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Title [sv]
Att bevittna arbetsplatsmobbning
Title [en]
Witnessing workplace bullying
Abstract [sv]

Arbetsplatsmobbning – hur påverkar och påverkas den organisatoriska och sociala arbetsmiljön?

Arbetsplatsmobbning är ett allvarligt problem som får negativa konsekvenser för den utsatta individen, organisationen och samhället i stort. Det är ett utbrett problem då cirka 9 procent av de anställda i det svenska arbetslivet har upplevt mobbning. Tidigare forskning om arbetsplatsmobbning har huvudsakligen fokuserat antingen på den utsatta eller på förövaren. Detta innebär att en viktig aktör blivit förbisedd, nämligen de som bevittnar mobbning. Vi hävdar att det finns ett behov att flytta fokus från de individer som är direkt involverade i en mobbningssituation till vittnen och det organisatoriska sammanhanget.

Syfte och användningsområde

Syftet med projektet är att undersöka den komplexa situationen av arbetsplatsmobbning med särskilt fokus på vittnen. Projektet ska bidra med ny kunskap om arbetsplatsmobbning, vittnens agerande och dess relation till den organisatoriska och sociala arbetsmiljön. Denna kunskap kan tillämpas av chefer och organisationer som en del av det förebyggande arbetet.

Teori och metod

För att kunna analysera den organisatoriska kontexten i relation till arbetsplatsmobbning och vittnens beteende kommer olika datainsamlingsmetoder att används (mixed-methods). Job Demands-Resources-teorin (J-DR), teorin om Psychosocial safety climate (PSC ) och ett genusperspektiv utgör den teoretiska ramen.

Följande forskningsfrågor kommer att behandlas:

  • Hur relateras olika organisatoriska faktorer till vittnens beteenden (ex. aktiv/passiv/konstruktiv/destruktiv) i en mobbningssituation?
  • Hur påverkar vittnens beteende mobbningssituationen och den organisatoriska och sociala arbetsmiljön?
  • Hur relateras vittnens beteende till PSC , hälsa, arbetsengagemang, arbetstillfredsställelse och avsikt att stanna i organisationen?

Empiri: genomförande och datainsamling

Det föreslagna projektet kommer att genomföras inom hälso- och sjukvården med läkare, sjuksköterskor och undersköterskor som deltagare. Datainsamling kommer att ske genom intervjuer och genom enkätstudier (vid två tillfällen för att kunna samla longitudinella data).

Abstract [en]

Workplace bullying – antecedents and consequences related to organisational and social work environment

Workplace bullying is a highly negative experience that has consequences and costs for the individual, the organisation and society. It is a severe and widespread problem as approximately 9 % of the Swedish working population have experienced bullying. Previous research on workplace bullying has primarily focused on either the targets or the perpetrators. This implies that one important actor has been neglected, namely the bystander (witnesses of bullying). We maintain that there is a need to shift focus from the individuals who are directly involved in a negative situation to the bystanders and the organisational setting.

Project aim and area of use

The aim of the project is to investigate the complex situation of workplace bullying with a focus on the bystanders. The project aims to contribute with new knowledge about workplace bullying, bystanders’ behaviour and its relation to the organisational and social work environment. This knowledge can be applied by managers and organisations in their preventive work.

Theory and methods

In order to analyse the organisational context in relation to work place bullying and bystanders’ behaviour a mixed method approach will be applied. The JD-R theory, the theory of Psychosocial safety climate (PSC ), and a gender perspective will form the theoretical framework.

Following research questions will be addressed:

  • How are different organisational factors related to the bystanders’ behaviour (e.g. active/passive/constructive/destructive) in a bullying situation?
  • How does bystanders’ behaviour affect the bullying situation and the organisational and social work environment?
  • How is bystanders’ behaviour related to the PSC, their health, work engagement, job satisfaction and intention to stay in the organisation?

Empirical method and data collection

The proposed project will be conducted in the health care sector, with doctors, nurses and assistant nurses as participants. Data will be collected through interviews and through questionnaire studies (at two occasions to be able to gather longitudinal data).

Publications (5 of 5) Show all publications
Holm, K., Jönsson, S. & Muhonen, T. (2023). Can Job Demands and Job Resources Predict Bystander Behaviour in Workplace Bullying? A Longitudinal Study. International Journal of Bullying Prevention
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Can Job Demands and Job Resources Predict Bystander Behaviour in Workplace Bullying? A Longitudinal Study
2023 (English)In: International Journal of Bullying Prevention, ISSN 2523-3653Article in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
Abstract [en]

Bystanders can affect workplace bullying by engaging in active or passive behaviours. However, there is a knowledge gapregarding how perceived work environment factors relate to bystander behaviour. The study aim was to investigate how job demands, and job resources are associated with bystander behaviour in workplace bullying. An online questionnaire wasdistributed to a sample of health care workers at two time points. Longitudinal data were obtained from 1144 respondents. Cross-lagged panel models were used to investigate associations between job demands, job resources, and bystander behaviours over time. The results showed that social support was positively related to active behaviours, whereas influence at work was negatively related to both active and passive behaviours. Perceived illegitimate tasks were negatively related to active and positively related to passive behaviours, whereas emotional demands had an unanticipated opposite pattern of relationships. The findings provide new information about how factors in the organisational and social work environment are associated with active and passive bystander behaviours in workplace bullying. Specifically, the results expand current understanding of workplace bullying by relating bystander behaviour to the organisational context.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer Nature, 2023
Keywords
Workplace bullying, Bystander behaviour, Witness, Job demands–resources, Longitudinal study
National Category
Psychology Work Sciences
Research subject
Arbete och organisation; Organisational studies
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mau:diva-63202 (URN)10.1007/s42380-023-00200-x (DOI)2-s2.0-85174540586 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Forte, Swedish Research Council for Health, Working Life and Welfare, 2018-00228
Available from: 2023-10-20 Created: 2023-10-20 Last updated: 2024-02-05Bibliographically approved
Holm, K., Jönsson, S. & Muhonen, T. (2023). How are witnessed workplace bullying and bystander roles related to perceived care quality, work engagement, and turnover intentions in the healthcare sector?: A longitudinal study. International Journal of Nursing Studies, 138, Article ID 104429.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>How are witnessed workplace bullying and bystander roles related to perceived care quality, work engagement, and turnover intentions in the healthcare sector?: A longitudinal study
2023 (English)In: International Journal of Nursing Studies, ISSN 0020-7489, E-ISSN 1873-491X, Vol. 138, article id 104429Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

BackgroundWorkplace bullying is widespread in the healthcare sector and the negative effects are well known. However, less attention has been paid to bystanders who witness bullying in the workplace. Bystanders can affect the bullying process by engaging in active, passive, or destructive behaviors. There is a need to study work-related and organizational consequences of witnessing bullying and bystander behaviors.ObjectiveThe aim was to explore how witnessed workplace bullying and bystander behaviors are associated with work-related and organizational consequences, such as perceived quality of care, work engagement, and turnover intentions, among healthcare workers over time.DesignLongitudinal design. An online questionnaire was administered twice over the course of six months.Setting(s)Employees in the healthcare sector in Sweden, such as physicians, nurses, and assistant nurses, responded to the questionnaire.Participants1144 participants provided longitudinal data.MethodsStructural equation modeling was used to explore the associations between witnessed bullying, bystander behavior, work-related and organizational factors over time.ResultsWitnessed workplace bullying (B = − 0.18, 95 % CI [− 0.23 to − 0.12]) and the bystander outsider role (B = − 0.24, 95 % CI [− 0.29 to − 0.19]) were statistically significantly related to a decrease in perceived quality of care. Work engagement was statistically significantly predicted by all three bystander roles over time; positively by the defender role (B = 0.11, 95 % CI [0.05–0.17]), and negatively by the outsider role (B = − 0.23, 95 % CI [− 0.29 to − 0.16]), and the assistant role (B = − 0.32, 95 % CI [− 0.41 to − 0.24]). The outsider role (B = 0.12, 95 % CI [0.02–0.22]), the assistant role (B = 0.17, 95 % CI [0.03–0.30]), and witnessed workplace bullying (B = 0.18, 95 % CI [0.08–0.29]), all positively predicted increased turnover intentions at a subsequent time point.ConclusionsIn addition to the direct negative impact workplace bullying has on those targeted by it, witnessing bullying and taking different bystander roles can have work-related and organizational consequences by influencing perceived care quality, employees' work engagement, and their intention to leave the organization.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2023
Keywords
Bystander Care quality Healthcare Turnover intentions Witness Work engagement Workplace bullying
National Category
Psychology Work Sciences
Research subject
Organisational studies; Arbete och organisation
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mau:diva-56913 (URN)10.1016/j.ijnurstu.2022.104429 (DOI)000914216200001 ()36577260 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85147457631 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Forte, Swedish Research Council for Health, Working Life and Welfare, 2018-00228
Available from: 2022-12-27 Created: 2022-12-27 Last updated: 2023-07-05Bibliographically approved
Jönsson, S. (2022). Att vara åskådare till arbetsplatsmobbning: den organisatoriska kontextens betydelse. In: Ennergberg E. & Håkansson P. G. (Ed.), Plats för vem? Om arbetets inkludering och exkludering.: . Nordic Academic Press
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Att vara åskådare till arbetsplatsmobbning: den organisatoriska kontextens betydelse
2022 (Swedish)In: Plats för vem? Om arbetets inkludering och exkludering. / [ed] Ennergberg E. & Håkansson P. G., Nordic Academic Press, 2022Chapter in book (Other academic)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Nordic Academic Press, 2022
National Category
Work Sciences
Research subject
Organisational studies
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mau:diva-57501 (URN)9789189361317 (ISBN)
Available from: 2023-01-17 Created: 2023-01-17 Last updated: 2023-01-23Bibliographically approved
Holm, K., Jönsson, S. & Muhonen, T. (2022). Witnessing Workplace Bullying: Antecedents and Consequences related to the Organizational Context of the Health Care Sector. In: 13th International Association on Workplace Bullying and Harassment Conference, September 20-24, 2022, Book of Abstracts: . Paper presented at 13th International Association on Workplace Bullying and Harassment Conference, September 20-24, 2022 (pp. 87-88).
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Witnessing Workplace Bullying: Antecedents and Consequences related to the Organizational Context of the Health Care Sector
2022 (English)In: 13th International Association on Workplace Bullying and Harassment Conference, September 20-24, 2022, Book of Abstracts, 2022, p. 87-88Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Background and Aims

Workplace bullying is a severe global problem that affect individuals, organizations and society (e.g. Salin & Notelears, 2020). Studies have indicated that workplace bullying is more prevalent in health care than in other sectors. According to a recent systematic review of bullying among health care employees, up to one in four health care professionals are exposed to bullying regularly (Lever et al., 2018).

There has been a growing interest in the area of bystanders of workplace bullying (Coyne et al. 2017), but the role of the bystander, and research focusing on understanding the rationale for bystander behavior, remains an important area of investigation (Thompson et al., 2020). Specifically, additional research is needed in order to achieve a deeper understanding of the connection between the organizational context and bystanders’ behavior. Consequently, the aim of this study is to investigate how different organizational factors relate to bystanders’ behavior in a bullying situation.

In order to analyze the organizational context in relation to workplace bullying and bystanders’ behavior, the Job Demands-Resources theory (JD-R; Bakker & Demerouti, 2017), and the theory of Psychosocial Safety Climate (PSC; Dollard & Bakker, 2010) form the theoretical framework for the study.

Design/Methodology

The present study is a quantitative survey study conducted in the health care sector, with physicians, nurses and assistant nurses as participants. Longitudinal data have been collected through questionnaires at two occasions, about six months apart (N = 1144 responded at both t1 and t2). Demographic questions, as well as scales from the Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire (COPSOQ II; Pejtersen et al., 2010), and measures of bystander behavior in response to witnessed bullying (Salmivalli et al., 1996; 2011), were included in the survey at both time points. Longitudinal structural equation modelling was conducted to investigate associations between psychosocial factors and bystander behavior over time.

Results

Results indicated that PSC was positively associated with bystanders’ reports of defending the victim. Social support from coworkers, social community at work and perceived illegitimate tasks predicted constructive, passive, and destructive bystander behaviors in expected directions. Conversely, influence, as well as quantitative and emotional demands were counterintuitively related to bystander behaviors over time.

Practical Implications

It is predicted that the health care sector will have a substantial need for staff in the future, while many of the current employees, especially nurses, leave their occupation. Providing a good work environment will be one of the key issues in order to attract, recruit and retain staff in the future. The study generates knowledge that creates opportunities for managers and organizations to work preventively, and increases their ability to understand and handle different types of bullying situations from both the victim’s and witnesses’ perspective.

Originality/Value

This study adds knowledge to the area of bystander behavior in the health care sector, by relating bystander behavior to the organizational context.

Keywords
Workplace Bullying, Bystander Behavior, Health Care, Job Demands-Resources Theory, Psychosocial Safety Climate
National Category
Work Sciences Psychology
Research subject
Arbete och organisation; Organisational studies
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mau:diva-55166 (URN)
Conference
13th International Association on Workplace Bullying and Harassment Conference, September 20-24, 2022
Funder
Forte, Swedish Research Council for Health, Working Life and Welfare
Available from: 2022-09-26 Created: 2022-09-26 Last updated: 2022-12-07Bibliographically approved
Jönsson, S. (2022). Åskådare till arbetsrelaterad mobbning: roller och agerande i ett organisatoriskt sammanhang. Ny Juridik (2)
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Åskådare till arbetsrelaterad mobbning: roller och agerande i ett organisatoriskt sammanhang
2022 (Swedish)In: Ny Juridik, ISSN 1400-3007, no 2Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.)) Published
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: Norstedts Juridik AB, 2022
National Category
Applied Psychology
Research subject
Arbete och organisation; Organisational studies
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mau:diva-57496 (URN)
Funder
Forte, Swedish Research Council for Health, Working Life and Welfare
Available from: 2023-01-17 Created: 2023-01-17 Last updated: 2023-01-27Bibliographically approved
Project OfficerJönsson, Sandra
Co-InvestigatorMuhonen, Tuija
Co-InvestigatorFrancioli, Laura
Coordinating organisation
Malmö University
Funder
Period
2019-01-01 - 2021-12-31
Identifiers
DiVA, id: project:2725

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