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Tidefelt, M., Löstrand, J., Goetz, I. K., Donzel-Gargand, O., Ericsson, A., Han, X., . . . Fisk, M. (2024). In Situ Mapping of Phase Evolutions in Rapidly Heated Zr-Based Bulk Metallic Glass with Oxygen Impurities. Advanced Science, 11(16)
Open this publication in new window or tab >>In Situ Mapping of Phase Evolutions in Rapidly Heated Zr-Based Bulk Metallic Glass with Oxygen Impurities
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2024 (English)In: Advanced Science, E-ISSN 2198-3844, Vol. 11, no 16Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Metallic glasses exhibit unique mechanical properties. For metallic glass composites (MGC), composed of dispersed nanocrystalline phases in an amorphous matrix, these properties can be enhanced or deteriorated depending on the volume fraction and size distribution of the crystalline phases. Understanding the evolution of crystalline phases during devitrification of bulk metallic glasses upon heating is key to realizing the production of these composites. Here, results are presented from a combination of in situ small- and wide-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS and WAXS) measurements during heating of Zr-based metallic glass samples at rates ranging from 102 to 104 Ks-1 with a time resolution of 4ms. By combining a detailed analysis of scattering experiments with numerical simulations, for the first time, it is shown how the amount of oxygen impurities in the samples influences the early stages of devitrification and changes the dominant nucleation mechanism from homogeneous to heterogeneous. During melting, the oxygen rich phase becomes the dominant crystalline phase whereas the main phases dissolve. The approach used in this study is well suited for investigation of rapid phase evolution during devitrification, which is important for the development of MGC. Oxygen impurities impact on phase-transformations during rapid heating of Zr-based metallic glass Zr59.3Cu28.8Al10.4Nb1.5 is thoroughly investigated using a multi-technique approach. During devitrification, the extracted phase evolutions reveal that the phase fraction hierarchy correlates with the oxygen impurity concentration. Numerical simulations with a heterogeneous nucleation mode capture the experimental observations. During melting, the oxygen-rich phase becomes the dominant phase. image

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
John Wiley & Sons, 2024
Keywords
additive manufacturing, AMLOY-ZR01, classical nucleation and growth theory, small-angle X-ray scattering, wide-angle X-ray scattering, transmission electron microscopy
National Category
Physical Sciences Materials Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mau:diva-66914 (URN)10.1002/advs.202307856 (DOI)001174897700001 ()38419373 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85186239722 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2024-04-25 Created: 2024-04-25 Last updated: 2024-04-25Bibliographically approved
Fisk, M., Ristinmaa, M., Hultkrantz, A. & Lindgren, L.-E. (2022). Coupled electromagnetic-thermal solution strategy for induction heating of ferromagnetic materials. Applied Mathematical Modelling, 111, 818-835
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Coupled electromagnetic-thermal solution strategy for induction heating of ferromagnetic materials
2022 (English)In: Applied Mathematical Modelling, ISSN 0307-904X, E-ISSN 1872-8480, Vol. 111, p. 818-835Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Induction heating is used in many industrial applications to heat electrically conductive materials. The coupled electromagnetic-thermal induction heating process is non-linear in general, and for ferromagnetic materials it becomes challenging since both the electromagnetic and the thermal responses are non-linear. As a result of the existing non-linearities, simulating the induction heating process is a challenging task. In the present work, a coupled transient electromagnetic-thermal finite element solution strategy that is appropriate for modeling induction heating of ferromagnetic materials is presented. The solution strategy is based on the isothermal staggered split approach, where the electromagnetic problem is solved for fixed temperature fields and the thermal problem for fixed heat sources obtained from the electromagnetic solution. The modeling strategy and the implementation are validated against induction heating experiments at three heating rates. The computed temperatures, that reach above the Curie temperature, agree very well with the experimental results.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2022
National Category
Other Mechanical Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mau:diva-56270 (URN)10.1016/j.apm.2022.07.009 (DOI)000888873400004 ()2-s2.0-85135391110 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Vinnova
Available from: 2022-11-29 Created: 2022-11-29 Last updated: 2023-09-07Bibliographically approved
Areitioaurtena, M., Segurajauregi, U., Fisk, M., Cabello, M. J. & Ukar, E. (2022). Influence of induction hardening residual stresses on rolling contact fatigue lifetime. International Journal of Fatigue, 159, Article ID 106781.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Influence of induction hardening residual stresses on rolling contact fatigue lifetime
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2022 (English)In: International Journal of Fatigue, ISSN 0142-1123, E-ISSN 1879-3452, Vol. 159, article id 106781Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Rolling contact fatigue is a unique mode of fatigue that components under cyclic contact loading experience. In this work, the impact of induction hardening residual stresses in rolling contact fatigue lifetime is investigated experimentally and numerically using the Dang Van multiaxial criterion. Various residual stress fields from induction hardening are simulated using the finite element method and are mapped into a classical monocontact finite element model. The impact of induction hardened residual stresses on the lifetime of a component has been investigated, and the importance of incorporating the residual stress profile into fatigue life assessments is affirmed.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2022
Keywords
Life prediction, Multiaxial fatigue, Numerical modeling, Residual stresses, Rolling contact fatigue
National Category
Mechanical Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mau:diva-51686 (URN)10.1016/j.ijfatigue.2022.106781 (DOI)000793058500005 ()2-s2.0-85124539053 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2022-05-30 Created: 2022-05-30 Last updated: 2024-02-05Bibliographically approved
Ericsson, A. & Fisk, M. (2022). Modeling of Diffusion-Controlled Crystallization Kinetics in Al-Cu-Zr Metallic Glass. Metals, 12(5), 1-16, Article ID 867.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Modeling of Diffusion-Controlled Crystallization Kinetics in Al-Cu-Zr Metallic Glass
2022 (English)In: Metals, ISSN 2075-4701, Vol. 12, no 5, p. 1-16, article id 867Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Crystallization is a major challenge in metallic glass production, and predictive models may aid the development of controlled microstructures. This work describes a modeling strategy of nucleation, growth and the dissolution of crystals in a multicomponent glass-forming system. The numerical model is based on classical nucleation theory in combination with a multicomponent diffusion-controlled growth model that is valid for high supersaturation. The required thermodynamic properties are obtained by coupling the model to a CALPHAD database using the Al-Cu-Zr system as a demonstrator. The crystallization of intermetallic (Al, Cu)(m)Zr-n phases from the under-cooled liquid phase were simulated under isothermal as well as rapid heating and cooling conditions (10(-1)-10(6) Ks(-1)). The obtained time-temperature transformation and continuous-heating/cooling transformation diagrams agree satisfactorily with the experimental data over a wide temperature range, thereby, demonstrating the predictability of the modeling approach. A comparison of the simulation results and experimental data is discussed.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
MDPI, 2022
Keywords
metallic glass, Al-Cu-Zr, crystallization, CALPHAD
National Category
Metallurgy and Metallic Materials
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mau:diva-53939 (URN)10.3390/met12050867 (DOI)000803657900001 ()2-s2.0-85130303552 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2022-08-01 Created: 2022-08-01 Last updated: 2024-02-05Bibliographically approved
Areitioaurtena, M., Segurajauregi, U., Fisk, M., Cabello, M. J. & Ukar, E. (2022). Numerical and experimental investigation of residual stresses during the induction hardening of 42CrMo4 steel. European journal of mechanics. A, Solids, 96, Article ID 104766.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Numerical and experimental investigation of residual stresses during the induction hardening of 42CrMo4 steel
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2022 (English)In: European journal of mechanics. A, Solids, ISSN 0997-7538, E-ISSN 1873-7285, Vol. 96, article id 104766Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The usage of induction hardening in the industry has increased in the last years due to its efficiency and repeatability. Induction hardening produces a hard martensitic layer on the specimen surface, which is accompanied by the generation of compressive residual stresses in the hardened case and tensile stresses in the untreated core. Residual stresses generated by induction hardening greatly impact on fatigue performance, as they act as crack growth retardants. In this work, a multiphysical coupled finite element model is developed to simulate induction hardening and compute the final residual stress state of the specimens along the microstructural transformations and hardness evolution. The impact of the transformation induced plasticity strain in the stress-state of the specimen during the process is also studied. The experimental validation shows that considering the transformation induced plasticity in induction hardening simulations improves the residual stress predictions, concluding that this effect should be included to achieve good residual stress predictions, especially in the subsurface region.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2022
Keywords
Induction hardening, Finite element method, Process simulation, 42CrMo4, Multiphysics, Residual stresses
National Category
Other Materials Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mau:diva-55024 (URN)10.1016/j.euromechsol.2022.104766 (DOI)000849614000002 ()2-s2.0-85136496862 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2022-09-21 Created: 2022-09-21 Last updated: 2024-02-05Bibliographically approved
Areitioaurtena, M., Segurajauregi, U., Fisk, M., Cabello, M. J. & Ukar, E. (2022). Numerical and experimental investigation on the residual stresses generated by scanning induction hardening. Paper presented at 6th CIRP Conference on Surface Integrity, CSI 2022; Lyon; France; 8 June 2022 through 10 June 2022. Procedia CIRP, 108, 827-832
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Numerical and experimental investigation on the residual stresses generated by scanning induction hardening
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2022 (English)In: Procedia CIRP, ISSN 2212-8271, E-ISSN 2212-8271, Vol. 108, p. 827-832Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Induction hardening is widely used in the industry as a surface heat treatment that improves the surface and the subsurface hardness of components greatly. The hardened case, which usually is a few mm, highly impacts the surface and structural integrity of the component. In this work, we simulate the scanning induction hardening process by means of finite element modeling. The computed hardness, microstructure, and residual stress profile are compared with experimentally measured data using several surface and subsurface characterization techniques. A very good agreement is found between the simulated and experimentally measured residual stresses, which were characterized by the incremental hole drilling technique.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2022
National Category
Applied Mechanics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mau:diva-56418 (URN)10.1016/j.procir.2022.03.127 (DOI)2-s2.0-85134594203 (Scopus ID)
Conference
6th CIRP Conference on Surface Integrity, CSI 2022; Lyon; France; 8 June 2022 through 10 June 2022
Available from: 2022-12-02 Created: 2022-12-02 Last updated: 2023-07-06Bibliographically approved
Malmelöv, A., Hassila, C.-J., Fisk, M., Wiklund, U. & Lundbäck, A. (2022). Numerical modeling and synchrotron diffraction measurements of residual stresses in laser powder bed fusion manufactured alloy 625. Materials & design, 216, Article ID 110548.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Numerical modeling and synchrotron diffraction measurements of residual stresses in laser powder bed fusion manufactured alloy 625
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2022 (English)In: Materials & design, ISSN 0264-1275, E-ISSN 1873-4197, Vol. 216, article id 110548Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Residual stresses in metal additive manufactured components are a well-known problem. It causes dis-tortion of the samples when removing them from the build plate, as well as acting detrimental with regard to fatigue. The understanding of how residual stresses in a printed sample are affected by process parameters is crucial to allow manufacturers to tune their process parameters, or the design of their com-ponent, to limit the negative influence of residual stresses. In this paper, residual stresses in additive manufactured samples are simulated using a thermo-mechanical finite element model. The elasto-plastic behavior of the material is described by a mechanism-based material model that accounts for microstructural and relaxation effects. The heat source in the finite element model is calibrated by fitting the model to experimental data. The residual stress field from the finite element model is compared with experimental results attained from synchrotron X-ray diffraction measurements. The results from the model and measurement give the same trend in the residual stress field. In addition, it is shown that there is no significant difference in trend and magnitude of the resulting residual stresses for an alterna-tion in laser power and scanning speed.(c) 2022 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an open access article under the CC BY license (http:// creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
ELSEVIER SCI LTD, 2022
Keywords
Residual stress, Material model, Alloy 625, Deformations, Finite Element Method, Synchrotron X-ray diffraction
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mau:diva-51751 (URN)10.1016/j.matdes.2022.110548 (DOI)000793343200004 ()2-s2.0-85126860901 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2022-05-30 Created: 2022-05-30 Last updated: 2024-06-18Bibliographically approved
Lindwall, J., Ericsson, A., Marattukalam, J. J., Hassila, C.-J., Karlsson, D., Sahlberg, M., . . . Lundbäck, A. (2022). Simulation of phase evolution in a Zr-based glass forming alloy during multiple laser remelting. JOURNAL OF MATERIALS RESEARCH AND TECHNOLOGY-JMR&T, 16, 1165-1178
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Simulation of phase evolution in a Zr-based glass forming alloy during multiple laser remelting
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2022 (English)In: JOURNAL OF MATERIALS RESEARCH AND TECHNOLOGY-JMR&T, ISSN 2238-7854, Vol. 16, p. 1165-1178Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Additive manufacturing by laser-based powder bed fusion is a promising technique for bulk metallic glass production. But, reheating by deposition of subsequent layers may cause local crystallisation of the alloy. To investigate the crystalline phase evolution during laser scanning of a Zr-based metallic glass-forming alloy, a simulation strategy based on the finite element method and the classical nucleation theory has been developed and compared with experimental results from multiple laser remelting of a single-track. Multiple laser remelting of a single-track demonstrates the crystallisation behaviour by the influence of thermal history in the reheated material. Scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy reveals the crystalline phase evolution in the heat affected zone after each laser scan. A trend can be observed where repeated remelting results in an increased crystalline volume fraction with larger crystals in the heat affected zone, both in simulation and experiment. A gradient of cluster number density and mean radius can also be predicted by the model, with good correlation to the experiments. Prediction of crystallisation, as presented in this work, can be a useful tool to aid the development of process parameters during additive manufacturing for bulk metallic glass formation.(c) 2021 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier B.V. This is an open access article under the CC BY license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
ELSEVIER, 2022
Keywords
Simulation of laser-based powder&nbsp, bed fusion, Metallic glass, Phase transformation modelling, Classical nucleation and growth theory
National Category
Other Materials Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mau:diva-51267 (URN)10.1016/j.jmrt.2021.12.056 (DOI)000782650200002 ()2-s2.0-85121898134 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2022-05-03 Created: 2022-05-03 Last updated: 2024-02-05Bibliographically approved
Areitioaurtena, M., Segurajauregi, U., Akujärvi, V., Fisk, M., Urresti, I. & Ukar, E. (2021). A semi-analytical coupled simulation approach for induction heating. Advanced Modeling and Simulation in Engineering Sciences, 8(1), Article ID 14.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A semi-analytical coupled simulation approach for induction heating
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2021 (English)In: Advanced Modeling and Simulation in Engineering Sciences, ISSN 2213-7467, Vol. 8, no 1, article id 14Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The numerical simulation of the induction heating process can be computationally expensive, especially if ferromagnetic materials are studied. There are several analytical models that describe the electromagnetic phenomena. However, these are very limited by the geometry of the coil and the workpiece. Thus, the usual method for computing more complex systems is to use the finite element method to solve the set of equations in the multiphysical system, but this easily becomes very time consuming. This paper deals with the problem of solving a coupled electromagnetic - thermal problem with higher computational efficiency. For this purpose, a semi-analytical modeling strategy is proposed, that is based on an initial finite element computation, followed by the use of analytical electromagnetic equations to solve the coupled electromagnetic-thermal problem. The usage of the simplified model is restricted to simple geometrical features such as flat or curved surfaces with great curvature to skin depth ratio. Numerical and experimental validation of the model show an average error between 0.9% and 4.1% in the prediction of the temperature evolution, reaching a greater accuracy than other analyzed commercial softwares. A 3D case of a double-row large size ball bearing is also presented, fully validating the proposed approach in terms of computational time and accuracy for complex industrial cases.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer, 2021
Keywords
42CrMo4, Analytical solution, Bearing, Finite element method, Process simulation, Rapid computation
National Category
Computational Mathematics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mau:diva-44109 (URN)10.1186/s40323-021-00199-0 (DOI)001043770500001 ()2-s2.0-85107209218 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2021-06-23 Created: 2021-06-23 Last updated: 2023-12-04Bibliographically approved
Ericsson, A., Pacheco, V., Marattukalam, J. J., Dalgliesh, R. M., Rennie, A. R., Fisk, M. & Sahlberg, M. (2021). Crystallization of a Zr-based metallic glass produced by laser powder bed fusion and suction casting. Journal of Non-Crystalline Solids, 571, Article ID 120891.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Crystallization of a Zr-based metallic glass produced by laser powder bed fusion and suction casting
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2021 (English)In: Journal of Non-Crystalline Solids, ISSN 0022-3093, E-ISSN 1873-4812, Vol. 571, article id 120891Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The crystallization behaviour during low temperature annealing of samples of the Zr59.3Cu28.8Al10.4Nb1.5 (at%) bulk metallic glass produced by suction casting and the laser powder bed fusion (LPBF) process were studied with small angle neutron scattering (SANS), X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. The in-situ SANS measurements during isothermal annealing reveals that the phase separation in the LPBF processed material proceeds at a smaller characteristic length-scale than the cast material. Quantitative analysis of the SANS data shows that, while the crystallization process in both materials proceed through rapid nucleation followed by diffusion limited growth, the LPBF processed material crystallizes with a smaller cluster size and at a higher rate. The smaller cluster size is attributed to the elevated oxygen content in the LPBF processed material which reduces the nucleation barrier and thus the thermal stability.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2021
Keywords
Additive manufacturing, AMZ4, Crystallization, Oxygen, Small angle scattering, 3D printers, Aluminum alloys, Cluster analysis, Copper alloys, Glass, Metallic glass, Neutron scattering, Niobium alloys, Nucleation, Phase separation, Scanning electron microscopy, Temperature, Zircaloy, Cluster sizes, Laser powders, Powder bed, Processed materials, Small clusters, Small-angle neutron scattering, Small-angle scattering, Suction casting
National Category
Metallurgy and Metallic Materials
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mau:diva-45057 (URN)10.1016/j.jnoncrysol.2021.120891 (DOI)000685499600007 ()2-s2.0-85112511329 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2021-08-23 Created: 2021-08-23 Last updated: 2023-10-03Bibliographically approved
Projects
3D-printed composites optimized for induction heating; Malmö University, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS), Department of Materials Science and Applied Mathematics (MTM)
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0001-6532-6720

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