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Tucker, J. & Lorig, F. (2024). Agent-based social simulations for health crises response: utilising the everyday digital health perspective. Frontiers In Public Health, 11, 1-6, Article ID 1337151.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Agent-based social simulations for health crises response: utilising the everyday digital health perspective
2024 (English)In: Frontiers In Public Health, ISSN 2296-2565, Vol. 11, p. 1-6, article id 1337151Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

There is increasing recognition of the role that artificial intelligence (AI) systems can play in managing health crises. One such approach, which allows for analysing the potential consequences of different policy interventions is agent-based social simulations (ABSS). Here, the actions and interactions of autonomous agents are modelled to generate virtual societies that can serve as a “testbed” for investigating and comparing different interventions and scenarios. This piece focuses on two key challenges of ABSS in collaborative policy interventions during the COVID-19 pandemic. These were defining valuable scenarios to simulate and the availability of appropriate data. This paper posits that drawing on the research on the “everyday” digital health perspective in designing ABSS before or during health crises, can overcome aspects of these challenges. The focus on digital health interventions reflects a rapid shift in the adoption of such technologies during and after the COVID-19 pandemic, and the new challenges this poses for policy makers. It is argued that by accounting for the everyday digital health in modelling, ABSS would be a more powerful tool in future health crisis management.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Frontiers Media S.A., 2024
Keywords
agent-based social simulations, health policy, crisis, COVID-19, everyday digital health, artificial intelligence
National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology Computer Sciences
Research subject
Health and society
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mau:diva-65091 (URN)10.3389/fpubh.2023.1337151 (DOI)
Available from: 2024-01-17 Created: 2024-01-17 Last updated: 2024-01-24Bibliographically approved
Abid, M. A., Amouzad Mahdiraji, S., Lorig, F., Holmgren, J., Mihailescu, R.-C. & Petersson, J. (2023). A Genetic Algorithm for Optimizing Mobile Stroke Unit Deployment. Paper presented at 27th International Conference on Knowledge Based and Intelligent Information and Engineering Systems (KES 2023), Athens, Greece, 6-8 September 2023. Procedia Computer Science, 225, 3536-3545
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A Genetic Algorithm for Optimizing Mobile Stroke Unit Deployment
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2023 (English)In: Procedia Computer Science, ISSN 1877-0509, Vol. 225, p. 3536-3545Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A mobile stroke unit (MSU) is an advanced ambulance equipped with specialized technology and trained healthcare personnel to provide on-site diagnosis and treatment for stroke patients. Providing efficient access to healthcare (in a viable way) requires optimizing the placement of MSUs. In this study, we propose a time-efficient method based on a genetic algorithm (GA) to find the most suitable ambulance sites for the placement of MSUs (given the number of MSUs and a set of potential sites). We designed an efficient encoding scheme for the input data (the number of MSUs and potential sites) and developed custom selection, crossover, and mutation operators that are tailored according to the characteristics of the MSU allocation problem. We present a case study on the Southern Healthcare Region in Sweden to demonstrate the generality and robustness of our proposed GA method. Particularly, we demonstrate our method's flexibility and adaptability through a series of experiments across multiple settings. For the considered scenario, our proposed method outperforms the exhaustive search method by finding the best locations within 0.16, 1.44, and 10.09 minutes in the deployment of three MSUs, four MSUs, and five MSUs, resulting in 8.75x, 16.36x, and 24.77x faster performance, respectively. Furthermore, we validate the method's robustness by iterating GA multiple times and reporting its average fitness score (performance convergence). In addition, we show the effectiveness of our method by evaluating key hyperparameters, that is, population size, mutation rate, and the number of generations.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2023
Keywords
genetic algorithm, mobile stroke unit (MSU), optimization, healthcare, time to treatment
National Category
Communication Systems Neurology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mau:diva-64632 (URN)10.1016/j.procs.2023.10.349 (DOI)
Conference
27th International Conference on Knowledge Based and Intelligent Information and Engineering Systems (KES 2023), Athens, Greece, 6-8 September 2023
Funder
The Kamprad Family Foundation
Available from: 2023-12-20 Created: 2023-12-20 Last updated: 2023-12-20Bibliographically approved
Lorig, F., Vanhée, L. & Dignum, F. (2023). Agent-Based Social Simulation for Policy Making. In: Mohamed Chetouani, Virginia Dignum, Paul Lukowicz, Carles Sierra (Ed.), Human-Centered Artificial Intelligence: (pp. 391-414). Springer Nature
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Agent-Based Social Simulation for Policy Making
2023 (English)In: Human-Centered Artificial Intelligence / [ed] Mohamed Chetouani, Virginia Dignum, Paul Lukowicz, Carles Sierra, Springer Nature, 2023, p. 391-414Chapter in book (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

In agent-based social simulations (ABSS), an artificial population of intelligent agents that imitate human behavior is used to investigate complex phenomena within social systems. This is particularly useful for decision makers, where ABSS can provide a sandpit for investigating the effects of policies prior to their implementation. During the Covid-19 pandemic, for instance, sophisticated models of human behavior enable the investigation of the effects different interventions can have and even allow for analyzing why a certain situation occurred or why a specific behavior can be observed. In contrast to other applications of simulation, the use for policy making significantly alters the process of model building and assessment, and requires the modelers to follow different paradigms. In this chapter, we report on a tutorial that was organized as part of the ACAI 2021 summer school on AI in Berlin, with the goal of introducing agent-based social simulation as a method for facilitating policy making. The tutorial pursued six Intended Learning Outcomes (ILOs), which are accomplished by three sessions, each of which consists of both a conceptual and a practical part. We observed that the PhD students participating in this tutorial came from a variety of different disciplines, where ABSS is mostly applied as a research method. Thus, they do often not have the possibility to discuss their approaches with ABSS experts. Tutorials like this one provide them with a valuable platform to discuss their approaches, to get feedback on their models and architectures, and to get impulses for further research.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer Nature, 2023
Series
Lecture Notes in Computer Science, ISSN 0302-9743, E-ISSN 1611-3349 ; 13500
Keywords
Agent-based modeling, Simulation for crisis situations, Sophisticated agent architectures, Analysis of simulation outputs, Interaction with stakeholders, NetLogo
National Category
Computer Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mau:diva-64159 (URN)10.1007/978-3-031-24349-3_20 (DOI)2-s2.0-85152526853 (Scopus ID)978-3-031-24349-3 (ISBN)
Funder
Wallenberg AI, Autonomous Systems and Software Program (WASP)Knut and Alice Wallenberg Foundation, 570080103Swedish National Infrastructure for Computing (SNIC), 2018-05973
Available from: 2023-12-07 Created: 2023-12-07 Last updated: 2023-12-08Bibliographically approved
Amouzad Mahdiraji, S., Abid, M. A., Holmgren, J., Mihailescu, R.-C., Lorig, F. & Petersson, J. (2023). An Optimization Model for the Placement of Mobile Stroke Units. In: Teresa Guarda; Filipe Portela; Jose Maria Diaz-Nafria (Ed.), Advanced Research in Technologies, Information, Innovation and Sustainability: Third International Conference, ARTIIS 2023, Madrid, Spain, October 18–20, 2023, Proceedings, Part I. Paper presented at Advanced Research in Technologies, Information, Innovation and Sustainability, Third International Conference, ARTIIS 2023, Madrid, Spain, October 18–20, 2023 (pp. 297-310). Springer
Open this publication in new window or tab >>An Optimization Model for the Placement of Mobile Stroke Units
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2023 (English)In: Advanced Research in Technologies, Information, Innovation and Sustainability: Third International Conference, ARTIIS 2023, Madrid, Spain, October 18–20, 2023, Proceedings, Part I / [ed] Teresa Guarda; Filipe Portela; Jose Maria Diaz-Nafria, Springer, 2023, p. 297-310Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Mobile Stroke Units (MSUs) are specialized ambulances that can diagnose and treat stroke patients; hence, reducing the time to treatment for stroke patients. Optimal placement of MSUs in a geographic region enables to maximize access to treatment for stroke patients. We contribute a mathematical model to optimally place MSUs in a geographic region. The objective function of the model takes the tradeoff perspective, balancing between the efficiency and equity perspectives for the MSU placement. Solving the optimization problem enables to optimize the placement of MSUs for the chosen tradeoff between the efficiency and equity perspectives. We applied the model to the Blekinge and Kronoberg counties of Sweden to illustrate the applicability of our model. The experimental findings show both the correctness of the suggested model and the benefits of placing MSUs in the considered regions.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer, 2023
Series
Communications in Computer and Information Science, ISSN 1865-0929, E-ISSN 1865-0937 ; 1935
Keywords
Optimization, MILP, Time to Treatment, Mobile Stroke Unit (MSU), MSU Placement
National Category
Neurology Computational Mathematics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mau:diva-64865 (URN)10.1007/978-3-031-48858-0_24 (DOI)2-s2.0-85180781530 (Scopus ID)978-3-031-48857-3 (ISBN)978-3-031-48858-0 (ISBN)
Conference
Advanced Research in Technologies, Information, Innovation and Sustainability, Third International Conference, ARTIIS 2023, Madrid, Spain, October 18–20, 2023
Available from: 2024-01-08 Created: 2024-01-08 Last updated: 2024-01-08Bibliographically approved
Lorig, F. & Norling, E. (Eds.). (2023). Multi-Agent-Based Simulation XXIII: 23rd International Workshop, MABS 2022, Virtual Event, May 8–9, 2022, Revised Selected Papers. Paper presented at Multi-Agent-Based Simulation XXIII23rd International Workshop, MABS 2022, Virtual Event, May 8–9, 2022,. Springer Nature
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Multi-Agent-Based Simulation XXIII: 23rd International Workshop, MABS 2022, Virtual Event, May 8–9, 2022, Revised Selected Papers
2023 (English)Conference proceedings (editor) (Refereed)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer Nature, 2023. p. 147
Series
Lecture Notes in Computer Science, ISSN 0302-9743, E-ISSN 1611-3349 ; 13743
National Category
Computer Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mau:diva-64161 (URN)10.1007/978-3-031-22947-3 (DOI)978-3-031-22947-3 (ISBN)
Conference
Multi-Agent-Based Simulation XXIII23rd International Workshop, MABS 2022, Virtual Event, May 8–9, 2022,
Note

This book constitutes the thoroughly refereed and revised selected papers from the 22nd International Workshop on Multi-Agent-Based Simulation, MABS 2022, which took place virtually during May 8–9, 2022. The conference was originally planned to take place in Auckland, New Zealand, but had to change to an online format due to the COVID-19 pandemic.

The 11 papers included in these proceedings were carefully reviewed and selected from 17 submissions. They focus on finding efficient solutions to model complex social systems, in areas such as economics, management, organisational and social sciences in general.

Available from: 2023-12-07 Created: 2023-12-07 Last updated: 2023-12-08Bibliographically approved
Lorig, F., Persson, J. A. & Michielsen, A. (2023). Simulating the Impact of Shared Mobility on Demand: a Study of Future Transportation Systems in Gothenburg, Sweden. International Journal of Intelligent Transportation Systems Research, 21(1), 129-144
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Simulating the Impact of Shared Mobility on Demand: a Study of Future Transportation Systems in Gothenburg, Sweden
2023 (English)In: International Journal of Intelligent Transportation Systems Research, ISSN 1348-8503, Vol. 21, no 1, p. 129-144Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Self-driving cars enable dynamic shared mobility, where customers are independent of schedules and fixed stops. This study aims to investigate the potential effects shared mobility can have on future transportation. We simulate multiple scenarios to analyze the effects different service designs might have on vehicle kilometers, on the required number of shared vehicles, on the potential replacement of private cars, and on service metrics such as waiting times, travel times, and detour levels. To demonstrate how simulation can be used to analyze future mobility, we present a case study of the city of Gothenburg in Sweden, where we model travel demand in the morning hours of a workday. The results show that a significant decrease of vehicle kilometers can be achieved if all private car trips are replaced by rideshare and that shared vehicles can potentially replace at least 5 private cars during the morning peak.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer, 2023
National Category
Computer and Information Sciences Transport Systems and Logistics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mau:diva-57773 (URN)10.1007/s13177-023-00345-5 (DOI)000919810900001 ()2-s2.0-85146806659 (Scopus ID)
Projects
Elektriska delade självkörande fordon i det framtida fossiloberoende transportsystemet (Eldsjäl)
Funder
Vinnova, 2019-05094Region Västra Götaland, KTN 2019-00124Malmö University, IOTAPMarianne and Marcus Wallenberg Foundation, WASP-HS
Available from: 2023-01-24 Created: 2023-01-24 Last updated: 2023-07-04Bibliographically approved
Alassadi, A., Lorig, F. & Holmgren, J. (2022). Population Generation for Agent-based Simulations of Stroke Logistics Policies: A Case Study of Stroke Patient Mobility. International Journal On Advances in Life Sciences, 14(1&2), 12-21
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Population Generation for Agent-based Simulations of Stroke Logistics Policies: A Case Study of Stroke Patient Mobility
2022 (English)In: International Journal On Advances in Life Sciences, ISSN 1942-2660, E-ISSN 1942-2660, Vol. 14, no 1&2, p. 12-21Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

For acute medical conditions, for instance strokes, the time until the start of the treatment is a crucial factor to prevent a fatal outcome and to facilitate the recovery of the patient’s health. Hence, the planning and optimization of patient logistics is of high importance to ensure prompt access to healthcare facilities in case of medical emergencies. Computer simulation can be used to investigate the effects of different stroke logistics policies under realistic conditions without jeopardizing the health of the patients. The success of such policies greatly depends on the behavior of the individuals. Hence, agent-based simulation is particularly well-suited as it imitates human behavior and decision-making by means of artificial intelligence, which allows for investigating the effects of policies under different conditions. Agent-based simulation requires the generation of a realistic synthetic population, that adequately represents the population that shall be investigated such that reliable conclusions can be drawn from the simulation results. In this article, we propose a process for generating an artificial population of potential stroke patients that can be used to investigate the effects of stroke logistics policies using agent-based simulation. To illustrate how this process can be applied, we present the results from a case study in the region of Skåne in southern Sweden, where a synthetic population of stroke patients with realistic mobility behavior is simulated. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
International Academy, Research and Industry Association (IARIA), 2022
National Category
Computer and Information Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mau:diva-56757 (URN)
Available from: 2022-12-15 Created: 2022-12-15 Last updated: 2022-12-16Bibliographically approved
Dytckov, S., Persson, J. A., Lorig, F. & Davidsson, P. (2022). Potential Benefits of Demand Responsive Transport in Rural Areas: A Simulation Study in Lolland, Denmark. Sustainability, 14(6), Article ID 3252.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Potential Benefits of Demand Responsive Transport in Rural Areas: A Simulation Study in Lolland, Denmark
2022 (English)In: Sustainability, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 14, no 6, article id 3252Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In rural areas with low demand, demand responsive transport (DRT) can provide an alternative to the regular public transport bus lines, which are expensive to operate in such conditions. With simulation, we explore the potential effects of introducing a DRT service that replaces existing bus lines in Lolland municipality in Denmark, assuming that the existing demand remains unchanged. We set up the DRT service in such a way that its service quality (in terms of waiting time and in-vehicle time) is comparable to the replaced buses. The results show that a DRT service can be more cost efficient than regular buses and can produce significantly less CO2 emissions when the demand level is low. Additionally, we analyse the demand density at which regular buses become more cost efficient and explore how the target service quality of a DRT service can affect operational characteristics. Overall, we argue that DRT could be a more sustainable mode of public transport in low demand areas.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
MDPI, 2022
Keywords
demand-responsive transport, microsimulation, operational costs
National Category
Transport Systems and Logistics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mau:diva-51183 (URN)10.3390/su14063252 (DOI)000774348100001 ()2-s2.0-85126302018 (Scopus ID)
Projects
Towards integrated and adaptive public transport
Available from: 2022-04-28 Created: 2022-04-28 Last updated: 2024-02-05Bibliographically approved
Lorig, F., Johansson, E., Davidsson, P. & Persson, J. A. (2021). A Simulation Study on Electric Last Mile Delivery with Mobile Smart Cargo Boxes. In: Jörg Franke; Peter Schuderer (Ed.), Simulation in Produktion und Logistik 2021: . Paper presented at 19th ASIM Dedicated Conference on Simulation in Production und Logistics, 15-17 September 2021 (pp. 177-186). Göttingen: Cuvillier Verlag
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A Simulation Study on Electric Last Mile Delivery with Mobile Smart Cargo Boxes
2021 (English)In: Simulation in Produktion und Logistik 2021 / [ed] Jörg Franke; Peter Schuderer, Göttingen: Cuvillier Verlag, 2021, p. 177-186Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The increasing popularity of e-commerce requires efficient solutions for the provision of last mile logistics. There are different approaches for delivering parcels, e.g., home delivery, service points, or parcel lockers, which have different advantages and disadvantages for customers and logistics providers in terms of flexibility, accessibility, and operating costs. We have studied a novel transportation solution where electric vehicles dynamically set up smart cargo boxes, from which customers can fetch their delivery at any time of the day. This provides customers with a more flexible access to their packages and allows the service provider to deliver the parcels more efficiently. In this article, we present the results of a feasibility study conducted in Västra Hamnen, Malmö (Sweden). The developed simulation model shows that smart boxes not only are a viable approach for efficient last mile deliveries, but also result in considerably smaller travel distances compared to conventional package delivery.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Göttingen: Cuvillier Verlag, 2021
National Category
Transport Systems and Logistics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mau:diva-45982 (URN)9783736974791 (ISBN)
Conference
19th ASIM Dedicated Conference on Simulation in Production und Logistics, 15-17 September 2021
Available from: 2021-09-22 Created: 2021-09-22 Last updated: 2022-12-07Bibliographically approved
Lorig, F., Johansson, E. & Davidsson, P. (2021). Agent-based Social Simulation of the Covid-19 Pandemic: A Systematic Review. JASSS: Journal of Artificial Societies and Social Simulation, 24(3), Article ID 5.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Agent-based Social Simulation of the Covid-19 Pandemic: A Systematic Review
2021 (English)In: JASSS: Journal of Artificial Societies and Social Simulation, E-ISSN 1460-7425, Vol. 24, no 3, article id 5Article, review/survey (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

When planning interventions to limit the spread of Covid-19, the current state of knowledge about the disease and specific characteristics of the population need to be considered. Simulations can facilitate policy making as they take prevailing circumstances into account. Moreover, they allow for the investigation of the potential effects of different interventions using an artificial population. Agent-based Social Simulation (ABSS) is argued to be particularly useful as it can capture the behavior of and interactions between individuals. We performed a systematic literature reviewand identified 126 articles that describe ABSS of Covid-19 transmission processes. Our reviewshowed that ABSS is widely used for investigating the spread of Covid-19. Existing models are very heterogeneous with respect to their purpose, the number of simulated individuals, and the modeled geographical region, as well as how they model transmission dynamics, disease states, human behavior, and interventions. To this end, a discrepancy can be identified between the needs of policy makers and what is implemented by the simulation models. This also includes how thoroughly the models consider and represent the real world, e.g. in terms of factors that affect the transmission probability or how humans make decisions. Shortcomingswere also identified in the transparency of the presented models, e.g. in terms of documentation or availability, as well as in their validation, which might limit their suitability for supporting decision-making processes. We discuss how these issues can be mitigated to further establish ABSS as a powerful tool for crisis management.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
JASSS, 2021
Keywords
SARS-CoV-2, Transmission Processes, Epidemiology, Non-Pharmaceutical Interventions, Literature Study, PRISMA
National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology Computer Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mau:diva-44859 (URN)10.18564/jasss.4601 (DOI)000668484000004 ()2-s2.0-85110373326 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2021-08-17 Created: 2021-08-17 Last updated: 2024-02-05Bibliographically approved
Projects
Towards integrated and adaptive public transport; Publications
Dytckov, S., Davidsson, P. & Persson, J. A. (2023). Integrate, not compete! On Potential Integration of Demand Responsive Transport Into Public Transport Network. In: : . Paper presented at 26th IEEE International Conference on Intelligent Transportation Systems ITSC 2023. Bilbao, Bizkaia, Spain: Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
Towards More Reliable Predictions: Multi-model Ensembles for Simulating the Corona Pandemic; Malmö University
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-8209-0921

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