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Exploring Game Design through Human-AI Collaboration
Malmö University, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS), Department of Computer Science and Media Technology (DVMT). (Game Lab)ORCID iD: 0000-0002-7738-1601
2022 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Game design is a hard and multi-faceted task that intertwines different gameplay mechanics, audio, level, graphic, and narrative facets. Games' facets are developed in conjunction with others with a common goal that makes games coherent and interesting. These combinations result in plenty of games in diverse genres, which usually require a collaboration of a diverse group of designers. Collaborators can take different roles and support each other with their strengths resulting in games with unique characteristics. The multi-faceted nature of games and their collaborative properties and requirements make it an exciting task to use Artificial Intelligence (AI). The generation of these facets together requires a holistic approach, which is one of the most challenging tasks within computational creativity. Given the collaborative aspect of games, this thesis approaches their generation through Human-AI collaboration, specifically using a mixed-initiative co-creative (MI-CC) paradigm. This paradigm creates an interactive and collaborative scenario that leverages AI and human strengths with an alternating and proactive initiative to approach a task. However, this paradigm introduces several challenges, such as Human and AI goal alignment or competing properties.

In this thesis, game design and the generation of game facets by themselves and intertwined are explored through Human-AI collaboration. The AI takes a colleague's role with the designer, arising multiple dynamics, challenges, and opportunities. The main hypothesis is that AI can be incorporated into systems as a collaborator, enhancing design tools, fostering human creativity, and reducing workload. The challenges and opportunities that arise from this are explored, discussed, and approached throughout the thesis. As a result, multiple approaches and methods such as quality-diversity algorithms and designer modeling are proposed to generate game facets in tandem with humans, create a better workflow, enhance the interaction, and establish adaptive experiences.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Malmö: Malmö universitet, 2022. , p. 381
Series
Studies in Computer Science ; 20
Keywords [en]
Computer Games, Human-AI Collaboration, Mixed-Initiative, Procedural Content Generation, Quality Diversity, Computational Creativity
National Category
Computer Sciences Human Computer Interaction
Research subject
Interaktionsdesign
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:mau:diva-54586DOI: 10.24834/isbn.9789178773084ISBN: 978-91-7877-307-7 (print)ISBN: 978-91-7877-308-4 (electronic)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:mau-54586DiVA, id: diva2:1690858
Public defence
2022-09-27, Niagara hörsal C, Nordenskiöldsgatan 1, 21119, Malmö, 14:30 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2022-08-29 Created: 2022-08-27 Last updated: 2022-12-08Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Fostering Creativity in the Mixed-Initiative Evolutionary Dungeon Designer
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Fostering Creativity in the Mixed-Initiative Evolutionary Dungeon Designer
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2018 (English)In: Proceedings of the 13th International Conference on the Foundations of Digital Games, ACM Digital Library, 2018, article id 50Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Mixed-initiative systems highlight the collaboration between humans and computers in fostering the generation of more interesting content in game design. In light of the ever-increasing cost of game development, providing mixed-initiative tools can not only significantly reduce the cost but also encourage more creativity amongst game designers. The Evolutionary Dungeon Designer (EDD) [3] is a mixed-initiative tool with a focus on using evolutionary computation to procedurally generate content that adhere to game design patterns. As part of an ongoing project, feedback from a user study on EDD's capabilities as a mixed-initiative design tool pointed out the need for improvement on the tool's functionalities [4]. In this paper we present a review of the principles of the mixed-initiative model, as well as the existing approaches that implement it. The outcome of this analysis allows us to address the appointed needs for improvement by shaping a new version of EDD that we describe here. Finally, we also present the results from a user study carried out with professional game developers, in order to assess EDD's new functionalities. Results show an overall positive evaluation of the tool's intuitiveness and capabilities for empowering game developers' creative skills during the design process of dungeons for adventure games. They also allow us to identify upcoming challenges pattern-based mixed-initiative tools could benefit from.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
ACM Digital Library, 2018
Keywords
Mixed-Initiative Design, Procedural Content Generation, Game Design Patterns
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mau:diva-16793 (URN)10.1145/3235765.3235815 (DOI)2-s2.0-85055514392 (Scopus ID)27339 (Local ID)27339 (Archive number)27339 (OAI)
Conference
International Conference on the Foundations of Digital Games, Malmö, Sweden (2018, August 7-10)
Available from: 2020-03-30 Created: 2020-03-30 Last updated: 2024-04-04Bibliographically approved
2. Assessing Aesthetic Criteria in the Evolutionary dungeon Designer
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Assessing Aesthetic Criteria in the Evolutionary dungeon Designer
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2018 (English)In: Proceedings of the 13th International Conference on the Foundations of Digital Games, ACM Digital Library, 2018, article id 44Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The Evolutionary Dungeon Designer (EDD) [1] is as a mixed-initiative tool for creating dungeons for adventure games. Results from a user study with game developers positively evaluated EDD as a suitable framework for collaboration between human designers and PCG suggestions, highlighting these as time-saving and inspiring for creating dungeons [2]. Previous work on EDD identified the need of assessing aesthetic criteria as a key area for improvement in its PCG Engine. By upgrading the individual encoding system and the fitness evaluation in EDD's evolutionary algorithm, we present three techniques to preserve and account the designer's aesthetic criteria during the dungeon generation process: the capability of locking sections for preserving custom aesthetic structures, as well as the measurement of symmetry and similarity in the provided suggestions.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
ACM Digital Library, 2018
Series
International Conference Proceeding Series (ICPS)
Keywords
Procedural Content Generation, Evolutionary Algorithms, Mixed-Initiative Design
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mau:diva-16819 (URN)10.1145/3235765.3235810 (DOI)2-s2.0-85055581467 (Scopus ID)27341 (Local ID)27341 (Archive number)27341 (OAI)
Conference
International Conference on the Foundations of Digital Games, Malmö, Sweden (2018, August 7-10)
Available from: 2020-03-30 Created: 2020-03-30 Last updated: 2024-02-05Bibliographically approved
3. Empowering Quality Diversity in Dungeon Design with Interactive Constrained MAP-Elites
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Empowering Quality Diversity in Dungeon Design with Interactive Constrained MAP-Elites
2019 (English)Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

We propose the use of quality-diversity algorithms for mixed-initiative game content generation. This idea is implemented as a new feature of the Evolutionary Dungeon Designer, a system for mixed-initiative design of the type of levels you typically find in computer role playing games. The feature uses the MAP-Elites algorithm, an illumination algorithm which divides the population into a number of cells depending on their values along several behavioral dimensions. Users can flexibly and dynamically choose relevant dimensions of variation, and incorporate suggestions produced by the algorithm in their map designs. At the same time, any modifications performed by the human feed back into MAP-Elites, and are used to generate further suggestions.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE, 2019
Series
IEEE Conference on Computational Intelligence and Games, ISSN 2325-4270, E-ISSN 2325-4289
Keywords
Procedural Content Generation, Evolutionary Algorithms, MIxed-Initiative Co-Creativity, Computer Games
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mau:diva-12640 (URN)10.1109/CIG.2019.8848022 (DOI)000843154300065 ()2-s2.0-85073116656 (Scopus ID)30472 (Local ID)30472 (Archive number)30472 (OAI)
Conference
IEEE Conference on Games, London, United Kingdom (2019/08/20 - 2019/08/23)
Available from: 2020-02-29 Created: 2020-02-29 Last updated: 2023-12-14Bibliographically approved
4. Learning the Designer’s Preferences to Drive Evolution
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Learning the Designer’s Preferences to Drive Evolution
2020 (English)In: EvoApplications 2020: Applications of Evolutionary Computation, Springer, 2020, p. 431-445Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

This paper presents the Designer Preference Model, a data-driven solution that pursues to learn from user generated data in a Quality-Diversity Mixed-Initiative Co-Creativity (QD MI-CC) tool, with the aims of modelling the user’s design style to better assess the tool’s procedurally generated content with respect to that user’s preferences. Through this approach, we aim for increasing the user’s agency over the generated content in a way that neither stalls the user-tool reciprocal stimuli loop nor fatigues the user with periodical suggestion handpicking. We describe the details of this novel solution, as well as its implementation in the MI-CC tool the Evolutionary Dungeon Designer. We present and discuss our findings out of the initial tests carried out, spotting the open challenges for this combined line of research that integrates MI-CC with Procedural Content Generation through Machine Learning.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer, 2020
Series
Lecture Notes in Computer Science, ISSN 0302-9743, E-ISSN 1611-3349 ; 12104
Keywords
Procedural Content Generation, Machine Learning, Mixed-initiative Co-Creativity, Evolutionary Computation
National Category
Human Computer Interaction Computer Sciences
Research subject
Interaktionsdesign
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mau:diva-18273 (URN)10.1007/978-3-030-43722-0_28 (DOI)000896394100028 ()2-s2.0-85084747634 (Scopus ID)978-3-030-43722-0 (ISBN)978-3-030-43721-3 (ISBN)
Conference
Applications of Evolutionary Computation, 15-17 April 2020, Seville, Spain
Available from: 2020-09-21 Created: 2020-09-21 Last updated: 2023-12-14Bibliographically approved
5. Interactive Constrained MAP-Elites: Analysis and Evaluation of the Expressiveness of the Feature Dimensions
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Interactive Constrained MAP-Elites: Analysis and Evaluation of the Expressiveness of the Feature Dimensions
2022 (English)In: IEEE Transactions on Games, ISSN 2475-1502, Vol. 14, no 2, p. 202-211Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

We propose the Interactive Constrained MAP-Elites, a quality-diversity solution for game content generation, implemented as a new feature of the Evolutionary Dungeon Designer (EDD): a mixed-initiative co-creativity tool for designing dungeons. The feature uses the MAP-Elites algorithm, an illumination algorithm that segregates the population among several cells depending on their scores with respect to different behavioral dimensions. Users can flexibly and dynamically alternate between these dimensions anytime, thus guiding the evolutionary process in an intuitive way, and then incorporate suggestions produced by the algorithm in their room designs. At the same time, any modifications performed by the human user will feed back into MAP-Elites, closing a circular workflow of constant mutual inspiration. This paper presents the algorithm followed by an in-depth evaluation of the expressive range of all possible dimension combinations in several scenarios, and discusses their influence in the fitness landscape and in the overall performance of the procedural content generation in EDD.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE, 2022
National Category
Computer Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mau:diva-40278 (URN)10.1109/TG.2020.3046133 (DOI)000811581700012 ()2-s2.0-85098766850 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2021-02-01 Created: 2021-02-01 Last updated: 2024-04-04Bibliographically approved
6. To Make Sense of Procedurally Generated Dungeons
Open this publication in new window or tab >>To Make Sense of Procedurally Generated Dungeons
2020 (English)In: Extended Abstracts of the 2020 Annual Symposium on Computer-Human Interaction in Play, Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), 2020, p. 384-387Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

With the growth of procedural content generation in game development, there is a need for a viable generative method to give context and make sense of the content within game space. We propose procedural narrative as context through objectives, as a useful means to structure content in games. In this paper, we present and describe an artifact developed as a sub-system to the Evolutionary Dungeon Designer (EDD) that procedurally generates objectives for the dungeons created with the tool. The quality of the content within rooms is used to generate objectives, and together with the distributions and design of the dungeon, main and side objectives are formed to maximize the usage of game space and create a proper context.  

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), 2020
National Category
Computer Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mau:diva-51838 (URN)10.1145/3383668.3419890 (DOI)2-s2.0-85096777424 (Scopus ID)978-1-4503-7587-0 (ISBN)
Conference
CHI PLAY '20: The Annual Symposium on Computer-Human Interaction in Play, Virtual Event Canada, November 2 - 4, 2020
Available from: 2022-05-31 Created: 2022-05-31 Last updated: 2024-02-05Bibliographically approved
7. Questgram [Qg]: Toward a Mixed-Initiative Quest Generation Tool
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Questgram [Qg]: Toward a Mixed-Initiative Quest Generation Tool
2021 (English)In: Proceedings of the 16th International Conference on the Foundations of Digital Games, Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), 2021, p. 1-10, article id 6Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Quests are a core element in many games, especially role-playing and adventure games, where quests drive the gameplay and story, engage the player in the game’s narrative, and in most cases, act as a bridge between different game elements. The automatic generation of quests and objectives is an interesting challenge since this can extend the lifetime of games such as in Skyrim, or can help create unique experiences such as in AI Dungeon. This work presents Questgram [Qg], a mixed-initiative prototype tool for creating quests using grammars combined in a mixed-initiative level design tool. We evaluated our tool quantitatively by assessing the generated quests and qualitatively through a small user study. Human designers evaluated the system by creating quests manually, automatically, and through mixed-initiative. Our results show the Questgram’s potential, which creates diverse, valid, and interesting quests using quest patterns. Likewise, it helps engage designers in the quest design process, fosters their creativity by inspiring them, and enhance the level generation facet of the Evolutionary Dungeon Designer with steps towards intertwining both level and quest design.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), 2021
Keywords
Computer Games, Mixed-Initiative Co-Creative Design, Grammars, Quest Generation, Procedural Content Generation
National Category
Human Computer Interaction Computer Sciences
Research subject
Interaktionsdesign
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mau:diva-47271 (URN)10.1145/3472538.3472544 (DOI)2-s2.0-85118275444 (Scopus ID)
Conference
Foundations of Digital Games, August 2021
Available from: 2021-12-07 Created: 2021-12-07 Last updated: 2024-02-05Bibliographically approved
8. Assessing the Effects of Interacting with MAP-Elites
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Assessing the Effects of Interacting with MAP-Elites
2021 (English)In: Proceedings of the seventeenth {AAAI} Conference on Artificial Intelligence and Interactive Digital Entertainment, Association for the Advancement of Artificial Intelligence , 2021, Vol. 17, p. 124-131Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

MAP-Elites has been successfully applied to the generation of game content and robot behaviors. However, its behavior and performance when interacted with in co-creative systems is underexplored. This paper analyzes the implications of synthetic interaction for the stability and adaptability of MAP-Elites in such scenarios. We use pre-recorded human-made level design sessions with the Interactive Constrained MAP-Elites (IC MAP-Elites). To analyze the effect of each edition step in the search space over time using different feature dimensions, we introduce Temporal Expressive Range Analysis (TERA). With TERAs, MAP-Elites is assessed in terms of its adaptability and stability to generate diverse and high-performing individuals. Our results show that interactivity, in the form of design edits and MAP-Elites adapting towards them, directs the search process to previously unexplored areas of the fitness landscape and points towards how this could improve and enrich the co-creative process with quality-diverse individuals.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Association for the Advancement of Artificial Intelligence, 2021
Series
Proceedings of the AAAI Conference on Artificial Intelligence and Interactive Digital Entertainment, ISSN 2326-909X, E-ISSN 2334-0924 ; 17:1
National Category
Computer Sciences Human Computer Interaction
Research subject
Interaktionsdesign
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mau:diva-47273 (URN)978-1-57735-871-8 (ISBN)
Conference
Artificial Intelligence and Interactive Digital Entertainment (AIIDE), October 11–15, 2021, A Virtual Conference
Available from: 2021-12-07 Created: 2021-12-07 Last updated: 2022-12-07Bibliographically approved
9. Toward Designer Modeling Through Design Style Clustering
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Toward Designer Modeling Through Design Style Clustering
2022 (English)In: IEEE Transactions on Games, ISSN 2475-1502, Vol. 14, no 4, p. 676-686Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

We propose modeling designer style in mixed-initiative game content creation tools as archetypical design traces. These design traces are formulated as transitions between design styles; these design styles are in turn found through clustering all intermediate designs along the way to making a complete design. This method is implemented in the Evolutionary Dungeon Designer, a research platform for mixed-initiative systems to create adventure and dungeon crawler games. We present results both in the form of design styles for rooms, which can be analyzed to better understand the kind of rooms designed by users, and in the form of archetypical sequences between these rooms, i.e., Designer Personas.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE, 2022
National Category
Computer Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mau:diva-51543 (URN)10.1109/tg.2022.3143800 (DOI)000908822400014 ()2-s2.0-85123365921 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2022-05-19 Created: 2022-05-19 Last updated: 2024-02-05Bibliographically approved
10. TropeTwist:Trope-based Narrative Structure Generation
Open this publication in new window or tab >>TropeTwist:Trope-based Narrative Structure Generation
2022 (English)In: Proceedings of the 13th Workshop on Procedural Content Generation, FDG, Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), 2022Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Games are complex, multi-faceted systems that share common elements and underlying narratives, such as the conflict between a hero and a big bad enemy or pursuing a goal that requires overcoming challenges. However, identifying and describing these elements together is non-trivial as they might differ in certain properties and how players might encounter the narratives. Likewise, generating narratives also pose difficulties when encoding, interpreting, and evaluating them. To address this, we present TropeTwist, a trope-based system that can describe narrative structures in games in a more abstract and generic level, allowing the definition of games' narrative structures and their generation using interconnected tropes, called narrative graphs. To demonstrate the system, we represent the narrative structure of three different games. We use MAP-Elites to generate and evaluate novel quality-diverse narrative graphs encoded as graph grammars, using these three hand-made narrative structures as targets. Both hand-made and generated narrative graphs are evaluated based on their coherence and interestingness, which are improved through evolution.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), 2022
Keywords
Authoring Tools, Narrative Generation, Evolutionary Computation, MAP-Elites, Computer Games
National Category
Computer Sciences Human Computer Interaction
Research subject
Interaktionsdesign
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mau:diva-54331 (URN)
Conference
The International Conference on the Foundations of Digital Games (FDG)
Available from: 2022-08-05 Created: 2022-08-05 Last updated: 2022-12-07Bibliographically approved
11. Story Designer: Towards a Mixed-Initiative Tool to Create Narrative Structures
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Story Designer: Towards a Mixed-Initiative Tool to Create Narrative Structures
2022 (English)In: FDG '22: Proceedings of the 17th International Conference on the Foundations of Digital Games, ACM Digital Library, 2022, article id 42Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Narratives are a predominant part of games, and their design poses challenges when identifying, encoding, interpreting, evaluating, and generating them. One way to address this would be to approach narrative design in a more abstract layer, such as narrative structures. This paper presents Story Designer, a mixed-initiative co-creative narrative structure tool built on top of the Evolutionary Dungeon Designer (EDD) that uses tropes, narrative conventions found across many media types, to design these structures. Story Designer uses tropes as building blocks for narrative designers to compose complete narrative structures by interconnecting them in graph structures called narrative graphs. Our mixed-initiative approach lets designers manually create their narrative graphs and feeds an underlying evolutionary algorithm with those, creating quality-diverse suggestions using MAP-Elites. Suggestions are visually represented for designers to compare and evaluate and can then be incorporated into the design for further manual editions. At the same time, we use the levels designed within EDD as constraints for the narrative structure, intertwining both level design and narrative. We evaluate the impact of these constraints and the system’s adaptability and expressiveness, resulting in a potential tool to create narrative structures combining level design aspects with narrative.  

 

 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
ACM Digital Library, 2022
National Category
Computer Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mau:diva-56278 (URN)10.1145/3555858.3555929 (DOI)2-s2.0-85142339970 (Scopus ID)978-1-4503-9795-7 (ISBN)
Conference
FDG22: 17th International Conference on the Foundations of Digital Games, Athens, Greece, September 5 - 8, 2022
Available from: 2022-11-29 Created: 2022-11-29 Last updated: 2024-02-05Bibliographically approved
12. Towards AI as a Creative Colleague in Game Level Design
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Towards AI as a Creative Colleague in Game Level Design
2022 (English)In: Proceedings of the 18th AAAI Conference on Artificial Intelligence and Interactive Digital Entertainment, AAAI Press, 2022, Vol. 18, p. 137-145Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

In Mixed-Initiative Co-Creative tools, the human is mostly in control of what will and can be created, delegating the AI to a more suggestive role instead of a colleague in the co-creative process. Allowing more control and agency for the AI might be an interesting path in co-creative scenarios where AI could direct and take more initiative within the co-creative task. However, the relationship between AI and human designers in creative processes is delicate, as adjusting the initiative or agency of the AI can negatively affect the user experience. In this paper, different degrees of agency for the AI are explored within the Evolutionary Dungeon Designer (EDD) to further understand MI-CC tools. A user study was performed using EDD with three varying degrees of AI agency. The study highlighted elements of frustration that the human designer experiences when using the tool and the behavior in the AI that led to possible strains on the relationship. The paper concludes with the identified issues and possible solutions and suggested further research.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
AAAI Press, 2022
Series
Proceedings (AAAI Artificial Intelligence and Interactive Digital Entertainment Conference), ISSN 2326-909X, E-ISSN 2334-0924 ; 18:1
Keywords
AI Agency, Mixed-Initiative Co-Creativity, Level Design, AI Roles
National Category
Human Computer Interaction Computer Sciences
Research subject
Interaktionsdesign
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mau:diva-54334 (URN)10.1609/aiide.v18i1.21957 (DOI)2-s2.0-85172147842 (Scopus ID)978-1-57735-877-0 (ISBN)
Conference
AAAI Conference on Artificial Intelligence and Interactive Digital Entertainment (AIIDE), October 24–28, 2022, Pomona.
Available from: 2022-08-05 Created: 2022-08-05 Last updated: 2023-12-12Bibliographically approved

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Alvarez, Alberto

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