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Engblom, Johan
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Morin, M., Björklund, S., Nilsson, E. J. & Engblom, J. (2023). Bicontinuous Cubic Liquid Crystals as Potential Matrices for Non-Invasive Topical Sampling of Low-Molecular-Weight Biomarkers. Pharmaceutics, 15(8), Article ID 2031.
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Bicontinuous Cubic Liquid Crystals as Potential Matrices for Non-Invasive Topical Sampling of Low-Molecular-Weight Biomarkers
2023 (Engelska)Ingår i: Pharmaceutics, ISSN 1999-4923, E-ISSN 1999-4923, Vol. 15, nr 8, artikel-id 2031Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
Abstract [en]

Many skin disorders, including cancer, have inflammatory components. The non-invasive detection of related biomarkers could therefore be highly valuable for both diagnosis and follow up on the effect of treatment. This study targets the extraction of tryptophan (Trp) and its metabolite kynurenine (Kyn), two compounds associated with several inflammatory skin disorders. We furthermore hypothesize that lipid-based bicontinuous cubic liquid crystals could be efficient extraction matrices. They comprise a large interfacial area separating interconnected polar and apolar domains, allowing them to accommodate solutes with various properties. We concluded, using the extensively studied GMO-water system as test-platform, that the hydrophilic Kyn and Trp favored the cubic phase over water and revealed a preference for locating at the lipid-water interface. The interfacial area per unit volume of the matrix, as well as the incorporation of ionic molecules at the lipid-water interface, can be used to optimize the extraction of solutes with specific physicochemical characteristics. We also observed that the cubic phases formed at rather extreme water activities (>0.9) and that wearing them resulted in efficient hydration and increased permeability of the skin. Evidently, bicontinuous cubic liquid crystals constitute a promising and versatile platform for non-invasive extraction of biomarkers through skin, as well as for transdermal drug delivery.

Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
MDPI, 2023
Nyckelord
tryptophan, kynurenine, tryptophan-to-kynurenine ratio, cancer-related biomarkers, non-invasive extraction, bicontinuous cubic liquid crystal, bilayer partitioning, glycerol monooleate, DOTAP, X-ray diffraction, humidity scanning (HS) QCM-D
Nationell ämneskategori
Farmaceutisk synteskemi
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:mau:diva-62643 (URN)10.3390/pharmaceutics15082031 (DOI)001055274500001 ()37631245 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85168893889 (Scopus ID)
Tillgänglig från: 2023-09-18 Skapad: 2023-09-18 Senast uppdaterad: 2023-10-19Bibliografiskt granskad
Morin, M., Runnsjö, A., Ruzgas, T., Engblom, J. & Björklund, S. (2023). Effects of storage conditions on permeability and electrical impedance properties of the skin barrier.. International Journal of Pharmaceutics, 637, 122891, Article ID 122891.
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Effects of storage conditions on permeability and electrical impedance properties of the skin barrier.
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2023 (Engelska)Ingår i: International Journal of Pharmaceutics, ISSN 0378-5173, E-ISSN 1873-3476, Vol. 637, s. 122891-, artikel-id 122891Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
Abstract [en]

The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of various skin preservation protocols on in vitro drug permeation, epidermal-dermal drug distribution, and electrical impedance properties of skin membranes. Acyclovir (AC) and methyl salicylate (MS) were selected as model drugs due to their different physicochemical properties and skin metabolic profiles. In particular, AC is relatively hydrophilic (logP -1.8) and not expected to be affected by skin metabolism, while MS is relatively lipophilic (logP 2.5) and susceptible to metabolism, being a substrate for esterase residing in skin. Skin from pig ears was used and freshly excised into split-thickness membranes, which were divided and immediately stored at five different storage conditions: a) 4 °C overnight (fresh control), b) 4 °C for 4 days, c) and d) -20 °C for 6 weeks and one year, respectively, and e) -80 °C for 6 weeks. Based on the combined results, general trends are observed showing that fresh skin is associated with lower permeation of both model drugs and higher skin membrane electrical resistance, as compared to the other storage conditions. Interestingly, in the case of fresh skin, significantly lower amounts of MS are detected in the epidermis and dermis compartments, implying higher levels of ester hydrolysis of MS (i.e., higher esterase activity). In line with this, the concentration of salicylic acid (SA) extracted from the dermis is significantly higher for fresh skin, as compared to the other storage conditions. Nevertheless, for all storage conditions, substantial amounts of SA are detected in the receptor medium, as well as in the epidermis and dermis, implying that esterase activity is maintained to some extent in all cases. For AC, which is not expected to be affected by skin metabolism, freeze storage (protocols c-e) is observed to result in higher accumulation of AC in the epidermis, as compared to the case of fresh skin, while the AC concentration in dermis is unaffected. These observations can be rationalized primarily by the observed lower permeability of fresh skin towards this hydrophilic substance. Finally, a strong correlation between AC permeation and electrical skin resistance is shown for individual skin membranes irrespective of storage condition, while the corresponding correlation for MS is inferior. On the other hand, a strong correlation is shown for individual membranes between MS permeation and electrical skin capacitance, while a similar correlation for AC is lower. The observed correlations between drug permeability and electrical impedance open up for standardizing in vitro data for improved analysis and comparisons between permeability results obtained with skin stored at different conditions.

Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
Elsevier, 2023
Nationell ämneskategori
Dermatologi och venereologi
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:mau:diva-59303 (URN)10.1016/j.ijpharm.2023.122891 (DOI)000970186500001 ()36997077 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85151485213 (Scopus ID)
Tillgänglig från: 2023-04-20 Skapad: 2023-04-20 Senast uppdaterad: 2023-07-04Bibliografiskt granskad
Stenqvist, B., Ericson, M. B., Gregoire, S., Biatry, B., Cassin, G., Jankunec, M., . . . Sparr, E. (2023). Membrane permeability based on mesh analysis. Journal of Colloid and Interface Science, 633, 526-535
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Membrane permeability based on mesh analysis
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2023 (Engelska)Ingår i: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science, ISSN 0021-9797, E-ISSN 1095-7103, Vol. 633, s. 526-535Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
Abstract [en]

The main function of a membrane is to control the exchange of matter between the surrounding regions. As such, accurate modeling of membranes is important to properly describe their properties. In many cases in both biological systems and technical applications, the membranes are composite structures where transport properties may vary between the different sub-regions of the membrane. In this work we develop a method based on Mesh analysis that is asymptotically exact and can describe diffusion in composite membrane structures. We do this by first reformulating a generalized Fick’s law to include the effects from activity coefficient, diffusion coefficient, and solubility using a single condensed parameter. We then use the derived theory and Mesh analysis to, in essence, retrieve a finite element method approach. The calculated examples are based on a membrane structure that reassembles that of the brick and mortar structure of stratum corneum, the upper layer of our skin. Resulting concentration profiles from this procedure are then compared to experimental results for the distribution of different probes within intact stratum corneum, showing good agreement. Based on the derived approach we further investigate the impact from a gradient in the fluidity of the stratum corneum mortar lipids across the membrane, and find that it is substantial. We also show that anisotropic organisation of the lipid mortar can have large impact on the effective permeability compared to isotropic mortar lipids. Finally, we examine the effects of corneocyte swelling, and their lateral arrangement in the membrane on the overall membrane permeability.

Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
Elsevier, 2023
Nyckelord
Membrane, Stratum corneum, Tortuosity, Fick’s law, Brick and mortar
Nationell ämneskategori
Fysikalisk kemi
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:mau:diva-56774 (URN)10.1016/j.jcis.2022.11.013 (DOI)000901460800007 ()36463821 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85143547396 (Scopus ID)
Forskningsfinansiär
VetenskapsrådetGöteborgs universitet, VR-RFI 2016–00968
Tillgänglig från: 2022-12-19 Skapad: 2022-12-19 Senast uppdaterad: 2024-02-05Bibliografiskt granskad
Morin, M., Jankovskaja, S., Ruzgas, T., Henricson, J., Anderson, C. D., Brinte, A., . . . Björklund, S. (2022). Hydrogels and Cubic Liquid Crystals for Non-Invasive Sampling of Low-Molecular-Weight Biomarkers-An Explorative In Vivo Study. Pharmaceutics, 14(2), Article ID 313.
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Hydrogels and Cubic Liquid Crystals for Non-Invasive Sampling of Low-Molecular-Weight Biomarkers-An Explorative In Vivo Study
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2022 (Engelska)Ingår i: Pharmaceutics, ISSN 1999-4923, E-ISSN 1999-4923, Vol. 14, nr 2, artikel-id 313Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
Abstract [en]

The molecular composition of human skin is altered due to diseases, which can be utilized for non-invasive sampling of biomarkers and disease diagnostics. For this to succeed, it is crucial to identify a sampling formulation with high extraction efficiency and reproducibility. Highly hydrated skin is expected to be optimal for increased diffusion of low-molecular-weight biomarkers, enabling efficient extraction as well as enhanced reproducibility as full hydration represents a well-defined endpoint. Here, the aim was to explore water-based formulations with high water activities, ensuring satisfactory skin hydration, for non-invasive sampling of four analytes that may serve as potential biomarkers, namely tryptophan, tyrosine, phenylalanine, and kynurenine. The included formulations consisted of two hydrogels (chitosan and agarose) and two different liquid crystalline cubic phases based on the polar lipid glycerol monooleate, which were all topically applied for 2 h on 35 healthy subjects in vivo. The skin status of all sampling sites was assessed by electrical impedance spectroscopy and transepidermal water loss, enabling explorative correlations between biophysical properties and analyte abundancies. Taken together, all formulations resulted in the successful and reproducible collection of the investigated biomarkers. Still, the cubic phases had an extraction capacity that was approximately two times higher compared to the hydrogels.

Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
MDPI, 2022
Nyckelord
low-molecular-weight biomarker, tryptophan, kynurenine, tyrosine, phenylalanine, tryptophan-to-kynurenine ratio, skin barrier integrity, stratum corneum, natural moisturizing factor, electrical impedance spectroscopy, transepidermal water loss
Nationell ämneskategori
Cancer och onkologi
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:mau:diva-50952 (URN)10.3390/pharmaceutics14020313 (DOI)000765124800001 ()35214046 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85124460011 (Scopus ID)
Tillgänglig från: 2022-04-06 Skapad: 2022-04-06 Senast uppdaterad: 2024-02-05Bibliografiskt granskad
Argatov, I., Engblom, J. & Kocherbitov, V. (2022). Modeling of composite sorption isotherm for stratum corneum. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta - Biomembranes, 1864(7), 1-8, Article ID 183910.
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Modeling of composite sorption isotherm for stratum corneum
2022 (Engelska)Ingår i: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta - Biomembranes, ISSN 0005-2736, E-ISSN 1879-2642, Vol. 1864, nr 7, s. 1-8, artikel-id 183910Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
Abstract [en]

Equilibrium water sorption in stratum corneum (SC) is considered by treating it as a biocomposite with two main phases, namely, corneocytes and lipids. To validate the rule of mixtures for the individual phase sorption isotherms, a new flexible fitting model is introduced by accounting for characteristic features observed in the variations of the thermodynamic correction factors corresponding to the individual sorption isotherms. The comparison of the model fitting performance with that of the five-parameter Park's model shows a remarkably good ability to fit experimental data for different types of sorption isotherms. The effect of the lipids content on the variance of the composite sorption isotherm of stratum corneum is highlighted. The sensitivity analysis reveals that for the typical water content 20-30 wt%, which corresponds to the SC in a stable condition, the sensitivity of the composite sorption isotherm to the variation of the lipids content on dry basis is predominantly positive and sufficiently small. The good agreement observed between the experimental sorption isotherm for SC and the composite isotherm, which is based on the rule of mixtures for the individual phase sorption isotherms, yields a plausible conclusion (hypothesis) that the corneocytes-lipids mechanical interaction during unconstrained swelling of the SC membrane in the in vitro laboratory experiment is negligible.

Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
Elsevier, 2022
Nyckelord
Composite sorption isotherm, Sorption isotherm, Stratum corneum, Water sorption
Nationell ämneskategori
Fysikalisk kemi
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:mau:diva-51045 (URN)10.1016/j.bbamem.2022.183910 (DOI)000806637000006 ()35300950 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85126529559 (Scopus ID)
Tillgänglig från: 2022-04-12 Skapad: 2022-04-12 Senast uppdaterad: 2024-02-05Bibliografiskt granskad
Jankovskaja, S., Morin, M., Gustafsson, A., Anderson, C. D., Lehoczki, B., Engblom, J., . . . Ruzgas, T. (2022). Non-Invasive, Topical Sampling of Potential, Low-Molecular Weight, Skin Cancer Biomarkers: A Study on Healthy Volunteers.. Analytical Chemistry, 94(15), 5856-5865
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Non-Invasive, Topical Sampling of Potential, Low-Molecular Weight, Skin Cancer Biomarkers: A Study on Healthy Volunteers.
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2022 (Engelska)Ingår i: Analytical Chemistry, ISSN 0003-2700, E-ISSN 1520-6882, Vol. 94, nr 15, s. 5856-5865Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
Abstract [en]

Monitoring of low-molecular weight cancer biomarkers, such as tryptophan (Trp) and its derivative kynurenine (Kyn), might be advantageous to non-invasive skin cancer detection. Thus, we assessed several approaches of topical sampling of Trp and Kyn, in relation to phenylalanine (Phe) and tyrosine (Tyr), on the volar forearm of six healthy volunteers. The sampling was performed with three hydrogels (made of agarose or/and chitosan), hydrated starch films, cotton swabs, and tape stripping. The biomarkers were successfully sampled by all approaches, but the amount of collected Kyn was low, 20 ± 10 pmol/cm2. Kyn quantification was below LOQ, and thus, it was detected only in 20% of topical samples. To mitigate variability problems of absolute amounts of sampled amino acids, Tyr/Trp, Phe/Trp, and Phe/Tyr ratios were assessed, proving reduced inter-individual variation from 79 to 45% and intra-individual variation from 42 to 21%. Strong positive correlation was found between Phe and Trp, pointing to the Phe/Trp ratio (being in the 1.0–2.0 range, at 95% confidence) being least dependent on sampling materials, approaches, and sweating. This study leads to conclusion that due to the difficulty in quantifying less abundant Kyn, and thus the Trp/Kyn ratio, the Phe/Trp ratio might be a possible, alternative biomarker for detecting skin cancers.

Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
American Chemical Society (ACS), 2022
Nationell ämneskategori
Cancer och onkologi
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:mau:diva-51301 (URN)10.1021/acs.analchem.1c05470 (DOI)000792814500018 ()35394278 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85128387453 (Scopus ID)
Tillgänglig från: 2022-05-04 Skapad: 2022-05-04 Senast uppdaterad: 2023-11-29Bibliografiskt granskad
Valetti, S., Riaz, A., Doko, A., Sultana, K., Eskandari, M., Prgomet, Z., . . . Björklund, S. (2022). Oral transmucosal delivery of eletriptan for neurological diseases.. International Journal of Pharmaceutics, 627, Article ID 122222.
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Oral transmucosal delivery of eletriptan for neurological diseases.
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2022 (Engelska)Ingår i: International Journal of Pharmaceutics, ISSN 0378-5173, E-ISSN 1873-3476, Vol. 627, artikel-id 122222Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
Abstract [en]

Migraine is a highly prevalent neurological disease affecting circa 1 billion patients worldwide with severe incapacitating symptoms, which significantly diminishes the quality of life. As self-medication practice, oral administration of triptans is the most common option, despite its relatively slow therapeutic onset and low drug bioavailability. To overcome these issues, here we present, to the best of our knowledge, the first study on the possibility of oral transmucosal delivery of one of the safest triptans, namely eletriptan hydrobromide (EB). Based on a comprehensive set of in vitro and ex vivo experiments, we highlight the conditions required for oral transmucosal delivery, potentially giving rise to similar, or even higher, drug plasma concentrations expected from conventional oral administration. With histology and tissue integrity studies, we conclude that EB neither induces morphological changes nor impairs the integrity of the mucosal barrier following 4 h of exposure. On a cellular level, EB is internalized in human oral keratinocytes within the first 5 min without inducing toxicity at the relevant concentrations for transmucosal delivery. Considering that the pKa of EB falls within the physiologically range, we systematically investigated the effect of pH on both solubility and transmucosal permeation. When the pH is increased from 6.8 to 10.4, the drug solubility decreases drastically from 14.7 to 0.07 mg/mL. At pH 6.8, EB gave rise to the highest drug flux and total permeated amount across mucosa, while at pH 10.4 EB shows greater permeability coefficient and thus higher ratio of permeated drug versus applied drug. Permeation experiments with model membranes confirmed the pH dependent permeation profile of EB. The distribution of EB in different cellular compartments of keratinocytes is pH dependent. In brief, high drug ionization leads to higher association with the cell membrane, suggesting ionic interactions between EB and the phospholipid head groups. Moreover, we show that the chemical permeation enhancer DMSO can be used to enhance the drug permeation significantly (i.e., 12 to 36-fold increase). Taken together, this study presents important findings on transmucosal delivery of eletriptan via the oral cavity and paves the way for clinical investigations for a fast and safe migraine treatment.

Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
Elsevier, 2022
Nyckelord
Caffeine, Cell uptake, Digitonin, Dissolution, Eletriptan hydrobromide, Enhancer, FITC-labeled dextran, Oral transmucosal delivery, Permeation pathway, Tissue integrity, Triptans
Nationell ämneskategori
Farmaceutiska vetenskaper
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:mau:diva-56096 (URN)10.1016/j.ijpharm.2022.122222 (DOI)000886537500005 ()36155795 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85139046757 (Scopus ID)
Tillgänglig från: 2022-11-17 Skapad: 2022-11-17 Senast uppdaterad: 2024-02-05Bibliografiskt granskad
Ali, A., Skedung, L., Burleigh, S., Lavant, E., Ringstad, L., Andersson, C., . . . Engblom, J. (2022). Relationship between sensorial and physical characteristics of topical creams: a comparative study of effects of excipients. International Journal of Pharmaceutics, 613, 1-12, Article ID 121370.
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Relationship between sensorial and physical characteristics of topical creams: a comparative study of effects of excipients
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2022 (Engelska)Ingår i: International Journal of Pharmaceutics, ISSN 0378-5173, E-ISSN 1873-3476, Vol. 613, s. 1-12, artikel-id 121370Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
Abstract [en]

Rising consumer demands for safer, more natural, and sustainable topical products have led to increased interest in finding alternative excipients, while retaining functionality and cosmetic appeal. Particle-stabilized Pickering creams have emerged as possible alternatives to replace traditional surfactant-stabilized creams and are thus one of the focuses in this study. The aim of this paper was to study relationships between sensorial characteristics and physical properties to understand how different excipients affect these aspects, comparing one starch particle–stabilized and three surfactant-stabilized formulations. A human panel was used to evaluate sensorial perception, while physical properties were deduced by rheology and tactile friction, together with in vivo and ex vivo skin hydration measurements.

The results show that sensorial attributes related to the application phase can be predicted with rheology, while afterfeel attributes can be predicted with tactile friction studies. Differences in rheological and sensory properties among surfactant-based creams could mainly be attributed to the type of emollients used, presence of thickeners and surfactant composition. Differences between surfactant-based creams and a Pickering cream were more evident in relation to the afterfeel perception. Presence of starch particles in the residual film on skin results in high tactile friction and low perception of residual coating, stickiness, greasiness, and slipperiness in sensorial afterfeel.

Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
Elsevier, 2022
Nationell ämneskategori
Medicinska och farmaceutiska grundvetenskaper
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:mau:diva-44945 (URN)10.1016/j.ijpharm.2021.121370 (DOI)000736963200004 ()34952146 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85122426677 (Scopus ID)
Tillgänglig från: 2021-08-18 Skapad: 2021-08-18 Senast uppdaterad: 2024-06-17Bibliografiskt granskad
Kumlien, C., Acosta, S., Björklund, S., Lavant, E., Lazer, V., Engblom, J., . . . Gershater, M. (2022). Research priorities to prevent and treat diabetic foot ulcers-A digital James Lind Alliance Priority Setting Partnership. Diabetic Medicine, 39(11), Article ID e14947.
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Research priorities to prevent and treat diabetic foot ulcers-A digital James Lind Alliance Priority Setting Partnership
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2022 (Engelska)Ingår i: Diabetic Medicine, ISSN 0742-3071, E-ISSN 1464-5491, Vol. 39, nr 11, artikel-id e14947Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
Abstract [en]

Aim To establish outcomes of a priority setting partnership between participants with diabetes mellitus and clinicians to identify the top 10 research priorities for preventing and treating diabetic foot ulcers (DFUs). Methods Due to the COVID-19 pandemic, the James Lind Alliance Priority Setting Partnership process was adapted into a digital format which involved a pilot survey to identify understandable uncertainties with high relevance for participants tested by calculating the content validity index; a main survey answered by 53 participants living with diabetes and 49 clinicians; and a final digital workshop to process and prioritise the final top 10 research priorities. Results The content validity index was satisfactory for 20 out of 25 uncertainties followed by minor changes and one additional uncertainty. After we processed the 26 uncertainties from the main survey and seven current guidelines, a list of 28 research uncertainties remained for review and discussion in the digital workshop. The final top 10 research priorities included the organisation of diabetes care; screening of diabetes, impaired blood circulation, neuropathy, and skin properties; vascular surgical treatment; importance of self-care; help from significant others; pressure relief; and prevention of infection. Conclusion The top 10 research priorities for preventing and treating DFUs represent consensus areas from persons living with diabetes and clinicians to guide future research. These research priorities can justify and inform strategic allocation of research funding. The digitalisation of James Lind Alliance methodology was feasible.

Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
John Wiley & Sons, 2022
Nyckelord
diabetic foot ulcer, digital platform, James Lind Alliance, prevention, priority setting partnership
Nationell ämneskategori
Endokrinologi och diabetes
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:mau:diva-55061 (URN)10.1111/dme.14947 (DOI)000852819200001 ()36054410 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85137434899 (Scopus ID)
Tillgänglig från: 2022-09-22 Skapad: 2022-09-22 Senast uppdaterad: 2024-02-05Bibliografiskt granskad
Morin, M., Björklund, S., Jankovskaja, S., Moore, K., Delgado-Charro, M. B., Ruzgas, T., . . . Engblom, J. (2022). Reverse Iontophoretic Extraction of Skin Cancer-Related Biomarkers. Pharmaceutics, 14(1), Article ID 79.
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Reverse Iontophoretic Extraction of Skin Cancer-Related Biomarkers
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2022 (Engelska)Ingår i: Pharmaceutics, ISSN 1999-4923, E-ISSN 1999-4923, Vol. 14, nr 1, artikel-id 79Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
Abstract [en]

Non-invasive methods for early diagnosis of skin cancer are highly valued. One possible approach is to monitor relevant biomarkers such as tryptophan (Trp) and kynurenine (Kyn), on the skin surface. The primary aim of this in vitro investigation was, therefore, to examine whether reverse iontophoresis (RI) can enhance the extraction of Trp and Kyn, and to demonstrate how the Trp/Kyn ratio acquired from the skin surface reflects that in the epidermal tissue. The study also explored whether the pH of the receiver medium impacted on extraction efficiency, and assessed the suitability of a bicontinuous cubic liquid crystal as an alternative to a simple buffer solution for this purpose. RI substantially enhanced the extraction of Trp and Kyn, in particular towards the cathode. The Trp/Kyn ratio obtained on the surface matched that in the viable skin. Increasing the receiver solution pH from 4 to 9 improved extraction of both analytes, but did not significantly change the Trp/Kyn ratio. RI extraction of Trp and Kyn into the cubic liquid crystal was comparable to that achieved with simple aqueous receiver solutions. We conclude that RI offers a potential for non-invasive sampling of low-molecular weight biomarkers and further investigations in vivo are therefore warranted.

Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
MDPI, 2022
Nyckelord
tryptophan, kynurenine, tryptophan-to-kynurenine ratio, cancer-related biomarkers, non-invasive extraction, bicontinuous cubic liquid crystals
Nationell ämneskategori
Farmaceutisk synteskemi
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:mau:diva-50524 (URN)10.3390/pharmaceutics14010079 (DOI)000758502900001 ()35056976 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85122161916 (Scopus ID)
Tillgänglig från: 2022-03-09 Skapad: 2022-03-09 Senast uppdaterad: 2024-02-05Bibliografiskt granskad
Projekt
Pickering-emulsioner på hud: Effekter av etanol före, under och efter applicering vid varierande omgivningsbetingelser; Malmö universitetKiselbaserade nanoporösa partiklar för läkemedelsformuleringar; Malmö universitetIcke-invasiv monitorering av hudsjukdomars progression och läkning baserat på lågmolekylära biomarkörer; Malmö universitetSårläkning: Betydelsen av små endogena substanser for återuppbyggnad av hud och som biomarkörer för diagnostik; Malmö universitetThe effect of the extracellular lipid organisation on skin barrier function; Malmö universitet, Biofilms Research Center for Biointerfaces
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