 2020-03-30 Skapad: 2020-03-30 Senast uppdaterad: 2022-06-27Bibliografiskt granskad
3. Procedural Content Generation Using Patterns as Objectives
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Procedural Content Generation Using Patterns as Objectives
2014 (Engelska)Ingår i: APPLICATIONS OF EVOLUTIONARY COMPUTATION / [ed] Esparcia Alcazar, A I, Springer, 2014, s. 325-336Konferensbidrag, Publicerat paper (Refereegranskat)
Abstract [en]

In this paper we present a search-based approach for procedural generation of game levels that represents levels as sequences of micro-patterns and searched for meso-patterns. The micro-patterns are "slices" of original human-designed levels from an existing game, whereas the meso-patters are abstractions of common design patterns seen in the same levels. This method generates levels that are similar in style to the levels from which the original patterns were extracted, while still allowing for considerable variation in the geometry of the generated levels. The evolutionary method for generating the levels was tested extensively to investigate the distribution of micro-patterns used and meso-patterns found.

Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
Springer, 2014
Serie
Lecture Notes in Computer Science, ISSN 0302-9743 ; 8602
Nationell ämneskategori
Datavetenskap (datalogi)
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:mau:diva-39304 (URN)10.1007/978-3-662-45523-4_27 (DOI)000354874300027 ()978-3-662-45523-4 (ISBN)978-3-662-45522-7 (ISBN)
Konferens
17th European Conference on Applications of Evolutionary Computation (EvpApplications), APR 23-25, 2014, Granada, SPAIN
Tillgänglig från: 2021-01-18 Skapad: 2021-01-18 Senast uppdaterad: 2021-06-07Bibliografiskt granskad
4. A multi-level level generator
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>A multi-level level generator
2014 (Engelska)Konferensbidrag, Publicerat paper (Refereegranskat)
Abstract [en]

Generating content at multiple levels of abstraction simultaneously is an open challenge in procedural content generation. Representing and automatically replicating the style of a human designer is another. This paper addresses both of these challenges through extending a previously devised methodology for pattern-based level generation. This method builds on an analysis of Super Mario Bros levels into three abstraction levels: micro-, meso- and macro-patterns. Micro-patterns are then used as building blocks in a search-based PCG approach that searches for macro-patterns, which are defined as combinations of meso-patterns. Results show that we can successfully generate levels that replicate the macro-patterns of selected input levels, and we argue that this constitutes an approach to automatically analysing and replicating style in level design.

Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
IEEE, 2014
Nyckelord
Procedural Content Generation, Super Mario Bros., Level Generation, Digital Games
Nationell ämneskategori
Teknik och teknologier
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:mau:diva-16768 (URN)17650 (Lokalt ID)17650 (Arkivnummer)17650 (OAI)
Konferens
IEEE Conference on Computational Intelligence and Games, Dortmund, Germany (2014)
Tillgänglig från: 2020-03-30 Skapad: 2020-03-30 Senast uppdaterad: 2022-06-27Bibliografiskt granskad
5. A Comparative Evaluation of Procedural Level Generators in the Mario AI Framework
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>A Comparative Evaluation of Procedural Level Generators in the Mario AI Framework
Visa övriga...
2014 (Engelska)Konferensbidrag, Publicerat paper (Refereegranskat)
Abstract [en]

Evaluation is an open problem in procedural content generation research. The eld is now in a state where there is a glut of content generators, each serving di erent purposes and using a variety of techniques. It is difficult to understand, quantitatively or qualitatively, what makes one generator di erent from another in terms of its output. To remedy this, we have conducted a large-scale comparative evaluation of level generators for the Mario AI Benchmark, a research-friendly clone of the classic platform game Super Mario Bros. In all, we compare the output of seven different level generators from the literature, based on different algorithmic methods, plus the levels from the original Super Mario Bros game. To compare them, we have de ned six expressivity metrics, of which two are novel contributions in this paper. These metrics are shown to provide interestingly di erent characterizations of the level generators. The results presented in this paper, and the accompanying source code, is meant to become a benchmark against which to test new level generators and expressivity metrics.

Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
Society for the Advancement of the Science of Digital Games, 2014
Nyckelord
Procedural Content Generation, Level Generators
Nationell ämneskategori
Teknik och teknologier
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:mau:diva-16786 (URN)17062 (Lokalt ID)17062 (Arkivnummer)17062 (OAI)
Konferens
Foundations of Digital Games 2014, Ft. Lauderdale, Florida, USA (2014)
Tillgänglig från: 2020-03-30 Skapad: 2020-03-30 Senast uppdaterad: 2022-06-27Bibliografiskt granskad
6. Linear Levels Through n-grams
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Linear Levels Through n-grams
2014 (Engelska)Konferensbidrag, Publicerat paper (Refereegranskat)
Abstract [en]

We shown that novel, linear game levels can be created using n- grams that have been trained on a corpus of existing levels. The method is fast and simple, and produces levels that are recognisably in the same style as those in the corpus that it has been trained on. We use Super Mario Bros. as an example domain, and use a selection of the levels from the original game as a training corpus. We treat Mario levels as a left-to-right sequence of vertical level slices, allowing us to perform level generation in a setting with some formal similarities to n-gram-based text generation and music generation. In empirical results, we investigate the effects of corpus size and n (sequence length). While the applicability of the method might seem limited to the relatively narrow domain of 2D games, we argue that many games in effect have linear levels and n-grams could be used to good effect, given that a suitable alphabet can be found.

Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
ACM Digital Library, 2014
Nyckelord
Procedural content generation, n-grams, videogames
Nationell ämneskategori
Teknik och teknologier
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:mau:diva-16744 (URN)18048 (Lokalt ID)18048 (Arkivnummer)18048 (OAI)
Konferens
Academic MindTrek Conference, Tampere, Finland (2014)
Tillgänglig från: 2020-03-30 Skapad: 2020-03-30 Senast uppdaterad: 2022-06-27Bibliografiskt granskad
7. Patterns, Dungeons and Generators
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Patterns, Dungeons and Generators
2015 (Engelska)Konferensbidrag, Publicerat paper (Refereegranskat)
Abstract [en]

This paper analyses dungeons, of the varieties commonly found in role-playing games, into several sets of design patterns at different levels of abstraction. The analysis focuses on mechanical patterns that could be either straightforwardly instantiated or recognized by a well-defined process. At the most concrete level a set of fundamental components were identified, followed by a long list of micropatterns which can be directly instantiated. Shorter lists of meso- and macro-patterns, which can be identified mechanically, are also identified. The direct motivation for this analysis is to find building blocks and objectives for a search-based procedural dungeon generator, however we believe the analysis can be useful for understanding this class of game artifacts in general. In particular, the constraints on patterns being instantiable or recognizable leads to a stricter pattern analysis than many other attempts at analyzing game design.

Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
Foundations of Digital Games, 2015
Nyckelord
design patterns, dungeons, Procedural content generation
Nationell ämneskategori
Teknik och teknologier
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:mau:diva-16749 (URN)19162 (Lokalt ID)19162 (Arkivnummer)19162 (OAI)
Konferens
Foundations of Digital Games Conference, FDG, Pacific Grove, U.S.A. (2015)
Tillgänglig från: 2020-03-30 Skapad: 2020-03-30 Senast uppdaterad: 2022-06-27Bibliografiskt granskad
8. Player Experience Evaluation of Level Generators in the Mario AI Framework
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Player Experience Evaluation of Level Generators in the Mario AI Framework
2016 (Engelska)Manuskript (preprint) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
Nationell ämneskategori
Datavetenskap (datalogi)
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:mau:diva-18164 (URN)
Tillgänglig från: 2020-09-02 Skapad: 2020-09-02 Senast uppdaterad: 2022-06-27Bibliografiskt granskad

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