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Information Technology and Interaction in Learning
Malmö högskola, Faculty of Odontology (OD).ORCID iD: 0000-0001-7358-7496
2004 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Learning is an interactive process between the learner and thesurrounding structures, the so-called learning environment. Several typesof instructional interaction - such as the learner-tutor, the learner-learner, the learner-content, and recently, the learner-interface interactions - have been identified in higher education. The design execution of these interactions may significantly influence the learning impact of an academic educational session. Information and communication technology (ICT), and especially the Internet, has affected learning in many ways, but most significantly through introducing new possibilities for instructional interaction. The overriding aim of this thesis has been to elucidate the relative role of certain types of interaction between the learner and his or her environment in academic oral health education. In this thesis, ICT is studied in two distinct roles: as a mediator of communication?that is, as the mediator in learner-instructor and learner-learner interaction?and as a partner in interaction through the educational interface?the so-called learner-interface interaction (human?computer interaction). ICT as a mediator of communication was studied during two Internet-based problem-based learning (PBL) courses and one Internet-based examination of undergraduate students. The potential of ICT as a partner in interaction through the educational interface was investigated through an interactive software application, which aimed to improve the self-assessment ability of students. The results of these studies suggest that computer-mediated interaction (CMI) has an important role to play in higher education, can facilitate complex instructional methodologies such as PBL, and can effectively supplement and enhance face-to-face instruction. However, CMI presented several methodological differences when compared with face-to-face interaction, in terms of both quality as well as quantity of interaction. CMI was received less positively than face-to-face interaction by the students, when used in examination settings. In addition, it remains unclear if computer applications are able to constitute an effective, short-term, remedial support for the improvement of complex cognitive skills in students?such as self-assessment skills?without human feedback. At the basis of these findings and currently available technology, the most beneficial scenario from an educational point of view would include both computer-mediated and face-to-face interaction, with a considerable degree of user-determined flexibility. Future studies should focus on the roles of the various factors that affect learning through the process of interaction.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Department of Periodontology Centre for Oral Health Sciences , 2004. , p. 37
Keywords [en]
Computer-assisted instructions, Datorstödd undervisning, Distance Learning, Tandläkarutbildning, User-computer interface, Human-Computer interaction, Problem-based learning, Computer communication networks
National Category
Dentistry
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:mau:diva-7680Local ID: 953ISBN: 91-628-5980-3 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:mau-7680DiVA, id: diva2:1404620
Available from: 2020-02-28 Created: 2020-02-28 Last updated: 2022-06-27Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Distance learning in academic health education
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Distance learning in academic health education
2001 (English)In: European journal of dental education, ISSN 1396-5883, E-ISSN 1600-0579, Vol. 5, no 2, p. 67-76Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Distance learning is an apparent alternative to traditional methods in education of health care professionals. Non-interactive distance learning, interactive courses and virtual learning environments exist as three different generations in distance learning, each with unique methodologies, strengths and potential. Different methodologies have been recommended for distance learning, varying from a didactic approach to a problem-based learning procedure. Accreditation, teamwork and personal contact between the tutors and the students during a course provided by distance learning are recommended as motivating factors in order to enhance the effectiveness of the learning. Numerous assessment methods for distance learning courses have been proposed. However, few studies report adequate tests for the effectiveness of the distance-learning environment. Available information indicates that distance learning may significantly decrease the cost of academic health education at all levels. Furthermore, such courses can provide education to students and professionals not accessible by traditional methods. Distance learning applications still lack the support of a solid theoretical framework and are only evaluated to a limited extent. Cases reported so far tend to present enthusiastic results, while more carefully-controlled studies suggest a cautious attitude towards distance learning. There is a vital need for research evidence to identify the factors of importance and variables involved in distance learning. The effectiveness of distance learning courses, especially in relation to traditional teaching methods, must therefore be further investigated.

National Category
Pedagogy
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mau:diva-44697 (URN)10.1034/j.1600-0579.2001.005002067.x (DOI)11683217 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-0035349569 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2021-07-09 Created: 2021-07-09 Last updated: 2024-02-05Bibliographically approved
2. The Interactive Examination: Assessing Students' Self-Assessment Ability
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The Interactive Examination: Assessing Students' Self-Assessment Ability
2004 (English)In: Medical Education, ISSN 0308-0110, E-ISSN 1365-2923, Vol. 38, no 4, p. 378-389Article in journal (Other academic) Published
Abstract [en]

BACKGROUND: The ability to self-assess one's competence is a crucial skill for all health professionals. The interactive examination is an assessment model aiming to evaluate not only students' clinical skills and competence, but also their ability to self-assess their proficiency. METHODS: The methodology utilised students' own self-assessment, an answer to a written essay question and a group discussion. Students' self-assessment was matched to the judgement of their instructors. As a final task, students compared their own essay to one written by an "expert". The differences pointed by students in their comparison documents and the accompanying arguments were analysed and categorised. Students received individual feedback on their performance and learning needs. The model was tested on 1 cohort of undergraduate dental students (year 2001, n = 52) in their third semester of studies, replacing an older form of examination in the discipline of clinical periodontology. RESULTS: Students' acceptance of the methodology was very positive. Students tended to overestimate their competence in relation to the judgement of their instructors in diagnostic skills, but not in skills relevant to treatment. No gender differences were observed, although females performed better than males in the examination. Three categories of differences were observed in the students' comparison documents. The accompanying arguments may reveal students' understanding and methods of prioritising. CONCLUSIONS: Students tended to overestimate their competence in diagnostic rather than treatment skills. The interactive examination appeared to be a convenient tool for providing deeper insight into students' ability to prioritise, self-assess and steer their own learning.

National Category
Dentistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mau:diva-15703 (URN)10.1046/j.1365-2923.2004.01788.x (DOI)000220272400007 ()15025639 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-1842784967 (Scopus ID)3083 (Local ID)3083 (Archive number)3083 (OAI)
Available from: 2020-03-30 Created: 2020-03-30 Last updated: 2024-02-05Bibliographically approved
3. A virtual classroom for undergraduate periodontology: a pilot study
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A virtual classroom for undergraduate periodontology: a pilot study
2001 (English)In: European journal of dental education, ISSN 1396-5883, E-ISSN 1600-0579, Vol. 5, no 4, p. 139-47Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The Integrated Distributed Learning Environments or virtual classrooms constitute a new promising structure in education of health care personnel. A virtual classroom was developed aiming to teach periodontology to an international group of 28 dental students using a problem-based learning (PBL) approach. The course was web-based and included synchronous and asynchronous communication, on-line libraries and multimedia material. Students were organised in 4 independent groups and each group was appointed a tutor. The results of the study indicate that one of the most positive effects students experienced was competence in using the computer. They also rated highly the use of multimedia for learning of clinical procedures. It was found that web boards and email were too slow to allow group work in the virtual classroom. Real time communication programs were found to be superior for problem discussion and hypothesis formulation. However, email and the web board played a significant role during certain steps of the PBL method. The students expressed a positive attitude for the combined use of network-based learning and problem-based education. Our present experience suggests that distance learning should be organised with a mixture of different media, allowing communication of knowledge and skills between the resources and the students, as well as cooperation between the students. Computer literacy among teachers and students is limited and should be enhanced. Finally, personal contact between the resource persons and the students before the distant learning course commences helps the learning process.

National Category
Dentistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mau:diva-44699 (URN)10.1034/j.1600-0579.2001.50401.x (DOI)11683890 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-0035511859 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2021-07-09 Created: 2021-07-09 Last updated: 2024-02-05Bibliographically approved
4. Interaction in Virtual Versus Traditional Problem-Based Learning Classrooms: A Pilot Study in Education for Health Professionals
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Interaction in Virtual Versus Traditional Problem-Based Learning Classrooms: A Pilot Study in Education for Health Professionals
2001 (English)In: Distance Education in the Health Sciences. Readings in Distance Education, Number 8. / [ed] Moore, Michael G.; Savrock, Joseph T., American Center for the Study of Distance Education , 2001, p. 85-97Chapter in book (Refereed)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
American Center for the Study of Distance Education, 2001
National Category
Pedagogy
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mau:diva-44701 (URN)1-877780-25-1 (ISBN)
Available from: 2021-07-09 Created: 2021-07-09 Last updated: 2022-06-27Bibliographically approved
5. The Effects of an Interactive Software Application on The Self-Assessment Ability of Dental Students
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The Effects of an Interactive Software Application on The Self-Assessment Ability of Dental Students
Show others...
2004 (English)In: European journal of dental education, ISSN 1396-5883, E-ISSN 1600-0579, Vol. 8, no 3, p. 97-104Article in journal (Other academic) Published
Abstract [en]

A randomised controlled trial was designed to test an Internet-based interactive application as a stand-alone support for the development of self-assessment skills among second-year dental students at the Faculty of Dentistry, University of Malmo, Sweden. Fifty-two students were randomised into an experimental (n = 26) and a control group (n = 26). Both groups went through four identical learning cases in elementary clinical Periodontology during a period of 1 month. The experimental group received the cases with the interactive software, while the control group received them through a static web page. After the end of the learning phase, both groups were assessed blindly by two assessors during the interactive examination methodology. There was a moderate agreement between the two assessors, but both failed to find any significant differences between the two groups with regard to self-assessment skills and overall performance of the students. Students positively received the Internet support, but several attitude differences were observed between the two groups during the study. Time on task and competence with computers were positively correlated to assessment results for both groups. On the basis of these findings, it remains unclear if computer-based applications with automated feedback can constitute an effective remedial support for the improvement of self-assessment skills of students. In addition, for such applications to be successfully accepted, two factors are critical: students must have a clear perception of the benefits deriving from the use of the software and the use of the software should be integrated in the curriculum, replacing some of the existing workload.

Keywords
examination, self-assessment, interactive, Internet-based software, undergraduate dental education
National Category
Dentistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mau:diva-15605 (URN)10.1111/j.1600-0579.2004.00325.x (DOI)3068 (Local ID)3068 (Archive number)3068 (OAI)
Available from: 2020-03-30 Created: 2020-03-30 Last updated: 2022-09-05Bibliographically approved

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