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Ljunggren, Lennart
Publications (10 of 30) Show all publications
Aleksejeva, O., Sokolov, A. V., Marquez, I., Gustafsson, A., Bushnev, S., Eriksson, H., . . . Shleev, S. (2021). Autotolerant ceruloplasmin based biocathodes for implanted biological power sources. Bioelectrochemistry, 140
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Autotolerant ceruloplasmin based biocathodes for implanted biological power sources
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2021 (English)In: Bioelectrochemistry, ISSN 1567-5394, E-ISSN 1878-562X, Vol. 140Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

High-performance autotolerant bioelectrodes should be ideally suited to design implantable bioelectronic devices. Because of its high redox potential and ability to reduce oxygen directly to water, human ceruloplasmin, HCp, the only blue multicopper oxidase present in human plasma, appears to be the ultimate biocatalyst for oxygen biosensors and also biocathodes in biological power sources. In comparison to fungal and plant blue multicopper oxidases, e.g. Myrothecium verrucaria bilirubin oxidase and Rhus vernicifera laccase, respectively, the inflammatory response to HCp in human blood is significantly reduced. Partial purification of HCp allowed to preserve the native conformation of the enzyme and its biocatalytic activity. Therefore, electrochemical studies were carried out with the partially purified enzyme immobilised on nanostructured graphite electrodes at physiological pH and temperature. Amperometric investigations revealed low reductive current densities, i.e. about 1.65 µA cm−2 in oxygenated electrolyte and in the absence of any mediator, demonstrating nevertheless direct electron transfer based O2 bioelectroreduction by HCp for the first time. The reductive current density obtained in the mediated system was about 12 µA cm−2. Even though the inflammatory response of HCp is diminished in human blood, inadequate bioelectrocatalytic performance hinders its use as a cathodic bioelement in a biofuel cell.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2021
Keywords
Biological fuel cells; Blood; Electrolytes; Electron transport properties; Enzyme activity; Enzyme electrodes; Oxygen; pH; Purification; Redox reactions, Biocatalytic activity; Bioelectronic device; Direct electron transfer; Electrochemical studies; Inflammatory response; Nanostructured graphite; Native conformation; Partial purification, Graphite electrodes
National Category
Analytical Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mau:diva-42684 (URN)10.1016/j.bioelechem.2021.107794 (DOI)000663599600011 ()33744681 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85102974379 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2021-06-03 Created: 2021-06-03 Last updated: 2023-11-29Bibliographically approved
Ohlsson, L., Hall, A., Lindahl, H., Danielsson, R., Gustafsson, A., Lavant, E. & Ljunggren, L. (2020). Increased level of circulating cell-free mitochondrial DNA due to a single bout of strenuous physical exercise. European Journal of Applied Physiology, 120, 897-905
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Increased level of circulating cell-free mitochondrial DNA due to a single bout of strenuous physical exercise
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2020 (English)In: European Journal of Applied Physiology, ISSN 1439-6319, E-ISSN 1439-6327, Vol. 120, p. 897-905Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Purpose Physical exercise is reported to affect the immune response in various ways. Thus, the levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines as well as the abundance of circulating leukocytes are changed. In this study, the occurence of circulating cell-free mitochondrial DNA (cfmtDNA) and nuclear DNA (nDNA) was investigated in connection with a single bout of strenuous physical exercise. Methods Healthy volunteers performed a controlled ergo-spirometry cycle test and venous blood samples were taken at different time-points to analyze the concentration of blood components before, during and after the test. The number of circulating leukocytes was measured, as well as secretion of the soluble urokinase activator receptor (suPAR). Results Cf-mtDNA significantly increased during exercise, compared to baseline values and after 30 and 90 min of rest. Circulating leukocytes increased during exercise, but returned to baseline levels afterwards. Surface expression of the urokinase plasminogen activating receptor (uPAR) on neutrophils decreased significantly during exercise. The concentration of suPAR tended to increase during exercise but only significantly after 90 min of rest. Conclusion Increased concentration of cf-mtDNA indicates that cell damage takes place during high intensity training. Hypoxia and tissue damage are likely causes of cf-mtDNA from muscle cells. The levels of cf-mtDNA remain high during the initial rest, due to the decreasing numbers of leukocytes normally clearing the plasma from cf-mtDNA. The increased levels of suPAR further emphasize that strenuous physical exercise causes a reaction similar to inflammation. Further studies are needed to detect the source of increased cf-mtDNA and the corresponding increase of suPAR liberation.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer, 2020
National Category
Physiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mau:diva-13796 (URN)10.1007/s00421-020-04330-8 (DOI)000516332900001 ()32088743 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85079646397 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2020-03-17 Created: 2020-03-17 Last updated: 2024-02-05Bibliographically approved
Ohlsson, L., Gustafsson, A., Lavant, E., Suneson, K., Brundin, L., Westrin, Å., . . . Lindqvist, D. (2019). Leaky gut biomarkers in depression and suicidal behavior. (ed.). Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 139(2), 185-193
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Leaky gut biomarkers in depression and suicidal behavior.
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2019 (English)In: Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, ISSN 0001-690X, E-ISSN 1600-0447, Vol. 139, no 2, p. 185-193Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

OBJECTIVE: Inflammation is associated with major depressive disorder (MDD) and suicidal behavior. According to the 'leaky gut hypothesis', increased intestinal permeability may contribute to this relationship via bacterial translocation across enterocytes. We measured plasma levels of gut permeability markers, in patients with a recent suicide attempt (rSA), MDD subjects with no history of a suicide attempt (nsMDD), and healthy controls (HC), and related these markers to symptom severity and inflammation. METHOD: We enrolled rSA (n = 54), nsMDD (n = 13), and HC (n = 17). Zonulin, intestinal fatty acid binding protein (I-FABP), soluble CD14, and interleukin-6 (IL-6) were quantified in plasma. Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) and Suicide Assessment Scale (SUAS) were used for symptom assessments. RESULTS: The rSA group displayed higher I-FABP and lower zonulin levels compared with both the nsMDD and the HC groups (all P < 0.001). IL-6 correlated positively with I-FABP (r = 0.24, P < 0.05) and negatively with zonulin (r = -0.25, P < 0.05). In all subjects, I-FABP levels correlated positively with MADRS (r = 0.25, P < 0.05) and SUAS scores (r = 0.38, P < 0.001), and the latter correlation was significant also in the nsMDD group (r = 0.60, P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: The 'leaky gut hypothesis' may improve our understanding of the link between inflammation and suicidal behavior. These findings should be considered preliminary until replicated in larger cohorts.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
John Wiley & Sons, 2019
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mau:diva-5337 (URN)10.1111/acps.12978 (DOI)000456702900008 ()30347427 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85055937078 (Scopus ID)27267 (Local ID)27267 (Archive number)27267 (OAI)
Available from: 2020-02-28 Created: 2020-02-28 Last updated: 2024-02-05Bibliographically approved
Ivanov, A. E. & Ljunggren, L. (2019). Thin poly(vinyl alcohol) cryogels: reactive groups, macropores and translucency in microtiter plate assays. Heliyon, 5(11), Article ID e02913.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Thin poly(vinyl alcohol) cryogels: reactive groups, macropores and translucency in microtiter plate assays
2019 (English)In: Heliyon, E-ISSN 2405-8440, Vol. 5, no 11, article id e02913Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Thin macroporous poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) hydrogels were produced by cross-linking of PVA in a semi-frozen state with glutaraldehyde (GA) on glass slides or in the wells of microtiter plates. The 100-130 mu m-thick gels were mechanically transferable, squamous translucent films with a high porosity of 7.2 +/- 0.3 mL/g dry PVA i.e. similar to larger cylindrical PVA monoliths of the same composition. Additional treatment of the gels with 1% GA increased the aldehyde group content from 0.7 to 2.4 mu mol/mL as estimated using dinitrophenylhydrazine (DNPH) reagent. Translucency of the gels allowed registration of UV-visible spectra of the DNP' ;Wined films. The catalytic activity of trypsin covalently immobilized on thin gels in the microtiter plates was estimated with chromogenic substrate directly in the wells, and indicated that the amount of protein immobilized was at least 0.34 mg/mL gel. Human immunoglobulin G (IgG) immobilized on thin gels at 0.1-10 mg/mL starting concentrations could be detected in a concentration-dependent manner due to recognition by anti-human rabbit IgG conjugated with peroxidase and photometric registration of the enzymatic activity. The results indicate good permeability of the hydrogel pores for macromolecular biospecific reagents and suggest applications of thin reactive PVA hydrogels in photometric analytical techniques.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2019
Keywords
Chemistry, Chemical engineering, Materials science, Multiwell, Aldehyde, Film, Photometry, Hydrogel
National Category
Polymer Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mau:diva-39171 (URN)10.1016/j.heliyon.2019.e02913 (DOI)000500530100154 ()31844765 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85075502604 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2021-01-15 Created: 2021-01-15 Last updated: 2024-02-05Bibliographically approved
Lindqvist, D., Wolkowitz, O., Picard, M., Ohlsson, L., Bersani, F. S., Fernstrom, J., . . . Mellon, S. H. (2018). Circulating Cell-Free Mitochondrial DNA - a Novel Marker of Mitochondrial Stress Associated With Suicidality and Major Depressive Disorder (ed.). Paper presented at 73rd Annual Scientific Convention and Meeting, New York City, USA (May 10-12, 2018). Biological Psychiatry, 83(9, suppl. 1), S25-S26, Article ID 62.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Circulating Cell-Free Mitochondrial DNA - a Novel Marker of Mitochondrial Stress Associated With Suicidality and Major Depressive Disorder
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2018 (English)In: Biological Psychiatry, ISSN 0006-3223, E-ISSN 1873-2402, Vol. 83, no 9, suppl. 1, p. S25-S26, article id 62Article in journal, Meeting abstract (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Background: Mitochondrial DNA copy number (mtDNA-cn), which represents the number of mitochondrial genomes per cell, can be quantified in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and is thought to reflect variations in mitochondrial biogenesis. Additionally, mtDNA may be released at low levels into the circulation from mitochondria under cellular stress, resulting in circulating cell-free mtDNA (ccf-mtDNA) detectable in plasma. The source or physiological significance of ccf-mtDNA in psychiatric illness is unknown but may reflect cell damage, cell death, or bioenergetic compromise. Methods: We enrolled suicide attempters (across diagnoses), non-suicidal subjects with Major Depressive Disorder (MDD), and healthy controls (all medication-free) in two independent cohorts (n=110 & n=74). MtDNA was quantified in cell-free plasma and in PBMCs. Results: Ccf-mtDNA was elevated in suicide attempters and in non-suicidal MDD subjects, compared to healthy controls. These group effects were very large (Cohen’s d ranging from 0.9 to 4.0, all p<0.00001). Ccf-mtDNA and cellular PBMC mtDNA-cn were not significantly correlated with each other (r=0.02, p=0.87), suggesting they reflect different processes. Ccf-mtDNA correlated with post-dexamethasone cortisol (r=0.5, p<0.001), suggesting that HPA-axis hyperactivity may be associated with cellular damage and release of ccf-mtDNA into the blood. Ccf-mtDNA also directly correlated with the antioxidant enzyme glutathione peroxidase (r=0.32, p=0.001), possibly reflecting a compensatory attempt to upregulate antioxidant defence mechanisms due to cellular stress. Conclusions: Ccf-mtDNA may represent a novel marker of cellular stress, which is increased in certain psychiatric conditions. These results call for replication in larger cohorts and in longitudinal studies.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2018
Keywords
mtDNA Copy Number, Major Depressive Disorder (MDD), Suicide Attempts, Circulating Cell-Free DNA, Antioxidant Enzymes
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mau:diva-5056 (URN)10.1016/j.biopsych.2018.02.079 (DOI)000432466300063 ()26550 (Local ID)26550 (Archive number)26550 (OAI)
Conference
73rd Annual Scientific Convention and Meeting, New York City, USA (May 10-12, 2018)
Available from: 2020-02-28 Created: 2020-02-28 Last updated: 2021-01-15Bibliographically approved
Gustafsson, A., Ventorp, F., Wisen, A. G. M., Ohlsson, L., Ljunggren, L. & Westrin, A. (2017). Effects of Acute Exercise on Circulating Soluble Form of the Urokinase Receptor in Patients With Major Depressive Disorder (ed.). Biomarker Insights, 12, 1-6
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Effects of Acute Exercise on Circulating Soluble Form of the Urokinase Receptor in Patients With Major Depressive Disorder
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2017 (English)In: Biomarker Insights, E-ISSN 1177-2719, Vol. 12, p. 1-6Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Inflammation has been proposed to play a role in the generation of depressive symptoms. Previously, we demonstrated that patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) have increased plasma levels of the soluble form of the urokinase receptor (suPAR), a marker for low-grade inflammation. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that acute exercise would induce inflammatory response characterized by increased suPAR and elucidate whether patients with MDD display altered levels of suPAR in response to acute exercise. A total of 17 patients with MDD and 17 controls were subjected to an exercise challenge. Plasma suPAR (P-suPAR) was analyzed before, during, and after exercise. There was a significantly higher baseline P-suPAR in the patients with MDD, and the dynamic changes of P-suPAR during the exercise were significantly lower in the patients with MDD, compared with the controls. This study supports the hypothesis that an activation of systemic inflammatory processes, measured as elevated P-suPAR, is involved in the pathophysiology of depression. The study concludes that P-suPAR is influenced by acute exercise, most likely due to release from activated neutrophils.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Sage Publications, 2017
Keywords
Depression, immune activation, inflammatory markers, low-grade inflammation, soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mau:diva-4200 (URN)10.1177/1177271917704193 (DOI)000399195800001 ()28469403 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85035105448 (Scopus ID)23551 (Local ID)23551 (Archive number)23551 (OAI)
Available from: 2020-02-28 Created: 2020-02-28 Last updated: 2024-02-05Bibliographically approved
Lindqvist, D., Fernström, J., Grudet, C., Ljunggren, L., Träskman-Bendz, L., Ohlsson, L. & Westrin, Å. (2017). Increased Plasma Levels of Circulating Cell-Free Mitochondrial DNS in Suicide Attempters - Associations with HPA-Axis Hyperactivity (ed.). Paper presented at 2017 annual meeting of the Society of Biological Psychiatry : Networks and Complexity in Biology, Brain and Behavior, San Diego, California (May 18-20, 2017). Biological Psychiatry, 81(10), S228-S228, Article ID 565.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Increased Plasma Levels of Circulating Cell-Free Mitochondrial DNS in Suicide Attempters - Associations with HPA-Axis Hyperactivity
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2017 (English)In: Biological Psychiatry, ISSN 0006-3223, E-ISSN 1873-2402, Vol. 81, no 10, p. S228-S228, article id 565Article in journal, Meeting abstract (Other academic) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: Preclinical data suggest that chronic stress may cause cellular damage and mitochondrial dysfunction, potentially leading to the release of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) into the bloodstream. Major Depressive Disorder has been associated with an increased amount of mtDNA in leukocytes from saliva samples and blood, but no previous studies have measured plasma levels of free-circulating mtDNA in a clinical psychiatric sample.Methods: In this study, free circulating mtDNA was quantified in plasma samples from 37 suicide attempters, who had undergone a dexamethasone suppression test (DST), and 37 healthy controls. We hypothesized that free circulating mtDNA would be elevated in the suicide attempters and associated with hypothalamic pituitary adrenal (HPA)-axis hyperactivity. Results: Suicide attempters had significantly higher plasma levels of free-circulating mtDNA compared to healthy controls at different time points (pre- and post-DST) (all p-values ,2.98E-12, Cohen’s d ranging from 2.55-4.01). Pre-DST plasma levels of mtDNA were positively correlated with postDST cortisol levels (rho50.49, p,0.003).Conclusions: Suicide attempters may have elevated plasma levels of free-circulating mtDNA, which are related to impaired HPA-axis negative feedback. This peripheral index is consistent with increased cellular or mitochondrial damage. The specific cells and tissues contributing to plasma levels of free-circulating mtDNA are not known, as is the specificity of this finding for suicide attempters. Future studies are needed in order to better understand the relevance of increased freecirculating mtDNA in relation to the pathophysiology underlying suicidal behavior and depression.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2017
Keywords
Neurosciences, Psychiatry
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mau:diva-4494 (URN)10.1016/j.biopsych.2017.02.1173 (DOI)000400348700562 ()23487 (Local ID)23487 (Archive number)23487 (OAI)
Conference
2017 annual meeting of the Society of Biological Psychiatry : Networks and Complexity in Biology, Brain and Behavior, San Diego, California (May 18-20, 2017)
Available from: 2020-02-28 Created: 2020-02-28 Last updated: 2023-12-28Bibliographically approved
Pankratov, D., Ohlsson, L., Gudmundsson, P., Halak, S., Ljunggren, L., Blum, Z. & Shleev, S. (2016). Ex vivo electric power generation in human blood using an enzymatic fuel cell in a vein replica (ed.). RSC Advances, 6(74), 70215-70220
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Ex vivo electric power generation in human blood using an enzymatic fuel cell in a vein replica
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2016 (English)In: RSC Advances, E-ISSN 2046-2069, Vol. 6, no 74, p. 70215-70220Article in journal (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Here we report an enzymic fuel cell in a vein replica that generates sustained electricity, enough to power an e-​ink display, in an authentic human blood stream. We also detail a simple and safe approach for fuel cell evaluation under homeostatic conditions. Our results demonstrate proof-​of-​principle operation of a biocompatible and safe biodevice that could be implanted in superficial human veins, which we anticipate to be a starting point for more sophisticated investigations of personal sources of electricity.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Royal Society of Chemistry, 2016
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mau:diva-4482 (URN)10.1039/C6RA17122B (DOI)000381512800066 ()2-s2.0-84979992201 (Scopus ID)21936 (Local ID)21936 (Archive number)21936 (OAI)
Available from: 2020-02-28 Created: 2020-02-28 Last updated: 2024-02-05Bibliographically approved
Ivanov, A. E., Halthur, T. & Ljunggren, L. (2016). Flow permeable composites of lignin and poly(vinyl alcohol): Towards removal of bisphenol A and erythromycin from water (ed.). Journal of Environmental Chemical Engineering, 4(2), 1432-1441
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Flow permeable composites of lignin and poly(vinyl alcohol): Towards removal of bisphenol A and erythromycin from water
2016 (English)In: Journal of Environmental Chemical Engineering, E-ISSN 2213-3437, Vol. 4, no 2, p. 1432-1441Article in journal (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Monolithic composites of Polyphepan (R) or Kraft lignin embedded in a poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) matrix were synthesized using cryogelation technique and studied as flow permeable adsorbents for bisphenol A and erythromycin removal from water. Adsorption isotherms of bisphenol A on pristine Polyphepan provided the equilibrium dissociation constant K-L = 2.6 x 10 (6) M and the maximal binding capacity Q(max) = 20 mu mol/g; for erythromycin K-L was in the 9.6 x 10 (6) M to 5.8 x 10 (5) M range, and Q(max) was between 55 mu mol/g and 94 mu mol/g. Embedment of lignins into PVA cryogels resulted in monoliths with adequate flow permeability and the composites essentially retained the binding capacity for both bisphenol A and erythromycin. Percolation of contaminated water through the monoliths resulted in 10-fold reduction of the pollutant concentrations within 12-70 column volumes of the effluent. Due to the higher loading of lignin, the Kraft lignin-PVA composite showed higher adsorption capacity for erythromycin than Polyphepan-PVA. Stability and reversible compression of the monoliths in the flow of water were studied. Limitations are associated with leakage of soluble lignin, strongly expressed in the case of Kraft lignin-containing composites. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2016
Keywords
Adsorption, Convection, Cryogel, Lignin, Pollutant
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mau:diva-4515 (URN)10.1016/j.jece.2016.02.026 (DOI)000391696100004 ()2-s2.0-84959477473 (Scopus ID)25957 (Local ID)25957 (Archive number)25957 (OAI)
Available from: 2020-02-28 Created: 2020-02-28 Last updated: 2024-02-05Bibliographically approved
Lindqvist, D., Fernstrom, J., Grudet, C., Ljunggren, L., Traskman-Bendz, L., Ohlsson, L. & Westrin, A. (2016). Increased plasma levels of circulating cell-free mitochondrial DNA in suicide attempters: associations with HPA-axis hyperactivity (ed.). Translational Psychiatry, 6(12), Article ID e971.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Increased plasma levels of circulating cell-free mitochondrial DNA in suicide attempters: associations with HPA-axis hyperactivity
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2016 (English)In: Translational Psychiatry, E-ISSN 2158-3188, Vol. 6, no 12, article id e971Article in journal (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Preclinical data suggest that chronic stress may cause cellular damage and mitochondrial dysfunction, potentially leading to the release of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) into the bloodstream. Major depressive disorder has been associated with an increased amount of mtDNA in leukocytes from saliva samples and blood; however, no previous studies have measured plasma levels of free-circulating mtDNA in a clinical psychiatric sample. In this study, free circulating mtDNA was quantified in plasma samples from 37 suicide attempters, who had undergone a dexamethasone suppression test (DST), and 37 healthy controls. We hypothesized that free circulating mtDNA would be elevated in the suicide attempters and would be associated with hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA)-axis hyperactivity. Suicide attempters had significantly higher plasma levels of free-circulating mtDNA compared with healthy controls at different time points (pre- and post-DST; all P-values < 2.98E - 12, Cohen's d ranging from 2.55 to 4.01). Pre-DST plasma levels of mtDNA were positively correlated with post-DST cortisol levels (rho = 0.49, P < 0.003). Suicide attempters may have elevated plasma levels of free-circulating mtDNA, which are related to impaired HPA-axis negative feedback. This peripheral index is consistent with an increased cellular or mitochondrial damage. The specific cells and tissues contributing to plasma levels of free-circulating mtDNA are not known, as is the specificity of this finding for suicide attempters. Future studies are needed in order to better understand the relevance of increased free-circulating mtDNA in relation to the pathophysiology underlying suicidal behavior and depression.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Nature Publishing Group, 2016
Keywords
Psychiatry
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mau:diva-5331 (URN)10.1038/tp.2016.236 (DOI)000392136800004 ()27922635 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85002842737 (Scopus ID)25945 (Local ID)25945 (Archive number)25945 (OAI)
Available from: 2020-02-28 Created: 2020-02-28 Last updated: 2024-02-05Bibliographically approved
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Non-invasive multi-parameter biomedical devices: Disclosing hidden fitness and health indicators; Malmö University
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