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Tassidis, H., Jankovskaja, S., Awad, K., Ohlsson, L., Gjörloff Wingren, A. & Gustafsson, A. (2024). Investigation of tryptophan to kynurenine degradation in response to interferon-γ in melanoma cell lines. Biochemistry and Biophysics Reports, 37, Article ID 101612.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Investigation of tryptophan to kynurenine degradation in response to interferon-γ in melanoma cell lines
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2024 (English)In: Biochemistry and Biophysics Reports, ISSN 2405-5808, Vol. 37, article id 101612Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background and aim: Melanoma is a fatal form of skin cancer that carries a grave prognosis if the cancer cells spread and form metastases. The Kynurenine (Kyn) pathway is activated by the enzyme indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase 1 (IDO-1) and has been shown to have a role in tumour progression. We have previously shown that interferon-γ (IFN-γ) acts as an inducer of tryptophan (Trp) degradation to Kyn in keratinocytes of the basal layer in a 3D epidermis model. Before extending our reconstructed human epidermis model to not only contain keratinocytes but also fibroblasts and melanocytes/melanoma cells, we have in this study set out to investigate possible differences between primary adult melanocytes and six melanoma cell lines regarding the expression of the immune checkpoint inhibitors IDO-1 and programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1) together with Kyn production.

Methods: The melanocytes and melanoma cells were stimulated with 1–20 ng/ml of IFN-γ and the levels of Trp to Kyn degradation were monitored with high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). To analyze the viability of the cell types after IFN-γ treatment, an MTT assay was performed. mRNA quantity of IDO-1, PD-L1 and IFN-γ receptor (IFN-GR1) was analyzed with qPCR.

Results: After 24 h, only the metastatic cell line WM-266-4 was affected by all concentrations of IFN-γ, whereas at 48 h, the higher IFN-γ concentrations gave a more pronounced effect on the viability in all cell types. Trp was detected at various levels in the culture medium from all cell types before and after IFN-γ treatment. The degradation to Kyn was detected in primary melanocytes, Mel Juso, and Mel Ho cell lines after 24 h of treatment and low levels of IFN-γ. However, the higher concentration of IFN-γ, 20 ng/ml, induced Kyn to various degrees in all cell types after 24 h. The change in mRNA quantity of IDO-1 and PD-L1 was similar in all cell types.

Conclusion: To conclude, no significant difference in upregulation of the immune checkpoint inhibitors PD-L1 and IDO-1 was seen between primary tumour and metastatic melanoma. IFN-γ stimulation of melanocytes and different stages of melanoma cell lines resulted in an increased Kyn/Trp ratio in the more aggressive melanoma cells when a high concentration was used (20 ng/ml) but when a lower concentration of IFN-γ (5 ng/ml) was used an increased Kyn/Trp ratio were detected in media from primary melanocytes and early-stage melanoma.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2024
Keywords
IDO-1, Interferon-γ, Kynurenine, Melanocytes, melanoma, Programmed death ligand 1, Tryptophan
National Category
Cancer and Oncology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mau:diva-64868 (URN)10.1016/j.bbrep.2023.101612 (DOI)001146252700001 ()38188364 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85180557691 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2024-01-08 Created: 2024-01-08 Last updated: 2024-02-27Bibliographically approved
Hasterok, S., Gustafsson, A. & Gjörloff Wingren, A. (2023). Applications of Tumor Cells in an In Vitro 3D Environment. Applied Sciences, 13(18), 10349-10349
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Applications of Tumor Cells in an In Vitro 3D Environment
2023 (English)In: Applied Sciences, E-ISSN 2076-3417, Vol. 13, no 18, p. 10349-10349Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Spherical, multicellular aggregates of tumor cells, or three-dimensional (3D) tumor models, can be grown from established cell lines or dissociated cells from tissues in a serum-free medium containing appropriate growth factors. Air–liquid interfaces (ALIs) represent a 3D approach that mimics and supports the differentiation of respiratory tract and skin 3D models in vitro. Many 3D tumor cell models are cultured in conjunction with supporting cell types, such as fibroblasts, endothelial cells, or immune cells. To further mimic the in vivo situation, several extracellular matrix models are utilized to support tumor cell growth. Scaffolds used for 3D tumor cell culture growth include both natural and synthetic hydrogels. Three-dimensional cell culture experiments in vitro provide more accurate data on cell-to-cell interactions, tumor characteristics, drug discovery, metabolic profiling, stem cell research, and diseases. Moreover, 3D models are important for obtaining reliable precision data on therapeutic candidates in human clinical trials before predicting drug cytotoxicity. This review focuses on the recent literature on three different tissue types of 3D tumor models, i.e., tumors from a colorectal site, prostate, and skin. We will discuss the establishment of 3D tumor cell cultures in vitro and the requirement for additional growth support.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
MDPI, 2023
Keywords
3D cell cultures, colorectal, extracellular matrix, cancer, microscopy, prostate, tumor microenvironment, skin
National Category
Cancer and Oncology Cell and Molecular Biology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mau:diva-63196 (URN)10.3390/app131810349 (DOI)001075786800001 ()2-s2.0-85173024850 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2023-10-19 Created: 2023-10-19 Last updated: 2023-12-08Bibliographically approved
Gjörloff Wingren, A., Ziyad Faik, R., Holefors, A., Filecovic, E. & Gustafsson, A. (2023). In vitro effects of undifferentiated callus extracts from Plantago major L, Rhodiola rosea L and Silybum marianum L in normal and malignant human skin cells cells. Heliyon, 9(6), Article ID e16480.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>In vitro effects of undifferentiated callus extracts from Plantago major L, Rhodiola rosea L and Silybum marianum L in normal and malignant human skin cells cells
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2023 (English)In: Heliyon, E-ISSN 2405-8440, Vol. 9, no 6, article id e16480Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: L was investigated both in normal and malignant skin cells.

METHODS: Antioxidant activity of the extracts was analyzed by using the Trolox Equivalent Antioxidant Capacity (TEAC) assay. High-Performance Thin-Layer Chromatography (HPTLC) was performed to demonstrate the phytochemical profile, and the total flavonoid content was analyzed with an aluminum chloride colorimetric method. The anti-inflammatory effect was investigated by cell treatments using the plant extracts. Thereafter, the possible suppression of induced IL-6 response was measured from the cultured skin cancer cell lines A2058 and A431, and normal primary keratinocytes with Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA).

RESULTS: also had the highest flavonoid content and showed the highest antioxidant activity of the three extracts tested.

CONCLUSION: possess properties such as antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities in both normal and malignant keratinocytes, and thus could be a promising agent controlling the pro-inflammatory IL-6 production.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2023
Keywords
Anti-inflammatory, Antioxidant, Flavonoid, HPTLC, Interleukin-6, Keratinocytes, Plantago major L, Trolox, Undifferentiated callus extracts
National Category
Cell and Molecular Biology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mau:diva-61397 (URN)10.1016/j.heliyon.2023.e16480 (DOI)001021973000001 ()37292297 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85160303673 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2023-06-26 Created: 2023-06-26 Last updated: 2023-11-29Bibliographically approved
Stollenwerk, M. M., Gustafsson, A., Edgren, G., Gudmundsson, P., Lindqvist, M. & Eriksson, T. (2022). Core competencies for a biomedical laboratory scientist - a Delphi study. BMC Medical Education, 22(1), Article ID 476.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Core competencies for a biomedical laboratory scientist - a Delphi study
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2022 (English)In: BMC Medical Education, E-ISSN 1472-6920, Vol. 22, no 1, article id 476Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background After completing university education, biomedical laboratory scientists work in clinical laboratories, in biomedical research laboratories, in biotech, and in pharmaceutical companies. Laboratory diagnostics have undergone rapid development over the recent years, with the pace showing no signs of abatement. This rapid development challenges the competence of the staff and will most certainly influence the education of future staff. This study aimed to examine what was considered the necessary competencies needed to pursue a career as a biomedical laboratory scientist. Methods A modified Delphi technique was used, with the panel of experts expressing their views in a series of three questionnaire. Consensus was defined as the point which 75 % or more of the panel participants agreed that a particular competency was necessary. Results The study highlights the perceived importance of mostly generic competencies that relate to quality, quality assurance, and accuracy, as well as different aspects of safety, respect, trustworthiness (towards patients/clients and colleagues), and communication skills. The results also stress the significance of self-awareness and professionality. Conclusions We identified important competencies for biomedical laboratory scientists. Together with complementary information from other sources, i.e., guidelines, laws, and scientific publications, the competencies identified can be used as learning outcomes in a competency-based education to provide students with all the competencies needed to work as professional biomedical laboratory scientists.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
BMC, 2022
Keywords
Core curriculum, Core competencies, Delphi, Biomedical laboratory scientists, Student, Expert group, Biomedical laboratory scientist degree
National Category
Biomedical Laboratory Science/Technology Learning
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mau:diva-54091 (URN)10.1186/s12909-022-03509-1 (DOI)000813777600002 ()35725406 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85132263019 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2022-08-02 Created: 2022-08-02 Last updated: 2024-02-05Bibliographically approved
Jankovskaja, S., Morin, M., Gustafsson, A., Anderson, C. D., Lehoczki, B., Engblom, J., . . . Ruzgas, T. (2022). Non-Invasive, Topical Sampling of Potential, Low-Molecular Weight, Skin Cancer Biomarkers: A Study on Healthy Volunteers.. Analytical Chemistry, 94(15), 5856-5865
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Non-Invasive, Topical Sampling of Potential, Low-Molecular Weight, Skin Cancer Biomarkers: A Study on Healthy Volunteers.
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2022 (English)In: Analytical Chemistry, ISSN 0003-2700, E-ISSN 1520-6882, Vol. 94, no 15, p. 5856-5865Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Monitoring of low-molecular weight cancer biomarkers, such as tryptophan (Trp) and its derivative kynurenine (Kyn), might be advantageous to non-invasive skin cancer detection. Thus, we assessed several approaches of topical sampling of Trp and Kyn, in relation to phenylalanine (Phe) and tyrosine (Tyr), on the volar forearm of six healthy volunteers. The sampling was performed with three hydrogels (made of agarose or/and chitosan), hydrated starch films, cotton swabs, and tape stripping. The biomarkers were successfully sampled by all approaches, but the amount of collected Kyn was low, 20 ± 10 pmol/cm2. Kyn quantification was below LOQ, and thus, it was detected only in 20% of topical samples. To mitigate variability problems of absolute amounts of sampled amino acids, Tyr/Trp, Phe/Trp, and Phe/Tyr ratios were assessed, proving reduced inter-individual variation from 79 to 45% and intra-individual variation from 42 to 21%. Strong positive correlation was found between Phe and Trp, pointing to the Phe/Trp ratio (being in the 1.0–2.0 range, at 95% confidence) being least dependent on sampling materials, approaches, and sweating. This study leads to conclusion that due to the difficulty in quantifying less abundant Kyn, and thus the Trp/Kyn ratio, the Phe/Trp ratio might be a possible, alternative biomarker for detecting skin cancers.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
American Chemical Society (ACS), 2022
National Category
Cancer and Oncology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mau:diva-51301 (URN)10.1021/acs.analchem.1c05470 (DOI)000792814500018 ()35394278 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85128387453 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2022-05-04 Created: 2022-05-04 Last updated: 2023-11-29Bibliographically approved
Aleksejeva, O., Sokolov, A. V., Marquez, I., Gustafsson, A., Bushnev, S., Eriksson, H., . . . Shleev, S. (2021). Autotolerant ceruloplasmin based biocathodes for implanted biological power sources. Bioelectrochemistry, 140
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Autotolerant ceruloplasmin based biocathodes for implanted biological power sources
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2021 (English)In: Bioelectrochemistry, ISSN 1567-5394, E-ISSN 1878-562X, Vol. 140Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

High-performance autotolerant bioelectrodes should be ideally suited to design implantable bioelectronic devices. Because of its high redox potential and ability to reduce oxygen directly to water, human ceruloplasmin, HCp, the only blue multicopper oxidase present in human plasma, appears to be the ultimate biocatalyst for oxygen biosensors and also biocathodes in biological power sources. In comparison to fungal and plant blue multicopper oxidases, e.g. Myrothecium verrucaria bilirubin oxidase and Rhus vernicifera laccase, respectively, the inflammatory response to HCp in human blood is significantly reduced. Partial purification of HCp allowed to preserve the native conformation of the enzyme and its biocatalytic activity. Therefore, electrochemical studies were carried out with the partially purified enzyme immobilised on nanostructured graphite electrodes at physiological pH and temperature. Amperometric investigations revealed low reductive current densities, i.e. about 1.65 µA cm−2 in oxygenated electrolyte and in the absence of any mediator, demonstrating nevertheless direct electron transfer based O2 bioelectroreduction by HCp for the first time. The reductive current density obtained in the mediated system was about 12 µA cm−2. Even though the inflammatory response of HCp is diminished in human blood, inadequate bioelectrocatalytic performance hinders its use as a cathodic bioelement in a biofuel cell.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2021
Keywords
Biological fuel cells; Blood; Electrolytes; Electron transport properties; Enzyme activity; Enzyme electrodes; Oxygen; pH; Purification; Redox reactions, Biocatalytic activity; Bioelectronic device; Direct electron transfer; Electrochemical studies; Inflammatory response; Nanostructured graphite; Native conformation; Partial purification, Graphite electrodes
National Category
Analytical Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mau:diva-42684 (URN)10.1016/j.bioelechem.2021.107794 (DOI)000663599600011 ()33744681 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85102974379 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2021-06-03 Created: 2021-06-03 Last updated: 2023-11-29Bibliographically approved
Szczepanczyk, M., Ruzgas, T., Gullfot, F., Gustafsson, A. & Björklund, S. (2021). Catalase Activity in Keratinocytes, Stratum Corneum, and Defatted Algae Biomass as a Potential Skin Care Ingredient. Biomedicines, 9(12), Article ID 1868.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Catalase Activity in Keratinocytes, Stratum Corneum, and Defatted Algae Biomass as a Potential Skin Care Ingredient
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2021 (English)In: Biomedicines, E-ISSN 2227-9059, Vol. 9, no 12, article id 1868Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The generation of reactive oxygen species presents a destructive challenge for the skin organ and there is a clear need to advance skin care formulations aiming at alleviating oxidative stress. The aim of this work was to characterize the activity of the antioxidative enzyme catalase in keratinocytes and in the skin barrier (i.e., the stratum corneum). Further, the goal was to compare the activity levels with the corresponding catalase activity found in defatted algae biomass, which may serve as a source of antioxidative enzymes, as well as other beneficial algae-derived molecules, to be employed in skin care products. For this, an oxygen electrode-based method was employed to determine the catalase activity and the apparent kinetic parameters for purified catalase, as well as catalase naturally present in HaCaT keratinocytes, excised stratum corneum samples collected from pig ears with various amounts of melanin, and defatted algae biomass from the diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum. Taken together, this work illustrates the versatility of the oxygen electrode-based method for characterizing catalase function in samples with a high degree of complexity and enables the assessment of sample treatment protocols and comparisons between different biological systems related to the skin organ or algae-derived materials as a potential source of skin care ingredients for combating oxidative stress.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
MDPI, 2021
Keywords
antioxidants, skin care, oxidative stress, skin organ, oxygen electrode, Clark electrode
National Category
Dermatology and Venereal Diseases
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mau:diva-49225 (URN)10.3390/biomedicines9121868 (DOI)000736207400001 ()34944684 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85121686147 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2022-01-10 Created: 2022-01-10 Last updated: 2024-02-05Bibliographically approved
Gustafsson, A., Prgomet, Z., Jankovskaja, S., Ruzgas, T., Engblom, J., Ohlsson, L. & Gjörloff Wingren, A. (2020). Effect of IFN-γ on the kynurenine/tryptophan ratio in monolayer-cultured keratinocytes and a 3D reconstructed human epidermis model. Journal of dermatological science (Amsterdam), 99(3), 177-184, Article ID S0923-1811(20)30234-6.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Effect of IFN-γ on the kynurenine/tryptophan ratio in monolayer-cultured keratinocytes and a 3D reconstructed human epidermis model
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2020 (English)In: Journal of dermatological science (Amsterdam), ISSN 0923-1811, E-ISSN 1873-569X, Vol. 99, no 3, p. 177-184, article id S0923-1811(20)30234-6Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

BACKGROUND: Interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) represents a potent inducer for keratinocyte inflammatory and immune activation in vitro. Since tryptophan (trp) conversion to kynurenine (kyn) is involved in inflammation, the topical kyn/trp ratio may serve as a biomarker of skin inflammation. However, the trp metabolism in keratinocytes exposed to IFN-γ is not yet fully understood.

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to establish a human epidermis model in order to quantify cytokine and kyn/trp secretion from IFN-γ stimulated cells and tissues. Moreover, to compare the cell response of 2D-cultured keratinocytes and the 3D epidermis model.

METHODS: Polycarbonate filters were used on which primary keratinocytes could attach and stratify in order to form the typical layers of reconstructed human epidermis (RHE). After IFN-γ treatment, secretion of kyn/trp was measured by high performance liquid chromatography. Gene and protein expression of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase 1 (IDO) was analyzed with real-time PCR and immunohistochemistry. The secretion of cytokines was quantified with ELISA.

RESULTS: Trp catabolism to kyn was significantly increased (P < 0.01) in the 2D culture in response to IFN-γ treatment. Before kyn secretion, IDO was strongly upregulated (P < 0.001). IFN-γ treatment also increased the secretion of IL-6 and IL-8 from the keratinocytes. In the RHE, IDO was upregulated by IFN-γ, and kyn secretion could be detected. Interestingly, IDO expression was only present in the basal cells of the RHE.

CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that IFN-γ acts as an inducer of trp degradation preferentially in undifferentiated keratinocytes, indicated by the IDO expression in the basal layer of the RHE.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Japanese Society for Investigative Dermatology, 2020
Keywords
IDO, Kynurenine, Pro-inflammatory cytokines, Reconstructed human epidermis, Tryptophan
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mau:diva-18014 (URN)10.1016/j.jdermsci.2020.07.005 (DOI)000582365800005 ()32782183 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85089257839 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2020-08-18 Created: 2020-08-18 Last updated: 2024-02-05Bibliographically approved
Ohlsson, L., Hall, A., Lindahl, H., Danielsson, R., Gustafsson, A., Lavant, E. & Ljunggren, L. (2020). Increased level of circulating cell-free mitochondrial DNA due to a single bout of strenuous physical exercise. European Journal of Applied Physiology, 120, 897-905
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Increased level of circulating cell-free mitochondrial DNA due to a single bout of strenuous physical exercise
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2020 (English)In: European Journal of Applied Physiology, ISSN 1439-6319, E-ISSN 1439-6327, Vol. 120, p. 897-905Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Purpose Physical exercise is reported to affect the immune response in various ways. Thus, the levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines as well as the abundance of circulating leukocytes are changed. In this study, the occurence of circulating cell-free mitochondrial DNA (cfmtDNA) and nuclear DNA (nDNA) was investigated in connection with a single bout of strenuous physical exercise. Methods Healthy volunteers performed a controlled ergo-spirometry cycle test and venous blood samples were taken at different time-points to analyze the concentration of blood components before, during and after the test. The number of circulating leukocytes was measured, as well as secretion of the soluble urokinase activator receptor (suPAR). Results Cf-mtDNA significantly increased during exercise, compared to baseline values and after 30 and 90 min of rest. Circulating leukocytes increased during exercise, but returned to baseline levels afterwards. Surface expression of the urokinase plasminogen activating receptor (uPAR) on neutrophils decreased significantly during exercise. The concentration of suPAR tended to increase during exercise but only significantly after 90 min of rest. Conclusion Increased concentration of cf-mtDNA indicates that cell damage takes place during high intensity training. Hypoxia and tissue damage are likely causes of cf-mtDNA from muscle cells. The levels of cf-mtDNA remain high during the initial rest, due to the decreasing numbers of leukocytes normally clearing the plasma from cf-mtDNA. The increased levels of suPAR further emphasize that strenuous physical exercise causes a reaction similar to inflammation. Further studies are needed to detect the source of increased cf-mtDNA and the corresponding increase of suPAR liberation.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer, 2020
National Category
Physiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mau:diva-13796 (URN)10.1007/s00421-020-04330-8 (DOI)000516332900001 ()32088743 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85079646397 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2020-03-17 Created: 2020-03-17 Last updated: 2024-02-05Bibliographically approved
Ohlsson, L., Gustafsson, A., Lavant, E., Suneson, K., Brundin, L., Westrin, Å., . . . Lindqvist, D. (2019). Leaky gut biomarkers in depression and suicidal behavior. (ed.). Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 139(2), 185-193
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Leaky gut biomarkers in depression and suicidal behavior.
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2019 (English)In: Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, ISSN 0001-690X, E-ISSN 1600-0447, Vol. 139, no 2, p. 185-193Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

OBJECTIVE: Inflammation is associated with major depressive disorder (MDD) and suicidal behavior. According to the 'leaky gut hypothesis', increased intestinal permeability may contribute to this relationship via bacterial translocation across enterocytes. We measured plasma levels of gut permeability markers, in patients with a recent suicide attempt (rSA), MDD subjects with no history of a suicide attempt (nsMDD), and healthy controls (HC), and related these markers to symptom severity and inflammation. METHOD: We enrolled rSA (n = 54), nsMDD (n = 13), and HC (n = 17). Zonulin, intestinal fatty acid binding protein (I-FABP), soluble CD14, and interleukin-6 (IL-6) were quantified in plasma. Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) and Suicide Assessment Scale (SUAS) were used for symptom assessments. RESULTS: The rSA group displayed higher I-FABP and lower zonulin levels compared with both the nsMDD and the HC groups (all P < 0.001). IL-6 correlated positively with I-FABP (r = 0.24, P < 0.05) and negatively with zonulin (r = -0.25, P < 0.05). In all subjects, I-FABP levels correlated positively with MADRS (r = 0.25, P < 0.05) and SUAS scores (r = 0.38, P < 0.001), and the latter correlation was significant also in the nsMDD group (r = 0.60, P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: The 'leaky gut hypothesis' may improve our understanding of the link between inflammation and suicidal behavior. These findings should be considered preliminary until replicated in larger cohorts.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
John Wiley & Sons, 2019
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mau:diva-5337 (URN)10.1111/acps.12978 (DOI)000456702900008 ()30347427 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85055937078 (Scopus ID)27267 (Local ID)27267 (Archive number)27267 (OAI)
Available from: 2020-02-28 Created: 2020-02-28 Last updated: 2024-02-05Bibliographically approved
Projects
Non-invasive monitoring of skin disorders progression and healing – a low molecular weight biomarker approach; Malmö University
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0001-9847-5132

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