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Dytckov, S., Davidsson, P. & Persson, J. A. (2023). Integrate, not compete! On Potential Integration of Demand Responsive Transport Into Public Transport Network. In: : . Paper presented at 26th IEEE International Conference on Intelligent Transportation Systems ITSC 2023. Bilbao, Bizkaia, Spain: Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Integrate, not compete! On Potential Integration of Demand Responsive Transport Into Public Transport Network
2023 (English)Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

On-demand transport services are often envisioned as stand-alone modes or as a replacement for conventional public transport modes. This leads to a comparison of service efficiencies, or direct competition for passengers between them. The results of this work point to the positive effects of the inclusion of DRT into the public transport network. We simulate a day of operation of a DRT service in a rural area and demonstrate that a DRT system that focuses on increasing accessibility for travellers with poor public transport access can be quite efficient, especially for reducing environmental impact. We show that DRT, while it produces more vehicle kilometres than private cars would inside the DRT operating zone, can help to reduce the vehicle kilometres travelled for long-distance trips. The results of this study indicate the need for a more systemic evaluation of the impact of the new mobility modes.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Bilbao, Bizkaia, Spain: Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2023
Keywords
Simulation, Demand-Responsive Transport, Public transport
National Category
Transport Systems and Logistics Computer Sciences
Research subject
Transportation studies
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mau:diva-62399 (URN)
Conference
26th IEEE International Conference on Intelligent Transportation Systems ITSC 2023
Available from: 2023-09-08 Created: 2023-09-08 Last updated: 2023-09-15Bibliographically approved
Dytckov, S. (2023). Modelling and Simulating Demand-Responsive Transport. (Licentiate dissertation). Malmö: Malmö University Press
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Modelling and Simulating Demand-Responsive Transport
2023 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Public transport is an efficient way to transport large volumes of travellers. However, there are systemic issues that make it hard for conventional public transport to provide efficient service on finer levels, like first- and last-mile problems or low-demand areas. One of the potential solutions that has been getting a lot of attention recently in research and real practice is Demand-Responsive Transport(DRT). The main difference between demand-responsive services and conventional public transport is the need for explicit requests for a trip from the travellers. The service then adapts the routes of the vehicles to satisfy the requests as efficiently as possible. One of the aims of such transport services is to combine the flexibility and accessibility of travel modes like taxis and private cars with the efficiency of buses achieved through ride-sharing.DRT has the potential to improve public transport in, for example, low population density areas or for people with mobility limitations who could request a trip directly to a home door. Historically DRT has been extensively used for special transportation while the recent trend in research and practice explores the possibility of using this service type for the general population.The history of DRT shows a large degree of discontinued trials and services together with low utilisation of vehicles and limited efficiency levels. In practice, this leads to measures restricting the trip destination, times when service is available, or eligibility to use the service at all in case of special transport DRT. Due to the limited use of DRT services, there is little data collected on the efficiency of the service and transport agencies exploring the possibility of introducing this new service type face difficulties in estimating its potential.The main goal of this thesis is to contribute towards developing a decisionsupport method for transport analysts, planners, or decision-makers who want to evaluate the systemic effect of a DRT service such as costs, emissions and effecton society. Decision-makers should be able to evaluate and compare a large variety of DRT design choices like booking time restrictions, vehicle fleet type, target trip quality level, or stop allocation pattern. Using a design science, we develop a simulation approach which is evaluated with two simulation experiments. The simulation experiments themselves provide valuable insight into the potential of DRT services, explore the niche where DRT could provide the most benefits and advocate taking into account the sustainability perspective for a comprehensive comparison of transport modes.

The findings from the simulation experiments indicate that DRT, even in its extreme forms like fully autonomous shared taxis, does not show the level of efficiency that could result in a revolution in transportation — it is hard to compete inefficiency with conventional public transport in urban zones. However, in scenarios with lower demand levels, it could be more efficient to replace conventional buses with a DRT service when considering costs and emissions. We also show that, when integrated with conventional public transport, DRT could help alleviate the last-mile problem by improving accessibility to long-distance lines. Additionally, if car users are attracted to public transport with the help of DRT, there is a potential to significantly reduce the total level of emissions.

The simulation results indicate that the proposed simulation method can be applied for the evaluation of DRT. The implementation of trip planning combining DRT and conventional public transport is a major contribution of this thesis. We show that the integration between services may be important for the efficiency of the service, especially when considering the sustainability aspects.

Finally, this thesis indicates the direction for further research. The proposed simulation approach is suitable for the estimation of the potential of DRT but lacks the ability to make a prediction of the demand for DRT. Integration of a realistic mode choice model and day-to-day simulations are important for making predictions. We also note the complexity of the DRT routing for large-scale problems which prohibits a realistic estimation with simulation and the efficient operation of the service.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Malmö: Malmö University Press, 2023. p. 191
Series
Studies in Computer Science ; 25
Keywords
On-Demand Mobility, Demand Responsive Transport, Modelling and Simulation, Sustainability
National Category
Computer Sciences Transport Systems and Logistics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mau:diva-62403 (URN)10.24834/isbn.97891787766 (DOI)978-91-7877-415-9 (ISBN)978-91-7877-416-6 (ISBN)
Presentation
2023-11-08, B2 Niagara, Nordenskiöldsgatan 1, 13:15 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2023-09-13 Created: 2023-09-08 Last updated: 2023-11-17Bibliographically approved
Dytckov, S., Persson, J. A., Lorig, F. & Davidsson, P. (2022). Potential Benefits of Demand Responsive Transport in Rural Areas: A Simulation Study in Lolland, Denmark. Sustainability, 14(6), Article ID 3252.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Potential Benefits of Demand Responsive Transport in Rural Areas: A Simulation Study in Lolland, Denmark
2022 (English)In: Sustainability, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 14, no 6, article id 3252Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In rural areas with low demand, demand responsive transport (DRT) can provide an alternative to the regular public transport bus lines, which are expensive to operate in such conditions. With simulation, we explore the potential effects of introducing a DRT service that replaces existing bus lines in Lolland municipality in Denmark, assuming that the existing demand remains unchanged. We set up the DRT service in such a way that its service quality (in terms of waiting time and in-vehicle time) is comparable to the replaced buses. The results show that a DRT service can be more cost efficient than regular buses and can produce significantly less CO2 emissions when the demand level is low. Additionally, we analyse the demand density at which regular buses become more cost efficient and explore how the target service quality of a DRT service can affect operational characteristics. Overall, we argue that DRT could be a more sustainable mode of public transport in low demand areas.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
MDPI, 2022
Keywords
demand-responsive transport, microsimulation, operational costs
National Category
Transport Systems and Logistics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mau:diva-51183 (URN)10.3390/su14063252 (DOI)000774348100001 ()2-s2.0-85126302018 (Scopus ID)
Projects
Towards integrated and adaptive public transport
Available from: 2022-04-28 Created: 2022-04-28 Last updated: 2024-02-05Bibliographically approved
Dytckov, S., Lorig, F., Holmgren, J., Davidsson, P. & Persson, J. A. (2021). An Individual-Based Simulation Approach to Demand Responsive Transport. In: Intelligent Transport Systems, From Research and Development to the Market Uptake: . Paper presented at 4th International Conference on Intelligent Transport Systems, Virtual Event, December 3, 2020 (pp. 72-89). Springer
Open this publication in new window or tab >>An Individual-Based Simulation Approach to Demand Responsive Transport
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2021 (English)In: Intelligent Transport Systems, From Research and Development to the Market Uptake, Springer, 2021, p. 72-89Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

This article demonstrates an approach to the simulation of Demand Responsive Transport (DRT) – a flexible transport mode that typically operates as a combination of taxi and bus modes. Travellers request individual trips and DRT is capable of adjusting its routes or schedule to the needs of travellers. It has been seen as a part of the public transport network, which has the potential to reduce operational costs of public transport services, to provide better service quality for population groups with limited mobility and to improve transport fairness. However, a DRT service needs to be thoroughly planned to target the intended user groups, attract a sufficient demand level and maintain reasonable operational costs. As the demand for DRT is dynamic and heterogeneous, it is difficult to simulate it with a macro approach. To address this problem, we develop and evaluate an individual-based simulation comprising models of traveller behaviour for both supply and demand sides. Travellers choose a trip alternative with a mode choice model and DRT vehicle routing utilises a model of travellers’ mode choice behaviour to optimise routes. This allows capturing supply-side operational costs and demand-side service quality for every individual, what allows for designing a personalised service that can prioritise needy groups of travellers improving transport fairness. By simulating different setups of DRT services, the simulator can be used as a decision support tool.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer, 2021
Series
Lecture Notes of the Institute for Computer Sciences, Social Informatics and Telecommunications Engineering, ISSN 1867-8211, E-ISSN 1867-822X ; 364
National Category
Transport Systems and Logistics Computer Sciences
Research subject
Transportation studies
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mau:diva-41490 (URN)10.1007/978-3-030-71454-3_5 (DOI)2-s2.0-85104409614 (Scopus ID)978-3-030-71454-3 (ISBN)978-3-030-71453-6 (ISBN)
Conference
4th International Conference on Intelligent Transport Systems, Virtual Event, December 3, 2020
Available from: 2021-03-30 Created: 2021-03-30 Last updated: 2024-02-05Bibliographically approved
Dytckov, S., Lorig, F., Davidsson, P., Holmgren, J. & Persson, J. A. (2020). Modelling Commuting Activities for the Simulation of Demand Responsive Transport in Rural Areas. In: Karsten Berns, Markus Helfert, Oleg Gusikhin (Ed.), Proceedings of the 6th International Conference on Vehicle Technology and Intelligent Transport Systems: . Paper presented at International Conference on Vehicle Technology and Intelligent Transport Systems (pp. 89-97). SciTePress, 1
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Modelling Commuting Activities for the Simulation of Demand Responsive Transport in Rural Areas
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2020 (English)In: Proceedings of the 6th International Conference on Vehicle Technology and Intelligent Transport Systems / [ed] Karsten Berns, Markus Helfert, Oleg Gusikhin, SciTePress, 2020, Vol. 1, p. 89-97Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

For the provision of efficient and high-quality public transport services in rural areas with a low population density, the introduction of Demand Responsive Transport (DRT) services is reasonable. The optimal design of such services depends on various socio-demographical and environmental factors, which is why the use of simulation is feasible to support planning and decision-making processes. A key challenge for sound simulation results is the generation of realistic demand, i.e., requests for DRT journeys. In this paper, a method for modelling and simulating commuting activities is presented, which is based on statistical real-world data. It is applied to Sjöbo and Tomelilla, two rural municipalities in southern Sweden.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
SciTePress, 2020
Series
VEHITS, E-ISSN 2184-495X
Keywords
Demand Modelling, Gravity Model, Simulation, Case Study
National Category
Computer Sciences Transport Systems and Logistics
Research subject
Transportation studies
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mau:diva-36827 (URN)10.5220/0009367000890097 (DOI)000615961700009 ()978-989-758-419-0 (ISBN)
Conference
International Conference on Vehicle Technology and Intelligent Transport Systems
Projects
Integrated and adaptive public transport of the future
Available from: 2020-11-13 Created: 2020-11-13 Last updated: 2023-09-08Bibliographically approved
Dytckov, S., Davidsson, P., Holmgren, J. & Persson, J. A. (2018). Decision Support Tool for Demand Responsive Transport Through Simulation (ed.). In: (Ed.), Proceedings of the 2018 Winter Simulation Conference: . Paper presented at Winter Simulation Conference, Göteborg, Sweden (2018-12-09 - 2018-12-12) (pp. 4188-4189). IEEE
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Decision Support Tool for Demand Responsive Transport Through Simulation
2018 (English)In: Proceedings of the 2018 Winter Simulation Conference, IEEE, 2018, p. 4188-4189Conference paper, Poster (with or without abstract) (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Demand Responsive Transport (DRT) is seen as a means to providing mobility for passengers living in lowdensity population areas and impaired passengers with a reasonable cost. Conventional public transport istoo expensive to provide a desired level of mobility for these categories of passengers. Hence DRT hasbeen introduced in order to replace or supplement existing transportation schemes. However, multiple DRTschemes were discontinued due to a high cost or poor patronage. In this work we argue that a simulationtool is required to analyze DRT applicability in given conditions before implementing it. As a first steptowards this tool, we describe the requirements that DRT impose on a simulator.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE, 2018
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mau:diva-16783 (URN)27174 (Local ID)27174 (Archive number)27174 (OAI)
Conference
Winter Simulation Conference, Göteborg, Sweden (2018-12-09 - 2018-12-12)
Available from: 2020-03-30 Created: 2020-03-30 Last updated: 2023-12-27Bibliographically approved
Projects
Intelligent Mobility of the Future in Greater Copenhagen; Publications
Dytckov, S., Persson, J. A., Lorig, F. & Davidsson, P. (2022). Potential Benefits of Demand Responsive Transport in Rural Areas: A Simulation Study in Lolland, Denmark. Sustainability, 14(6), Article ID 3252.
Towards integrated and adaptive public transport; Publications
Jevinger, Å. & Svensson, H. (2024). Stated opinions and potential travel with DRT – a survey covering three different age groups. Transportation planning and technology (Print), 1-28Dytckov, S., Davidsson, P. & Persson, J. A. (2023). Integrate, not compete! On Potential Integration of Demand Responsive Transport Into Public Transport Network. In: : . Paper presented at 26th IEEE International Conference on Intelligent Transportation Systems ITSC 2023. Bilbao, Bizkaia, Spain: Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-1401-3510

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