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Hate crime victimization: consequences and interpretations
Malmö University, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Criminology (KR).ORCID iD: 0000-0003-3124-8204
2018 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The field of hate crime studies is a young one and as such it is characterized by a high proportion of explorative and inductive studies. This methodological approach is well founded when a field is unfolding as they often generate theoretical conclusions or assumptions. Since I began working with the present dissertation in 2013, I have observed an increased tendency towards deductive studies testing the conclusions and assumptions made by field pioneers. The present dissertation is part of this branch and has two primary aims; 1) to test field assumptions and 2) develop present theoretical frameworks on causes and consequences of hate crime.In Article 1, me and my co-author examine the assumption that hate crime victimization result in higher levels of fear in comparison to non-bias crime. The assumption is tested by comparing fear of crime, behavioral adaptations and place-based worry among students with an immigrant and/or national minority background. The results show that hate crime victims reported significantly higher levels of fear of crime in comparison to non-victims and non-bias victims. However, there were few significant differences in behavioral adaptations and place-based worry. From interviews with hate crime victims we learned that place-based worry is not primarily associated with the physical characteristics of a certain area, but geographical concentrations of racist attitudes. Moreover, the behavioral adaptations that the interview participants used to avoid future victimization were often based upon de-identification. From these results we can conclude that traditional measures of place-based worry and behavioral adaptations does not adequately capture consequences of hate crime.In Article 2, me and my co-authors examine the assumption that police reporting is lower among victims of hate crime that target more than one of their identity categories. Contrarily to the assumption, we find that victims of hate crime with multiple motives report their experiences to the police to a higher extent in comparison to victims of hate crime with single motives. We also found that participants with several intersecting group identities endowed with stigma were more likely to be targets of hate crime with multiple motives, but not more likely to experience repeat victimization. These results support the branch of intersectional theory holding that group belongings primarily influence the expressions of violence rather than the risk of being subjected to violence.In Article 3, me and my co-authors examine the assumption that hate targets the identity of the victim and thereby attack the core of the victim’s self. We found that hate crime targets a negative stereotype associated with the perceived identity of the victim. Consequently, interview participants did not regard hate crime as a direct attack on their selves as they did not identify with the negative stereotype. However, hate crime remain a violation of the self as it denies the victims self-representation. The results also showed that the meaning-making regarding hate crime victimization is reflexive as the participants used earlier experiences when assigning meaning to incidents. This process was also recursive as new incidents lead to re-interpretations of previous experiences. In sum, the participants developed and negotiated their experiences of hate crime over time.In Article 4, me and my co-authors examine the assumption that vicarious victims respond in similar ways as direct victims since hate crime signal the presence of threat beyond the initial victim, sometimes referred to as the in terrorem effect. We examine the in terrorem effect by comparing fear of crime between non-victims, vicarious victims of hate crime, and direct victims of hate crime in three communities; women, Muslims and sexual minorities. The results showed that direct victims were generally more afraid of crime in comparison to non-victims in all communities. Though not all differences were significant, the reaction pattern among non-victims, vicarious victims and direct victims in the studies commu-nities showed the pattern of a stair, with the lowest rates among non-victims and the highest rates among direct victims. These results thereby contradict the proposed pattern of the in terrorem effect in which vicarious victims and direct victims are held to react in similar ways.In sum, the results of the present dissertation call for a more complex understanding of both individual and community effects of hate crime. The theoretical development and integration in Chapter 3 along with the results of Articles 1-4 results in hypotheses for future research on causes and consequences of hate crime in Chapter 6.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Malmö universitet, 2018. , p. 75
Series
Malmö University Health and Society Dissertations, ISSN 1653-5383 ; 2018:5
Keywords [en]
Hate crime, Criminology, Victimology
National Category
Social Sciences
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:mau:diva-7354DOI: 10.24834/2043/24837Local ID: 24837ISBN: 9789171049179 (print)ISBN: 9789171049162 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:mau-7354DiVA, id: diva2:1404269
Available from: 2020-02-28 Created: 2020-02-28 Last updated: 2024-01-11Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Consequences of bias-motivated victimization among Swedish university students with an immigrant or minority background
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Consequences of bias-motivated victimization among Swedish university students with an immigrant or minority background
2016 (English)In: The Irish Journal of Sociology, ISSN 0791-6035, E-ISSN 2050-5280, Vol. 24, no 2, p. 226-250Article in journal (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The present article examines the impact of racist and xenophobic victimisation among students with a minority and/or immigrant background in a Swedish context. We examine if racist and/or xenophobic victimisation result in 1) behavioral strategies applied to reduce victimisation risk, 2) a heightened level of fear and 3) if the motive in itself has an independent effect on the level of fear among victims. The study design combines survey data with interviews. The findings suggest that experiences of racist and/or xenophobic victimisation lead to higher levels of fear and that the motive in itself influences this relationship independently. We also found that certain behavioural strategies are developed in order to avoid victimisation.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Manchester University Press, 2016
Keywords
racism, xenophobia, bias crime, student, victim
National Category
Social Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mau:diva-14708 (URN)10.7227/IJS.0014 (DOI)2-s2.0-85007396911 (Scopus ID)19905 (Local ID)19905 (Archive number)19905 (OAI)
Available from: 2020-03-30 Created: 2020-03-30 Last updated: 2024-02-05Bibliographically approved
2. When there is more than one motive: A study on self-reported hate crime victimization among Swedish university students
Open this publication in new window or tab >>When there is more than one motive: A study on self-reported hate crime victimization among Swedish university students
2017 (English)In: International Review of Victimology, ISSN 0269-7580, E-ISSN 2047-9433, Vol. 24, no 1, p. 67-81Article in journal (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The present study examines experiences of hate crimes with multiple motives with a focus on policy and theory-related issues. The authors found that every fifth hate crime victim reports having experiences of multiple motives. These victims are more likely to report their victimization to the police in comparison to victims of hate crimes with single motives. The results also show that belonging to several socially vulnerable groups does not correlate with higher levels of repeat victimization. This is in contrast with intersectional theory as it would predict heightened levels of victimization among such individuals. Lastly, the results show that individuals who belong to more than one socially vulnerable group are more likely to experience hate crimes with multiple motives. Implications for policy and intersectional theory are discussed.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Sage Publications, 2017
Keywords
Hate crime
National Category
Social Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mau:diva-15188 (URN)10.1177/0269758017736393 (DOI)000426565500004 ()2-s2.0-85036655478 (Scopus ID)23672 (Local ID)23672 (Archive number)23672 (OAI)
Available from: 2020-03-30 Created: 2020-03-30 Last updated: 2024-02-05Bibliographically approved
3. How victims conceptualize their experiences of hate crime
Open this publication in new window or tab >>How victims conceptualize their experiences of hate crime
2018 (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The aim of the study is to provide thevictims’perspective to the contemporary conceptualization of hate crime.Much attention has been given to the interpretational frameworks of offenders, and although victims’ definitions of hate crime are sometimes mentioned in passing in interview studies, this has never been a primary subject of study.The present study applies phenomenological analysisto 28semi-structured interviews with victims of hate crime. The results show that the participants primarily apply meaning to their experiences in social groups and use previous experiences to guide their interpretations. While the conceptualization of victims largely concurs withtheory presented by the research community and special interest organizations, they diverge from how hate crime is contextualized in hate crime legislation.

Keywords
hate crime, victimization, victim perspective, phenomenology
National Category
Law and Society
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mau:diva-17667 (URN)10.31235/osf.io/53ysc (DOI)
Available from: 2020-07-03 Created: 2020-07-03 Last updated: 2023-07-05Bibliographically approved
4. Does having friends with experiences of hate crime increase fear among women, sexual minorities, and Muslims?
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Does having friends with experiences of hate crime increase fear among women, sexual minorities, and Muslims?
2018 (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
National Category
Law and Society
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mau:diva-17670 (URN)
Available from: 2020-07-03 Created: 2020-07-03 Last updated: 2021-04-22Bibliographically approved

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