Malmö University Publications
Change search
CiteExportLink to record
Permanent link

Direct link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf
Kvinnor som injicerar heroin respektive amfetamin: skillnader i social situation, erfarenhet av behandling och önskemål om hjälp
Malmö högskola, Faculty of Health and Society (HS).ORCID iD: 0000-0003-0653-0849
Malmö högskola, Faculty of Health and Society (HS).
Malmö högskola, Faculty of Health and Society (HS).ORCID iD: 0000-0002-4580-7807
2011 (Swedish)In: Socialvetenskaplig tidskrift, ISSN 1104-1420, E-ISSN 2003-5624, Vol. 18, no 2, p. 144-164Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Women Who Inject Heroin or Amphetamines - Differences in Life Situation, History of Treatment and Request for Help

The purpose of the present paper is to investigate differences between women who inject heroin and women who inject amphetamines, particularly as regards their life situation, treatment history and current request for help. The results are based on standardized interviews with 188 women at the needle exchange program in Malmö. A larger proportion of amphetamine users had stable housing combined with exclusively legal/formal sources of incomes (wage labour, pension, social benefits), whereas a larger proportion of heroin users had unstable housing combined with illegal/informal sources of income (prostitution, dealing, theft). This implicates that amphetamine users, in general, are more socially included whereas heroin users are more marginalized. Women with heroin as their principal drug reported to a higher extent, experiences of all types of treatment, lifetime history of treatment, treatment at several different occasions and contact with the social services and outreach groups during the last year. Several factors where significantly related to a request for help, whereas heroin as principal drug was the single factor showing a significant relation to request for help in a multivariate logistic regression equation. The differences between the two groups as regards their history of treatment and present requests for help may have several explanations. One probable explanation has to do with different levels of abuse and dependence in the two groups, where heroin users, due to a higher level of dependence, have a greater demand for care and treatment. A second explanation concerns differences in treatment supplies available for the two groups. To this day there is no evidence-based treatment for amphetamine abuse. Treatment options for heroin abuse, on the other hand, are well documented and well recognized and heroin users are a prioritized group for interventions within the Swedish care system.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Förbundet för forskning i socialt arbete (FORSA) , 2011. Vol. 18, no 2, p. 144-164
Keywords [sv]
Injektionsmissbruk, Kvinnor, Heroin, Amfetamin, Behandling, Önskemål om hjälp, prostitution, Försörjning, Sprutbyte, SUSA
National Category
Social Work
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:mau:diva-3958DOI: 10.3384/SVT.2011.18.2.2468Local ID: 12570OAI: oai:DiVA.org:mau-3958DiVA, id: diva2:1400782
Available from: 2020-02-28 Created: 2020-02-28 Last updated: 2024-04-30Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Överdoser, försörjningsstrategier och riskhantering: livsvillkor för personer som injicerar narkotika
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Överdoser, försörjningsstrategier och riskhantering: livsvillkor för personer som injicerar narkotika
2014 (Swedish)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

People who inject illegal drugs constitute a vulnerable group in society. Their vulnerability can partly be explained by the negative consequences of the drug use itself and the particular risks associated with injecting, but also by society’s negative view of, and harsh attitude towards, drug users. Injection drug use is a relatively understudied topic in Sweden. The overall aim of this dissertation is to examine life circumstances of people who inject heroin or amphetamines. The dissertation is based on two research projects at Malmö University and includes interviews with a total of over two hundred visitors at the needle exchange program in Malmö as well as focus group discussions with twenty-seven heroin users in treatment. The first project focus on women who use the needle exchange program and on their social situation, income strategies, experience of treatment and care, as well as on their wishes for further societal assistance. The results present a picture of a very heterogeneous group of women, in which most differ from the stereotypical image of the female injection drug user as homeless, destitute, marginalized, and primarily dependent on men or prostitution for their livelihood and access to drugs. Most women were active in the drug economy, they obtained most of the drugs they used on their own, and they supported their drug purchases through both formal and informal sources of income. A small group, mainly women who primarily use heroin, described a very vulnerable and marginalized existence with insecure housing and incomes restricted to dealing, stealing or sex-work. The vast majority of the interviewed women did wish for some sort of societal support in order to change their situation. Most requests involved substance abuse treatment. More than anything, heroin users wished for better access to opioid substitution treatment. Many women also wanted access to women-only treatment facilities. Not all women, though, saw their drug use as problematic or intended to stop using illegal drugs. Some saw society’s poor treatment of drug users and the “repressive” drug policy as a greater problem than the drug use itself. The second research project focus on heroin overdoses. The aim of the project was to gain further knowledge on why overdoses occur, a greater understanding of how heroin users interpret and handle the overdoses of others, as well as to discuss potential interventions to reduce the number of overdose deaths in Sweden. The results showed that the interviewed heroin users generally had good knowledge about overdose risks. Different circumstances, however, caused restricted possibilities to avoid overdose risks or meant that risks were seen as minor compared to the potential gains of drug use. The desire for a powerful high, experience of severe withdrawal symptoms, an unsafe environment, mental ill health, and an “unbearable life situation”, were examples of factors associated with an increased risk of overdoses. Those heroin users who had been present at someone else’s overdose generally had a positive attitude towards assisting the victim, and their actions were often life-saving. However, a number of factors such as the witness’s own intoxication or lack of knowledge of lifesaving measures, as well as fear of police involvement in some cases, led to inadequate responses to overdoses. The interviewees’ accounts point to the need for a more diverse and accessible drug abuse and addiction treatment model but also to the need for interventions that aim to reduce vulnerability and improve life circumstances and health for persons who, for various reasons, continue to use illegal drugs. The results also reveal the need for interventions that improve heroin users’ possibilities for safer drug use, as well as the importance of increasing their potential for helping other heroin users who overdose.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Malmö högskola, Hälsa och samhälle, 2014. p. 190
Series
Malmö University Health and Society Dissertations, ISSN 1653-5383 ; 5
Keywords
injecting drug use, heroin, amphetamine, risk taking, overdose, women drug users, social vulnerability, harm reduction
National Category
Social Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mau:diva-7320 (URN)17489 (Local ID)978-91-7104-609-3 (ISBN)978-91-7104-610-9 (ISBN)17489 (Archive number)17489 (OAI)
Available from: 2020-02-28 Created: 2020-02-28 Last updated: 2022-06-27Bibliographically approved

Open Access in DiVA

fulltext(200 kB)23 downloads
File information
File name FULLTEXT01.pdfFile size 200 kBChecksum SHA-512
67d2f683cd3107e4fbe19603b15a1144853bea6a48e04f4dba98f48dc4220a2f1eadad883177f5dce5fa64be0363acb3e4e1118c07b584c1e3d47783fb9b24f1
Type fulltextMimetype application/pdf

Other links

Publisher's full text

Authority records

Richert, TorkelMånsson, Sven-AxelLaanemets, Leili

Search in DiVA

By author/editor
Richert, TorkelMånsson, Sven-AxelLaanemets, Leili
By organisation
Faculty of Health and Society (HS)
In the same journal
Socialvetenskaplig tidskrift
Social Work

Search outside of DiVA

GoogleGoogle Scholar
Total: 23 downloads
The number of downloads is the sum of all downloads of full texts. It may include eg previous versions that are now no longer available

doi
urn-nbn

Altmetric score

doi
urn-nbn
Total: 262 hits
CiteExportLink to record
Permanent link

Direct link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf